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' .
\\'oRK No. G I
A' lN -I AKH,\ !d
- - -
. - -
H. :\1 .\.
LiKUT.-CoLONET. I>. C. l'll!LLOTT. JI.A., l'u.D., F.A.S.B.
) 1 > ]1, ];, :\ n
- . \.J j \__) '..1
Tlw A<in-i Akbar'i is the third volume of the Akbar-
niima, by ::-lhaykh Abit '1-Fay.l, and is by the gn;ttnst
work in the whole series of }Juhamnw<bn histori<'." of India.
The first volume of this gigantic work <ontains the history
of Timftr's family as far as it i:-; of inkrPst for t.]}(' Indian
readet, and the nigns of JHbar, the kings, and Humiiyi"m
whibt tlw :-;eeon<l \'olumn is d<'\'oted to the dd.aibl histOI'y
of llC'<11'l,V forty-:.;ix yc;trs of the reign of the C l'<'at Em pPt'or.
The concluding volume, the Ain-i-Aklmri, contains tlmt
information regarding Akbar',.; reign, \Yhich, t.hough not
:-:trietly historical, is yet csscntial to a c:otTeut understanding
of the tinws, and embodies, thereforn, thoc-;n facts for whi<:h.
in modern time:-;, we would turn to Administration lkports,
l'ompilations, or G<tzettccrs. It <'ontains t.ll('
(i.e. mo<le of governing) of Akbar, and is, in fact, tlw
,\dm in istmti on l{cport and J:etu I'll of
govcmnwnt <ts it was about A.D. l!)!JO. Tlw <:onteHts,
therefore, of the Ain are Hatumlly varied and (kt:tiiPd.
The first of it:-; five hooks trcats of Akbar':-; hou:-whold and
<'omt, and of thc> cmpc>ror himself, the soul of every dep:trt-
llH'llt, who looks upon the perfonnanee of hie-; <luties as :u1
ad of divine wotship, and who entcr:; into the details of
government in order to crnate a lmrmonious who!<'. Votwh-
safed as king with a peculiar light from on high, his person
i:-; prominently put forward as the gui<lc of the people in
all matters temporal and spiritual; in whose character
and templ't' the governed fiJHl th:tt rest and peaee which no
('Oimtitution can give, and in \\'hom, as tl1<' author of a
now and advanced creed, the dust of intoiPra tion i:; for f?\'f_)J'
The second hook trrats of the H'JTants of tlte tlmme,
the military and civil services, all<t the attendants at
court whoRe likrary genius or m u ~ i c l skill receives a lustre
from the encouragement of the emperor, and who in their
turn reflect. a brilliant light on the government.
The thir(l book iH 0ptirely devoted to regulations for
the judicial and exec: uti ve departments, the cst:Lblishment.
of a ne\\. aml more pradicnJ era, the wrvoy of the land, the
trihal divisious, and the rent-mll of the gl'Cat FinancP
minister whose nanw has hceomc proverbial in India.
The fo111'th hnol< treatR of t.[w so<ial condition and
literary a<ti\ity, especially in philo;;ophy and law, of the
Hindus, who form tho hulk of the popul<ttion, and in whose
politi<"al ad van<:l:nlent. the <:mperor saw the guarantee of
the stability of l1is realm. There arc also a few chapters
on t.lw foreign invaders of Indi:t, on d ist.inguished tra vellcr:o,
n.nd on Muhamn1adan :oaints an<l the sects to which they
tespPdi vdy klong.
Tlw fiftl1 book contain:o the moral sentences an<l
epigrammati<'al sa.yings, ohscnations, and ruleR of wisdom
of the OlllJH:ror, which Ahi"1 'l-Fazl has gathered ar-; the
diseiple gathers the sayings of the master.
In the A'in, therdote, we have a picture of Akbar's
govnrnment in its sevL'ral department;;, and of its relations
to tlw difl'er<'nt ranks and mixed races of his subjects.
vVhill"t in most \luhammadnn historie:o we hear of tlw
nndl<'ss turmoil of wat ancl clynastical changes, and ar<'
onl.Y n'mindf'd of the cxistenec of a people when authors
make a pa:-:sing n llusion to famines and similar calamities,
we have in the .\<in t.he governed clas:oe;; brought to the
foreground : ll\l'H lin: and move bdon' UR, an<l the great
questions of tlw time, axioms then bnlicvecl in, alHl principles
then followed, phantoms then chased after, ideas then
prevailiug. and stwre:oscs then obtained, arc placed before
our ey<'s in truthful, and therefore vivid, colours.
It is for this rea:oon that the A in stands so unique among
\'luhammadan hi;;toril's of India, and we need not wonder
that long lH'fon' <'Hriou;; eyes turned to other native
soune:o of hi:otmy and systematically examined their
contents, the Ain wa::> laid under contribution. Le Pcrr
Tioffentaller, in l 776, published in his DescriJllt:on
Geographique de l' Indostun long extract::> from the rPnt-
roll given in the Third Book ; Chid Grant
used it largely for his lkport on Jndirm Fina.nee,; ; and,
early as 1783, Francis Gladwin, a thorough Oriental
scholar, dedicated to Warren his" Ayeen lkben: ",
of which in 1800 he issued a printed edition in London.
In his translation, Gladwin ha:-; given. the gre:tkr part of
tho First Book, more than one-half of tho and
Third Books, and :tbout one-fourth of tl,n Fourth Book ;
and although in modern time,; inaccnr<wi('K have hct>n
discovered in the portions translated by him-ehiefl.v due,
no doubt, to the fact that he translated from in every
way a difficult undertaking--his translation has
occupied a deservedly high plact', and it may
be asserted that no simihr work has for the last scvt>nt,\'
y<'ars been so extensively quote<l as his. Tlw magnitude
of the task of translating the A'in from uneollated will
especially become apparent, when we remetn her that,
even in the opinion of nati vo writers, it:-; style is " not
intGlligihle to the gC'nerality of readers without
But it is not merely the \'aried information of the A111
that the book so valuable, hut also the trw.;tworthi-
ness of the author himself. Abft '1-Fazl't> high oflic:i;d
position gave him access to any document he wished to
consult, and his long career awl training in various depart-
ments of tho State, and hi:,; marvnllou:,; poW('rs of expression,
fitted him eminently for the composition of a work li lw
tho Akbarnamah and the .h:n. His love of truth and his
correctne:-;:,; of information an' :tpparent on every page of
the book, which he wished to letwe to future ages as a
memorial of the Great Emperor and as a guide for inquiring
minds; and his wishes for the :,;tahility of tlw throne and
tho welfare of the people, his prirwiple:-; of toleration, his
noble sentimPnt:,; on thP rights of man, the total absence
of personal grievanc('S and of expressions of ill-will towards
Pncom passing Pnomics, show that the expanse of his large
heart stntehed to the dear ofling of t>tcrling wisdom.
Abft '1-Fazl has far too often been accused by European
writers of fbttery and even of wilful coneeahncnt of facts
damaging to tlw nputation of his master. A study, though
p(rhaps not a. hasty perusal, of the Aklmrna/11.1/h will show
that the <harg<'' is absolutely unfoumkcl; and if we com-
pare ]Jis works \1 it.l1 other historical productions of the, we f.llmll fiml that, while l1e praises, lw does so infinitely
IPsf.i and with Blll'ch mme gmcc and dignity than any other
Indian histmian or pod. Kn writer has over accused
him of flatt<ry; and if W(' !war in mincl that all Eastern
works 011 l:tl, i('s l'<'t'OJIIIlH'JHI unconditional assent to the
opinion of the king, \\ lwtlwr correct or absurd, as tl1c dut.v
of man, and that whole poetry of the East is a mnk
mass of flattery at the side of which encomiums
look like withend lmves-we may pardon Ahft '1-Fazl
wlHn he praises because ho fin(h; a true hero.
Tho issue of the faseiuuli of this transbtion
has extended over a longer time than T at first expected.
'l'IH' simultrmeotts publication of my edit,ion of the Persian
Text, from which the translation is made, the geog1aphical
difficulties of the Thinl Hook, the unsatisfactory state of
the: 1\ISS., the notes a<lded to the tmmdation from various
Muhammadan historians awl works on the history of
likrature, have ren<kre<L Uw progress of the work unavoid-
ably slow.
I am <keply indehkd to the Couneil of the Philological
( 'ommitt.Pe of the Asiatic Societv of Benual for Jllacinrr at
,, b
my disposal a full critical apparat,us of the Aln, and entrust-
ing lllt' with the Pdition of the text, for which the Indian
Co\'01'1\lll<'nt had most lilwrally sanctioned the sum of
thousand Hupecs. grateful acknowledgments are
a [so d w to Dr. Thomas Oldham, Superintendent of the
Ceological l"uJT<',Y of India and late President of the Asiatic
Noridy, for valuable achi('( and (nr ready assistance in
the exreution of the work; and to Col. H. Yuh'. C'. B., anJ
to H. Roberts, Esq., of the Do,eton ('ollrgP, for useful
hints and corrections.
T ha\c thought it advi:-;ahle to i:-;:-:u<' the first volume
with a few additional note:-;, amf tw() indt>xes, one of
and things and the other of gcogrnphi<al nanH':-:, without
waiting for the comp!rtion of the "holt' \\:ork. l ha \'l'
thus had an opportunity of coneding :-:onie of thl' <'l'l'ors
and incon:-;iRtmcie:-; in the spelling of JJalllPR and :-;n
otl1er deficiencies. That <ldect:-: will :-:till found, not-
"ithstanding my endca vou r.-; to n'mow them, none of
Ill,\ rca<lcrs and niti('s <'an be mon :-;l'n:-:ihk than I
('AI l'l"JTA
:!:J1d ,",'ciJtcml!n, /:'l;::.
Some explanation is needed of tho edition.
Bloohmann's original trani:llation lm:-; for :-;omc time been
out of print. The Asiatic Society cf Bengal has mdzod mo
to undertake the preparation of a reprint, and I lightly
accepted the task, not realizing the amount of labour
involved. Blochmann':-; translation and notes form a work
of infinite detail and thorough :-;cholarship ; and though
it ha:-; seldom been necessary to correct, it has often horn
necessary to investigate. This pro:-;ent edition i:;;, how-
ever, in the main a more reprint. Thi:-; of itself is no :-;mall
testimony to Blochmann's thoroughnos:;;. Tho translitera-
tion, however, has boon brought into line with a more
modern system, and a few additional [_in square
brackets] have been added; tho:;;e with a sutlixed B. are
Blochmann's own .MS. notefl from a printed copy in my
possession; I have not incorporated all of them, as many
I 'vas unable to decipher. Notes to which a P. i:-; suffixed
are my own.
D. C'. P.
Auu 'r,-FAr.r,'s PrmFACE .
4. Tm: lMPE!tiAL l\IrNT
G. BANWi\rti

Thr method of silver :!:l
The process of]( ukra . I
The }Jroccss of Bugrriwali
Mnms .
Gold coins .
Silver coins
f'opper coins
" II. Tm; DmHAM ANP THE m:-o,\It :lfi
.. 1:!. Tm; PRoFIT OF THr: DEALEWl IN GoLD A:-.11! SLLVEtt :IH
" };), TilE ORIGIN OF METALS . 10
Hi. Tim o:-o .TouRNEYS
A'in 20. THE Hoy AL SEALS
2l. Ttu: F,umAsu KHANA
22. TnE Anll,\tt KHANA
23. THE htl'ERIAL .
27. STATis-rrcs cw Tim PmcEs oF CERTAIN AnTICLRS
The spriPg harvest
The autumnalltarrest .
V cyetaliles .
Living animalo aml meats
Butter, sugar, etc.
., 28. FrmtTtmY
Tt1rcln"i fruit:;
Thf suwt Jmits Ilindiis/('in
Dried fruits
r rgeta&/es .
Sour fruits
Sour fruits smnewhat acid
.-1 lt.,t of l'crja111cs and their prices .
. l list of.fiue smcllin_q F'l01cers
A /u;t Flowers notable for thc1:r beaul!J
On the preparation of some Perfumes
3:.!. ON Sli.\WLI->, ETC.
Uuld :<t u.ffs .
Silks, etc., plain
('olton cloths
Woollc11 :<tuffs
Ox THE OF Cowuns .
The Art of Paintiny
A 'in :15. THE ARSENAL
3fl. ON GuNR
311. TnE RANKS oF THE GuNs
The Pawjdiir
47. MANNER Ol' Rml'W\ Er.EPII
.. 50. Tm: oF THE HoRsEs
fil. 'J'm: FonDEJt ALLOWJ:P 1!1: TilE hti'I:HT.I r. f'T.I
.. fi:Z. ON HARNESS, ETC .
.. !!3. Trm 0FF1Ctms ANlJ ATTA!'Illm To TJH:
f.i1. THE BAltGiR .

OF 10HSES l-11)
.. m. ON FINEs JIK
.. 59. ON DoNATIONs lGO
.. 60. REGCLATIONS FOH THE Jrr .. 150
62. THE Foov oF CA)I!:u;
On, INTO THEIR Nosmrr.s . 151
,. GG. THE Gi\OKH..iNA oR Cow STABLES 1 ii7
m. Tin; DAILY 01<' Foon lGR
69. Tm; :\1cLE :+rAHLES 160
.. 70. THE 'DAILY ALLOW.\NCE OF Foon FOR MuLEs u; l
,. 71. THE FcRNITUim oF MuLES Hl I
, 72. Tm: MAXNER IN WHICH Hrs l\1.\JE:-;Tv SPENDS ms
Tnm. llj:!
, 73. HEGULATioNs FOit TO Couwr l(j.)
.. 7(). THE 1\h;sn;n oF l\IEN
Ordinawcs of the Dinine Fa1th 17'!
r;oTEs nY Tm; TRANi'L.\TOR o:> THI-: HELIGIOus Vn:ws
OF TilE [;m'EI\01\ AKBAR
.. 7H. Tm; 1\le.'iTER OF Er.EI'HANT!'
79. Tu E MusTJm oF
RO. THE }lusTER oF C'A)mLs
., Rl. Tmc }h;srEn oF C.\TTLE
, f\:2. THE ;\Imrmn OF 1\lnEs
.. 8:1. THE P.\nosnT HEn ULATION
.. 81. 0:> A:;nrAL FwHTS. REGULuro:;s FOR BETTiNG
.. f\5. ON BuJLniNr:s
R7. Ox THE W.\m:s oF L.mouRERS
8!3. RuLES Fon THE Loss IN Woon CHIPS
, 90. THE "'rmarr oF DIFFERENT KrNns WooD .
I' .ilui, pz<'lll'.-P.J
i\ tin
BOO 1\
THE Divi:noxs OF THE /umy
TilE A;o.;L\1.\l.S OJI THI: AR\IY
NoTE HY nm Ttu:-;sL.\TOt\ oF TilE :\1
Tm: AT.Lillis .
Tm: J:..:F.\;o.;Tt:Y
'l'hr lilllldii'!-r1iis. or
Tlw llarhiill.'', or l'nrttrs
Tlrt 1\!udmall!f!lfl'
The J/eil'ms
The or I
Tire l'ahliuctt/1-", or \\'nst Ins .
Tlr!' ( 'hl'liis, or Nlaws .
Tlte 1\ilhiiJs, Ol' l'lilkllw:trPrs
I Jii j roo ps
7. llt:r:IL\'I'IO;o.;s>t;o.;t: Till: OF .hl\1.\r.:.; :!Iii'>
,'\, ():-; Till: Ht:l'EITI'IIJ:\ OF Till: l\ht:K :!lili
J{lrLI<:S \Hil\:T :\fm::-;n:-;1: (:lr.\l!.ll :!li7
]I)_ He:t:.\t(ill\C: Tin: :!liK
11. ():--; NI);.\I>S :21i\J
'I'm: OtuH-:t: m Tlll: NE-ILS :.!7:\
1:t 'I'm: F.IT:\t.\;o.;-I Bw.\zi . :.!7!
l!. Ox Till: :\1.\;-.,:\'Et: IX WHICH I'II..\ItJJ:." .IHE 1'.\11> :27:>
, lG. ott Ln.\\'"S TO 0FFl<'EIU1
lli. ()\; Dnx.\Tto;o.;s :!71i
,. 17. Ox Au1s
JR. 'J'm: oF WJ<:IC:ilt:\t: IIL'i :'11.\n::-T\'
1\l. Rwuw:n.\1.s
?\on: BY Till' Tn.\XSUToi: o;o; THE oF AKBAR's
, 20. Ox THE CAitRLIGES, L\'VE.\'TI:n BY lhs :'ILI.rESTY
A\ lil
,\in 21. Tin: TEN f'Eit TAX (Dahstri)
" 22. ON
21. H1:r:.\IWIKC 1\hl\RL\C:ES
:!fi. I{ I:r: L' LA'!' 10:\ s ltr.:r: .\ RI>L\'1: E IJFC IT! o-"'
" 21i. THE
'27. 0:-: HL<KTJNr:

Tiyn llunltn.'J
/,r'"JHI!'tl /IIIII/iJif!. 2!)1)
, T1n: Foon ALLOWIW To LErii'.\!W.'i. THE \rAr:E,'i IW
Sl.-dle.rhif,ilcrliJy/lllllliii!J lmzmrrl.,
The 8/!fiih!fOsh
1/uuliuy /)rer lt'tlh Deer
Jluffalo lfui!IS
Ou llullilllfJ lrlift Tfrw!.s
, 11/owrn/r'l' Food
1'1 irrs of Fa/rot/S .
, 2(). kill 'Sl:.\H::\TS
Tfu .'fiii/U' rf ('ftrtll,'jiill (hlll'k!'\')
<;fshq/)(7:/ (pigton-JI.\'illg)
The ('o/ours 4 ]',!1''"11-'
The (/111111' ('filii! fUll' .
The f/111111' 4 ( 'hrmrlal .l!rwrlol
.. :lO. '1'111: UB 1:\ll!:l:s oF TilE (tri/h ln'oymplucal !ln/tns
:10 l
:31 ()
:\I :1
'''flhe 'l'l(llts/1(/or) :120
Yule 011 the lilr'lllllllfJ uj' the 11/le of :\!):\
Sole on the I tile of" Jwif ]{/11!11" . ;{\)8
Sol<' on theimtllcofTrrkarui. or m O(isii lOG
Xo!l' 011 /hi' Sa!fttid> of' Rii1ha B:irha)
Sole n11 I fl, S uylrnnyya Snl . GO:.!
.\'ott 1111 tfte lJmth 'Usmiin /,olHin'i 58G
[' .llui, gat.elk-1']

