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A. Casanova

a,b

, L. Jason

a,d,

, L. Davenne

c

a

CEA, DEN, DANS, DM2S, SEMT, LM2S, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, France

b

Laboratoire de Mcanique et Technologie (LMT), ENS Cachan, F-94235 Cachan, France

c

IUT de Ville dAvray, F-92410 Ville dAvray, France

d

LaMSID, UMR CNRS-EDF-CEA 2832, F-92141 Clamart, France

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 14 March 2011

Revised 23 December 2011

Accepted 5 February 2012

Keywords:

Reinforced concrete

Bond slip

Model

a b s t r a c t

This paper presents a new nite element approach to model the steelconcrete bond effects. This model

proposes to relate steel, represented by truss elements, with the surrounding concrete in the case where

the two meshes are not necessary coincident. The theoretical formulation is described and the model is

applied on a reinforced concrete tie. A characteristic stress distribution is observed, related to the transfer

of bond forces from steel to concrete. The results of this simulation are compared with a computation in

which a perfect relation between steel and concrete is supposed. It clearly shows how the introduction of

the bond model can improve the description of the cracking process (nite number of cracks).

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Reinforced concrete structures may have to fulll functions that

go beyond their simple mechanical resistance. In some cases, infor-

mation about the cracking behavior related to the quasi-brittle

evolution of concrete can also become essential. For example, in

the case of containment buildings for nuclear power plants, crack-

ing has a direct impact on the transfer properties that govern the

potential leakage rate (damage permeability law [21] among oth-

ers). Predicting the mechanical behavior but also characterizing

the crack evolution (opening and spacing) are thus key points in

the evaluation of this type of reinforced concrete structures.

Cracking in reinforced concrete structures is generally inu-

enced by the stress distribution along the interface between steel

and concrete. For example, in the case of a reinforced tie, once

the rst crack appears in the weakest point of the structure, the

concrete stress in the cracked zone drops to zero while the load

is totally supported by the steel reinforcement. The stresses are

then progressively transferred from steel to concrete (Fig. 1). This

transition zone has an impact on the crack properties and is

directly inuenced by the steelconcrete interface [10]. Taking into

account these effects seems thus essential to predict correctly the

cracking of reinforced concrete structures.

Different models exist to represent the steelconcrete bond

behavior. For example, Ngo andScordelis [19] proposeda spring ele-

ment, associated with a linear law, to relate concrete and steel

nodes. To improve the description of the bond behavior, joint

elements were developed. These zero thickness elements,

introduced at the interface between steel and concrete, allow the

use of a nonlinear law[4,5,15,7,1,23]. Finally, special nite elements

are proposed to enclose, in a same element, the material behavior

(steel or/and concrete) and the bond effects [18]. Dominguez [6]

and Ibrahimbegovic et al. [12,13], among others, developed embed-

dedelements whose principle is to describe the steelconcrete bond

behavior through an enrichment of the degrees of freedom (Fig. 2).

Even if these solutions give appropriate results, one of their

main drawbacks, in the context of industrial applications, is the

need to explicitly consider the interface between steel and con-

crete. It may impose meshing difculties and heavy computational

cost which are not compatible with large scale simulations.

To overcome these difculties, a perfect relation between steel

and concrete is generally considered for structural applications and

the reinforcement is modeled using truss elements. This hypothe-

sis imposes the same strain in both materials. Although this ap-

proach simplies the simulation, it is not fully representative of

the experimental behavior (Fig. 1).

In this contribution, a model is proposed to combine the advan-

tages of the two approaches. Contrary to rened models, the

formulation does not require an explicit representation of the

steelconcrete interface (reduction of the computational effort)

and supposes the use of steel truss elements in the case where steel

and concrete nodes are not necessary coincident (Fig. 3). Moreover,

contrary to classical industrial hypothesis (perfect relation), the

presented model is also able to represent the bond effects (the

evolution of the slip between steel and concrete especially) in the

same way as ne approaches. In this sense, it represents a good

alternative to classical rened models and industrial classical

computations.

0141-0296/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.02.007

Corresponding author at: CEA, DEN, DANS, DM2S, SEMT, LM2S, F-91191 Gif sur

Yvette, France.

