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Concept of Educational Management

A. Meaning of Educational Management



Management is the process of planning, organising, directing, controlling and evaluating to accompish
predetermined objectives of an institution through coordinated use of human and material resources.

Management is the Art/Science of:-
Getting work done.
With the help of other people
Within the given budget
Within the given deadlines
Management as an academic discipline refers to, substantive body of knowledge of concepts, theories, laws
and applications in practice.

Henry Fayol:- To manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control.

Donald J Clough:- Management is the heart and science of decision making and leadership.

Education is the provision of a series of learning experiences to students in order to impart knowledge,
values, attitudes and skills with the ultimate aim of making them productive members of society.

Educational Management is ,The process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the activities
of an institution by utilizing human and material resources so as to effectively and efficiently accomplish
functions of teaching, extension work and research.

B. Need of educational management: Policy at the national level focuses on social, economic and
cultural development. The best means to achieve the development in these spheres is through human
resource development and Education. There have been tremendous advance in the field of
technologythis is made available to society only through education.

The field of education is expected to provide society with human resources which have specialized
knowledge, attitudes, work ethics, social, moral & political values and skills so as to sustain and enhance the
expected development of the nation.

Thus,
1. Education has to make its curriculum more relevant to life and needs of a changing society in an
effective and efficient manner.
2. Education therefore has to be dynamic, so that it can contribute towards accomplishment of national
development goals.
3. Education must also enable students to bring about desirable social change and at the same time
preserve desirable and positive aspects of existing culture.

In order to fufill the above stated role of education, keeping in mind NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTAL
GOALS effectively and efficiently, there is a need to manage education professionally and move beyond
the traditional role of academics and values only.

Thus the knowledge of;
1. Educational management theories, principles, concepts, techniques, skills and strategies, when
applied to education will bring about effective and efficient functioning of educational institutions.
2. Scientific and systematic management of educational institutions is necessary to bring about
qualitative changes in the educational system.
3. Educational management is required to manage and create institutions of excellence like IIT, IIM etc
, so that the vast majority of students can benefit from such specialized training.
4. Knowledge of educational management is also required so that we can use our scarce and dwindling
resources for education in the most effective and efficient manner.
5. Knowledge of educational management is also necessary to train the present teachers to learn and
run educational institutions professionally, as basic courses like B.Ed / M.Ed do not prepare teachers
to become managers.

C. Scope Of Educational Management
1. Scope is very wide and includes history and theories of management science, roles and
responsibilities of educational manager as well as managerial skills
2. Includes a study of educational planning at macro level, its goals principles, approaches and
procedures and the micro level institutional planning and educational administration
3. Helps in decision making and solving problems, Communication and managing information
and Building effective teams
4. Providing human equipment ie supervisor, teachers, non teaching staff, officeworkers and
providing material equipment such as building, furniture, labs, library, museum etc
5. Co-curricular planning, preparing timetable
6. Motivating staff and students
7. Conducting staff meetings and Managing conflicts and stress
8. Developing healthy and conducive school climate
9. Organization of counselling and guidance
10. Organization of health and physical education, Organization of exhibitions and fairs
11. Maintenance of school records, Evaluating students achievements
12. Financing and budgeting
13. Community service

D. Importance Of Educational Management
The study of educational management is important as,
1. It includes the study of various the various theories of management science which define and
describe the roles and responsibilities of the educational manager and develop managerial
skills.
2. It includes the study of educational planning at macro levels, its goals, principles, approaches
and procedures. At a micro level it helps in understanding and facilitates: Institutional
planning and Educational administration.
3. Helps in decision making and problem solving, communication and managing information
and building effective teams.
4. Helps in planning of co-curricular activities, academics and preparation of time-table.
5. Helps in the maintenance of school records, evaluating students achievements.
6. Financing and budgeting of the institution.