=:oxcLI'Il!Xt< Xon: nY THE 'l'IL\XSLATlllt AKIL\It's f\\JG
A.<ln (rontimHd). T111: LrunxEn :\lt:N OF THE Tim: !iOG
TnE PoETS oF THE An E (i 17
AnmnoX.\L Xoncs
1-:IUL\'l'.\ ()\)1)
Ixrn:x oF l'ER:-;oxs .\:-IIJ 'l'llDWS GHI
GErH:H.\PIIIC.\L biJEX 7:1l
GE:-<EALOGH'\L OF Tim HousE OF Tl)IIJit (at thP t'JHI).
l,j,.IJI 1'"1. i'i1Jil.,fL 11h11 1111"1 !!<nnHhi) h;H[IJ!Id<rl.thn tn prrpnre
a l<'lll'd /I'J>lli11 of i;J,,,iJiljilllll, 1J.I!I,]alioJLIIf fill' liJ.',f yo[IJ!ll<' uf tlw
.\111 1 .\kJ,,IIi. h:td 1> till' l'!ld llf till' ln.i. wlwn illnr:;:;
]>l't'l'illllt-d \Iiiii fJ11111 IIIJidJJJI,'.C \11., l.d"''"'' \\'\,at. l'l'lll:iillt'tl lo lw
dn111' 11." t iw .JI IJII/J of t lw ind11. I ill' t'll/lt'rfJnll of thJ :uldilion:tl
"" :illl':idl rlil'd [,, I''"' on 1\w '"!''' :111<l lh1 <'llltJing of ih<'
"'"d!lii,JiJII/J: ll<'ti'."''Y 111 t!w !''""[,of p.t,CC _\Ill I" X\\il. and xlis lo
Fnr ;1 111111 JJJC' dl "'' . I" I' 1 rJI1d I ill' I .1 king 11f lllllli<'di:tt<'
,,1!'' l11 IJIJIIII.ifl IIi'' 1111111111', ],Ill 111 !
t:;11. till' ngntltd
dt;tfit 11! tl11 l1'"''"'d l:dr1111 ""'' .1l.il1d I"'''Jd,r.JIIon 11! tlw probltnJ
1[,,. '''[IIIIi! lo :1 ,[,,.,,. Till' i\11 '"lrJJrli' 11':1,,
prirJ11d 111 l:li''I.IJJd .111d IIJ.Ii ''" do\.JJI., ,,, !o lit /ltl'llt"d o[ tlll' l'l'liion
111'1'<' :1! 1111' dl[' ,.[ 1111' 111)'11' 11[ 1[,,. l:o\.J! \-r.llr 1111 td 1\tJig.i\
(':Ill"'" 1'1111 rdoJ,Jidl' ,[,.[.,,. IIIJI 11lltll 1,Jil'il' .:ll.JW:IIJI'IIh \\I'll' Jl!.ldl' In
l'tllll]>lt l1 1\w 11 "' L r 11 1\ "' 111ii1 ,. '! I \11 11 ' 1
1>. 1\ [),, .. "'' ,JJ.II;I l'.tiiJiiJ,. r\ nlib JJ:oll'\,
th1' ,,1 .t\lp.t:: 11111111>,1 .111d lit dr.ll\111.': II] o[ ,I lrl 11[ rat.r
fo1111d ,,, 1111' hod\ oliiJ' ''!"'"' dli\111': 11i [,,., 11111k. \lr. ll.t.
\11; \1111\, l\il\1 '"'' .111! \t.h l'lldl'll',j I,Ji!J,Ji,J,.
; .. ,'r\1('1' 111 "tl The lit'\\ t' .tit' i11 lh Ill! p.t:._:t
of l\1i' 111\II/Jit'. '1'\11' J>l.lli .1d11J>I"I f,q Jl,,. il'j>llliL j,,,, Jli'l'lli".J>\.iiill'd ]
t "'' l:d II Ill' II/I I' I: \I
Tlto' <'llt'lllii'I,:IH'o',' 1'\J'\.iiiii',J .\\111\1' ,Ill' /I.'J'IIii'ii,J, l111' i)lt' d,dt t1f
I lit' l:,hloli:,., l'iI,H ,., ,h 11\\ ,,, l111' IJ,,. 1.!1'1 1\t.ti 1[:, d.til' .,[ '''"''on t [
Iiiio I :llo'\1 11.-; llilllii\ll',ll'lll.tljlli
olll.illoll ""' llllli""'Jit\ 1
till 1!1;;!1.
Tlw ( 'utJJwd td' tlw \ \\ t-..IJ,.,__, tn lt't tfld 11-.. ltld,ll!tdn
"" tn
lht<' l.lo'lll l'n\ l'ltd]tlll l111' \11, ,,\1 c,ll'lli'II'IIJ:: J.Ji,IIJ/1' 1111 i\t 1 ]"'''<'Ill
ltdlllllt', :111d to ['.II 11, lo t\io' /lil'/11111\. 11 [ II. J.iio
.1/ld F. ,jj,,\1' ,) ,j,. I I 1(,,] r. I 'Ill I' ,\ I .tlllo'" hlpn .. !lid a "''II II j,],,., I
n (;, ,r \
( ;, 111 1 rJ 1 .'-.:, ,., 1 In, 1,1.
H,,, \I .\ ... !\lit :--t'tll l't ,q 1:1" .\!,
} ' \ 1: h ,...._I l 1 I ( \ 1 t I 1 l \
1\ Tl!J:
()],' Till:
.\' f I - .\ 1\ IL\ I{ 1
I TO III. Trn: \\'or:l\\11:\ oF Till: r, p.
Pnpar.!tJoll of ;u 1d" -<1 \\'a-,hni:,: pf .t-..Jw..., 10, I.!, Jtwillll!.! ,\nd tt'll!!lll!..:':
:;, -li, R. of"
7. 'Votl'- of the p. :?.! ll -1:?. T!w p :!2.
a, h, (, d, J, r;, J(l,td-, and ''Till' JIIIIU tpal h,l;.\r h Lnd Ultt lll(tl '' t!J,.
f01111 t1f ,\ \\td1 tllt' \\ht1!1 t'\l<nL uf tlw .urny, 1\tnr on tiH
fl!..!:ltt.. lltl\\ on tht J,ft, nf tlw IH\\.-tn-i bhl"" -nl!/ltr
Tlu r lllJH'l J,d l Lift> Ill ( ,Jutfn.,f!l 11-1 iiJ'uil) .\ t 1ill II:..O:id hand 'il It h t IHI /1 ' d '"II yrilllt
1l11n:ll. p.
Opn '-p.tto \\ tl 11 .t t'anr,py (
l'rl\:do Audtt'!ltt'\ (/JTri'/11-IIJiri,l. p 1,"'1,
T\w (lf,,f, 1111111), Jl ,-,2
'' Til( rltfli'lt!(rin lt'-,t'tllhlt...; ,t loft\' nu-.1 11f ,t '<llll' htJt \t'IY -.]tJltit>r, .tnd
do\\ll in tlttt'l' Jll'''''" It H ll\t'd {q\\,t!d"l tlw ldw_(-, ']IJ,tJ!tto;, !Itt It IlL
, .tlltd .\ 1/lji/J -bt111', .tnd d11r t ht lll!.!:hl .t \.udtJn 1-1 'itJo..,ptndtd fill Ill tltt'
tnp Tht'i li!ht I" \t'l,\ lhdid, ftll tt. Jll.\\' lw -.ct'll \\Ill'!\ t'\t'I,V oiJjl'< L ,.., 1'\l\l'loptl
lllllll]lt'lldr.d_t!t d.Hidlt-. ... To thh -.pol pt'h<Hh \\htl ltl'<t' llll'tl' \\ll\' lf'O..,ttrt, t J!IJtl
to .... .., tlw "''I,,,,, fr(lm.dl ()f Jtll,J_,tl'i, tHIn ,, . ...,illllt' tlw1r -.r.trl'lt
tlwtt tl\\ n tl.\1111' ' \rl'"'' y dw' nl.t\' lH1 t.r.tll-.l.tlt tl ' ,J!
Jf,.t\1 n' \\ .tth-.Lllltt' ltkt a .o..,t,n." f],,!lr,r.
f. Thr _y,,,l'!,fflr pp 111.
\H. or dt-l,tllt' fttJ!.l llh ILtJI'JI\ to tlw t.llnp
"\I' :lii<l y.ud', p I 'I.
li Tlw \\ lwn t IH' '-.tddlt-, \\ t'lt' ktpt ( .111-f._}i,ill'l).
7. Till' fnqw11al ,l.thlo< (<<lr/utl)
T,Jtt-; llf i h1 'itlptrtntl'!ldlnt.., .tnrl !J\'tr ... tr-1 11f t lw .... 1 h]f"'L
Tnt::-. of t!tt derk uf t.l11 el(Jdt.utl ... t.lhlt...;
10. Tho IIIIJW!'I.<i 01111 (l!JIu).
ll. Ttut. for awl ( .u t-:.
1:! .. \rttJ!,rv hnt
l:l TtnL '' \wr1 th" htllll J, !lptr.J.., \\t'l'' Lpt 1> !Jif,I.O!.'iml).
lL Thn Tent-; of :\\.l!Tl \ ( \hhtr\ lll!J{\wrl, (;tdh.tdan g,.g111n
'-I'ilt r. p. !!1), ilnrl Prn11 (',\.-d; p.
1.> knt ... of ft, tlH' "I th, [rnprnd lltrctn
lti. Tlw hnt-. of :J.Tur:id, to till' ldt of til!; lntj)IJI d p .-,o.
17. ronrn..; and \\nrL ... hop"l (lnfltrt!rll)
Ttnt fnr I..PepiW.(

Hl TL"nt fur tlw (U!__Jt,h/_nl.f.l!_,inrz)
:!0 Tent fl)r ... fnring mattrl'..,.,
'J',rJt f/Jr tlw d<.
:!.!. \\',tr,JrrllJt' p !){
Tt>nj f11r till' 1 andl<-:, (Jd, 1tc. (thiniJ.ft&li'lnrt).
:!1. 'f,Jd k''''JHII:.!, \\.dtr p .. -,7.
:_!.i 'J', nt fur ,fllrrf,,tf a!ld IJt!J,r dunk'i.
:!tj 'l't nl f11f f' 111 J,
:!7 'l'tnl ful -.,tql Ill'.!; fr111t (Ill' II' I ).
'j', nl fut tlw ftii(H'IJ.d pf.LI'' (n/,jli-/Jcint)
'l'flf' I rnJH'I J.d ktt' lwn I lll
11'1' ..
:w Tlw lrrq,u,.d L.tk1ry (w-illfl,l-f:J,.f.,ul).
;;I !1)()111 f:,r "Jlll'l'-i (hrtll' j-/,/1-/!trl)
:t! 'l'lw In IJWI J,tl '!111 r,J
:1:1 Tlw .11''11 d ('l''r-l.linl)
:1.) to tl. Clitrd h'
:dHIIIL tlw \\htdt till' .tnd \Ltn..,,thd.-tr'-; \\dh th1u
pitt t!wJJ l1nl<.
"Tft1 Jlll\.th !111l..; .tl' '>II!Iotllllkd by "IILdl (rrrnil-:,
it'l'!hl, tlw lll'l'.'hl td :1 n!Lil, -<011\t' l11w'l w1th :\Ja-,tdtp.tLun l'hmtt., \\ork1d
t!\l 1 \\J 1 lt J]IJ\\1'/-1 uf .1 h1111dr< d dJiTI'Il'I\L and otlwJ-j With ..:;atm,
dt'\III.dd \\Lih d11'P -,JI],I'Il -J:Irflll'f. B"llll!'r'..:; dt-.,t'I'JjltJnn of t.l1B
lmptJJ,d 1 .1111\' (.Pt'tlrt:l kttt r, d 1t,d L."dtnr, FtbnJary, lOH.J), ,lf.!'l'l'l'-. W1t
111111111' dd til \\tlh tlw :I Ill!\ I
l'L\'1'1': \'. ('\\I>J.I.:'i!'ll'K'. I' ;Jtl
1 llHdJ!,.' tnl],-...ltk l',tii''.Y !_',llllll..;lll'k Wtth f'wde
.. ,,,[l,,t,, I, i<ti/../,.,;,ict)
4. 'l'IH If..,, rli'l'' or ('.llnp-h.;:hl, II.(, pi 1\', \() L
l'L.\Tt>: \'I. Tttt: .\K11 \It Wllit'llll'S Ft1a:. p. iJ\l.
In frnn! of \l;,htr h\l'ht t',\!1!\1-, ,\I' pl.ll'l'l. .111d thP -,J!JIt'r nf o..;\\el't mdodJL''I
to till' )1Llbt' 11f (;od. ,\-; 11\l'flllcrntclcll\ p 1 t) (f
Th( r.ll'l''-1 nf th t'tllfll'(l)! ,\nd tlw -.11\>...':t'l' ,1ft' ldt hLtnk. Ill nrth the
\ t1 ll,\JIIt uf on, lwlc)l\, or ,dJcl\r' tlw t,uth.
Tl11' t'lllPt'ltll -.rt4 111 tht 1 1lll
Pun: \II 'I'I!Jt<l\1:". 1' :>:2
I " llriTtwnt. kmd4 l)f thrclll'"' \'111'1111/) n!lh ptllcl\\" tn IP:ln
tlu ro,\.tlll!idltl'lll (thtfl), tlld the fnot--tt\1\ll,\lllddl).
l't.\n: \IlL Tilt: :\"\q<(ilt\ l\11\>\. p
I. l\ mh.d< I "'"I) ) Thc l.Jr:.":'' drmn \f..,nrcnrr nr d,wiIIJI't) :!, t, .i The
l\ara111i "-H l'h!1 ,\'urncl
horll -10. 'l'ht' .\'!I,Jilriltl'<,
Th, llmdi .\:unl -" Th, S11J!1 Thl' ur
l'L.\'n: 1\. Tilt: 1::-;si<::-;s <>It HoY\LTY. I'
1. 'l'ht> .1/r,,n,f,;, nr I nd i.ll\ fl. I!! " Tlw .\ .rl .tnda rrl nf t hL' h a
('olll'htlllf /_lull part nf fht hcl }_v of,\
" Tho Karfh,lf,tl
:L ''rf!l,,han or lftrlhtJir.
I. Tht' Tum,wfo'l (f1otn f>l[, nr a nn,l l11mr1n or tllrndn, a
lll\ of tt'l\ thcltl":ll111).
5. Tht' ehtrlr. l)r (rt>d} rt)yalnrnhr\ll.\.
U. A -..t.tnd:t!tl. or '\aftWI.
7. The A' .\h1-1 "I- Fall says th.1t thh ,t.mdard is-'"'''//' 1 tllan th pl'
rPdmg. it that \\ord -dwuld lH' lll'ollo\IJH'Ptl rhutwtoq, fltill\ tlw
Turl\i.,h rhutur, or clllilrir, :-.hort. Tlll' lin,!.! ,.., .Hlo1rwd "1th tA ha1r
(1{11111.<) t.tktn th" 1.111< .uhl tiH ''""' uf th Tilw\.111 Yak.
PL\TES X and XT. '1'111: hPJ:tu \L p. :iL
l'lnte X.---Tlw three ttnt ... on tnp, <'O!IUlH'IIt \\ith thP ldt, llll' (I) tht
8hiilll1til11/l., yttkr/aJ! J\hlllr,-J!t, fit' ttllt of Oil<' d110T', \:n thl' /Jr(!/tuT, Ol knt nl
l\\o dnor:;, p .. )i, H. Hulhd up o\l'f tlw dour H tlw <luuh: p. :?:W, SS.
}k}o\\ tlw:->P thrl'etPnt ... , 1'3 tilt' JHl!d!/ and (,'uhil-Uir, pp. :.i . . \t till' foot t1f
tlw platL I'-' tht Xam.IJ'i"lll (fll. dl'\\'-r,lhlar), \\Jth t'.llJWl and p1Uu\t (llllbllrltl). p. I"'
/'/ale.\ /.-On the top, the M1yllh, p. ,-,.-,. H<'i<lll Jt, on tlw lo-ft," tht /io "'"'!/""''
Jfun;:;!l, or h\o-:-,lorwtllto\1'-P. 111fl' 1
1. I .\t thP \\JII!!m\ of lht upper :--torv,
the ('ll!Pt'Jor :--htl\\ttllnnl"t'lf; 111il' lndtx, daL ... :tn .. 1nd Jh.lrt-lk,\. Tu tht> IH.dtt (){till-.
b\O-"torlt'd ttnt. h lhl' f'hldll/1 Nrfll',lfi l:l'i till' \\llld tn \lt' frorn tho!l/!1,
\\nodtn. ;111d lii1tofl, a tt"lll), p ,-;1;, B{'ltl\\ 11. tt'IL' t'flllllllnll col\lt .d ttnt,
twd to JW!..!.., .'-ltwl... Jll thl' l!ltlliTHl, ill'lllt' 1! h ttllkd tllllllldr.l::, \\llh tllH' h11t ptdt
(ya!.-s1n IIIJhll, f1om tlil' Tut k1"h 'IOII!Jh. or ,'-1/lllui!_, a tt-nt pole).
Bl'lO\\ l'i n /.a/!1/nrlu-; \\Jth l\\o Jlldt'"l (dr-t'0/11111}_}!_11) 1\t tlw of tlu pl:dt,
to tht lt ft 1:-; thl' .Handa!, p. :;n; and to tht thu c..lyt-;f;/, 11 .-111.
PLAT I: X II. p. I Iii.
Tht Htii!dwJ-.; 111 ln',\t kl't" J{'fer to tlw nnmlwt" on Jl\1 Ill i11
I. The "'''Jltl, ,fut/a'h'r (I)
Tlw "'''\Jd, (:!)
:L :lrt. Tlw !f11Jil[ tl/-;ri (;{).
L ThL da!..!J!:t'r, )'llll'flull (I)
T!w IH'nt !Jul!ijtr (.1).
Tlw ;on1 or f'lll \ td d.l;f!...':t'I (7)
Tlw lwnt klllfc", t,,, k
Tlw )lllilill//'0, tlr lultlc..,..., tla,!!!..!;t'l (q).
H T\w J,,tl/nrt, a \on;_! and !J,lllO\\ ( 10)
10. Till' /llfl'llllu li!dh (11111'1/I(JIItolh ""111t .tnd Jl.llltl\\ (II)
II. Th ho11, /,.,man
1:!, I:L ThP .._m,t!l btl\\ ,uHl arrcn\', /,Jl/Jiiill and //1 (l:q.
1111 . \rrow.
lll1 Tht ]lilll.r/.!1/.rl.',h, or ,lfftl\\-dl.l\\1'1' (!!))
1.1. Tlw t(III\Pr, f,uf:ttsh (Hi).
!fl. Thr lane. 1101
17. Tlw lfiud,-,..,L-IIJll.tnt t', (!I)
18 'l'hl' or hJrud-lwitdtd l.ult't' (22)
1!1, Tlw .111d 12'}.
Tlw .-:!trt,,h!JIIr, or dnb. '1'111'--l [ lH Itt'\ c to IH t lw t'll!lt't t. 11anw (Jn"t''ild nf ;1,
frurn s!tllh, and fmr, tt.tfJT\;2:
')) TliP il.Xt', talntr.
:2:1. The tluh. t]IU:; (:.!.)). On p. 117, Xo. thn \\ord }IIIJii.::i Ju., bLtJI fl.tll .... l.lttd
l,y" dub", and thl'l to be tlw 1 c;rrt'i't Lut Ow pl.t!t" 111
some e.dl \( plj..-it.i" a I krllfl', \\ 1th Rtnught lM k, 111 .t I'' II !if.
The pomltd axt, ::'i.J.!J .. nl}[,t 1 - t.rO\\-bdl (:30).
2.i. The ch111.'1r (wheel) anl (31).
26. The double '"e, trtlmr-zigh"';l
'27. Tlw lrlffl1l!/'llll
1H. Tlw 1\,,f,., kird (:ll).
i'LATE Xllf. Wr:.\I'<J'iS (mtlnu<'d), p. llK.
:!!J. Tht Ltlrd, r1r krllfe c orurabrl Ill n .:.tJck (:J.J).
:w Thn ,dllp, 'l''"'rlll- l.inl
:n Tlw, I." I'"'"[,., h iti (:!7):
_\ hoW, IHI"I I
:1:1 Tlw b1n\ f()r c J.qr blllld..,, or f{,uwln-1 gur(Jhtt (:)X).
:11 tlllw, 111 !H .. l"hnokr, d,tfuin
:1:1. Th,, Jill ,hi! II l
;Jf) :\ l 1rw1 r alkd 'ftllh-tu'h't, ,,. a \,uot-nrlLl\I'IIPr p:q.
:li. Tlu mr/!11-, 1 1 ,1,-.h . ...,pllw ( t 1)
:1."\ Tlw idtn!!', '/"J,IJ,I!, ( l.i)
:1!1 Tlw '}OJI!ri:J, or 1/nf,u,, for 1'!1 ph.tnl'l { IH).
10 Tllf "'1/l'ld,
II :\nollwl ldnd of -,h11 ld, dlulf
1.! 'I'll! p\.ul\t,l!li' -hwld, !'''lui, IJI' fJluui (:iOJ
I:L '1'\u lwlrn1 t, drd!IJI')l_ra
.f I. Tlu r{hillthrtll'lt, a mtt!tll,\t. f,,r It' .td .tnd body, Ill ont pt('t'f' (.1.)).
4(, Th1 Jwlrtll'l, \\tlh J'fottti!IJ!\ ft,f till' w,].;, :;111ft l.rllrlh (:il).
tfi. 'l'lw 11\ldtd 1 ll,d, :::u (.-1';)
17 'l'lll' 111adtd 1 11:tt, 11Jth lnt'l"l pLll<', llltrffrl!
.JH. .\n arm(lur fort h._,t .tnd h111h', )'nlutrl (.-,'1)
1!L Till' hn,p.;t .tnd rh,fr 'tc.rJrlt (!)O)
XT\'. \\'1-:.11'11\, .\'.;)) .\1:\1111'1:-; (<'Oiltlllli<'d). p. 111-\.
!iO The c '' Jl h pl.t{t'-t .tnd f. dlr ( (li I)
51. ,\n aii!IPlll of tlw L.tlld 1 .l\l1d \f/drrfl
ti.!. A 1'11.11 \\Hfll ll\tT tlw ol!lllO!If, r/1/!f/l"l,//1( (li:l).
b:L :\nuonm:HI,, rlultmlr_odtl'lh'IIIi (Ti.-,)
fit A d!ln!d1 t \lorn OH'f tlw .lflllllllf,
[I;) Tlw Inn(! t:ll!\1', (tiS)
[JH Tlw 'Ht!.dlolll' ]-.: thr /1/<rr/lf/ riiunri, II] ]](II] -.llll kllll-': (i'l)' .tnd thL' Ltrgl' ono
f hr1 ltd ( liq)
[)7. Tht /,.,,, 11/, llf ;t! Jrl/11, ,L nl.l drd 1'0\ for t lw h. II k of t )]I' 11111'1' r: 2)
M\, r,!). 'l'ht' tl!/1/l. I },1/jt-1!/, tht qtnlt ll\t'J' \llll h Hw Jlll'll'dlll\! b put
()0 Th!' Ill' lll'ad p!tdt r (Jtll for t!w h"'"'' ('if}.
til. 'l'lu 1\'lf/i{/ur ""'h't t70).
'l'ht' l,fn (7i)
I'LATI: X\' .. \J\1\11:,, :\1 \t'lll\1: Fill: ('u:l\1:-;<: p. IlK. l'ldl' p. 1:!:!,
A'in :\1', llf tlw l,t
I'L.\TI: X \'I. II \l:n:,;.-; lOB llnl:."l'" I' Ill .\'in :r:!.p. 11:1.
l'L \TI: X\' II. c \ \11:". I' :)J I
'l'ht' upper ..,JHn\..: th1 hn11d fr1r f'hlllfl'll, p ::!.-,,and thP hl\\r'r Jil.!:lll't' tho
hnnrd f,\r the ('h,lnd;ll ' Hrth hn.1rd-: "''rP Tll.lrl, r1t .til :-.1/l''i, :-:nmt \\t:',rf"
rnadt of lflh!d -.tr1nr-. ll!l tht !._!rnund w nn npl'H lrlltlt :t-: 111 F.lthpilr and
:-.b\t' cnh W'tt' ll"t'd lll,fc.Hl nf ptt'c't'" Tlw pli\Pt... :tt ('handll :\lwdal s:1t 1111 thC"
!,!'J'Plilld, flllllhl f Jw I II !'II Ill ft-1 I !11 'I', OIW pl:t,\ t'f ;If f ht' C!ld uf f'.l1'h uf f ft( -.1\-:ti'Ptl rad11.
'l'! 1 dahclll,