E-mail address: ludovic.jason@cea.fr (L. Jason).

Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Engineering Structures

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ engst r uct

The theoretical formulation of the model is presented in Section

2. It is then validated in Section 3 on the case of a reinforced con-

crete tie. Finally, the inuence of the bond effect is investigated by

a comparison with a simulation using the hypothesis of a perfect

relation.

2. Description of the bond model

In reinforced concrete structures, the relation between steel and

concrete is governed by a bond stress distributed along the inter-

face. The evolution of this bond stress is generally studied in the

form of a bond stress-relative displacement (slip between steel

and concrete) curve (Fig. 4). Therefore, the bond behavior can be

represented by a bond stressslip (ss) law f

b

dened by:

s f

b

s 1

To take this effect into account, the principle of our approach is

to introduce internal forces on both steel and concrete in the direc-

tion of the steel truss element. As concrete and steel nodes are not

necessary coincident, each steel node is thus associated with the

concrete element in which it is included and with a tangential

direction

~

t.

In this contribution, equations will be developed in the particu-

lar case of a unique steel node inside a cubic concrete element as

illustrated in Fig. 5 (initial conguration). In order to simplify the

equations,

~

t coincides with the principal direction ~x

The formulation of the model is divided into four steps:

The evaluation of the steelconcrete slip with non-coincident

meshes.

The calculation of the nodal bond forces in the steel element

direction.

Fig. 1. Distribution of stresses in steel and concrete in a reinforced concrete tie after

the rst crack (r

c

and r

s

are the stresses in concrete and steel respectively, and r

st

c

is

the concrete strength).

k

n

k

l

Concrete

Steel

Zero

thickness

k

n

k

l

Concrete

Steel

Concrete

Steel

Joint

element

Zero

thickness

Embedded element Embedded element

Degrees of freedom of concrete

Degrees of freedom of concrete

+ steel-concrete slip

Fig. 2. Examples of bond elements (at the top left: spring element, at the top right: joint element, at the bottom: embedded element).

Fig. 3. Description of the problem (steel and concrete nodes are not coincident).

Fig. 4. Shape of the bond stressslip law [9].

A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678 67

The introduction of kinematic relations in the normal

directions.

The implementation of the model within the small displace-

ments theory.

2.1. Evaluation of the relative displacement between steel and concrete

The steelconcrete slip is represented by the relative displace-

ment in the x direction between the steel (~u

s1

at node s

1

) and the

concrete at the steel node (~u

cs1

at virtual point cs

1

) (Fig. 5)

s ju

s1;x

u

cs1;x

j 2

with u

s1;x

~u

s1

~x and u

cs1;x

~u

cs1

~x.

As the meshes are not necessary coincident, the displacement in

concrete at the steel node is obtained using the shape functions,

following the equation:

u

cs1;x

8

i1

N

i

x

cs1

; y

cs1

; z

cs1

u

ci;x

3

where (x

cs1

, y

cs1

, z

cs1

) are the coordinates of cs

1

point.

N

i

(x

cs1

, y

cs1

, z

cs1

) represents the shape function of the ith concrete

node evaluated at cs

1

point and u

ci,x

its displacement in the ~x

direction.

2.2. Nodal forces in the tangential direction

From Eqs. (1)(3), the bond stress is computed:

s f

b

u

s1;x

8

i1

N

i

x

cs1

; y

cs1

; z

cs1

u

ci;x

_ _

4

The internal nodal force induced by concrete on steel,

~

F

cs1=s1

, is

calculated using the equation:

~

F

cs1=s1

dpd

s

ls~x

dpd

s

l f

b

u

s1;x

8

i1

N

i

x

cs1

; y

cs1

; z

cs1

u

ci;x

_ _

~x

with

d1 if u

s1;x

8

i1

N

i

x

cs1

; y

cs1

; z

cs1

u

ci;x

P0

d1 if u

s1;x

8

i1

N

i

x

cs1

; y

cs1

; z

cs1

u

ci;x

<0

_

_

5

where d

s

is the diameter of the steel bar and l is derived from the

length of the steel elements connected to the node s

1

. For example,

in Fig. 6:

l

l

1

l

2

2

6

The balance of the internal bond forces involves

~

F

s1=cs1

_ _

:

~

F

s1=cs1

~

F

cs1=s1

7

~

F

s1=cs1

is converted in 8 nodal equivalent forces

~

F

s1=cj

applied on each

concrete node (Fig. 7).