E. Objectives Of Educational Management
1. To develop an understanding of the concept of educational management.
2. To develop an understanding of the various functions of an educational institution.
3. To develop an understanding of the roles and functions of an educational manager.
4. To develop an understanding of the essential components of democratic classroom
management.
5. To develop an awareness of the various structure/levels of educational management.
6. To develop an awareness of the characteristics of quality institutions.
7. To sensitise the students towards effective management of human and material resources.
8. To develop an appreciation of the role of various administrative authorities in maintaining
quality of educational institutions.

Objectives Of Educational Managements At The School/I nstitutional Level:
1. Achievement of the institutions objectives.
2. To improve the planning, organizing and implementation of the institutions activities and
processes.
3. To create maintain and enhance a good public image of the institution.
4. To ensure appropriate utilization of human resources.( teachers, non-teaching and students)
5. To enhance the efficiency and effectives of infrastructural facilities.
6. To enhance job satisfaction.
7. To create and maintain a congenial school atmosphere.
8. To manage interpersonal conflicts, manage stress and use time effectively.
9. To improve interpersonal communication.

On the whole, we can say that educational management is extremely important as it provides for,
Setting directions, aims and objectives.
Planning progress that is to be made.
Organising available resources, so that goals can be economically achieved in a planned way.
Controlling the processes which take place in an organization.
Setting and improving organizational standards.

F. Functions of Educational Management
Functions of educational management are those functions which are performed by managers.
Managers are generally involved in the functions of : Planning, Organising, Directing, Motivating,
Evaluating and Decision-making. These are also the functions of the organization as that beyond an
individual manager and affect the entire institution.

These functions of educational management are largely based on the 14 principles of management,
which have been given by Henry Fayol in 1916. They are;
Division of work.
Authority
Discipline
Unity of command.
Unity of direction
Subordination of individual interests
Renumeration
Centralisation
Scalar chain
Material and social order.
Equity
Stability
Initiative
Espirit de corps.

In general the various functions of educational management can be said to be as follows;
The first function is the assurance that sound policies, goals and objectives are formulated in
a given school and that methods are determined for the achievement of these objectives.
To procure the resources necessary for the achievement of theobjectives.
To organise and co-ordinate the activities of the school with the prime function of achieving
the objectives of the school with maximum efficiency and effectiveness.
To influence and stimulate the human resources available.
To integrate the school and its activities into the set-up of society.
To evaluate the schools activities in accordance with the plans made.

To be specific the above functions can be classified as the functions of : PLANNING,
ORGANISING,DIRECTING,CONTROLLING & EVALUATING which every educational
manager has to perform.

PLANNING:
Planning is defined as a process of setting objectives and determining what should be done to
achieve them. It is a decision-making activity through which, managers act to ensure the future
success and effectiveness of their institutions and departments as well as themselves.
Characteristics of planning:

Anticipatory in nature
Primacy
A system of decisions
Continuity
Flexibility
Unity
Precision
Pervasiveness

Objectives of planning:
It helps the educational managers and the institution by:
Effective and faster achievement of results through an active and forward thinking rather than a
passive and reactive posture.
Focussing the attention of the managers and teachers on objectives that can give a performance
oriented sense of direction to the institution.
Minimising costs of performance both in terms of time and money.
Setting priorities and focus their energies on important things first.
Contributing to efficacy of other managerial functions.
Emphasising the strengths of the institution and minimising or overcoming the weaknesses.
Providing a basis for control in an institution.
Dealing effectively with changes in the external environment by helping to anticipate problems
and opportunities.

The steps of planning:
The process of planning involves deciding in advance of action: What is to be done, When it is to be
done, Where it is to be done, By whom it is to be done, How it is to be done?