H I 0 G lL\ l' H Y
SHAY K H ABU . L- F :\ ZL- I .\ L LA I
S!L\\'1\1_1 ABtr L-F.\ZL, Akh.u s minishr and friPtHI, born at
.\gra on the 6th :\Inharram, !);)8,
rlrrring tiH' rPign of JirUiin
Thr family to whirh lw hrlongPrl tracPd 1ts rk:.;rtnt fmm
Ahii fifth atH::Pstor, who lintl in ninth I'Pntury of thr
Hijra in Si11istiin at a place talkrl In" this plroasant
nllage '', Shaykh :\li"ts:-r's rhildrPn and grandrlnlclrPn rrmaiuPd till
the lwgiuuing of the tenth ceutm), whrn Khizr, th<' thrn ll<':ul of
the famtly, following thr }"l':lrniugs of a ll<'art imlmPd with mrst ic !orr,
('migrated to llind!Jst:-m. ThPn' hP trarellerl :dH111L ris1ting who,
attracterl b.v <:otl, arc known to the world for not kno11 ing it; awl
aftl'r passing a time in l11jiiz with th<' ,\ralnan tnlw, to which thP
family had hrloug<'tl. ht> rdnnwd to India, and srttlerl at Niigor,
of Ajmir, 11 hne h<' hvcd m t h<' ron1p:llly of thr pious, cnjoyiug
tlw fril'nd,!np of :\lir Y:1hyii of Bulli:-rr:-t.
ThP t1tl of \\hich all tht lllt'llll)('rs of thL Lnndy bon,
to kttp up among thrm the rrnwmhranrt oft lw home of lht :lll<'t'.stors.
Xot a(trnr:mb, in !l\1, 'Iubiir.Jk. Alnl ll<'azl's fathn,
hom. :\ \\".IS not .!il!Ja:; rldrsl .. hdd; St'\'t'ral clrddrtn
hatl hrtn born h..Corr and harl dird, and 1\ltizr l'l'jfllt'Jilg at lilt' hirt h ol
anolhPr son, rallrrl hun "uL.Irak. !.<'.till' Ll<s.std, m alluston, lltl dou!Jt,
to tllP hopP 11hich L<rrm holds out to thr bt!lt'nrs l"!rddrt'll
hrfon hk.-;s thostlHll"ll aftl'r thf'm, :111d ]Ll}' to (:otl for thr
of their l1fe.
1-'ha\h!! :\I!JIJ:-Ir.d.-, at thr r:lfly ag of four, g.m :tlllntdant proofs of
intPllertual strrnuth, and fashioned h1s char.Jt"ttr and ltartlllgs 111 thr
rompan: of mw ( .. .. J. 11ho was ofTrirh-;lr t\lraclton and
hat! come dunng tlw reign nf S1kandar Lodi to :\:igor, 11 lur, lrt ],,.,.d
in th<' Sl'f\'it"l' of and diPrl. it is ,,,id, at tlu: :uhanrrd :tgr
of on<' hundnrl and twPnty yPar-;. :-;h,tylli Kh1zr lwl no11 rPsolnd
to settle at prrnwnrutly, and with the \"lr'\1" of lmng111g a frw
rclat to his adoptrd homr, lw ntunll'd oJur: tnore tiJ llts
sudden dc,lth during tIre jOllrllt'_'( }pft thr: f.unJ!y at :\:-tgor 111 if!'t'at
1 lith .i,IJtUary, 1.1.11.
anrl a L11niJJP which brokP out at the same time stretehecl
lllllnlwr-; of 11w Jnh.dJJtan1s 1111 tlw b:Jrrl'tl sands of tl11' surrounding desert,
and of :ill tl11 rnrniH'rs of tlw f.trndl' at \:-tgor only ;\lnbiir,tk and his
rnol hrr SIII'I'JI"oJl.
.\lubiirak grow up in kno11'1Prlgc and bring tlw fonnclation
of 1 ho.-;o l'll<'\'dojH'dJal att.lllllll<'lll-; for wlrll'h lw aftrwards beeanw
so f.JJIIOIIS. Jl1 oOOtl foJi iJJo' \lhh :111d tl11: to Clllli]JlPte Jris
l'ohwall"ll :Jnd I hi' (l':wlll'r'> of ntlwr p.ll'ts; ln1t love to
l11r k1pt hrrn 111 l11.-> naiJI"<' tn11 n, 11 hrl' he cont mnl'd his stud irs,
gJJJd1d l>y tho: kll'hirlg-; of th1 gn:d. s:unt 1\hw.!j:t Ahriir,l to which
lm: :iiiJtllon IH'ell drrcct,ol. ffowenr, when Ius mothn ditd,
:111d 11111'11 :d>Oil1 t"ill' (IIIII' th<: .\J.\}dpo .JJs(uriJ.l!li'i'S hrol\< nut.
:JrrJd oJJL his IIJ.-dt. :Jill! wnt to ;\)) in Uuj:tr.-tt,
<Jihr :tllrn..ted J,y 1111' f:JIII<' of llw town Ji-;,.}f, or ll\ that of th" shrill<'
ol h1s I'OIIIIIr_nli:JII, ;\hnl.lll of 1\hallii.' In .\lilli:HGhiill lw fOitnd a
Sl'l'ond falhn 111 till' lt,Jr!i<'d _\hi-1 '1-Fazf. a llitiih, or preaclwr,
frun1 1\ .. J/.JrCtll. 111 l'n.-;J:J, ;111d 111.1de I l11 .tcqu:tlltlalH'I' of '<'Vl'r.d llH'Il of
,1., :-;h.t \ LJ, <;( 'IlLII' "f t .d1 :111d :-!l! YCtsu L ,\ ft<r a stay of
Sl'lor;t! 1'<'.11.'. ill' 11 iiii'III',J lo flnllil-1:-:l:-111, and ;;l'ttl .. d. Oil tit(' lith :\Tul.wr-
r.llll, ill<' J,fl h;111k of il11 .l:tJ!IIIIl,-l. oppo;;tll' lll'ar till'
('h,'td>.lgh \ dl.1," 11 !twit 1:.-th:tt i>ltdt, and in tlw of
tht ;;;llllllr \hr 'd llill :-<;tf.tll I of lnjil (:-<hir.-tz), whw;"
l1li>k a pia It 11:1, hon that. \lnh:lrak's
i11o J!dt:-d sor1s. :-:JJ.t\"bi! .\1111 1-F.t\'1.
and, fottr \J,tr., Ltlr. Shayhb. .\hu
I l<'.tl.l. 11 <'1'1' ''"I'll .\lniJ:ll-.1 k IJ.Id llll\1 IJ',t>'IHd t lw ago of li It I', and
lo I'I'IILIIII .il lit1 I',IJ>ii.JI of th< I'IIIJllf<': IIIII' dtd thl' \"t.trs of
1'\lr.tlll'diiLII'\' 11 hw!J }'ll'<'1'd1d till' lir.d \" of
and till' dl,.tdtnl pl;tgtll', 11 hwh 111 hrokl' otlt Ill J.gra and l'allsl'd a
gn:il dL'J"'I'illll lit<' JIIIJ>IIi:illon uwlin hun In "ttl l'lsl'will'l'l'.
'f'lt, lllliii'J.->.till\' ul !t.tllllllg \llttl'h dhttngntoltl'd Jluh;lrak a!tractJd
a llllllii>JI ol dl,l'lf'l'" :t11d di'J>I.Iyl'd JlsJ!f 111 tht <'lltll'atwn he
g:tl'<' hts .'<>liS: .111d tht tiiJ.d }'11'11- 11dh llhll'h .\ltCt 'J.f<':tz! in lllllllt'rlltls
pas;;.1g1'.' ol lth 'i'l',tks ol hh i.ttlur. and tht t,,tunon\- of ho,ttk
11rdrs "', lt',l\'1' twd"uhl th.1t 1t ll'<ls :\;'s I'<'htHsin-
.It H.thit; or ::tHh Ft'llni.U\', 1_..\10.
l1d, p .. \Hlft \hnud tlf hh.ttlt-1 h at .\hm,
d.iki.d. He
dud 111 1\1 (.1 1>
J Lnkr t.dltd lla"ht or Xiir\ <iardt'lh It !'{ llU\\ c
Ikd thf'