~

F

s1=cj

N

j

x

cs1

; y

cs1

; z

cs1

~

F

s1=cs1

8

In this rst approach, internal bond forces are redistributed on

the concrete thanks to the shape functions N

j

of the concrete nite

element. This choice can have some limits, especially when the size

of the concrete becomes signicantly higher than the steel diame-

ter. In this situation, other functions could be used, in order to take

into account the decrease of the bond effect with the size of the

concrete element.

Fig. 5. Evaluation of the relative displacement between steel and concrete.

Fig. 6. Denition of l.

68 A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678

2.3. Kinematics relations in the normal directions

Eqs. (5) and (8) relate the degrees of freedom of concrete and

steel in the tangential direction of the reinforcement. To close

the system, a perfect relation is supposed for the displacement in

the other directions. Even if this hypothesis is probably too strong,

it enables to represent, in a simple way, the main component of the

bond effect which is the tangential one. It could be improved in fu-

ture work by additional relations to represent the potential bond

effects in the normal directions (Dowel effect for example).

Two equations are thus added:

u

s1;y

u

cs1;y

8

i1

N

i

x

cs1

; y

cs1

; z

cs1

u

ci;y

u

s1;z

u

cs1;z

8

i1

N

i

x

cs1

; y

cs1

; z

cs1

u

ci;z

_

_

9

2.4. Implementation of the bond element model

This bond model has been implemented in the nite element

code Cast3M [3]. For nonlinear problems (material and/or bond

law), a Newton Raphson iterative method is used. In its classical

form, the nodal displacement {u

n+1

} at the (n + 1)th iteration is

calculated following equation:

K

n

mat

_

du

n1

_ _

F

ext

f g F

n

int;mat

_ _

10

where {u

n+1

} = {u

n

} + {du

n+1

}.

Fig. 7. Balance of the internal bond forces.

Fig. 8. Iterative diagram for the numerical resolution.

L

a

0 x

u

Cylinder of

concrete

Steel reinforcement

Fig. 9. Presentation of the problem.

A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678 69

In this expression {F

ext

} represents the external forces, fF

n

int;mat

g

the usual internal forces induced by concrete and steel and K

n

mat

As describe in the previous sections, to take into account the

bond effects, kinematics relations and bond forces are added. The

kinematics Eq. (9) are introduced using the Lagranges multiplier

method. Global internal bond forces fF

n

int;bond

g are calculated from

Eqs. (5) and (8) using the distribution of the nodal displacements

at iteration n. Internal forces thus become:

F

n

int

_ _

F

n

int;mat

_ _

F

n

int;bond

_ _

11

The global stiffness matrix [K

n

] is also updated:

K

n

K

n

mat

K

n

bond

12

where

K

n

bond

@F

n

int;bond

@u

u

n

13

The system nally becomes:

K

n

fdu

n1

g fF

ext

g fF

n

int

g 14

The steps for the resolution of the system are summarized in

Fig. 8.

3. Validation and application of the bond model

In this part, the model is applied on a uniaxial problem. A rein-

forced concrete tie is studied in order to evaluate the inuence of

the bond effects on the mechanical behavior.

3.1. Presentation of the problem

A concrete cylinder reinforced with a longitudinal steel bar is

considered. A displacement is imposed at the rst end of the steel

reinforcement while the other end is blocked (Fig. 9). There are no

boundary conditions on the concrete.

For the simulation, concrete and steel are meshed by truss ele-

ments. The total length L (equal to 3 m) is divided into 100 identi-

cal trusses as illustrated in Fig. 10. The steel behavior is modeled by

a perfect plastic law (Young modulus E

s

and yield strength r

st

s

gi-

ven in Table 1). Concrete is represented by a softening law, using

an isotropic plastic model illustrated in Fig. 11 (Table 2). To repre-

sent the heterogeneity of concrete properties and in order to local-

ize the mechanical degradation, a scattered distribution of the

concrete strength r

st

c

is chosen. Fig. 12 represents the evolution

r

st

c

along concrete (from x = 0 to x = 3 m). The average strength

r

st

c;med

and the standard deviation r

y

are given in Table 3.