Planning is a series of steps that involve:

Defining objectives
(Setting objectives or goals)


Determining the current status with respect to the objectives
(Being aware of opportunities)


Determining planning premises
(Analysing the situation for external factors and forecasting future trends. Generation of future scenarios)


Identifying alternative
(Best alternative to accomplish our objectives)


Choosing an alternative
(Selecting the course of action to be pursued)


Formulating support plans
(Arranging for human and material resources)


Implementing the plan
(Action stage also involves evaluation)

ORGANISING:
Definition:
Organising involves the establishment of authority relationships with provision for co-ordination
between them, both vertically and horizontally in the enterprise structure.
Koontz & ODonnell
It is a process of so combining the work which individuals or groups have to perform with facilities
necessary for its execution, that the duties performed provide the best channels for efficient,
systematic, positive & co-ordinated application of available effort.
Sheldon
Thus organising is;
Concerned with work , the people and authority relationships.
Aims at effective teamwork towards achievement of predetermined objectives.
It involves the assignment of tasks, the grouping of tasks into departments and the assignment
of authority and allocation of resources
Characteristics:
Division of work or specialisation -- various activities are assigned to different people who are
specialists in that area. Specialization improves efficiency. Thus, organisation helps in division of
work and assigning duties to different people.
Orientation towards goals -- Organizing is the function employed to achieve the overall goals of the
organisation. Organisation harmonies the individual goals of the employees with overall objectives
of the firm.
Composition of individuals and groups -- Individuals are grouped into departments and their work is
coordinated and directed towards organizational goals.
Differentiated functions -- divides the entire work and assigns the tasks to individual in-order to
achieve the organizational objectives each one has to perform a different task and tasks of one
individuals must be coordinated with the tasks of others.
Continuous process -- groups of people with defined relationship to each other that allows them to
work together achieve the goals of the organisation. This relationship do not come to end after
completing a task.
Aspects of Organisation:
Grouping: of tasks, jobs and sections.
Delegating Authority
Determining number of Levels in hierarchy and selecting span of control.
Establishing formal relationships
Decentralisation & divisionalism
Organising classroom activities
Provision of congenial climate
Communication systems: for effective decision-making, coordination & supervision.
Promoting innovation & changes
Importance of Organisation:
Helps to achieve Organisational goals & objectives.
Optimum use of resources
To carry out the plans.
Facilitates growth & diversification.
Inculcates Teamwork
Basic elements of organising any activity:
Define the purpose and objectives.
Analyse and identify activities or tasks required to meet these objectives.
Allocate related activities to individuals.
Group related activities logically.
Provide for management and co-ordination of activities at each level of responsibility.
Establish a reporting and communication channel
.
DIRECTING :
Definition:
It is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically
towards the achievement of group goals.
To show the path, give guidance to complete the task.
Direction in management is that part which affects the decision gives the signal to act, indicates
what action is to be? & when is it to start & stop?
J B Sears
Thus directing involves;
The development of willingness to work, but to work with zeal and confidence.
Providing adequate guidelines to complete the task.
Motivating people to move towards the desired goals.
Exercising leadership, motivating people, determining accountability and developing guidelines for
action.
Aspects of Directing:
The ability to use power effectively and in a responsible manner.
The understanding of people: each person has a different level of motivation and different
motivational force.
The ability to inspire followers to apply their full capacities to an activity.
To develop a climate conducive to responding to and arousing motivation.
To develop effective communication structures.
Factors which determine the ability to Direct:
Materials and finance
Knowledge and skill of the manager
Effective co-ordination
It is situational: is need oriented.
Prompt and Specific decisions
Importance of Directing:
To achieve goals and objectives.
In teaching-learning process for curriculum development, use of methodology, teaching aids,
classroom management.
To ensure proper co-ordination.
Organisation of activities curricular and co-curricular.
Budgeting