" H,rn \ II. L or \ ll, I 1d, p . . -, t'-1.
ness that laid in .\h\1 '!-Fay(. and Ahi"t '1-F.t(l tht> found.ttllln of thosl'
cosmopolitan and, to .1 ctrt.tin PX!tnt. anti-hl.tnlltic viPw.<. for 11l11ch
both haw hPPn hr.tndtd hy Jluh.1ntntadan 11 ntPrs a' ;tt htl,ts.
or as or as sumyorshippPrs. and .ts tht chid t',tiiSt's of .\khar's
apostacy from bliim.
"\ }'Pars before .\.II.!)():\, dnrlllg tlw ru!t-. Jlnh:ir:tk
had, tu l11,.; worldlv dis:tdv.tnhtgP.'!ttd htntsPif to a nltgt<lll.' ntol't'-
lllf'llt. 11hich hnd first. t'OJlllllPIH't'd :thout tht y<'.tr !IIIIi. !tnl 11ltit'h t'tllt-
tinued undt'f l'.tnou' ph;tsts dunng thP 11lwlt of tht ltnth ntun.
ThP lllO\'t'lllPIIt m1s stl_!!,l!<'.'ihd h1 t ltP appro:lt'h (Jf t h lirst lnliltnnltllll
of Tsl:!m. Aeeordmg to an oftPII <[IIOtPd proplwc_1. tht l.tttn d.tls of
l><L!m arl' to !JP m.trkl'tl l1v a .l!t'llt'r:tl dPc:tdt>nt't' in 'politlt'a! and
in morals. 11 hwh on'htng 1ts tltntax Is to llt' follomd h1 tlw :tpp<'.ll'-
:tllt't' of lnt;lm .. tlw Lnrd of tht priod ...
11ho 11dl rt,ton tht
sinkmg f.ttth to its pn..;(lllt' ln:-dtllt'SS. ('illi:;t abo L'i to :tppt:tr: :11td
aftPr all 111<'11. throul!h Ins in:;trunlt'nt.tlih. h:tl"t httn J,.,J to J,J:im,
tlw day of judglntnt. 11 ill contlllt'ntt. t hi:; J'I'IIIIW'<'d pr,;lln,tgt,
tltP Hawzatu '1-.\,iillllt.l. .1 L'r,;l.ln 11111'k on the !il't'S of tht !llt'!lt' lln:-tnls,
l1as I Itt follownlg pa,s.tgt
:'ll11slnn .. \hii ll:tiid. :\i:;.l,i. ll:ll"haJi, and otht'r mllttlor,-; of tlw
tr:Hiitwn.t! of tlw l'ropltP! .. ..;tall' th:1L th l'roplwt ontt ,,tid,
' :\ \laltdi ,;]tall of 111_1 and of tht tJ,.,..,.IId.tnl.-; of
F:ltuna (tlw Prophet's d.tul!!tt.r <tnd \lift of .\nd .\li111:1d. ,\IJtl
]);['iii!. Tii'IIIIZJ. :111d lint 'l:lph :-.t:1lt th:t! th" l'roplwl :d ,;onw ot!ttr
tnne said.'' \\'Jt,n of IIIII<' Ollt' day ,;hall he ldt. (;ot] r.l!"' up a 111:111
from :tlliOII.( 111_1' dl'>t't'lld:lllh. \1hn ,]lall till th 11orld 11 11!1 Jl!.'i\it t'. :1-;
IH'fort l1im tilt \mrld ll":t.-; full of opprt'.'"ion .. : :tnd :1_!!:1111 ... Tlw \\odd
shall not rome to :lll Plld till tht l\n1g of tlw P:trth :-dt.t!l :IJIJit':lr, 11ho 1:;
a 111:111 of mv f:lllllh. :mtl 11ho.t' n:llllt' 1.-; tlw :1s 111111<'." F11rtlwr.
:tnd ntlll'r coiiPdor,; :t:'Ot'rt that tlw l'rnph .. t onn S:11d.
lwlong.-; to my fan11h. Pight and ni1w .\'t':tl:-. ...
. \ccordingly. jl<'OJ'l htlitl"l' in tilt' co1ning of .\f:1hdi. But t htrr ts :tl:-.o
a party in Isl:lm \lho sn:v that lmiim lw .. ..; alnatl_1 1 onw 111\o tlw
world antl Pxists at prtstnt: l1i.'i patrommit: i..; .\1,11 '1-Qiisim. nnd Ill-'
are .. thn P!Pd, tlw stahli . ..;h(r. :\fal1di. tlH t'\jlPt'hd, Lord
7arn,in. lfp 1-.. tlH' Jrn.-tm. 'I'IH f!J'-t "\lf'tf'f'dtd HlP l'rl)ph(t.
(\dnch 111 TndJa h \\f!JIIgly pronollJit(d 'ldH11li. llli'IUI"'''guHJ,d ",
H.idi rnrans "a ''
' .\li, ;on of S:l\! H!l'ir '.\li 11f Ha,idp-,. at L.ddlllilll
A H. 1 H JIP,
of thP, :t).!<' ... In th< opinion of this party, he was horn at Hurraman-raii
(rl<':lr B:1cll<Ful) on tllf' :!:lrd Hama:r,:-ln, :!Gil, and rn :2GS he came to his
(prop. ''a ('ool pl:t<'l! ... ''a snmrnt'r villa''). and disappeared
whd.4 111 his n,id<JII't'. In thr hook cntitfrod 8/unl'lllllll, it is Haid that
11 lwn lw 11a.s hom. hr had on h1s right arm the words wrttten, "Hay, the
truth hm: ronl<' I'JTIJ[' has vanishrd, snrely !'rror is
(<.Fu':in, :\I'll, ,'{\). It is also rPla!Prl that 11h(nltc was born into the
1\llrld, l1<' tanll' mr. his I-n''"' point<,! with his lingPrs to hravrn, snePzPd,
and sard, " L'ratst Ill' to ( :od, t hu Lord of tlH' world .. , SomP OJW also
has ltll :111 :ll'l'lllllil "f an,lt to Im:-rml,lasan '1\.<kari (thP e]Pvrnth Imiim)
11 h"rn lr<', t) S<Hl of t lw l'rophd, who will be Khalifa an<l Tmilrn
afll'l' tllt't'
'.bbri th<'fl'llpon Wl'nt. into Ins room, :u11l aftN some
t I Jill' 1':11111' J,,lf'k 11 it h a .. Inld on his shonld,rs. that. h:tLl a face l1kl' the
fnlllll<JtHI and 1111.drt ha1p lHtn tlmp y:1rs old, and said to the man," If
t.htJIJ h:lllsf not found !.1 vo11 r 1 ll t h1 I' VI'S of (:oil, I fp wo11ld not have shown
yo11 t lr1.' l'!rdd : IriS II:< lilt' is t oft fr,. and sn patronymic:."
Till' sl 11 ho 111'11111' 'hhdi to i11 :di\'1 at prcsl'nt say that he OVPT
ttlws in till' f.1r \ll'.st, :rnd lrl' r.s !'It'll to ha1e childr<'n. Uod alone
knm1s ffr,. lnrllr 1
Tiw prol>lrtt'lt''-' of tlr, ng.mling tlw acli'Pllt of the
Ht,torr of liH i':11ilr. "''lllll<'d a l"'''ldl:<r llllJIOI'I:Inl'l' \\hen lsl:llll
Pnfntl t>ll tlrt nllll'l' l'l'l't't'dlng th fir,;( rndl,nnltllll, and tlw !I':HnPd
"1'<'1'\ 11 lr r ' If'., I t Jr,. '1"'''11 011 t d I at LIS I t h1 :\Li lr' I i IIIOI'<'lllt 1t! a,,., llllll'd
111 lnd1.1
.1 tlli111l<' lonn till' ol :\fir \l11l.larmn:ul.
son of .\llr 1 1d bJ!.Ill nl .l.lllll!'tlr Tlrr-< 11\:111 \\.IS :t d, . .,..,,ndant of tht)
l'ropl11i. and l"'r'' i11s 11.11111': till' l.dl of .f.rlllljltll' to !urn a s1gn
thai tilt' i.lllr t'Ollll'. t'\(l'.lllithn:ln' ,.,.,.nt.s 11lril'h lonkPillrk<'
llllr.rl'lts, lll.lrktd lr1s t',ll<'t'f: .111d a 11111'1' frorn hP.rl't'll h.1d ll'hispt'rt'd
to h1111 tilt' 11ords. .\nt.1 "lho11 art .\l.rhdi." :-<or11c people
llldttd c-.11 \lir \luh.llnlll.ld drd not lllt':lll to dtl'la!'t' that
ht \1,1.-< till' l'r<llll.'<'d ll.dtdi. l1111 thPI'I' rs no do11ld th.t! he in-<is!ttl on
his IIII"'IOII .rs t Jr,. l.<IJ'ti ,,f lilt' lit lll.llll' adiHnnts. chi<'tly
I Ill hh '\aJ1if'' '1-!lht-d, ,t ft.\\ fid!IH 11L11-; tht
Hl\l\t'll\t'll! 111 frnm tht Jdt\l Itt h.t\t' :-.pit',ul o\cr l'tI:-.Ja and
lnd!.\ Itt H.ttl.ll.h-.,h"lll, 11 \\.l ... ( tlllll!lt'llll'd h\ :--:.L\ \ itl Jlith.lllli\Lid xl-ll'hdhl!,h L P11Jlll
td \ht-1 1-. h.tq 1\halLttll. \\ lw C: ttllc'l 1\lllllc'rPII" .tdbt'l't'llt.., I t'I'c',tkd "ttch dt-.turh.uHt-.:.
tlut fltltljh \\t'l't' :-<t'll( ,\;!,\lll"t htlll lit-\\ .t..,ddt.tftd .\lltflltd tn <; ft.lq. Ill tht fllOtl!lf.ll!lOII:-i
dt-.:tttth c1f "hwh ttlllllll'.\ lw 1-. -..11d fn lt.l\t' tlurty tlwu ... ,utd ft)IIO\\(r:-.. lll' had
lc \\tth tilt' hnt dtlitd tht'JII .1!1,Pni b.t'4 pn-.prnd a copy
tlf tht ltlll "lnc h '-'t'llt unto .111 tht -.a tnt..:. Ont t,f ln-. dhl'tpl(""
Sh.t_, LlhtJi, tht t'l'tnmtnt.ttclr nf tlw nnl-.h.ln-t !Lit".
through his great oratorical powers, but hy en(nws he went
to Gujariit, whc>rc he founll an <Hlhtnnt in 8ultiin ::\lal.nnihl I. Frum
Gujariit he proceeded, at thP of thP and to tlw jo_,. of
on a pilgrimage to ::\Takkah. From thtre also ht> to haw
been drivPn away. On his return. it was rL'\'t'ltlt>d tu him that his !ta ..
was vexatious, and he saitl to the tlisripks that arcompanitd l111n. Uod
h<tS f('IIIOHll from my heart the bnnlPn of :\l:thdi. If r<'k ft'(lll'l\,
I shall recant all.., But when he rt'al'hed t hP town of F:t r:-111111 ll.Jiol'!n.,f :in.
whrrr his :mwal hat! crtated a gn'<tt lw d1cd ( 1 If. !Ill;
A.D. 1Gf(i). llis tomh ht'l'alllP a placp of althot1;..dt
Shiih Tsm:-t'Il and Sh:ih Tahm:"isp tritd to dt,fro_\' it. 'l'IH lllll\'<'lll<'llf.
ho\\'1'\'tr. !'On! in liP< I. :'lnllJC of l1 is <'I'S lll'rt'<l 'to I ll'l!d that
he 1ras :\Ld!di; ,Jnd C\'t'll l!.td.i.oni, 11 lw 11.1s
attaehtd to tlu cau"' SIH'.tks of him :t'i of a gn>.lf s.JIItf.
Otlwr :\hhdis :q>pPamlm various parts of lndi.1. ln !l;li ( 1.11. I:"Jl!l),
a \lahdi of gnat prl'lensions arm:p in 1\iiin:dt, S.\\'. of ,\gr.J. Ill tlw p..rw11
of '.\1:-,,i. This man \1,1:-; a 1\ang.-tli \]ll';alln.-ln. llrs fatlll'r had
hct>n lnokclnpnn in hi.-; t'OIIIltry as a lt>.ll'llt>d and aft,r
:\l:!kkah. hr h:1d sPttlcd, in !l:I:J, with h1.' hl'lltiHr 'lhh,
liki'\Yiot' a kanwd m.lll. at 1\i.inah, 11 hcn t hy :-.111111 bt'l',lllli' l'l'.'iptcttd
a111l inllul'nli:d mPn. !'11.1\'bb '.\l.i.l h:td .sho1111 front h1'i \'outh
of thr Llwyl'r and the rigour of th1\ s:1int.; and on t !11' d,.,tf h of hi.s f.d lll'r,
he g:diHInlnltlllt'rous pll[llls around hlltl'il'lf. "llul tl11 lo\'1' of pol\1'1'
tssues at l.tst from tl11 hPad:; of the just, .. :1nd on tlw d.1y of 'ld
bc-kcd an inlln .. from his hrtltl/a. and, "ll'l"ll'tl'd hy his
brothers awl r]d,r rt>l.dins. he procl:iimt>l tl1aL ht> al<llll' 11:t.'i 11orthy of'
\wing t hP Shaykh of the town
,\!Jollf, the "IIIII' flllll', :\Ji_l';lll <;;\!Jd' a \"iy:-IZl ,\fgh;\n :111d
diociple of ::\lir ;o.:ayytd ,\lnl.l:lmlll:lll of .lannpl1r, arril'l'll frnm .\LdJ;;di
and settled at. a rt>t ll'1d spot nt>ar!. Lik1 l1i.s Jna,f 1'1', l11' w:JS a
lll;lll of oratoncal p011t'rs and \I':IS gi1en to :-.trcet. pn:ll'h1ng; and in a
short tinw hr gained numNmts follo\II'I'S :lmong till' and
watl'r-f'arrJcr,;. ';\1;\.i :dso was owra 11 "" by t h" llliprt'."-1\'1'
acldnssPs of ::\liy:-m <;,\bcl
'1lah: l11 gan up ll':ll'hing and ,,( for
local intlill'lH'C, tunlf'd faqir, told h1s 11 1fe eitlll'r to follow him to the:
wilderness or to go. dtstril>ubd his 11 h11k 1roperh. c:1cn his lool..s,
among thr poor adhcrPnt.s of thP \"iv;izl, and jonHd the fratcrnity 11hir:h
they ha1l formed. 'l'hP ]Jrethnn ha(l Pstalli,h<'d among tlwmo.;ch'PS
eommunity of proprrty. lt1id('d the rarnings J,y lll'!!glng,
and gave up all work, because it was sairl in the {!11r':in," Let not llll'll
allur .. d J,y lradf' or selling to give up meditating on God." Heligious
tlw of whi"h 1\:lS to prPpare people for the atlvent of
the prollti'''d \lahdi. daily lwld aftf'f thP five prayers, which the
lmtlmn togtlH'r, all< I 11 h<rPv..r they went they appeared armed
tu tl11 tti'tli. Th<y ,onn fdt :-;f rcmg rnongh to Jllterfere with municipal
rn:d hrs, and 111-'J"'"bd t h<' b:'tz.i r.-: and nnwvcd by force all articles
forlndd<n tn tlw law, defying t!H lll:t,gtstr,tks. rf oppmwd to them, or
a.'"i'ltng t!Hrn. tf of ih<tr optnton. Thtir rank-: datly, and
rn.tll<r .. ttl J); had <'olltt' lo sn<'it :L pas..;, that fathtrs separate<[ them-
,,..JI, .. ; !runt thtr C'htl.dr<'n .llld htr:;hands from th<'ir wives. ::lhaykh
lontt<'l' i"''ttion and tlw thoroughrws.-: of hisconvNsion ha<l given
Ill ttl I Itt rank ol S<'<.nHii<':ukr, 1n f:tt'L he soon ouhiHI <;AIJdu'][:'th
til <'<ll'IH''Inss :tn<l O'll<'i'tssfnl conversions, an<l the at last tried
to tid htnt"lf ol ht'i ri1.1l h_v s<nding llltll 111th stx or seven hundred
::rnwd llll'llloll:li'd" \l.tkk:th. 11ilh h1.s L.tnd owr Basiiwar
io I'Oll\ <'Ii 111g :tlld J'l'<':li'Jitllg Oil tit I' 11'.1)', hut. Oil 1l<'f'Oilllt of
S<llll<' I )J,.,. :til rd urnd to J{t:lll:t!t.
.\l.t f.ttlll' at !'f'.l('h<d tit .. (':I[ of who
O'lllllltton<'d !ttlll to .\gr.t; :tnd althottgh tlw king to put
hi111 to d.tlh :1." a d.tngrotl." d;nt:tgngtlt', an<l 1\:L.'i <'V<'II ofTcnded at the
ru.J,. ""Y 111 '''ll"h lwltavd 111 It, w.ts so "harmc<l
by an IIIIJ>!'OIIIJ>ill addr< s-; lllll<'h <;,\l:'t,i dl'il\,.nd on the \',tllil-1<'" of the
1\0I'Jd :ttld j!J,. ph.tll,,ll,tll ol thl' J,aJ'III'd, ill' SPilt l'tWJi<d J>l'UI'ISIOUS
to Al:t.i's 1111'11. To I lw .ttllllS<'tll<'llt of I "\r:,ili.-tll noL}ps an,[ gntral-; at
l'Olltf. Oil :tlloiJH'l' Ol'l'aSIOII ,}pft',tf<d (](I' i<'.ll'l\1'.[ Oil <[II<'StiOllS
I'OIIIII'<'l<'d 11ilh !Itt :tdli'llL of \i:tltdi, :lll<i bi:ttll d,l\' after
d.t_l tnfmtllt'd :tnuth,r of ills nu\,J..s had gutw to nwl'!tngs an<l
had J<llllt'd lilt' 11<'11 '"'"!.
It 11 .ts .tl !Itt-\ IIIII<' I h. II \lul, .dso IJI't':lltl<' :t dtsriple ",
and pndt'''"'l \lahd.l\\i td<.t'i. lt. J,; nult\,,tr llh<lllt'r he jotned tiH set
from nltgiotl.-l or !rom poltlw.d in.J.,IIItll'lt a:; <lll<' nf tltt' objects
of th hr,thnn 1\,ts to Ln'.tk up ilw p.trt\ ol tJt,. !t.trntd at l'ourt, at
11 host h<':td :\l.tbhdi'llll
.1 \lulk ,(ood: Lui 11 halcl-<'l''<' hP<'Il Ins
n.tson. Ill<' nsult 11.1,;. \l.tbbdi'tlll h<'f':tl\11' hts mvdtrate 1'1\t'lllV,
dq>rtlid him of gr.tnls of l.tnd. rnad h11n tJ,.,. fpr Ins !tf<'. and
hitn for rnon than lll<'llt_1 <'.tr-:. ttl! sons tunwd tlw tables
on h11n and protm,d ht.-; h.lllt"ltlllt'lll.
" \I.1

I \lulk' \\ .1"1 t hn t 1t h tlf <; \ l)du'JI.i h uf 1 .\11pi1r, "hom t hf'
r1'a.dcr m .. \.\ ... ult t ht 11\dl.'\. ftiT rdt rell' t'.;, Tht fulluH 1ng htt)grallbtt .d nottLt' frum tbP
The learnctl at Court, howenr, were not to be bailld by
success, antl Jlakhdluu's inlluentc was so great, that IH at last prevailed
on the king to banish the :-:ha1 kh. and his followtrs mulily oht>yed
the command. and set nut forth" lbkh!n. \Yhibt nt llandiah on the
Xarhad:i, the frontier of ls!.im :-:11,-, h sPill Jllf'. s\ll't't'Pdtd i 11 t'Oil nrt 1 ng
Bahiir Khiin A 1Ium.i.1iin and half his armv. and thl' king on lwanng
of this last success c.mrPlltcl ]u-; ordPrs .lll<l nc.dkd :-:h:tl kh
1\bout the sanw lllllP PfJ:i) hl.lm :-:h:lh ldt .\gra .. ill ordtr to put
down dist mb:mcts in tl1< l'anJ<-tll t'al!sl'tl by certam i\ l}':lzi Afhd!Cms,
aiHl wlwn he iiiTI\'Pd 111 thl' nPighhourhood of Bi:lnah .\lakhdlun
dnw tht king's :Jtll'ntlnn to :\IIY:in :\1\';\;.1, 11ho afttr :-:h:11hl!
for tlw ll.dJun roan!<d about thl' (ulls of thP lli.-lll:dt

distrwt with thnp or four huiHlnd :lrnl!'d lilt'!\. :1nd 11:1s known to JHls,pss
gr<at llliiiiPIH'l' oHr lll!'ll of Ius own cl.1n. and col\St'l{U!'IItly o,,r tlw
:\iyiizi nlH'b in the l':lllj<-,b. lsliim :-:lu-,h ordPnd tlw gmtflltlf of Bl.-lll:lh,
11ho h:Hl btcume a :\lahda11l. to bnng :\11_1'<-lll to hun. ThP
j.!O\'l'rJIOI' :lth is.d h1.-; nJJgiOIIS Jt..Hl<'l' (o l'Oill'l'.d lllillSclf; hut. \Ji_l'<-ln
Loldly "JIIH':II'I'll bdon tlw king, :1ntl ;.;o displta."d h1111 by
h1s nPgltd of etiqut!t'. that bl:im 1-'h:-,h gaw ordtrs to h!'at l11111 to
d<ath. TIH' kmg \l:dl'htd on hon-tl>:ll'k for :111 hom tlw !'\t'!'lltion of thl'
}'lllll,hlllt'Jit, :111d onh ldt 11 hPn \li,\.-lll L11 liftltss
on th ,uronwl. But ht 11:1s mth IIIIH'h <':11'1' hro11ght. hack to lift.
t'Oili'P;iltd hiiiL"t'lf ft>l' a Jong tIll It' T't'lltlllllt't'd all .\hhd:l\1 l priwipltS
and glt :1s Lilt '"' ( \ 1>. I rom ,\kl>.lf a frtPhold, ht,
'1- .-L ( l.:ihor, JlJl t t:J, lti t) ...,],,,\\.., tlw IIJHIJIIJII of !...'IHHI 1'1'!-!:ll'dllr!_;

Jrrh of Jw],,rl!!'- t11 th l!l!l'-l db anr d
!Jli'!l.t.nd -..trrrh of ln,JLt 1, \\.t-.. .t (']ll...,]Jti 111 hh 1" k!llllh J-'r,,rrt fl11 IIIII!' 11f
Shtr Sh.ih ttll tlw of .\klar, ho had tlw III It-,[ ' I \l11ik 'I i'"'l' .< 1 1< d
l1y t !It' Plllpln'). H1 \\11-. 11'.11 rlt'd 111 t ht> )a\\ and Ill i'r<u l!< 1 llr 11 .dtJll"-1.\ JWI -,1'-
cukd lwrdll' .... "'lw11 :\J...h.1r 1 1111lfiH'IIt ed !tr..., '''li!...'l!>11'- IIlii! I\ at IIIII'- and 1 orn t rtcd J>t 11plt
to l1h
DIYIJH' l-'.11(h' and 'iUJI\\tJf.,lnp tht rt1 to .... tJ!J-.11tntt f11 tlw tlttd till
\\Prd-..' Tht rt I-o JJo t;od ln1t .\, and .\ tlw \Itt rd t1f Lod ', 'Ltnl.-tJJ,-l
'lrdt opJHl'-td tlw tll1fll'f()r lln,tn nt l.t,t from ('llnrt, lw nt1rd to a IIIO"ItlW, !JtJt
\khar ,,wl tlw Jllthflllt' Ldon:_rt d to lib rt .d111, a.nd !If' '-h(Jnld f, .Lil>t l11r t tJ1JJilf,\.
:\l.thhdi-JIIl tlwrdurt \\t'llt to 'Lt\,},,Jh. l)u hh rdurn l1 lndJ.t, .\kl,at hun ptH'\OJIId,
lit h,t, "ntttn ... ,.,tr.d \\tr\ ..... , ,\.., lht .1...... 1', 1\.rnhf' 1-ulunt/1111/h, tlj(' L.:. C:.IJittu.
'1- I nlllf'l, tltP 1.1 _ 'f""" Jfuilui)'' '1/-din, dl', IJn \\,L" p()l ... tJJit'd 111 \.11. )OIJii .
.. H.'" sun lf:qi .. <;.\Ld' 1 'l-h.1rirn \\tllt:lfltrthedt,lfh t1f hh f,LilHr to L.IJH,r, HIHrn
llf' hf'c-aiJw a :!llldt. Hr m lot.), and llf',.., IJ1Jr,d ,Jt l .. lhtr. Jll'ar tlw Zd. 1
\'lll.1. at Kuf. Jft..,..,rlll" Sba . .\h!.! Yalty.J.. IJ:th x,-.r,<;".\1Hl 11 '1-J.f;trlfJ and
l!un-Ir )al<)' IIkt J.J,f.ltlwr, \HOH).dtt nmaoJ,.,"
In tJn.., a('f ount thP date 1" for :\lakhdilrn'
'I \lull, dwd HI and a" Ba.<Li,oul,
:\[akl!dtJm \ .... u ppt lfl('r, h mg of pot--on f 11) t hP <.:tat ''JTH'nt oft hi' hJ.!;ltina l'
'1-A:;;fi \ :i. m;n 1H n H'l t d.,onl al..:;o :-.a\.., that .Jia.b!!_d t-Jfll 'H !-.onH \H n: \\ rrw11.
of .\L1 \un11 'I- 'f ut:. .., \\ ork...., 11r ,t r ornt t ly J!l \ n ttt ht r ; "Jdt p. HJ I.
too, 1Ja,] lwn <HIP of :\lahl!diim"'i-:\lulk's victims. He died more than
()() ytars old, in IIJIJO, at :-;,,rhind
.Isl:-tnt aftPr fjlll'lllllg tlw :\iy:-tzl clislurhancPs, nturncrl to
i11Il ai!JJo;,t llllllll'dl.d<'ly l11s rnrspncc was again require,]
111 tlw i'anj:Ji,, :ll11l1t 11as nii'I'P that joi!ll'll t]w royal ramp.
\\'hrn lsl.irn saw t !11 :-llral'bl! lrP sairl t" him in a low voice," Whisper
Into Ill\' ar t I tat yo11 l'l'<':tnt. :1 nd I wdl not trouble you.'' But Shayklr
C:,\1;-,,i ''"'lid do"' :11"! lsl:-lln to krpp up the appearance of
:wtito11t1 ordncd :1 llll'llial to ).(1\'c lrllltiy way of punishm'nt a fr'll' cuts
11 1t h t iw 11 h 'I' 111 l11s ptPsr'JII'<'. c; A Li,i had ilun sea rePly rrcmcrPd
fro111 an :tltar:k .,f thr pL!).(IIl\ 11hich for :,.ars had been raging
111 IIHild, :111d 1<'11' hadiv IH:t!P<l 1\0liiHis on hi.s. IlPf'k. whilst
gol. th r11b<, Oil<' of tl1< 11'0111\ds hroh! opr11, a11d C:,\Ft,i fainted nml dit>rl.
ll1s '"""' 11.1.-< now thrown llllli<r tlrr [,.,.[of an Pi<'plr:lllf. :llld 1wre
grl<'ll that no orll' .sh"idd !Htl'\' h11n. 11iwn :di at ollr'<'. to tlrP trrror of the
11hoi <':lniJ> .111d till' 11ho !J,ii<'l'<'d tiw da1' l1ad d:11111r<l.
a 111n'l ,J, .. ,Iitl<'lll ,.,., i"li<' ltroktforlh. \\'lwn fh,;tnrm almt,.<l. '.\LI,I's
hodv 11:1.'< l"'"'d ilfr.,iil' '''"i,d atnong :Jnd ollH'r ilmi'<'I'S, and :111
"' dr 11:1 ; 11011 lor t iwo1111 nL>; to h.t l't' fill' tnrps i nl <'ITI'l l. Th i . .; 1!:1 pp<'nrd
in !l."i (1.11 1',."1,],, t]](' <jllll'k <'nd :-lh:d1 and
tiw dolllli.tli ol ill-' how<'
.i 1\.1'-' ll<'l'<r I'"J'lllar aftl'l' th.d.
'I'IH l.lfllns <llllllllon to .di \1.,\td,lllt lllolrnJnf>. (I) tit:tf thr
Jll'<'<ll'il<'rc< olthLiflr d.J\S II<'I<' nJ<II ol dlll.J!JOn :IIlli ,,f gr,.tt or:tlori:Ji
pull<'rs. llitwh g:t\'<' flll'Jil htli '''")' "'''!' tlH nutlldud.s, and (:l) tl!.tf.
tht' :1 h<hftl l"'"tJon to tht' 1,',\l'llr'd llll'll 11ho hrid
ollie<' :If ( 'o111 f. J,I.Int h.1.s 110 ,f:Jtr ,.l,rg\ : hut \\'<' find a t'OI\Ilf<'rpart
to our i,i,r.ll' hod"'' 111 t !J,. q 'I.Jili:'IS ( '.,mt, front \I hom Uw
of thr J'l'lll llll'<'S. tht> C:.\dk \lnlfl>. and (l,ii'i . .; ll'l'fl' appointrl.
.\t I ldtli :1nd .\gr.J, fill' '"""' of t h iP:mwd h.1d ahv:li'S nnSJs!l of
:--f:JIIlll'h 11 ho !J,.IJ,I't'd If th<'ll' dntv t" k<'<'J> tlw sfm1ght.
lhd.l,41li \ blltd illlll 111 .'-',tthtnol .. tnd 1t '\.h frtJil \ld 1 !I.-ill that ht hl'ttrd of .\Iir
1.\ ,\ td \\11 h.l filllLld " I t'Jl'li\ .I !l1't' hd1 \1 t' dP.l t h, .\ Jllnllc! t 1\ fwt t c; .\ lJda Ji:ih