The bond stressslip law is represented by a linear function

(s = k

b

s where k

b

is equal to 10

10

Pa m

1

).

Fig. 10. Mesh of the tie.

Table 1

Steel parameters (S

s

is the cross section of steel).

E

s

(GPa) S

s

(m

2

) r

st

s

(MPa)

210 7.854 10

5

400

Strain

Stress

st

c

c

E

u

Strain

Stress

st

c

c

E

u

Table 2

Concrete parameters (S

c

is the cross section of concrete).

E

c

(GPa) S

c

(m

2

) e

u

30 10

2

0.045%

1,8

1,9

2,0

2,1

2,2

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3

x (m)

C

o

n

c

r

e

t

e

S

t

r

e

n

g

t

h

(

M

P

a

)

Fig. 12. Distribution of the tensile strength values along the tie.

Table 3

Parameters of the scattered distribution.

r

st

c;med

(MPa) r

y

(MPa)

2 0:03 r

st

c;med

70 A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678

3.2. Global mechanical behavior

Fig. 13 represents the global behavior of the tie. This curve can

be divided in three parts:

An elastic phase where the behavior of both materials remains

linear.

A phase of concrete cracking which is characterized by several

peaks and drops of force.

A perfect plastic phase where the behavior is only governed by

the steel plastic law (constant force).

It is to be noted that these three phases are representative of the

experimental behavior [17].

In the following sections, each phase is going to be discussed.

3.3. Elastic phase

Fig. 14 represents an example of stress distribution in both

materials along the tie during the elastic phase. As the loading is

applied directly on the reinforcement, at each end the force is

essentially supported by the steel (r

s

F

S

S

with r

s

the steel stress

and F the applied load). Then, in a transition zone, forces are grad-

ually transferred from steel to concrete through the interface:

stresses in concrete increase while stresses in steel decrease from

the end toward the middle of the tie. Finally, in the central zone,

stresses are homogeneous.

To validate the results of the simulation, an analytical resolu-

tion is proposed. This solution is obtained from the balance of

forces between steel and concrete from a = x to a = L (Fig. 15).

The external force F applied on steel is balanced by an internal

force F

s

(x) and a bond force F

bond/s

(x).

F

s

x F

bond=s

x F 15

with, considering the small displacement theory,

F

s

x S

s

E

s

du

s

x

dx

16

where u

s

(x) is the steel displacement at a = x.

0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

0 0,001 0,002 0,003 0,004 0,005

Imposed displacement (m)

F

o

r

c

e

(

N

)

Elastic phase

Development of cracking in concrete

Steel behavior

Fig. 13. Forcedisplacement curve.

0,00E+00

2,00E+05

4,00E+05

6,00E+05

8,00E+05

1,00E+06

1,20E+06

1,40E+06

1,60E+06

1,80E+06

2,00E+06

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3

x (m)

C

o

n

c

r

e

t

e

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

0,00E+00

5,00E+07

1,00E+08

1,50E+08

2,00E+08

2,50E+08

S

t

e

e

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

concrete steel

Fig. 14. Distribution of the stress along the tie (elastic phase).

A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678 71

The bond force F

bond/s

(x) is evaluated integrating the bond stress

between a = x and a = L. Therefore:

F

bond=s

x pd

s

k

b

_

L

x

u

s

a u

c

ada 17

where d

s

is the diameter of the steel bar and u

c

(a) represents the

displacement in concrete at a.

In the same way, the balance on concrete is given by

F

c

x F

bond=c

x 0 18

with

F

c

x S

c

E

c

du

c

x

dx

19

and

F

bond=c

x F

bond=s

x 20

After development, Eqs. (15) and (18) give the following system:

d

3

u

s

x

dx

3

K

1

du

s

x

dx

K

2

du

c

x

dx

E

s

S

s

E

c

S

c

du

s

x

dx

F

E

c

S

c

_

_

21

with

K

1

k

b

pd

s

1

E

s

S

s

1

E

c

S

c

_ _

K

2

k

b

pd

s

F

E

s

S

s

E

c

S

c

_

_

22

After resolution, it comes:

Fig. 15. Force balance between a = x and a = L.