CONTROLLING
Definition:
Controlling involves measuring and monitoring performance, comparing results with plans and taking
corrective action when required.
Controlling is a process of establishing performance standards based on the objectives, measuring and
reporting actual performance, comparing the two, and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary.
Thus controlling;
Indicates how far the goals have been achieved.
Extent of deviation from plans.
Depends upon accurate information and feedback--- what is happening? with respect to What should
be happening?
Thus, control deals with the difference between planned and actual performance.
Areas of control:
Institutional Budget: Financing in terms of income and expenditure.
Institutional Supplies: Stationery and material equipment.
Library: Maintenance and upgrading.
Teaching-learning Process:
Accounts and School Records:
Discipline: Staff and students

EVALUATING
Definition:
It is the process of measuring and assessing the achievement of objectives.
Provides an insight into strengths and weaknesses.
Helps to bring about improvements in Educational Management.
Evaluation helps in planning for future endeavours.
Need for evaluation:
To determine the effectiveness of plans for managers as well as others;
To document that objectives have been met;
To provide information about the achievement to staff and others; and
To enable manager and staff to make changes that improves plans effectiveness.
Dimensions of evaluation:
Process: Here, evaluation is carried out when the plan is ongoing. We evaluate how the plan is being
carried out.
Outcome: Evaluation comments on whether the desired results have been achieved. (achievement of
objectives)
Impact: Evaluation of this type looks at the effect of the plan and results on the people involved in
the plan.
Areas requiring evaluation in academics:
Goals & objectives.
Content:
i. Selection of content.
ii. Validity of content to objectives.
iii. To update the content & check its relevance.
iv. Content is according to stages of development.
v. Teaching-learning process.
Processes: Teacher activities, pupils activities, instructional material, teaching methods.
Outcomes/Results:

SYSTEMS APPROACH IN EDUCATION

The systems approach, which is a means to looking at a problem in a holistic way, helps solve problems and
improve the working of existing systems. We shall, therefore, discuss in the applications of I systems
approach to education in general and instruction in particular.

The word 'system' is used by scientists from various fields such as Sociology, Polity, Management,
Communication, etc., and it is also used by a layman. While using the term all of r them refer to the
'wholeness' aspect of something. When a layman comments that the transport system in a city is good, he
does not refer to only one particular bus route; he refers to the entire transport arrangement. The same
applies to caste system studied by a sociologist or ecosystem studied by a biologist.

The term "system" means systematic analysis and development of any task/activity to take appropriate
decision. Systems approach brings to the teaching-learning process a scientific approach for solving
instructional problems and accomplishing desired objectives. In other words, systems approach is a
problem-solving method of analysing the educational process and making it more effective.

Meaning and Concept
To understand the concept of a system let us use some concrete examples. A watch is a system but the parts
of the watch separated and kept in a tray do not constitute a system. Similarly, the human body has a
digestive system for digesting the food and converting it into nutrients. Various parts of the digestive system
put separately do not constitute the digestive system.
Let us study various characteristics of system with the help of these two examples. You must have studied
various parts of the digestive system. They are also called components of the digestive system. You are
aware that every part i.e. component of the digestive system contributes to and supports the functioning of
the digestive system as a whole.

Thus one may say that a system consists of some components; each of these components contributes to and
supports the functioning of the system. If one is suffering from toothache, the mouth component will not
function properly which in turn will affect the functioning of other body systems including the digestive
system. Or, if all the components are working in unison. The efficiency of the digestive system will increase.
This happens because all the components of digestive system are interrelated. Change in one component in
its structure or function-affects the functioning of all other components directly or indirectly and of the
system as a whole.
This means that various components of a system are interdependent. If one component of a system is
affected the whole system gets affected. The components come together to form a whole. A car, a school
library, a grinder are some other examples of system. The digestive system is geared to digest the food, the
school library system creates interest in the students about reading and provides information, a grinder
grinds the grains into flour.

Characteristics of a System:
From the above discussion three main characteristics of a system emerge. These are as follows:
A system has certain functions to perform.
A system has many cornponents and parts, each of these may have a different function to perform
but all of these together contribute to the function(s) of the system.
The components of a system are interrelated and interdependent
Thus a system may be defined as an entity which consists of included and interdependent components, and
works towards the attainment of certain functions.