1 b dd
!ttml!t.d af!t't .... dt.tth Ill F.H.Ih, .1 \\tlll-tJl,\lllll.tH pf ltmn :-.f'!IPd (llllantJ...,
htlnlli_!J!l!! !11 B.lltwhh ,lJld pnH l.urn.-d hliH ... dl ('lui-.f; ,\Jld lu addtd that lu h:td

1111 J, ..... .., I 11.111 I h Jt t 1't'll Ilh'll '1f l't'"l'''' I .1 hit> Jlar, 'h, 1 \Jld''' J'-t', Lunwd t n lH' ( 'hn ... t.
J Tht ,.,r, u!n ... t.m, , ..... , tllll\1'' tt-d ,, 11 h \J:i,,-: dt:tth r, .... ,."llJ,. t 11,. ,.n,I .:\Iiirth
tilt rt'l!!ll td ,' d-dl11 FIJ1-,, :-..kib
Tht pl.,,.,. 111 t 1J,. P.IIIJ.l h. "lll'rt t h(' '''t'IIt' pJ.t, ,., J..; , .llltd ( H.
,J. l, -10:"\).
Tht 1.1\ t that B.ui.l,Ptl i ")
t'!tl Ju ... ' Pllt h .'l t H.t .... l \\ .\r llt"l r HLin.t h, 1 t'. m t h( \tTY ctHt rr
of I llt' hda\\ I llln\ t'lltut. atcount.., f,r \11.., adhtr,n, t, t hh lift'. to
;\lahdu" i pl'lllt qdt"
How great. thPir mf[u,.n 1ra.;, may IH st't'll fmm th .. fad t h.1t. of all
l\Iuhamm:ulan Plll[>Prors onl,1 Akbar, and pPrhaps 1\hilji.
sucePPill'd in putting down this sd.
The death of Bhaykh .\li.I was :L gnat tnumph fort lw l 'ourt L;J:un:is.
and a vigmous persPcution of all }Jahdawi discip!Ps w.ts tht inuutthatt
l'Pslllt. pPrSl'('lltwns lastPtl into .\kbar's nign. Tht<.\' al..tttd
only for a short tunP whrn tlll' nturn of llum:irltn and tht do11 nLdl
of tlw .\fgl.!:-lll pow1r hwught about :1 rio!Pnt poltf lt'al dunug 11 hi('h
thr !Parned first thought oft hl'ir own sa fl'ly. wtll kno11 mg that I luui:i,\'1-111
was strongly in favour of hut wasfirml.vestahltslitd
and the comt at ,\gr.t, afhr tlw !all of Bayr:im 1\hiin. who wa.> a
agam tttlllt<<l with lluidiist:ini 1'unuis, the ptf'St't'tt'tions tornnwrwtd
The hatred of tlw comt p:trty :lg:urt.>f. PSJ>t't't:tllv. ro.><
to sut'h :L ]wight that

antl :\lakhdlun
rrprcStntPtl to the <'nlpNor that in:lsllltlt'h as \luh.irak also h<'longtd
to thP and was, th!'rdort', not only hinlstlf damntd, hut. i<'d
also otlwrs into tlamnatinn. he dt>s<'rVPd to h<' k!lltd. 'L'h.l'<'l'<'n ohtaitwcl
all ordtr to bring him IH'fnn tht t'll!pcror. llistlv ikd from
.\gra, only lt'<li'IIlg hthind hnn Willi' lumiturt lor l11s <'n<'rni<'s to l'<'t'k
tluir r!'\'t'llgt' 011. Co!H'<'aling himsplf for a trnw, ht applid to Nlrayhh
1'alim ('hishti of Fatl,1pfrr Sikri for int<'r<'t'>sion; hut IHIng advistd In
hun to withdraw to Uujar:-1!. hP implond thP good oflit'!'S of Akhnr's
fost<r-brot htr. till' Kh,-tll- i ,\_ z:rlll .\lir 1.:-1 Koka, who Slil'l't'l'dtd
in .dla.nng all dor1bt.> 111 th1 n11nd of till' t'IIIJll'ror hy dlltlling orr tlw
povtrl\' of th<' Nha,1h!.! and on tlw lad that, drfl'pnnt. frorn hrs
at'l'llSPr.-<. h<' had nuL l' the slat anvthing 1>.1' 11.1)' of fnl10ld.,, anrl
thus ohtauHd at iP:1st S<'I'Ufii,V for hun and Iris Lllnrly. :\luk1r:d, sonw
t 1111!' :1 f!t'nvards a pplitd llldetd lor a grant of land for his son <; :\ hii 'I Favz
who had already :wqrti!'PillttPr.trV Ltnie, though lrt was onlv ,l'tar., old
and \\'aihd Jlt'fHJII:dly \lltlt his son on Shaykh n-:\:Ibi. But
the latter. in lrrs th<ologil':d prHIP, tunwd tlrt'lll out of hi.> :I' llli'll
stt.-<p<'t'!Pd of .\lnhd:twi !t',lllings antl 1'hi'a ttlldt'lli'II'S. E\'t'll 111 tht
year of .\kbar's nign. llhtn Fay{.i's poPI!ls
had IJI't'll not!f,d at ( 'ourt-
Akbar thPnlay lwforl' C'hitor-and :L summolls had ht'l'll sent tot lw VOIUI!-(
po<t to present himself hdore l11s sovt'reign, the at. Agra saw
in thr invitation a sign of apprua;:hing doom, and pr<'vaiiPd 011 tlli
govtrnor to seeun. the victim this tuw. Thn gov<'rtHJr SPilt.
a detadunrnt of :\lughul soldiPrs to surround :\luh:irak's house.
<;Abd" '1-Fayz wrote undor the nom-deplumo of Fani.
was :weid .. ntally :111ay frorn lwnw, and the soldiers suspecting a con-
H(JII'aey, std>.Je'C'tcd :\luhiirak to vanotts of ill-inatment: and when
at Ia.-;t cantP, lw \l:ts l'arricd off by fon1 to ('hitor.
Xor did his
fc>arH for his f:d.lwr :tnd mvn life> banish, till his favourablP reception
at court. convtnepd him both of Akh:tr's good will ancl the blindness of
his JHrsonal P!Jernics.
Abet h:ul m tlw llJPantinw grownup t,!'alously studying undPr
t he e'.ll'!' of hts 'l'hl' perscrntions whieh Hhaykh :\Iuh:'trak hacl to
sufTcr for his lc>anings at the hands of the learned at Court,
did nut. fad to 1nnkc J lasting lllljll'c>ssion on Jus young mine!. 'l'llf'rc is
no clouht that. it 11ns til this schonl of misfortune that AhCt
t h .. lesson ol tolcra't toll, the of whwh in latPr _wars fornlf'cl the
of Akbnr's ftwndship for htm: whiiP. on tlw other hand, the sanw
prcssme of eircu1nslanees stimulatPcl h11n t.o lllliiSIIal exNhons in study-
ing, which sHhseqHentlv en:thiPcl lttm cl11ring the rPiigious
at ( 'omt. to lo:tl t lte ()ppo-<tt i()ll :mel overthrow hv !Parning <llld
l>ro:ttler thc cl[llt' of tl11 ql:mJ:'ts. \\hom Akb:tr ltatctl so
:\L t hc :tgc ol filt< t'll, he .-dttll\<'cl thc 11\t'llt:ti preeeH'itv ;.;o oftl'll ob;.;t'l'VC'ci
in lndtan IH>I'S: i11 11orks on :dl hr:ttll'hl';.; of thosl' seieTll't'.'\
whil'h go 1.1 tilt' ll.llllt' ol/u!.(/llll.tnd i!lltJ!T, or and iiii/Jitfll/.
in.g till' loohtcp:-; of hi-< l:d ill'r, he eonllllt'll!'ecl to tl'<ll'h Ion,!.( hdon
ltacl rc.whcd tl11 :t.C!t' ol lll<'lltl'. .\11 itlt'ttlnt ts l'l'i:dtl to how
1'.\tPtliit\1' <'l't'll :d th.d lttnc lt1s I'P:tdtn,g 1\:ts .\ 111<111\1:-wnpt. of thP rare
work ol fsl:tlt:-llll h:tpp<ncd to f:tll into i11s handx. l'nlortunat .. Iy. how-
t'\'1'1', onc h:dl ol c:ll'h p:tgc. 1ertwalh clo\lllll:ll'lis fwrn lop to bottom,
\\'as rcncll'l!'cl tllcgthlc-. or :tltog..tiHr d<stro.'cd. !._,.fire. Abirl-Fa;:-1
cJc.tcnnined to nstcll't' '" r.trt .1 l>ook, <'IlL a11ay th humt. portions, pastcl
Ill'\\' papcr to <':ll'h p.tgt, .111d tlll'n <'OIIllllt'lll'etl !11 n;.;tore the llllSxlng
hah-Ps ol t,uh lrn,._ 111 11hwh .tttctHpl :tlter I'I'JH'ald thoughtful IH'I'IIsab
lJc Sll('e'C'I'!i.-tl. :-\elll!t' lll!lt' :tf!<t'll':lrcis .. t e'Oillpi<ft e'OJI.'' ol th1 S:lllll' 1\'0J'J..:
htrnd 11p :111d on eHnpart-<on. tt ""' found in pl.11s
11<'1'1' intlced dtll'cnnt 1\0I'tlx .. tnd 111 .1 f,w p.tss,tgcs llt'\1 troofs !'\'I'll hael
b,,n addtlt'!'d; lntt on till' wholc th nstnrcclportwn pnscntccl so manv
points of 1':-..traorcllll:ll'_l' cotnl'icll'lll'l: th:tt his ftwnch \\'l'l'l' not a htth
astonishl'cl at tire thoroughnt''' 111th 11hwh \hiil-Fa;.l h:td workecl him-<clf
into tlw style and modc nf th111king of a dtiiii'Hit author.
:!tHh Hahi' l. !fj,l, nr :!lth Stptmhtr. J:)ti7. TIH Pdt \\hit h Fa\n pnwuted ,,
lJp fOHfld Ill tht lh!IIIJ/11/H/11
:! Pag" Hon, nnt t'.
Abii'l-Fa?l was so ('Olllplet.ely L1hn up with that h, prPitrrt>d
the life of a reclu;;e to the unstable patronagL' of thl grPat, anti to the
bondagp whieh atttndanre at eomt in thosP d.1y.-; nnd,nd inPI"Itahlt-.
But from the tinw Fay;:: I ha<liwPn aske1l by :\.kh.H to alttIul t Itt Conrt.
hopes of a brighter future dawml. and Ah!t'I-F.t!.l. who had th,n l'OIH-
p!Pted his seventi'Pnth saw in tlw t'IH'Illll':l.!.!;t'lllt'llt lwld ont ill th ..
PlllpPror. in spitP of :\'s numProus <'llPmits at tonrt.. :1 guaranhp
that patient toil. un his part, too. would not rt'lllaln 1\Itlwut il'llit. The
skill with whil'h Fay;;,I in tlw nwantiml' al'tjllll'l'd :llltl rdainl'd Akbar's
fritntbhip, JH'Ppart<l tlw wav for AlnYl-F:l?-1; .111d whPn thP lattPr, 111
tlw wry end of !JHl (h .. ginning of .\.IJ. !:"1ill w:1s prPstnttd to Akhar as
Fay:,i's hrothtr. th rt'l't']ilion 11a< so falom:Ihlt that. ht ga1p up all
thoughts of !Pading a lift among m:IIlllSI'I"IJl!S. .. As lol"f lllll' 1hd not
at fin;( :v.;si:-:t 1111' ... s:1_1:-: .\lnYI-F:t?-1 in tlw ... I almo:-:t. httanil'
selfi:-:h and l'otlt'eit.t<d, and nsoliPd to trP:Itl tht path of proud ntinmtnt..
TIH numlwr of pupils th.1t L h.ul g:tthtrtd around HI'. '''1'\'td hut to
IIH'l'P:ISI' mv pPdantTI'. Tn fad, thP pndP of (,arrung nwdt my lrain
drunk 11 ith tl11 rdl'a. of llapprly fm Ill)'Sl'lf. wlll'n I
thl' night.-; in lniH'Iy spots 11rth trut St't'hr:; :tft,r tl'llth. and t'IIJO)'I'd
thl' weidy ol ,.u..!1 a:-: :lrt' t'lli]ll.,'(-h:mdtd. I11It. rwh 111 1111nd .1nd llt':Irt,
eye:-: 1\'l'l'l' op<'ntd and I saw thP :-:l'llishn<s:; and I'OI'I'!ou.<n<':-:s of t.llt'
so-calltd le:unPtl. Th" :uh 11'1' of 111)' Ldhl'r 1nth dilliult.\ ktpt 1111' hal'k
fro111 outhn:1ks of foil_,.: IllY mmd had lltl nst. :1nd llll' !wart. [l']t. Jt,,,.[f
dra.ll n to tl11 s:Ig.o; ol .\longohn. or to thP lwrrnits of J.,banon : l long"d
tor 11 1lh th" l.tma:; of Tdwt or 1\'Jth thl' p:"tdris ol Portugal,
and I ll'llllld glad II- Rlt \\It h tIll' pr'll'ot s ol t lw l':"1rsis and t hi' ltarnPd of
th" z,.n,Jawsta. f was sitk ol th1 J,anwd of mv m1nland .. \lv broth,r
and othl'l' ['(]a( 1\'I'S illl'll ad\' istd Ill I' ttl at! l'lld ti11 ('ourt, hop111g ( ha(. J
would lillll in lht t'nljll'l'OI' a ltadtr to tht :-:uhhniP world of
In vain did [at tir:-:t n.'lst. thl'ir adnlllnit1on:-:. IIapp1. indd. am I now
that { lmvP found in my soi'<'TI'ign a gullll' to th" lltHid of adron awl a
comforter in lowly rC'tinnwnt.: in hnn rn;l'!. Ill\' ll)nging aftl'r farth and
my desire to do 1ny appoint .. d work in tlw 11 orld , lw io; thP oritnt whl'rt'
the light of form and rd .. al dawns; and 1t is who ha:-: taught Ill<' that
tlw work of th1 world. multifarious a:-: it is, )'1'1 hannonrz,. 11 1th 1111'
spiritual nmty of truth. 1 wa:, thus prl':il'llt.d at. ('uurt. As I had no
worldly to lay at fed. of his :\l:ijl':,!.v. I wrotr arflnHn<ntary
to the Ayat" '/-Kurs/,
and pnsf'nt;d it wllf'n tlw <'fllJH'ror was at Awa.
::\arne of the nr.<l' of tht "'''o!HI < ha]<l<r ,,f tlw (
I was lavoural>lv nnJvttl, :111l hi-; gr:u:iously acr:Pptefl my
Akh:1r was .11 that lllll" J.nstly ll'lth prcparations for
tlu: f'OIItlll''"t. of lldJ:Ir and 1\ng.d. :HfompaniPd e:o.pedition,
hut AI,Ct'l-l.'azl n:lt.Jtralh- ,t.tyd in .\gra. But as wrote to his
hrotlwr that had tllllllrt'd aftN him. attended Court
immdJ:dPiv on till' t'IIIJH'ror's nt II I'll to F.t1 hpiir Sikri, whre .Akbar
(;, not.1101' 111111 fir.,!. 111 tiH' :\lo>itpti'. as before,
JH'I'HI'!lt.Pd a I'OIItlllt'llt:II'Y writhn hr him on the opening of a chapter in
tht ntltld ":-lt'lr:tf.
1-Fatl_1 ", "thP ('hapttr of Victory ''.
Th1 p:trty of tilt' !tarnPt1 and htgotftl Sunnls at Court, headed by
Makltdttrn" 'I :\lulk 'and Shaylli 'n-Xabi, h:111 evl'ry :ause to feel
sorry at Fayzi's and AhCt'I-Fazl's sllt'l'i'sses
; for it was now, aftr>r Akbar's
nt.urn frotn !lthiir, 1 hat t h" l!IPII\orahlt> Tlutrsclay evtnmg discussions
('.Oillllll'tWI'd, ol whwh th" lustorian Bad.-t,onl has ldt ns so vi vir! anael'onnt.
Akbar at first was mtnly atuwyt:ll at Lhl' '' Pharaoh-like pride" of the
learntd at. l'tHtrL: st.orits of Pndl!'ss St[ll:tbbks of tlwse pious casuits
had n:tclwd l11s t:tr; nlig11ms :ml a few sPntmH'!'S of dPat.h
passPd b.v h1s ( 'huf-.llts1 lt't' on as anrl "ot.lwrs hl'rdil's" afY!'cted him
most. dtt'j>ly: :tnd !w now lor thP first iimP n:dizPd tlw idea that thl'
sntiH's. ph:HIS<'t's lomwd a pow1'1' of their Ol\ll in his king1lom,
at. tht ons1nlt'tJon of ll'hi .. h h" had lor twrnty years hel'll working.
lnlprPssl'd ll'lth :1 l:t\'otll'ah],. td,a of thP valtw of his llindft snhj<rts, he
h:td nsolv"d 11 hn ptnslll'ly s1tt tng 111 lht mornmgs on tlw sohtary' at. F.Jt IIJ>llr Sikri, to rult with Pl'tn hand mPn of all t'I'I'Ptb in his
donllntons. hut :1s t I((' ,.,t 1'1'111!' \ 11'1\ s ol thl' karnPd and 11H' l:twyrs
otdillll:dlv llt-gtd h1111 to l"'l''l't'lltl' inst,:ul of to hPal, h1 institutPtl the
dtst'ltSslllllS, lll'l'allst'. IH'Iti'\'tng htmStlf to ilt' 111 t'tTor, he thought. it his
dut.1 as rukr to" lll'JIIir!' ". It is not !lt'l'l'ssary to rt'pt'at hPrP the <'Olll'St'
whll'h t h1'"' dt'I'IIS'<IOIJS took.' TIH lllllh that had lxisttd among thP
lmnwd dtsapp<'and Ill til!' 1 l'f_l' hl'gmnmg: abnsP took tlw place of
argunHnt, and thl' plaltli''t ru],s ol ttiqnl'th \Yt'l'l'. ewn in tiH presetH'l'
of Ott l'lllJH'ror, forgotttn. :\\;bar's doubts instt:ttl of being elPared up
only iHtT<':JSt'd; t't'r!atll po111ts of th1 l_lanafilaw, to whil'h most Hunnis
di11g. \\'t'rt' fo1111<l to IJP l)('ttc>r by th1' dida of lawyers belong-
ddath of .\hti 'I at ('ourt gnl'Il Jll Hadii,oni d1fTer
from Abft o\\ll <H't'\l\11\t
B:uU,nul :ht'llhl'-4 lu 'lakl!dl-llll11 'l-)lulh. an alnw-.t prnplwtH'lllStC:ht mtoAhft '}.}'azl's
eharadtr; for tlw fir..,t tunP IH .\blt ' to \Vhn.t rehg10us
muu-hwf thtlt' of \\lwh that maHI'Itlot eapa.l)le? '' Had., Ill, 7'!..
\'tdt pp. 170 ll.
ing to the other three Reets; and thr moral tharnrtPr of tlw Prnphl'l.
was next serutinizrd and was fnnntl wanting. l\la\;hdfnn" '1-l\lulk wrotr a
spiteful pamphlt>t agaim;t Shaykh 'n-Xabi. the of thP empirP,
and the latter rrtortcLI by calling l\Iakhdfun a ft,ol and him.
upon whom Akbar from thl' ht>ginning h:lll tixtd thP !Padtr
of his party, fanned thP r1narrt>k by skilfnll_\- tlw disputts from
one point to another. and at last. JH'rsu:llil'd tlw tmpt>ror that a suhjt'l't.
ought to look upon thP ktng not onh- as till' tt>mpora_l. .hut also as tlw
only spiritual guidt'. Tht> promulgat ton of this 11<'11. dol'trinP was tlw
making of fort111w. Both hP and .' held to it to tht>
enrl of their lins. But tlw lll'll' idta was in oppnsiiion to lsl:-tm. tht> law
of which stands ahovr twn king. nndnng 11 hat 11-'1> <'all a eonstitutwn
impossible; ant! though kings :1s 'd-din Khilji h:ul
ht>lorP triPt! to raisP tlu law of PXpt>dient-y (.._;_:/!. ...;:._,_.;_,_, mas/ahal-i
II'WJI) abovt> t hr b w of t lw ()m:i n t lll'_l' IH'I'<'r fa irh su<<dd in ,;,parat in).(
rl'ligion from law or Ill rtndtring th< adnli!llstration of tlw tmpirt>,
indl'JH'ntltnt of the .\lu!rt. ll<'llt'<' 11 IHn four _, .. ars latr, in
!lf\li, brought up tht> qtwstion at th<' Thursda_\ tl't'llJIJg nw<'iings. h<' raisPd
a [H'rfpct and whi!P tiH dispntations, hittt>r thtV ll<'l'<', had
hitherto dll'tlt: on sing!< points connP<'Il'd \ltth the !if,. of tht Prophct, or
with stttarian diiTPnncts. tlwv h<'twefort h t nrned on tlw I'Pl'Y printIpl<s
of IsFtm. Jt, w:1s only nm1 that. tht> :-;1111nis at. ('omt S.\11' how wid<' dnrmg
thl' last four tlw hn:Hh had IH'<'Oill<'; that." til<' strong tmbank-
JnPnl of tht> l'l<an,;t l:tw :111d tiH most. c.\t'PIIent f:ti!h had l)('t'll brok<'n
through''; and that .UIJ:lr h<'IH\'Pd th:d. tlwn wtn stnsible ltl<'ll Ill all
nligions. and :Jhst<'miom; thinkrrs :111d llll'll tndomd 11 II h lliir:wnlons
power among all llatiom;. Tslitm. thtrdort>, pw;s<ssPd in ll!s opinion no
suJwriority ovPr oth<'r forms ol worship' Th< l<'artwd party, S<'<'tllg
their ofli<'ial position Pndangend, nnw sltowtd stgns of nadiiwss to ywld,
but it 11as too latP. Tlwy ,.,<n s1gn<'d tht nmarbldt d<wnni<'Ilt 11hil'h
8haykh .\luh:-trak in conJUIH'tinn ll'lth l1is sons had draltrl. :1 docunwnt
which I hPiit'VP stands uniq\I!' in tht> whole ('hunh llistory of hl:im.
Batl:i,nni has happily prPstrnd a rompl<'tt op.1 of Tlw <'lll]'<'I'or
was r<rtdiPd to he a JUst rnl<'r, and 11as as su..!t :Jsstgn<'d rank of
a ".\Iujtahirl '', i.<'. an mf.tllihk anthonty Ill all matt1rs r<'l:ti.Ing to
lsLim. 'fhr "intPllect of the JUSt king .. IH'<'anw tlw only .-;our..-t: of
ll'gislation, and thP 11 hoi( body of the karn .. d and t bP lawy<'rs hound
thrmselvc8 to al)](le hy Akbar's deeret>s in nligwus matt<rs. Sbayh!!
'n-Xahi an(ll\Iakh(liimuJ-.\lnlk ind<'Pd tlud<wurn<nt.
!'ages I IS!I.
thPir will, but ;,ign t hty did : whibt Nhavkh adtled to his Rigna-
tun till' words that hi' had most willingly subscribed his nanH', and
that for sP\'tral w:1rs lw had hcl'll anxiomdv looking forward to the
rP:dizat1o11 of I hP"progrtssl\'t' moVPrllP!It. "Till' dor:um!'nt," says
'1-F:Jzl 1n th1 .-1/,!uuwllilll. "brought about ex<Pllent results-(!) The
( 'owi. bPt':Jntt .1 gallunng pl.H'I' of the sagPs and lranwd of all cre<ds;
tlw dodrilll't; ol nil nligJoJI:-1 Wt'l'l' l'Pt'.ogniz<d, and their
Wl'!'t' 1111( _.tllm1d to obstun thtlr gnotl fl'atmcs; (2) ]Wrfeet
tnltr,d 1011 (.'''"' 1-1. ul or " pt':lt'l' WJI h all'') was t.stahllshetl; and (:)) the
JH'J'\'<'I'"t' nnd tvrl-rrillldld \1'<'1'1' t'O\'<'J'Pd with shanH' ort sPring the dis-
inttnc.;!td 111ot 111', ol l11s ;llld thus stootl 111 the pillory of dis-
grat't'... Th.- t'O]>\' t hP dr:d't 11 hll'h w.ts hmllkd to tlw <'mp<>ror, was in
Nlwvb_h 111111 li:JIIdwnllllg, nnd was datl'd lbjah, HH7
(:-IPpltnd><r. I :,7!1).
A 1<'11' llt't'k.s.dltnl'ards. :-;ha._rh!.!