0,00E+00

2,00E+05

4,00E+05

6,00E+05

8,00E+05

1,00E+06

1,20E+06

1,40E+06

1,60E+06

1,80E+06

2,00E+06

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3

x (m)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

numerical analytical

Fig. 16. Stress distribution in concrete along the tie.

0,00E+00

5,00E+05

1,00E+06

1,50E+06

2,00E+06

2,50E+06

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3

x (m)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

elastic phase 1st crack distribution of strength

Fig. 17. Distribution of the stress in the concrete along the tie.

72 A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678

du

s

x

dx

Ae

K

1

p

x

Be

K

p

1

x

K

2

K

1

du

c

x

dx

E

s

S

s

E

c

S

c

Ae

K

1

p

x

Be

K

p

1

x

K

2

K

1

_ _

F

E

c

S

c

_

_

23

where

A

e

K

1

p

L

1

e

K

1

p

L

e

K

1

p

L

F

E

s

S

s

K

2

K

1

_ _

B

F

E

s

S

s

K

2

K

1

A

_

_

24

Steel and concrete stresses along the tie are nally calculated

using equation

r

s

x E

s

du

s

x

dx

r

c

x E

c

du

c

x

dx

_

_

25

The numerical results are compared with the analytical solu-

tion. Fig. 16 represents the stress evolution in concrete along the

tie. The results are similar and validate the numerical implementa-

tion in this particular case.

3.4. Cracking process

During the elastic phase, the stresses increase in concrete with

the imposed displacement. When the strength is reached in a con-

crete element, an unloading is observed in this element and the

stress drops to zero (Fig. 17). The load is then fully supported by

the corresponding steel element. Its stress becomes equal to

F

S

S

(Fig. 18). It is to be noted that this phenomenon is amplied by

the use of 1D truss element for concrete. Contrary to what happens

in 3D simulation, no evolution of the strain distribution is possible

in the concrete cross section. It has nevertheless the advantage to

directly highlight the bond effect model on the structural behavior.

x (m)

0,00E+00

5,00E+07

1,00E+08

1,50E+08

2,00E+08

2,50E+08

0,00E+00 5,00E-01 1,00E+00 1,50E+00 2,00E+00 2,50E+00 3,00E+00

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

elastic phase 1st crack

Fig. 18. Distribution of the stress in the steel along the tie.

0,00E+00

5,00E+07

1,00E+08

1,50E+08

2,00E+08

2,50E+08

3,00E+08

3,50E+08

4,00E+08

4,50E+08

0,00E+00 5,00E-01 1,00E+00 1,50E+00 2,00E+00 2,50E+00 3,00E+00

x (m)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

Yield strength of steel Yield strength of steel

Fig. 19. Stress distribution in the steel at the beginning of the plastic phase.

A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678 73

When a concrete element is damaged, the stresses are redistrib-

uted on each side of the crack. On both sides the stress distribution

is similar what was observed during the elastic phase with a grad-

ual transfer from steel to concrete. On a global point of view, the

apparition of the rst crack coincides with the rst partial unload-

ing on the force displacement curve (Fig. 13).

After the apparition of the rst crack, stresses in concrete con-

tinue to increase until a tensile strength is reached in a second ele-

ment. Another crack appears, and a total unloading of the

considered element is obtained. The same effect is observed until

the steel stress in the cracked zones reaches it yield limit

(Fig. 19). At this step, the global force cannot increase anymore

and the distribution of Fig. 20 is obtained (ve cracks).

The crack length corresponds to the length of one nite element.

This effect can be explained by the well-known stress localization

due to the use of a softening law. It could be solved by including a

regularization technique on the concrete constitutive law

[22,20,11]. This point will not be discussed in this paper and do not

impact the interest of the proposedapproachonthe bondslipmodel.