We have seen above that a system is made up of various components, e.g. a mouth is a component of a
digestive system. But the mouth itself constitutes many other components such as teeth, tongue, salivary
glands and so on. Hence the mouth can be called a subsystem of the digestive system. Every system
consists of subsystems.

A human being is a supra system whereas the digestive system is a subsystem of human being. The term 'a
system is therefore relative. Any system, except the largest one and the srnallest one, can be viewed as a
subsystem, or a supra system of some other system. The relative nature of a system implies that the system
does not work in vacuum or isolation. It is surrounded by other systems which form its environment. The
system may or may not interact with its environment but the environment continuously influences the
system. There is a flow of information from the environment to the system. It is up to the system to accept or
reject this information and to make appropriate changes in itself if necessary.

Thus we can say that the following are the main characteristics of a system:
1. Every system is a part of a larger system called as a, supra-System.
2. Every system has a Sub system. These are interdependent and interrelated.
3. System absorbs human members from the external environment, thus making the outsiders into
members and vice versa.
4. Members of a system posses multiple memberships. This influences the outcomes of
education/system.
5. There is a resource exchange between a system and its external environment.
6. External, social, cultural, economic and political environments of a system are dynamic in nature.
7. The whole system is greater than its parts.
8. Every system has its Boundary.
9. A system operates in accordance with a specific plan aimed at achieving specific objectives.



Input-Process-Output Model of a System
The system that we are concerned with includes the aspects and components of the educational process, viz.,
students, teachers, curriculum/syllabus, teaching methods and media, school/classroom environment, and
evaluation procedures. The systems approach helps both the teacher and the students to achieve terminal
objectives in the most effective way.
Let us now study how a system works. You have seen that every system has specific function to perform or
goals to achieve. These can be termed as outputs. In the case of a clock, the function or the goal is to show
time accurately. Similarly, the school library may aim at providing its students one book per week. Now, in
order to achieve this output the school library, for example, requires some input such as certain minimum
number of books.

But by just possessing a requisite number of books, the output will not be achieved. The librarian will have
to plan and develop certain procedures for storing, issuing and returning books (and also for motivating
users). These procedures form a part of the process.

The librarian would also like to know whether the goal (output) of issuing at least one book per student per
week is achieved or not. This implies that the librarian would have to compare the actual output with the
expected output. If the difference between the expected and actual output is minimal, the system is effective
and efficient. If this gap widens, the system becomes less effective and less efficient. If the gap widens a
little more, the librarian would have to study the problem area. He therefore, has to develop a feedback
system which would give him information about this gap between the expected output and the actual output.

Thus the various components of a system are;
1. Inputs: The following make up the inputs of any educational system.
a. Human resources: Students, teachers, non-teaching staff.
b. Material resources: Building, equipment, library-books.
c. Financial resources: Fees, donations, grants .
d. Ideology, values, knowledge, curriculum.

2. Processes: There are two supporting processes in any educational system;
a. Primary: Teaching-learning, Evaluation
b. Supporting: Planning, organising, directing, controlling etc.

3. Output: It includes effective and efficient accomplishment of aims & objectives of education by
utilising the inputs through the processes. The desired outputs of any system are:
a. Development of individual students.
b. Development of academic discipline through research.
c. Development of society.

4. Feedback: It refers to the response to the output, enabling a system to modify its functioning.
Feedback can be positive or negative in nature. Feedback can be stimulative, it can bring about
corrective action leading to improvement.

Types of Systems:
1. Open System: This type of a system has continuous interaction with its environment. An open
system receives inputs from the external environment, uses them for carrying out processes and
produces & supplies outputs to the external environment. Outputs maybe planned or unplanned.

2. Closed System: It is a self-sufficient and self-regulatory system. There is no exchange of material
with the external environment, it is capable of influencing processes for achieving the desired
outputs

Systems Approach in Education:

The input-process-output model of a system also brings out another dimension of the systems approach. It is
a way of looking at things, processes or problems. Instead of attacking the problem in an arbitrary manner,
the systems approach helps solve the problem systematically.