awl Jlakhdlun
Wt'l'l' SPilL to :\l:ikkah. Nhavb_h \Tubitrak arttl his two sons trinmphPd
onr tlw1r t'llt'lllli'S II ow rnagn:1 A bii'l-l'a(.l was, may be seen
from tiJP 111 whwh ht l'iJI'!HlJCIPs 111 tlw ,1!.:/mrniillla the banish-
nunt of t hP.,t' lllt'll. \o(. a stllll'Jl<'t', not. a ll'ord, is a<l<Itd imlil'at.ivP of
hiH prrHU11.d gnt'l'<lllt't'S aga JJJs( itlll'r of t.Iwm, though they had prrsecut.e<l
and all hut kllkd !u.s f:illl!'r <tnd n1inPd his family; tlw narrative prorrPds
l'all11 <JJJd stalt:<lll<JJJ!Jkt .1s i11 l'\'1'1')' otlHr of his grPat work, and
jnstiliP.' tht l11gh praiSl' whwh lllston:Jns have hPstmlpd upon his charader
that" nett ht-r :dnJst JJor harsh 11ord:-: llt'l'<' l'Vt'r found in hi:-: honsl'holtl ''.
ThP disputatJoJJs had now t'onu to an tnd (A.Il. lf>i!)) and Fayz:i
and .\hll'I-Fazl g.Jinl'd th< la,ting fritndslllp of thP <'lllprror. Of the
confidPnt'l' 11 hwh .\khar platPd in Fa_V(.i, no h<'thr proof ran hi' <'ited
than l11s appomlllit'lil, intht _l'tar, a.-; tutor to l'rill<'l' l\luriid: and
as both hrot ll!'rs h:td tnl nd till' 1111 r_1. thl'n t ht only. sl'fvirl' and had
l't't'l'll'l'd 11/llll:wrhs. or I'Oillllll,,lons. thl'ir l'lllployrwnt Ill depart-
1\H'Ilt H ga w t hl'm rt'j H':l ttd opport unit it.-; to gain fnsh distmd inns.
Enjo)ing ,\kh:tr's pr;;on:d lr'll'ndshq>. both rtmaind at court in Fatl.lpil.r
:-likrl, or :tl't'Olllji.Jilll'd the t'lllptrt>J' 011 hi:-: 1':\}H'dltions Two years
latl'r. Fayzi aplHHnt.d :):tdr ol .\gra. Ki'tlpi. :IIIli Ki'tlinjar, m which
<'ll}'H<'ity ht h.lll to lllljlllrt' Into tlll' possdnhty of nsunung lnp tl'nures
(sa!fllrultr'i/). \1 hl\'h tn t'nn>t''[llt'llt't' ot fraudult-nt pr:ll'titl's on tlH part
of goi-<'J'lllll<'nt otlittrs and th< of thP holdtrs thtmselvcs
had so murh lllt'l'<'ast<d ;1s sPriously to lrsstn the land rrYPnue; and
in th .. wry lwgJJllllllg of J:,::;ii,
was promoted to the
of 1-Iaziiri. or the post of a commawler nf mw hor."' an1l w:h
in the following vear appointed lliw:ln of tlw l'r1witH'<' of llddi. Fay?-i'.>
rank was much lowrr; he \\'<lS a comm:llldl'!' of Fonr llundn1l. But
he dirlnot !'are for furtlwr prmnotion. Delnttd tn t ht mn:-w. lH' found
in thr appointment as PoPt<atr, \1 it h \\ hll'h Akbar honmmd
him in the end of 1:!88, that sati,Lll'tion whi1h ntt politil'al olli1't', lum
ev('r high, woultl have given him. Thought lw t'llljl'ror di1lnot p.l\' nttlt'h
attPntion to podr:. appnctation uf FayzG gtntns wa>< hut jn><t ;
for after Amlr Klnt><raw of lldtli. :\luh<tllllll:l!lan ln11Ia lias St'<'n no gnatt>r
port than Fay;:-1.
In tlw Pnd of li'>S!J, .\hlt'I-F.t?-1 lo.-;t hi,; nwlhl'l'. to\\ host' 11\l'llltll"}' h"
has a p:tgP in tlw .lk/JIImiima. TltP Pltl]H'l'OI. Ill ordt>r to t"tlltsn],.
him, paitl him a visit, alit[ said to him," If th1 pPoplt of this \\orld liv1d
for lWt'l' and did not. only on1't' dl!', ktnd frinds 1\0tdd not hi' l't''luirPd to
direl't thl'ir ]warts to trust in <:od and n><ignation 1o llts \\dl; hut. no
one livt's long 111 tlw car.tvanserai of th1 world, and hi'Jit'l' th< :tllli1'11d
do WPll to :ttTPpt t'onsolatwn.''
HP!igions malt<-rs had in thP lll<':llltim<' rap11lh' advaiH'I'd. Akh:tr
had fotmdPd illlt'll" nligiOn, tlw Din-i lliihi, or" th .. llivin1 l':11th ". th"
ehiPf fl':lt\II"P of whll'h. in at't'<mlatH'f' wit.h .\'s dmunHnt.
nwntionrd ahow. eonsist11l in lll'liPf in on<' Co1l and m Akbar :ts Ills
\'icPrPgcnt (k/"dzfir) on <'mth. The lslamiti, prawrs \l'l'r<' aholislll'd :tt.
court. and tlw worship of thP PIPet., was basrd on t.hat. of t.lw l':lrsis and
partly 011 tl11 <'<'T'I'I\lOllt:d o[ th1 llintliis. ThP rww Pra (f,irlkh-diihl).
whi<h was introdut1d in all govPrnmtnt rPronk :ts al.-;o t.l11' fP:tsts ohs<rwd
hy the PmpPror, \\<'rt' Pntinh l':lrsl. Th" :\lnhamntadan grandPI's
at comt shmwd hut httlP r<'sistanrr; tlwy lookt-1l 11 1t h morP :lllxid.y 011
the Pkntion of Hindi! f'onrt.i<'rs than on Akbar's nligtous innovat.imts,
whHh afttr all, afhdPd
mt a few. But tluir fttllllg against Ahlt"l Fazl
W:ts \Pry m:trkt-d, and tll<-1' oftPn adVIS<'d thP l'llljl<'ror to s!'nd hllll to th
Dakhin hoplllg that '"Ill" misrnanagPllll'llL in 1\.tr or 111
would his inll!lt'IH't' at coml. l'rin<'<' 1-'alim (.lahiingir) abo lwlong1d
to tiH and his dishkP to Ahifi-Fa;:l. :t'i "" sh:tll S<'<' hrlow,
bet::tll\1' gradually m dPrp-rootl'd, that hr look1d upon hun as the duPf
obstacle to thP ('.\!'1'\ltron of }n,; 11 ild plans. An 1\l\l'XIH'I't<d \'!Sit to
A bid-Fa zl ga n him :111 I'XI'IIIent oppnrt \\!Illy to f'l1:1 rg Jl\1\1 \I'll l1
For In" \\ ork..,, \Ide p. lh l.
J JJ..,j r..? J t..,JJII., J.,) \..,I,...!. l)t:.....}J r!o..J..J> J )1/ /'
,, "--'} .,,; )-"\ If \1 Jt..,!-:.1. "''"' r.o vJ...-: I,.. cl-.r' ''f.
duplicity. On cntwlllg thP housP. he found forty writ!'rs htmy in copying
cornnH'ntanes to the Ordcring thNn to follow him at oneP. he
took tlwm to the emJwror. and ;,howing him the copies he said, "'Vhat
Aliri-Fazl tca .. hcs rrw ts \'Pf\' ddTercnt from what he practiscs in his
housP." Tllf' tnC'idcllt is s:tJd to ]wVC' pro<lnccd a (Plllporary !'str:mgc-
IOPIIt IHhl'ccn Aklwr :cnd Abit'I-F.tzl. :\ smnlar. llllt !Pss credib!P, story
is told by the aut lwr oft II(' Zrtkhlrrtl"'/-1\ltmtiin In. lie s.tys that A hii '1-Fa:::l
rrrHnt.ld of hts,aposfan front lsFun. :tlld llsl'el at night to visit mcoqnito
fliP lcouses o[ :tl!d, g11cng thcIJt gold llll!lum.;, I'PifiiPStPd them
"to pm_v for th" shhility of faith". sighing at thP same
t inti' :cnd .sl nking l11s l..:tll'i'S :cnd PXI'himtng, "What shall 1 do
" Ancl
JUSt 11 onth" history of lttPr:ctllfP Ita\'<' trie1l to s:tve Fay:d
lrom :qH>.s1ai'V and eonsPeilll'llt damnation, npn'."l'lltillg that hrfore
his deatlt he had pr:cised fh,, !'mph!'!. so have oth\'r sue-crrelcd
111 findcng lor :\hic'I-F:czl a pl:ii'P 111 l':cradisP: for it is rrlatPd in sewral
boob th:ct ,\ln-1 ():ldiri ol L:ihor. a lll:lll

orw Ins disapprmal of :\hit '1-Fazl's words nnd dPPds. But
nt ncght, tlw ston. ill' saw in hi.'i drP:cm that. Ahit' 1-Fazl f':tllle to
:1 IIH'P(tng held h1 thP l'roplll't 111 l'arad!."P: :tnd 1dwn thP l'rophr-t. saw
hint PllfPr, IJ,. :csked hi111 to stf. dm1 n, and "This !llart dtd for
tillll' dunne( hcs life evli ekeds. hut otH' of Ius hooks i'Oilllttl'tt<'I'S with
tlw wotds. '()Unci. nw:mi thP good for flu s:cke of thPcr nghtPoltS!ll'sS,
and IH'Ip thP wick,d for fht of th_v lcm-. and tiH,.:e words have
saved hint" ThP Ltst. two ,,;fori<'S llattN, i11 all prohahtlity, thP on-
seiPlli'PS of )liOtls hut. thP fir.,;f, il tn11. e!Ptr:cds 111 no way from
that. <'Ottsist.-111'\' of opinion :cnd uniform plnlosophll' convution which
JHn:cdPs Ahii works: :111d though his h.-art found in purP dPtRIIl
and nligious pinlosoph.v tnon l'Olltforf and IIIOf<' PIPnHnts ol harmonv
th:cn i11 ti11 e:n;uistrr of thP .\lull:ls. Ins mind from <'arh youth had
so :H'<'nstoinPd to hard 11ork, that it \l:ls perfpl'fJy 11:1tural for h11n.
Pl'<'lt aft,r Ins njpcf iun of lsrtnl to cnntittll<' stud iPs of tlw Qur:in,
i>PI':t\l.'il' th.- dtaietfw:d ion :cnd the d<'PpPst. philological resranh
of :\luhatnnc:ul:cn hhr:lf ur.- ha1.- for epnturiPs lH'Pit t'OIH'PittratPcl on the
Pxpl:tnation of fliP botlk
To this period al"' lH'Iong lht lit .. rar.\ mtdPrtakiHgs wltich \\'Pre
eomnwn,d undtr t Jc,. :cuspt.,; oi tht Empror hmts.-11. "\IJtl
and s,!Jolars as' :'\aqih 1\h:-tn. :-;Iwykh I,l:lji
lhr:ihim. and oth\'r,;, \1'\'fP PngagPd in lnstoncal and
Hcie>ntific compilations and in translatiOib from tlw f'aiL.,krit or llmdi into