It is to be noted that the crack position is governed, as expected,

by the strength distribution but also by the stress evolution im-

posed by the bond effects. To underline this effect, 10 computa-

tions have been carried out considering 10 different distributions

of the initial concrete tensile strength.

Fig. 21 shows the crack position along the 10 ties. In most cases

(except for one tie), 5 cracks are observed. These cracks are gener-

ally localized on one concrete element except when the distribu-

tion of strength imposes a simultaneous cracking of two

elements (the 3rd crack of tie 1 for example). It is to be noted that,

due to the transfer zone between steel and concrete, no crack can

develop at both ends. Finally, the crack spacing is constant with an

average value of about 50 cm.

As a conclusion, the order of crack apparition is rather governed

by the distribution of the mechanical strength whereas the nal

0,00E+00

5,00E+05

1,00E+06

1,50E+06

2,00E+06

2,50E+06

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3

x (m)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

final distribution of stress distribution of strength

Fig. 20. Stress distribution in the concrete at the beginning of the plastic phase.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3

x(m)

t

i

e

n

u

m

b

e

r

1

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

3

3 4

4 4 5

5

3

1 2 4 3 5

1 4 2 5 3

5 1 3 2 4

3 3 1 4 2 5

5 2 4 1 3

5 2 3 1 4

2 5 1 4 3

Fig. 21. Position of cracks for the 10 ties. The numbers on the gure correspond to the order of apparition (1 for the rst crack until 5 for the fth crack). The dotted lines

correspond to the average positions of each crack.

74 A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678

state (constant average spacing) is imposed by the stress distribu-

tion related to the bond effects.

4. Inuence of the bond model

In order to evaluate the inuence of the bond effects on the

behavior of the tie, the results of the previous simulation are com-

pared with the case where steel and concrete are perfectly bound.

In this situation, steel and concrete nodes are identical and the

simulation is carried out in the same conditions as described in

Section 3. Fig. 22 illustrates the global behavior. It is once again di-

vided in three main phases (elastic phase, development of cracking

and plastic zone). During the development of cracks, a higher num-

ber of partial unloading is observed.

Fig. 23 describes the distribution of stress in both materials dur-

ing the elastic phase. Contrary to what was observed with the bond

model, stresses in steel and concrete are homogeneous along the

tie. This can be explained by the perfect relation that imposes an

identical strain in both materials. It comes:

r

s

E

s

E

s

S

s

E

c

S

c

F

r

c

E

c

E

s

S

s

E

c

S

c

F

26

r

c

increases with the load until the minimal value of the concrete

strength is reached. A crack appears in the element. Fig. 24 repre-

sents the stress distribution in concrete after the rst crack. It is

to be noted that, with the perfect relation, the stress remains homo-

geneous in the uncracked concrete. In this zone, the stress can in-

crease until the second concrete strength limit.

Contrary to what was observed with the bond model, the appa-

rition of the cracks is only governed by the strength distribution

(Fig. 25). At the nal state (Fig. 26), concrete is totally cracked be-

cause the concrete strength has been reached in every element.

It explains the high number of partial unloading on the force

displacement curve (Fig. 22). The loading is then only supported

by steel.

As expected, the perfect relation is not able to represent the

experimental situation where a nite number of cracks is observed.

Steel behavior

Development of cracking in concrete

Elastic phase

0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

0 0,001 0,002 0,003 0,004 0,005 0,006

Imposed displacement (m)

F

o

r

c

e

(

N

)

Steel behavior

Development of cracking in concrete

Elastic phase

Fig. 22. Forcedisplacement curve at the loaded end of the steel.

0,00E+00

2,00E+06

4,00E+06

6,00E+06

8,00E+06

1,00E+07

1,20E+07

1,40E+07

0,00E+00 5,00E-01 1,00E+00 1,50E+00 2,00E+00 2,50E+00 3,00E+00

x (m)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

concrete steel

Fig. 23. Stress distribution in both materials along the tie (elastic phase).

A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678 75

0,00E+00

5,00E+05

1,00E+06

1,50E+06

2,00E+06

2,50E+06

0,00E+00 5,00E-01 1,00E+00 1,50E+00 2,00E+00 2,50E+00 3,00E+00

x (m)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

perfect relation with bond model strength distribution

Fig. 24. Comparison of stress distributions in concrete after the rst crack apparition.