So the systems approach is a tool to be used for solving educational problems more efficiently and
effectively, Systems approach can also be looked upon as a mode of thinking that emphasises problem
identification and problem resolution. It enables an individual to define the problem precisely, consider the
alternatives available and to choose the most efficient alternative (on the basis of the performance criteria) to
solve the problem and achieve the goal(s).

As systems approach is basically a process of problem solving, it can be applied to many areas in the field of
education, such as instruction, research, management of educational institutions, curriculum development
and so on. One may apply it to any problem situation as the process and the mode of thinking remains the
same.

The systems approach provides a framework for all the factors that influence the solution of educational problems or
the achievement of objectives. In the teaching-learning process, the systems approach takes into consideration all
available learning resources, content, learning experiences, methods and media to achieve the given set of learning
objectives. Thus the systems approach focuses on the student and the performance required by him or her.


Need/Purpose of Systems Approach:
1. It can effectively improve the instructional system -----Most important.
2. It can help in managing and improving the school affairs by bringing efficiency in administration and
management.
3. It may help in seeking maximum effective utilisation of the human and material resources connected with the
process of education.
4. It may help in having systematic educational planning in terms of long range goals and specific short range
objectives.
5. It may help in bringing improvement in organisation of co-curricular and such related educational activities.
6. It may help in maintaining, controlling and improving the guidance services of schools.
7. It may help in improving the training and development programmes.
8. It may render valuable services in improving the quality of education in all its aspects.


Importance of Systems Approach for Education:
1. Provides framework for planning, decision making control and problem solving
2. Throws light on dynamic nature of management
3. Institution is viewed as an adaptive system, which adjusts as per environment changes in order to
survive.
4. Provides a unified focus to institutional efforts.
5. Helps to look at institution as a whole and not as parts.
6. Helps the manager to identify the critical sub systems and their interaction with each other. The
practicing manager learns to see the phenomenon not in isolation but in its relation to other
phenomenon and elements because of constant interactions.
7. Helps in improving institution
8. Helps in bringing efficiency in school administration and management
9. Helps in systematic educational planning
10. Maximum utilization of resources
11. Helps in improving examination and evaluation system
12. Maintaining, controlling and improving the guidance services
13. Designing, controlling and improving non-formal and adult education system
14. In improving quality of education
15. In improving the teacher training programmes- in-service as well as pre service.

INPUTS PROCESSES OUTPUTS


























STRUCTURE OF INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM

Systems approach to instructional system helps in understanding, controlling and improving the structure
and functioning of the system in view of the effective realisation of the instructional objectives.

Robb(1974) has analysed an instructional system and suggested that an instructional system can be
employed in three phases, which involve eight stepswhich indicate the development of an instructional
system.

PHASE I: Planning Instructional System
Step 1: Defining objectives
Step 2: Pre-assessment of entry behaviour.
Step 3: Specifying appropriate strategies
Step 4: Selection of materials, teaching aids and facilities.
PHASE II: Execution of Instruction
Step 5: Defining and assigning personnel to achieve the objectives.
Step 6: Synthesising and implementing the system of instruction.

PHASE III: Evaluation of Instruction
Step 7: Evaluation of outcomes
Step8: Analysing the results and modifying the system.






Infrastructure
facilities
Physical
environment
Location
Building
Classrooms
School activities
Curriculum
Instructional
material
Teachers & non-
teaching staff
Finance
Administration[Mgt]
Teaching-learning
process
Strategies and
methods used for
teaching
Evaluation
procedures
Student-principal
relations
Peer relations:
1. Tr-Tr
2. St-St
Student-teacher
relations

Attainment of
instructional
objectives

Academic
achievement of
students.

Attitudinal changes
in students and
others.
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