took the Llliiwati. a WPII-knmm book nn math,maties.
and Ahit '1-Fn?-1 translatr1l thr Kalila llanma undPr thr titlP of .lyiir
/Hinish from Arabic into l
1rsian. lfp also took a part in thr tram;lation
of the Jlahiihhiirat. and in HIP composition of tlw ]',(1/kh-i . lljl. thP
"History of the .\IIIlPnuium . The hst-mrntionPil work. curious to
sa.1, has an intimate comHxion 11 1th thP .\lahdawi lllUWilH'nt. of which
particulars have lwen g1vcn above. Although from the tune of
lleath. thr disciplPs of the milknnimn hac! to prrsPcut 1011,
and movemPnt to all appraranc,s had die1l out. the i1lta of a rrstorer of
tlw miiiPnmum w:1s nviHd dunn::: tlw dis,us.<Ions Ill Fat l_Ipilr f'ikri
aiHl by tlu !l"achings of lll<'n o! f'harif-i .\mulL<' with this
nnportant modtii1atwn. that Akh:H him:.;,ll 11as pointPd to as thP Lord
of the Age. throu,gh 1rhom l:tdPd !sLim 11as to l'OiliP to an end. This
new fpature had full appro1al, nnd P\:l'rl'isell tht grPahot.Intluenl'e
on tlH progrPss of his rPiigious O]llllions. Tlw Tiirl/.-h-1 .1/fl, tlwrdon,
,,.,,s to l'l']li'I'SPnt. IsF1111 as :t thing of tl1e pa.o.:t: it had 1'\L'-'tPd a thousand
(a({) }'Pars, and had doiw Its work. Thl' l'arly history. to thl' vP-..:ation
of tlw :-iunnls, was rPlahd front a point of VIP\\'. :m<l worse stliL
the had hPI'III'II:tllgl'd, inasmul'h as the dPath of the Prophet.
had been m:tdl' th1 .starling ]Hlllli. not thr hljl'll. IH' flight, of th1 l'rophl'i
from Jlakka to :\ladinn.
Townrds th1 middiP of A.lf. 1000 (hl'giBniiig of .1.1> Akbar
pnHuotPd Abl1 1-Fazl to tlw post of lh!haz:-1ri. or I'Oilllllalldlr of 1.110
thousa11d hors1. Ah\1 '1-Fazlnow brlong1'd to th1 1-,'fP:It Amirs (111/ltll'ii-.'ft
lohtlr) at I'Ourt. .\s lwfon. lH' TI'InainPd i11 imiiiPdwtl' atti'IHI:wee oit
tlii' I'IIIJH'I'OI'. In th<' saml' )'P:tr, Fayzi w:1s SPilt tot Ill' llnlli111 as Akbar's
nmbassndor to Burh:-lll
'1-:'llulk, a11d to H:"1ja 1\h:-lll ot 1\h:indPsh,
who had '"nt l1is daught1r to l'riml' :-;;dim. r<iumPd aft1r an
a ni llll>fl' t h:lll ;.1:-. (1-pn month.s
.\lub:irak. 11ho :d'hr thl' pnhlil'a! ion of Ins famous dorunwni
had :tll but niind Jrom thP lll>rld. diPd in tlw following yPar at L:"thor
17th /.i 1001, or lth f'iptl'llllwr. lfp had r<':ll'hPd
I \'!dt pp. I!" Ill.
PH!.!l' .-102. \\'r hrar tht f.l...,t 1,f t!H :\lahda\\ i mo\tmr nt llt lli2S, at the <H't'l'"-..lrJJJ
of Sh,ihjah.-tn .\ and h.ul nnt rr...,tond 1lw durlllr.r .Jah.inulr-.
rrt!!n, f'"P''t'Ja.llv 111 tilt 1tP!:Iflllll1!2:, tfu ('flllrt \\.t'-> lfldJilr rrHt to r..!J).!Hin, and t!Jf' )dng
r.t.tJTwd t!H t'trrrnon.\ of "i)drt, Jf prr'JratirJn, \\IIH h :\Iuhnmmadan-; fwl!fvr to dw to
(:od alo1H' H11t :--;h,ihpth,in, ou hh arr (.., ... ton, man\' 'fuhamrnada.n ntt'- that had
fall{'n m a.hPY:tllrT at t nurt: and .t-; Itt \\<l..., horn Ill \H. IOOH, tu \\:t'- now po111trd to :t.'ol.
the rral ft'-.,tortr. :--.1w" that t mw 11H movtnwnt fo1111d no dJ .... r qdr<.;.
thP agP of awl had ol'l'iipted lunuwlf in tlw last ye;trs of his hfe with
the r<;mpilal ion 111 four volitllli'S of <I gig a nl!!: <ontmentary to the
towbi1hhP ha,J gtvin tlw tit!. of .llan/J(fS" He com-
plttlll it.. in of f.tilmg 1'\'0'otght, a shott tune lH'lore his death.
Tlw illslort:lll llad:l,oni sptak-; of hmt as follm1s :-
Hitavh!.! lwlong1d to tlw most 1listmguL'h"d nwn of learning
of tlll' f'l''''''llt lnprarli,al WL"I"ill, pil't\', awl tt'll';lJ!l Uod hP :;loml
lngh a!nong llw piop[,. ol his I inll. In ''arly lit, lw practisc1l rigorous
a',I'Pil!'Hill, tn f.ll'l,lw -o slrwt Inlw; Vti'II'S n.gardmg what is lawful
and unlawlul, thai tf<lll\' otH', lor t:-.antplt-. "allll' to a prayrr meeting;
wtth :t gold nng 1111 Ins or dn:;,,r:ll Ill :idk, or wd.h !'I'd .stockmgs on
his j,l'i., or nd or' \'PI! ow l'll!onnd dot hi's on him, hi' would orclPr tl1"
oll"l'lllling <ll'lwlts lo lw !l'lllolr'll. ln J,g,tl,kcislons, lw was :;o sevPre as
to I hat lur 1'1'1'1'\' hni'IPi:l'l'l'dlllg a snnp!P kwk, d!'ath was t.lll'
propPr puntshlnl'nt. II h1 ili'I'H[,ntall.v hPanl mu:.;JI' IYhi!, on
tlw str,,t. hi' ran :tlla\'. hut Ill I'Oill'st' of timl' h" hl'l'<ln!P. from diVInP
ZPal, w ''ll:lntoulld ol !llU-<11'. that. hi' l'llltld not. I':>.Ist wttltout. ltstPning to
sonH' \'Oil'!' or lil''lod1. In ,,hort., he p:i.'Si'd through rathPr opposit"
modi'H of thought and \1,\,I'H of Jif,.. At. thl' tlllll' of the AlgL[:ill rule, he
tnqu,Ht1d Hltayh!.! fr.tii'I'IIIL.I'; 111 tlw lH';!llllllllg of 1!1s
n'ign, wlwn thl' :\.t'j'hhandi,; had till' ll]l]ll'l' hand, h1 sl'ttkd mattPrs
with S!'d; :iltPnl:irds h1 11:1s attal'lwd to thl' llamad;"mi
and l:tsth, 11 111'11 tIll' Hhl'ah,; mo11opoliz,.d tl11 I'Oil!'t., ht talkc1l :tC'I'Onltn.'l:
to thl'ir tashion. :illl':tk aclmdtng to th1 ll!P:t>lll'l' o[ thl'll' unlkr-
st.a!lding.. to l'lt:ill.l(l' wa-< his \Ia\', :tllll thP !'Pst. yon kno11. llut. withal
hP was I'Ollst.IHih I'Hgag,d 111 j,adung t II!' nltf!ious l'rosodv
also, I hP art ol I'Oili]IOstllg nddJ,.,, and othl'r hrancll!'s. h, U!ldPr.,tood
wrll; and lltlll\'.'til' philoc;nph1 Jt,. I\ .IS, unit!" thl' ll':trttl'd of llmdl'tsl;-tll.
a }l!'ffl'l'l mashr. ]I, kill' II Hh:it Il>i
h.\' ]wart, I'X]ilaitttd hun ]li'Ojll'rk.
and also kn1'11' ho11 to nad till' (.llll'<;lnln the t1n di!T,nnt mod,s. lie d11l
not. gn to th, p.Jia,.,,, ol th1 kn1g'. Inti h, 1\,t' a ag1nahle l'Oill-
panioll ll!ld ltd! of aiH'I'dotl'. 'l'nll;l!'ds tltl' 1'1\ll of his hk, 11 hcn Ins
ryesight \I: IS unp:lll'!'li. Ill' g.11 ,. II]> nadtng awl l11 1d in "''lu,inn. Th1'
to th" 11 hwh ht l'lllllJ>OSI'd, l'I'SI'Illbl, .. , th1 'l'rrf'/i-1.
1\uh/r (t lw .. (:nat ( 'iHnm,nt.HI' "\. and l'llllststs of fllur thil'k volunte'.
atul i-< Plltt!kd '1-'{'!/1111. lt is ratlwrt<xtraonlman
that tht'l'!' is :1 in thl' prl'i<i'''' in 11hil'h hP ""''Ills In potnt to him<l'if
A \\ nt er on" Tnpl itl ''. t ht art of t h(' t_Jur' l'orr(>ctly ''.
as the renovator of the Jll'W crnt nry.
\\'p know what this nnovat ing"
means. About the tmw lw his work lw 11isl'h tonnnithd tlw
Fiirizi Otic (in /) whwh t'tlllast., of hundnd \W-'1'', a1Hl t hi' OdP
Banla, the Ode b_v ibn Znbayr, awl otlwr Odts to nHmory, and
rel'itPtl tlwm as dady honulit:;, tdl on tht I it h Zi ltilll. ht ldt this
world at Lahnr for tlw Jlldgnwnt-stat n! Uod.
1 known no m:m o! llltll't' tompnlwn:-<1\'t' l<'al'lllllU': lmt. aLts'
nndl'r thP nwntle ol a dtl'\'!.'h tlwn 11:1' :-<tl<'h .1 ll'lt'kd lmt of worldly
prPfPmHnt, that Itt !tlt no tlttlt ol our nltgllln Ill pt'.lt't'. \\'h .. n l 11:ts
yonng. I stlllli<'tl at .l.gra lor y<'ar-; Ill hi:; t'omp:1m. ][,. 1:; tntktd
a man of nll'rit : but. Itt t'omnutltd 1rnrldl\' and irnltgltlll' dttds, phlngtd
into lu:;t ol possp:;_,ton and r.tnk. 11a-; titwstntng, pt:lt'tt.-;<'d dtt'Pt1. :tnd
falsPltnod. and 1\Pnt 'o Ltr Ill t11isttng nligions truth, that nothing of
h1s ftlrllltr lllt'nt l'l'lll:tlns ... Pith1r I .tn\ m thl' t'OI!I't't path or 111
cltar l'l'l'or, or ynn .. (Qm':-tn, xx\il. :!:1). l<'urt lwr. tt is .1 I'Otlllllllll sa)'tng
that tlw c<on brings tlw t'l\fo;l' on tlw !wad of hts fatlll'r: bt'llt't' ptoplt
hal'<' gon" lwYontl Yazid and sa\. ( 'nrS< on :1nd on
fat htr, too ..
Two \"t,Jr:< af!tr :\[uh<irak's d1ath .. \bt-1 '1-F.PI also ln:;t. htH
hmtlwr Fayzl. who diPil at tlw ag<' of !10. :tltPr an tllnPss of six tnonths
on tht lOth :-;aLu. lOIII (!'ith Odolwr, l!'i!J.)). \\'lwn in last.
Akbar \"IStltd him at mtdnight, :llld S<'t'lllg I hat h<' ttntld no longPr
spPak. hl' gtntl_v ratstd his ]lt'ad and said to him, .1\o. I have
brought l,lakim with lllt'. will ymnot sptak to lilt'
" HntgPt.ting
no nply. Uw l'ni]H'fOI' in his grwl thnw ]u:; tmhan to th1 gronnd. <tnd
wtpt loud; and afttr trying to t'OIIsol .\bCt 'I lw w<nt.
How detpk ,\bCt 1 l'a?-1 lovt'd Ius .. Jdtr hrotlwr, ts PV11lt-nl from tht
mnntrou.s passag1:i in tht' ./klutrm(J/111 antl t h1 ,i'in 111 w]nl'h :i]Haks
of him. and not l11ng is morP toudnng I han tlit' ltnts with\\ hidt ht prdat'PK
till' sl'll'dHli\S in th1 h: hnn fromlus hrotlwr., JHH'lllS. "'l'lw
gtms of thought in hts Jl"l'lliS 11 ill nt'\'1'1' Ill' forgot t<n. lttsurt'
pl'rtlllt and nt: !wart lmn tn worldl.r ottupalttJn:;, I wonld "'Ill"
1 Had,l,oni ... Ill lll'i .\'11;r-d11 'r rl/ ,l1!d 1 hat .Ldi.lll d-IJln Sll,\ lll i, Ill In" t llllP f lw
11111\IT .. (d "l hol.u uf all .\ratl\.1, lHJII\ttd hkl'\\1'"'' t() If t!JI' fl'llO\,ltf,r 1,f Uw tr1th
liu .... tvn. 111 \\ho ... rPTnfm!Jrrlllll' tlw lanH nf,dillfl< ,uf' 1 hanf<d, "R"'
mur.lrl'd by Y.t!ld, \11 Jlf,. t hP l.tttir h t .d)l-d } r1:ul-t w,tfc; 1111, " \' ntid, tl11'
11{'1 Hf:-.l'd ", B.ld,-t,tllli IH'P' t aJJ, .\ln-t '1-F;I!\ 'ollid. !'ltllf,Ctlli Hill\' tlw thuu-;and
bJ/.dla:, \\}JiciJ Akbar c1nn lum Tl'llt fr11', h11t hJY -.,1 h1Jol fl'llo\\ \'.l;id :\hi1 'I-FH71
\\il"' a. tonnnarul1r llf l\\o th1111mnd .ll\d tlw c1f th flll}l' rnr.
H1\d.l,uni, 11, tOfi.
of thr PXcPII,.nt writings of this unri1alled author of the agr, and gather,
with thP <')"1' of :t JPalr>us critic, yPt with tlH hand of a friend, some of
poPms. But now it bmtlwrlv ]ov!' alonr, which doPs not travel
along th road of criti(':tl nitPty, tlt:t1. <ommands me to write down
of ltts wrsts.' .\hit 1-Fazl, notwithsta.nd!llg hi-, orwrous duties,
hpt. his prom iS<, aittl two \'<':tr.s tlt1 death o[ Ins !Jrothcr, he collPcted
Ow stray l<a\'ts of Jl11rki:" '1-.lrlmlr. not to nwntion thr numerous
txtral'!.s wlti('h ill' iws i"''''''f\'Pd in tiw .l/;/)l{r/111111!1.
It was about tiw S:illll' ttnw that .\hit 'l-l'a0l 1ras promoted to the
po,t of a ('otnl!t:trtdtr of two t!tolt":tn<l :tntl fi1p !tuntlrtd !torsi'. CIHlPr
t.ltts rank l11 ntnd his 011 n n:tllH' lll tlw !Jst. of grandet's lll the
_i<;ll , .11.-/Hirl. 11 l'lw!t 11111'k lw ('<Hnpl..t .. d in thl' s:tlll<' yar when he
!tts lm>thr's ltt<'rary nrnains
]u tht fllilowlllg \'t':tr. 1\w forty-third of Akbar's rl'tgn, Ahii '1-Fa(\l
\ltJit lor t iw lirst. !I ttl!' 1111 :wt II' I' St'l'\'11'1'. :'llur:'id had not manage<l
m:dtrs 11<'11 in tilt' l>.th'.!lll. and Akh:tr now tlispat..Jt<tl Abtt '1-Fa;:.l
with 11rdn,; to nturn 11'1\h th<' !'niH'<'. 1rhosp t'X<'<ssivP drmkt11g cansP<l
th" t'IIIJH'I'Or tnwh :tlt\lt't 1. providt'tl thl' ollinrs of thP tmperial camp
llt:tdt t lHnt."h . ,, rPsponsti>IP to gtwrd th<' fonqucrt'd t<rriton'. [f the
ollil't'rs \It'll' d!'tn..ltttPd to gnar:tntee a faithful rondud of war,
lh was to,,.,. thP !'rtttt'<' ol1', and tah ommand wtth :'llirzi't.
'l'IH' \\:tr.s m thl' l>:tkhm, !rom thtJr first <'Oilllllt'l\l't'll\t'IIL mt<lPr l'rincP
}lmitd :tnd tiw l\h:u1 !'Jl:'in:'1n. arr markl'd hy a most astoundmg duplicity
!lll tlt .. part of thP intp<'riai olliers. and thou,alttl.s of lllPil :tlld !rl1lll<'l1Sn
stons 1\t'r S:!ITtiitttl. '''i"'t't:diy dmi11g tltt fPtgn of .fah:'ingir. by<'htrons and tlttngumg gl'll<'l':tk In fal't, thl' Kh:ln Kh:-miin lnmsdf
\l:tS till' llH>S( ltlltl'ltS!IIOI'tlt.\' llll]li'I'i:tl of!it'l'!'. ,\hit '].J<'az\'s S\H'!'t'SSPS,
tlwnlon. \\t'rt' cltitll\ du<' to tiw ltolttsl\ al!tl loyalt_v 1vith whil'h hn
ondnl'!l otwr:dtons. lw arrtlt'd at Bmhiinpttr. lw rr<'Pintl
:tit tltl't!:dtott !rom B.dt.\1111' 1\h.ltt. ki11g of 1\lt:-tndt'sh. whose brothPr
lll:trtwd .\i1it 'I sic.t<-r. JJ,. colt.'t'llltd to !'OHH' on one condition,
namPI.1, that 1\.dti'llinr Kh:tn should vigowusl_v assist him, :nul thus ai<l
tlw <':t us<' of t ht PlllJ>tror. H.t h:-u I ur 11 as not int'i i 1\t't l to a it! t lw 1 mpcria lists
in thtJr wars 1rith tit ll:th'.!lll. hut l11 sPnt .\hit rith
hoping that hy tlus lltt':tns lit' 11n:tld ,._,capt tlw Jll'H:llty of his r<'fusal.
Ahtt '1-F:t?.l. hmrt'\'t'l'. 11:1, not th man tu he hrilwd. "I haYe made a
vo11," 111' >'alii in rt>turnmg tl11' pl'<'>'l'nts. ''not to accrpt prr:.;ents till
fottr t'OtHiitwns an fullilkd - (I) frJtnHup: (:.!) that I :.;hnultl not value
tlw gift ton high: (:\) that 1 not havP ht't>ll anxious to get a
prt>sPnt.; and (I) IH'l'l'ssit_\' to acr,pt 11. supposing that thl' first
three are apphcahl,, to th<' pnsent rasP. the fayour of th tlllptror has
ewry d ... ,Jre Jitlllt' of actcptmg l!i[ts fwm otllt'n' ...
Prmce :\Iur:id had m the lllt':llltinw ntt\atttl from .\l.nnadnagar to
llichpiir, :md as thP dt\Jth of Ius mf,mt son :\lirz:t Un,;t.un mad hun
m!'lanl'holy. ],,. coni imHd to drink. though t!ang<'rou.'l.\ 1ll with tklirium
tnmPlls. \Vht>n informttl of .\hit '1-Fazl's misswn. h<' r<'tlll'llt'Ll at Ollt'<'
towards Al)madnagar. in onlt-r to h:tYt' a prt'ttxt lor not goinl! hack In Ins
father, and he had t'Oilll' to t hP hanks o[ tllt' l'i1rn:-t.
hrpnt1 kos !rom
Dawlati'th,-1d. when dPath owrlook him. .\hii '1- F:t(:l arrirPd tht< sam<'
day, and fonr11l thl' l'amp in thr utmost ronfn,;ion. Eal'h onllllantl<'r
ntommtndtd Jlllllll'diat<' rl'tnm: hut .. \hit '1-Faz1 s:ud t1wL ht was tldl'r-
minetl to march on : the trwmy w.ts war, t h<' eo,rnt r.\' was for<'ign
ground, a !HI I hi., was no tmw for rdurning, hnt. for fight Ill)!. :-;evtral
of thP commaTllltrs tn march on, and r<'LUI'Ill'd; hut .\ht-t
notlung daun!td, after a tH:t)' ol a ft'\1' dap. mmtd lorward. htmtourttl
tlw ollirlrs, and wppltetl in a short tinw all wants. ('anfully g:mtsoning
tlw ronnt.ry, hr m:tnagl'l! to OIT\I}l)' allll guard t h" tontjUt'r!'d dr.,trits
w1th tht t'Xf'l'ption of :\iistk, 11hich lay too far to thl' Wt':<t. Hut. ht stnt.
rkta<'ltlll('nis against SL'I'l'rallorts, and I'OlHjUt'!'l'd lhitiila, '['altum, and
:-;atondii. llis lwadquartns \\We on tht Uod<-111iiri. liP ntxt tnttr<'d
into an agnt!JII'nt with ('li<illd Bib!, that. afhr puni.,hmg :\bhang EJl-lll
l,laldti, who was at war with htr, sht sl10nld al'l'l'jlf .lanir tid allll
give up t ht fort of.\ l,llll:tdn:tg:Jr.
.\khar 1wl in tlw meantrme gollt' to l'jprn. Th llakl,illorwratrolls
had also hi'L'Oilll' lllOJ'I' complwahd by th< rdns:d of IJ:ih,idur 1\h:in
to pay his fi''P"''Is to l'rin<'l' IFlll)iil, and war wtth 1\h:indt,!J hal btl'n
ddnunw<l on. .\khar nso1rPd to marl'h on .\sir, ll:du-Jdur 1\h:in s
stronghold. and appointe<ll'rirHe lliinr:il to tak onlln:Jtlll at. Al.llnad-
nagar. ll,-tny.-d S<'nl lllllltrtliat!' lll,trtll'f ions to .\hit '1-Fazl to tc:tSI'
all O]Wratimls, :1s 1w \ltshrd to takt .\I.Llll:Jdnagar ptr;.:ona1lv. Whtn
th" l'rillt'l' tlwrdorP kft llurh:i11pitr .. \hir 1-Fazl :il .\kh:1r., fl'ljlll'st,
ll'ft . .\lirzii :-;hiihruhl! .. \lir .\lmtaz.-1, awl Khw:ip Ahi1 '1-l,lasan 111
of Ins corps. allll hastrrwd to mett t1w l'lli]H'ror. On tlw lith
1008 (!)('ginning of tlw l tth .\'Par o[ Akbar's lw m .. t. Akbar at.
Khargt3, IH'ar Bil:-tgarh. The Clll}JI'ror rt'<'l't\'Pd hun with th< followi11g
Thr south(rn P1irn.l l"i mPant. Ttw north1rn lllto tlw Tapti m Klu1n-
dPsh ; \\ hllst. the sout lwru Pi1rn.i, \\ 1t h 1 hP l 11-Hiu:L, tlo\\ mto t.lw (jod.i\\ ari. Pr1111 e
had from iiwhpltr to :\ an! from tlwrn to Sh.-thpltr, wh1 It he ltiid lmilt
about mght mlles south of Bal,l.pU.r. It J"' nov. m ruJns.
Strrm 1s thr illt!hl aJirl p/Nmwl ts tlw 1111111/illyht, I 1cish to talk to thee
ou 1/111/l!f 11 I.
and pro111ottd hu11 for Ius t'\<'Pii<-ut l!UinagPliH'llt to a commatHl of
four thousand. Tlw imptn:d a l'tlll' now ma r<"IHd on .\sir a llt l tom-
nwlw<d ll11 ,,i .. gt>.
Oni' da1. :\hl1 inspP<'kil SOllll' of his
wlHn Oil<' of t hP IH'SJI'gtd, 11 ho had d!':<!'rt<d to Akbar's ramp, oflered
t.o show hun :'1 11ay l.y which tltt lmpPri:diols might gt>t orl'r thr wall
of th" Fort. an import:tnt fortifitat.Jon hl'lnw ,\sirg:qh itsp]f. llalf
way lll' t ht ntountaJII, to till' ll'lst and olightly to tiJP 11orth, Wl't'P two
nnoll!l<'d oJJIIIorl.,.,, t:illd tlJt' \Fd.11 and ,\nt:1r \Elai, "hich had to he
I'OJL<jll<'!'l'd hfon .\sir its.\1 could h!' l'l':ll'htd : alii I b!'t11 !'I'll tliP north-
1\'<'.st and nmtlr. tlll'l'l' 1\d>' Jlllotlll'r hast Jon c:dh-d ('hiina \li'dai. ,\portiOn
of Jts 11:1!1 11:1s not. linJsill'd. Front :1sf to "out.h-1\'I'St thl'!'!' hills,
:111d 111 th<' "'uth ll:ts :t h1gh 1uountain \':tll<d Kmhia. A hdlm th1 south-
"''"'t ... a\1<-d 11. w:ts <HTttpid h\' t ht J lllj>t'l'ialists. Ahl1
dPt<'JIIUJH'I"n luill"'ll of tilt' lllforlll:tllnn gll'<'ll hy 1hP dl'St'rtl'r,
:tlld "'lttd :t d<t:ll'hnHIlt to lollo11 hrn1. (:Jiill,!.( ord!'r,.; to tlu' olli('l'f
I'OIIJIII:IIldlllg till' tl't'llt'h to l::ttl lor tlw 'lllilld ol 1ht lnJIIlpds :JJH[
huglt'' 11iwn ht ''""to h:l'ttJl to !tJS :l,,i,tnll<'<' 11ilh laddtrs. 111' \\Pilt
111 lh ti:Irk ol Jll,!.dd. 11hd,l r1 11:1.s T':JII\111,!.!. 111lh Ills , .. },d<'d ll!i'll on
:-\.ip:ill, .1nd "'Ill :1 It'll ol lr1s IIH'II undtr ()ar:-t Btg :dong th<' road
1-lJ:JI. l1:1d ht'<'ll polllt"t! out lo h1111 Tlll'l' adv:JIII'<'<I. Lrokt op<'ll a g.ttc
of l'orl. "'lil!d<d thP IHJgl 'l'h" ht'sitgPd rm,p up to oppnl'l'
thrn. :111d .\ltir I F.IZI h::o!tnd to l11s 1\ll'll :JIId jointd th<'m at hnak
of da.1 11 hn t ht bt''"'.gtd 1111 hdn11 Ill l'onfu,ion to .\sir. On t hP same
I" \l,ha! hiHI lltl 'diO[lt'l' I l'tl..,..,td tlw :\, n\1,\d:t \\htll Hadnn n.H!or-\a
(l!:iJ:I Bah.ldur :--ihilhl \\ltn 111 tilt' nf Ha'-""' (.\.-..],\ f()rtllittl thl
NilllH' a!_!all\...,( tlw kiilL', .tnd ttlllttltd (lltl\htoJJ-. from tilt Tlw ku1g,
t It dHil!!t'llltl" tu k.l \I' t ht-. lei! l !I''" i!] hi" 1 I'd I' ( 111\ ... !fltJTd Ito\\ II_ mn.dlf ill' ( .tpt l!TI'd.
'l'ill'-1 fort f't..,.., ha-., t hl't'l' t n..,t [, . ..,, cd ''Inch the il1 ... t h c n \In I ( 'hu '/':ri/J J 11. tlw ..,tc ond ( 'onwu I'
yhtu. and tlw th11d ,.., p\.itPd ttl tht \t'r\ ul till' lllll. -.p tlat 1t 1'-' a cun ... pw\HI\1:-\
(lhj{'l't at t hc c!J-.tnllc" td '-1\ t'll"" '' tth no dda\ '-lll'l'll\l!Hkd tl tll\ all and
.,n l'llt'i't!t't\t'alh ptt ... std tlu 111-'ht .tnt! d:J\. that ai the t'Hd pf "i\ 1t on
t hl' JHltl\t. nf capt nnd B.ldtll " t hc11\ c'\ tr pt'l'l't'l\ dan!,!t'r, ha\ mg ohtauJtd
th.d ltf(' a11tl pttlpt rty -.hutdd !w .... ,ft. tall\P a ... :-;uppllllnt tn tlw 1\lll!.! and
ltlfll"t'lf. .. \\ lttl"t tlw l1111!...' ,\1 tin-. p\a('t', .\hdul Fatd(.\lll-t '1-F.\i'll
cam" to hirtl, nud .,o \\tll'ktclliJlniJ h1 ... lliJJtd, th tt Ill' tnlh ddtrmuHd to :->l't ont for thP
\\.1 r til till' I )c tan Fl'tlll\ Proft.,..,pr 1.1'1 h f 1 nl of I nrl 11111 1/J,,Jul y, t r,IJI..,Iatf'd
trum I lt L:lt'l " lndra I I Iff, <!lid puhh..;hctl \1\ t IH ( 'td( II fill /{(I /('I/' for l s7:L
1)1' Lad \\1'\liH.: lll aft'\\ llllllur 1 tannclt tdl'nt!fy t1w nanw \'ho-T1unm.
" ( 'omnwt 1-: the Pt-r"l.'\11 ' l\ :ltl11lf!..!;d, '. '' t ht m tddlt of a 'nwnntam " Tlw mwws
of Fo1 t '1:\lat and clf 1\.nrlu.J h :lft' dtHJht I HI. t ht' hanng J,L\lai
and Knrthnh. 1\nrtah, 1\odlll.lll. aut! .,tTH!ial
\'ult n! .... o, (,,,_I 'fttl, ('tutral Ptu\ 111vt'" p.
day. other <letachnwnts of thc> army occupied Chima al\11
Korhia. and Bahiidur Khim. unable to lon(!<'r. S\1<'<1 for p:mlon
(1009). Priner D:in.1iil. who had in thP nwanttlll<' tonqll<'l'<'d ,\ l.llnad-
nagar.1now joined hi-; fathrr at :Lir.
About timP distltfbances out in th<' ll.tkhin. r:tu"d hy
Riijii :\J.nmii, all<l a party stt up thr son of as kilif!. .\s tlw
!attn found numerous adhtnnbl. the Khiin 1\h;iniin II'<IK ordend to mmh
against him. :nt<l Ahi't 1\'aH Hl'llt to hut a :<lwrt ttlll<' altn-
wardR. he was told to Jninth<' 1\hiin 1\h:in:in .. \kbar rdnnwd, in th lt>th
year, to :\.gra. lta1ing Printe ]),iny;i\ in Burhtinpltr .. \bit '1-Fa?-1 hatluu
('aRy hfP in the Dakhin. Tlw Kh:'m 1\h:'tn:'m stoud idl<' at . \1.\lnadnagar.
l>t>tausl' h<' \\a:< dtsinelitwd to fight. a111l !Pft tlw optr;\l{ons to ;\bit '1-Fazl.
who lookPd npnn him as a trattor. Ahlt '1-Fazl Yignrously puslud on
OJH'I'tdiom:. abh assi,;tl'd h1 hi..; soli