0,00E+00

5,00E+05

1,00E+06

1,50E+06

2,00E+06

2,50E+06

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3

x (m)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

with bond model perfect relation strength distribution

Fig. 25. Comparison of stress distributions in concrete after the third crack apparition.

0,00E+00

5,00E+07

1,00E+08

1,50E+08

2,00E+08

2,50E+08

3,00E+08

3,50E+08

0,00E+00 5,00E-01 1,00E+00 1,50E+00 2,00E+00 2,50E+00 3,00E+00

x (m)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

P

a

)

concrete steel

Fig. 26. Stress distribution in both materials when concrete is totally cracked (perfect relation).

76 A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678

The introduction of the bond effects, as presented in Section 2,

solves this problem.

To highlight the differences between the two approaches (per-

fect relation vs. bond model), the crack properties are compared.

From continuum damage mechanics, one way to evaluate the crack

opening is to represent the evolution of the axial displacement in

the concrete (Fig. 27). The position of the displacement jumps cor-

responds to the position of the cracks while their values enable to

compute each crack opening. It is to be noted that other techniques

exist to obtain information about the crack properties and could be

used in more complex cases (post processing methods using crack-

ing strain [16], comparison with discrete computation [8], use of

continuumdiscrete model including displacement discontinuity

[2], etc.).

The crack properties are compared for an imposed displacement

of 1.6 mm (Table 4). As expected, a higher number of cracks is ob-

tained with the perfect relation (23 cracks vs. two with the bond

model). As a consequence, the average crack opening is higher in

the case of the bond model. The distribution of the crack opening

is also more regular.

5. Conclusions

In this contribution, a new nite element model is proposed to

represent bond effects between steel, modeled with truss ele-

ments, and the surrounding concrete. These bond effects are taken

into account through additional internal forces calculated from the

steelconcrete slip. The proposed model has been applied on a

reinforced concrete tie. A characteristic stress distribution has been

observed, related to the transfer of bond forces from steel to con-

crete. In this case, crack apparition is both induced by the hetero-

geneous characteristics of concrete (distribution of the tensile

strength along the tie) and by the transition zones where stresses

are redistributed between the materials. At the end of the simula-

tion (mechanical behavior only governed by the steel plastic law), a

nite number of crack is observed which corresponds qualitatively

to experimental observations [17].

Another simulation, using the hypothesis of a perfect relation

between steel and concrete (classical hypothesis used in structural

applications) has been also proposed. In this case, the evolution of

cracking is only governed by the distribution of the concrete

strength since the stresses distribution is homogeneous in un-

cracked zones. At the nal state, the concrete is totally cracked. It

shows how the introduction of the bond model can improve the

description of the cracking process.

Forthcoming 3D simulations will allow to also evaluate the ef-

fects of the stress distribution in the concrete cross section.

Even if these results are promising, crack evolution is strongly

related to the choice of the bond stressslip law which has a direct

inuence on the nal number of cracks.

To take this inuence into account, an investigation on the bond

stressslip law will thus be launched, based either on literature

[9,14] or on an experimental campaign to be more representative

of the experimental behavior.

Finally, the limitations of the proposed nite element model are

related to the main hypothesis. As the steel is modeled using truss

elements, one has to face the associated difculties (stress concen-

tration for example). Nevertheless, this could probably be avoided

by using regularization techniques or by proposing meshing rules

(for example, not to consider concrete elements around steel smal-

ler than the steel diameter). These points will also be investigated

in future work when considering 3D simulations.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank Dr. S. Ghavamian for his helpful

discussions in the elaboration of the model.

Fig. 27. Axial displacement in concrete along the tie (for an imposed displacement of 1.6 mm on steel).

Table 4

Comparison of the crack properties for an imposed displacement of 1.6 mm.

Number of cracks Average crack opening (mm) Minimal crack opening (mm) Maximal crack opening (mm)

Bond model 2 0.475 0.47 0.48

Perfect relation 23 0.061 0.037 0.187

A. Casanova et al. / Engineering Structures 39 (2012) 6678 77

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