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MEHB221 Fluids Mechanics Lab 2013

1
Experiment No. 5

HEAD LOSS DUE TO PIPE FRICTION


Objective

To verify that Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to predict the head loss due to
friction with flow of water through a smooth bore pipe.

Apparatus

Fluid Friction Apparatus, FM100.
Hydraulic Bench, FM110.

Summary of theory

For water flowing through a circular pipe, the head loss due to the friction can be
calculated using Darcy-Weisbach equation.

h = 4fLu
2

2gd

Or

h = Lu
2

2gd

Where

L = length of pipe between tappings (m) = 1m for all pipes
d = internal diameter of the pipe (m)
u = mean velocity of water through the pipe (m/s)
g = 9.81 (acceleration due to gravity,m/s
2
)
f = pipe friction coefficient [ (British) 4f = (American) ]


The value of Reynolds number R
e
can be calculated using this equation:

R
e
= ud


Where (assume temperature = 20C)

= dynamic viscosity = 1.002 x 10
-3
kg/m.s
= density = 998 kg/m
3

MEHB221 Fluids Mechanics Lab 2013
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Procedures

1. Open fully the flow control valve and inlet isolating valve.
2. Make sure that gate valve and globe valve are closed.
3. Switch on the main switch for hydraulic bench and digital pressure indicator.
4. Open fully the outlet control valve.
5. Open the isolating valve for the test pipe No. 1.
6. Insert the two manometer tubes (from digital pressure indicator) into the tapping
valve of pipe No. 1.
7. Switch on the pump of hydraulic bench.
8. Let the water flow through the system for a while.
9. Note down the reading on the differential pressure indicator.
10. Close the drain and use a stopwatch to time a certain amount of water flowing
into the measuring tank (take 10 liters).
11. Once it is done, open the drain and let the water flow into the sump tank.
12. Change the flow rate of water by adjusting outlet control valve to get different
differential pressure reading.
13. Again, take the differential pressure reading and measure the time taken to collect
10 liters of water.
14. Obtain at least six readings for various flow rates.
15. Switch off the pump and shut the isolating valve for test pipe No. 1.
16. Repeat the above procedures for test pipe No. 2 (repeat procedures 4 to 14).
17. Switch off the pump and shut the isolating valve for test pipe No. 2.
18. Repeat the above procedures for test pipe No. 3.
19. Switch off the pump and shut the isolating valve for test pipe No. 3.
20. Switch off the main switch and shut the inlet isolating valve.


Data, Observation and Results

Record the results on the result sheet provided.
Calculate the flow rate (Q), velocity (u) and Reynolds number (R
e
).

For

Q = V x 10
-3

T
And

u = 4Q
d
2


Calculate the friction factor (f) using the following equation then calculate :

For laminar flow f = 16
R
e

MEHB221 Fluids Mechanics Lab 2013
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For turbulent flow f = 0.079
R
e
0.25


Calculate the theoretical head loss with the following equation:

h = Lu
2
2gd

Calculate the percentage error between the theoretical and experimental values.

Plot the graph of friction factor, f versus Reynolds number, R
e
for each test pipe
in one graph (Graph 1).



Analysis and Discussion

Explain about head loss in pipe (including head loss due to friction).
Comment on the result and compare the theoretical with the experimental values.
Comment on Graph 1 and compare your graph with the moody diagram.
List the possible sources of errors and safety precaution.



Result Sheet

Volume
V
[ L ]
Time
T
[ s ]
Flow
rate (Q)
[ m
3
/s ]
Velocity
u
[ m/s ]
R
e
f
Theoretical
head (h
th
)
[ m H
2
O ]
Exp. head
loss (h
exp
)
[ mm H
2
O ]
Exp. head
loss (h
exp
)
[ m H
2
O ]
Percent
Error
[ % ]







Test pipe No. 1 diameter = 0.006 m Pipe length L = 1 m
Test pipe No. 2 diameter = 0.010 m
Test pipe No. 3 diameter = 0.017 m






MEHB221 Fluids Mechanics Lab 2013
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MEHB221 Fluids Mechanics Lab 2013
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Figure 1: Unit Construction for Fluid Friction Measurement Apparatus (Model: FM100)




1. Smooth Bore Pipes (6mm, 10mm, 17mm) 6. Outlet Control Valve
2. Artificial Roughen Pipe (17mm) 7. Inlet Isolating Valve
3. Manometer 8. Sudden Contraction
4. Gate Valve 9. Sudden Enlargement
5. Globe Valve 10. Differential Pressure
1
3
2
6
5 4
10
9 8
7