'r lhhtn:ttl. .\l(,r t'Oilling
to tPnns with tlw soli of hP attal'kd ll:ljlt \blili:t. l'l't'OI'<'l't'd
.J:dn:tpitr :11Hl thr dtslrll't. :tnd tnllict .. d .'<'l'l'ral on
htnL :\Linn.! lound a t<'lllJIIH'ary asylum in I l.i\1 l.t!:ll>:'id, :nd 111 :1 sui>.<t'-
qu .. nt Pll!.(ag.nlt'itl lit' was l!f'arl,r captnntl
.\s l'<tl'k :tc: durin:! tilt' slt'gf' of .'\, l'nn who had ltf'<'ll
H'iJt :l,!.(:tlii't the ILl nit of l'd:tipitr. l'<'ill'l!,d hts f:tllwr. :tnd h:ttl
!110\l'd to IJ:tlvihtid, llhtn lw th ttl!, of king. '!'hough
on .\khar',..; nt urn front 1\mh<llipl-tr a rtontlt.iltott had 111'<'11 <"11',<'1!.
tlw pnnte. in tl"' f"rl\'"t'l'<'lllh .\'l'ar, shm1t'd stgns ol nl!t'llton,
:H lll:lll\' "f .\kharc: bPs( ollittrs app:trd to"lllll' thl'
<'tllptwr n:JIJ,d .\hl't '1-Fazl, tlll' onlv trnsi11orth1 _s,rvant had. As
hi' pnstntt .tl ('ourt \l.ts nrgtntly rt'rptiretl, "nt. 111111 ordtrs to
lt'<t\'t' th troop< ol hi . ..; tontingent 111 th" lhkliin. l'tttttng hi.s ,..;on

' in!.(' of hts corps. Ahit "tout for .\gra. atrom-
l'"niPd ln .1 It'll lllt'll onh. who lookt-d upon h11n \lith liltlon-
,.,.:Jll'd thought .\hti jonnw1 unprolt tttl. It" was,
an f'Xnlll'nt nppnrtunih to .wt nd of hllli. liP. t lwnlorl', )11%\ladrcl
H:'ija llir :-itngh. a Buntlcl:'t chi"f of ('rch:t (('dl'!tlt:'t)." throngh w)JO.,Il
tPrnton ,\hi! '1-F.tzl was !tkf'h to pas . ..;, to It,. in wait fnr him :!lid kill
him. lltr who tn dtc:wacp at ('onrt. t':JI_(Irh- S('iJ....! 1111' oppor-
tunil)i of plt'asing ilw Pnn" \\ho no d"nl,t would sul"tanltalh' rrward
h11n on his actps,ion, and postcd a larg" hodv of hon'" atHl foot near
:\arwar. \\'hen arriwd at l'nain, Abu 'l-Fazl wac: warnl'tl of SalimH
l .\mnn'! the plnrHkr taktJl at A hrnadn:t:I/l.T \\<t'-! a ld1r.1r\'. Fa\;!'."! hbrnr.\',
Ill;! on hI'-' df'<lt h Ia }J'('d to thl' -;ta.t1, had lll't'll IIH IJl JH,rat' d \\ Jt h I Ill' llllJH nal Ld.Jrt\l).
' \'uk p .. j.lfi.
mttmLJO!l, :llld Jw; rntn trwd to prrsu.Lde lum to go via <+hall ChiindG.;
hut AhCt 'I-F<L01 "ai<ll hat thH'''''' :u\ll rohiJ!'r' had rw powPr to stop him
on his wa\' \f) ( '<nrrt llr. t hrr.forr. l'Oiltinrwd hi-; jurrrnPv toward.-; Xarw.rr.
On l'nd::)'. tlw lth 1. lOll (l:.!th ,\rrgtrst. at :L 1list.mct oi
about hall a ;,,,_, from whwh lrts srx l.os front .:\arwar, Hrr
Singh's rilt'll !':till<' 111 crglrt. 'l'h< hw lllt'll tlr:tL ,\hit h<t<l with him
stmngiy advrsPd hrnr to avord a fi.ght, and an oi<l S<nant <i:ui:!.J 1\hiin,
Af:ili:-lll, told hr111 <jtlll'kly lo tPtfP,d. to Antri. whith w.t.i tlrnr kos distallt,
as ]{:"t_l' iL\vitn and SlrraJ Singit \\l'T'l' stationt<l 1lwn wtth thon:mllll
ltnptnal hor:-;t, hr mrght jom tlrm, and thtrt punish Bir :-lingh.
HnL\hii '1-l'azl t hotrght. II a d1.sgrat't' to lly. liP dtfPnded himself hr:twly ;
hilt. rn a :-;hor'L I 111rt hr wa-; stti'J'Illlll<kd and, [HC'I'!'ell by tlw lance of a
t.I'Oopl'r, ht f,.IJ drad to till' ground. Brr :-lwgh f'\1( olt A hit 'l-Fa?-l's lwad,
and sPnt rt to :-\:dim rn !1:-dt<!h:'id. who, it i.; said. had rt. thrown" into an
JIIIWorthy , whtn it. lay for :L long trrru.
Tlrn f) j r:LVI']kr Ll(' L:ut llw rollmnng :tC('Ollllt. of ;\hii
'l- Fa0l's d!'ath :
Salim<'d to ll:drhas>;L (IJ:drh:is, tlw old form oi ll:ih;'th:!d), an<!
hPgan t-o ('oin gold and stlvtr mont'_Y in his ownnamr, which hi' rwn SPilt
to his lathr. to !urn till' mon. 'I'IH king, emagtrl at this, 11mlP :m
:rrrortnt of :rll I hat. har l h:t Jljll'lll'd to A In! 'i F:tzl. 1rlro h:ule lhl' king hi'
of 1-(0o!i rour:tgt. for h" \\Ottld t'OI!ll' f>l hint as IJlll<'idy as possrhll'; ant!
addtd that iw; son should ht brought hound to him. Prtlll'r by f:trr llt<'aus
or by lord .\urdtngly, a lrt.t.l" aftPrwarrb. having ohf.trn<'d of
ab.s<'JH't' Jrom l>,ntil'l .\a (llitnv:d Sh:ih), frp took to tiw ro:tl 11llh ahout
two or t hn<' hundnd hor:;t'!llt'll. ltavJng ord!'rs for l11s lmgg:Jgl' to follow
him . .\a-Srlim. to\\ horn :til tht'St' thrugs Wl'l't' knO\\'ll,l'l't'allrng how
l'a?-i had h,,rt toi\:J!'d:; hint. and hl'n<'t' jtr.,tJ_I' ll'aring his
fa I ill'r wouid ht nrnn n:r:<pn:t t rd t h<tll <'\'<'!' :1_g:1 i n:-;t h nn, judg<'d it ht'.'it
to inttJTt'l't. lnrnon lrts .Jlltll'lll'\', h<' lwgged lttdJ.r:t l'.trlzrngh BondPI.t,
who ii\'l'd in hr< trmrntl' ol ll:;sl't'll (t'j.J:llll), to ill' Ill \\.ttl for F.tzlrwar
Soor (I'\al'\\.tf
) :tnd r:n,t!tr u:w.!ln:'tr) :tndtO:il'llllllls hP:ultnhirn.promrs-
ing that Itt wnnJ,[ hi' nnndftrl of gnat- a htnl'lit, and woultl give him
thl' I'OIIIIII:tllil of li\1' thon.<.tnd ca\alrT. Tht RtdzJa t'Oll:it'l!(l'tl, and
wailttl with .t thousand cavalr_\ and three infantry aLnut three
or four cos:; fmm lin:til'r. ha nng out. :;cout:; into th tlt'ighbouring
Fwm E .. Fratrnunt of lndmn ('tzlcutta Ucrtew
. ' '
Th pl.we llt':tf II hwh .\hi! '1-Fatl ""' hilltd, "t'lllltl Ill thl' )IS:-;. r.;j- Sara. Bar.
f),. 's to lll' .\ h.1d rta.dmg for XHnHH.
villages. to give him t'arly warning of the approal'h of Fa?-1. A<'l'ordingly
whrn the lattt'r. ignorant of the amlmsea1lP, had l'onw as far as ( 'o!l,bag:t
(K:iliib:igh), an1l wag going towards Sour, lbd;.ia Htrt zingh and his
followi'I'S r .. I! upon him on all sidl's. and lll.'i hoi'SI'llll'll fought hrawh,
but b1'ing o\'l'l'jHJ\I'I'fl'd by numbPrs. tht'\" Wt'l'l' gr.Jduall.1 11orn out. Fat.!
himsPir, lmvmg fl'I'Pivrd twdvP wounds Ill tlw tight. 11:1s poJnt.d out. by
a <'aptiVI' s!.tve under a neighbouring treP. and 11as taken and IH'!wadl.
His head was SPilt to the prinel', who was grl'at l,v pl1astd.
L'rinl'l' Salim, with that sP!Jish nonl'lw!aiH'<' and uttl'l' inddl'<'l'l'lll'l'
that distinguishPd him throughout hf1>, OfH'Iii,Y ('()Jlft,-;s,s 111 hi.' :\J,nJoJrs" ht brought about Ah\1 '1-F:Jt.!'s nmrder. hl'l'al!s<' h II.IS Ius <'ll<'lllY,
and w1th a llail'dt l'\l'!UsJVI'!y his Ollll, rpnsl'llh .1s a dutiful
son who through till' ll't!'krodntss of ot lwrs had IH'I'Il dtJmd of Ills
fat hr's low. I 1, says:
., On Ill\' ;(('('('SSIIIll, I promolPd n.-lja llir a llundPLi IL1Jpl1t,
to a l'Oilllll:tlld of thn tholl.''<illd. !It IS Ollt' of Ill\' l:ii'UI'il<'' .111d h Js
r!atnly 1hstingu1slud among Ius Pquals for his lr.t\<'1'_1'. g<111d,JI'ttr.
and slr.tlghtfol'llardni'Ss. :\ly rl'aSOJI for pron1otmg htnl 11as thi'. To11ards
t h<' l'nd of Ill\' Ia t hPr 's fl'lgn. Shaykh A IJ\t l Fa zl. a IIJnd iist.i 11 i yh!.!
by IJJrth, who was wll known for his 11ar111ng and 1\'IsdonJ, :Jild 11ho h:Jd
1'\tPrnall\ ornanH'nlld htmsPif with tlw j<'\11'1 ol lov.dt \', thotrgh l11 sold
hll!ISP!f .If a h1gh prll'<' to my fat.hPr, had 111'1'11 1alld lr<JIII th
111 11.1 s no fri1 nd of Jlllllt'. "nd da magPd opnly and "nt I v 111 \' I'I'J'IILif 11111.
\011 .I bout that. t IIIII'. PVti-Jlll!Hit-d and l!IISI'hlt'\'011' 111<'11 h:Jd lii.Jd< Ill_\'
f.ttlwr \'1'1'\' angry wrth nw, and I ktit\1' that rf Ahli 'I F.rzl ll1'1'1'1otonJe
h:wk to ('om!. l would hal'<' hPt'll dPJH'il'l'd of<'\'!'!'\' h:lll<'<' to fl'pl'!. a
f<'I'OIII'Jiiatton As h<' h:11l to pass on W:J_I' through t lw t<'ITJ1on of
Brr llllndPLi, who at. that. t.Jl!lt' had nhP!IPd .tg.tJns1 tlw Plii!JNur,
1 SPilt a mP>sagP to th1lattl'r to s.J\' that, 1f !J,. wotdd W:J\'I.ty :\hir 'I l':tzl
and ktll him, I wo11ld ri .. hl.y 1'1'\lard !JJJJJ. lla\'1'11 favtJIII'!'d h1111. and
wlwn Ahi"1 '1-Fa;.l p.t.'istd thro11gh hrs land, h .-.topp"d lttlll o11 ll:t)',
dispNs!d aftPr a short light his 1111'11, :tnd ktlltd hilll. :tnd , . nt ht" lwad
to Ill<' at lbh:-,h,-td Althn11gh my fathtr 1\its at. lirst JJIIWh v,.,,.d, Ahn
'1-F:Jzl's tltath produ!'t'd on go01l ns11lt: 1 I'OU!d now wrthout. furtlur
annnyaJ!I't' go to my fathr, and hts had op11110il of 111< gr:Jdtr:JIIv wor
At anothrr plaeP in hiR wlwn :t!ltrding to tl11 llllll'll<r,
he as 1f an aftPrthought had to hint. that !J,. ord1"d
Bir to ktll Abii htallsP " lw had IH<n t h 1!1'111\' of tIll'
Wlwn thP of Al,n '1-Fa?l's d<>ath reaehcd court, no one had
ragn to it to the l'lll}'''ror. Aecording tu an old custom
ohsPrvrd },y Tilllitr':; d"'"''n<l.wts, the ,[path of a prinec not in plain
words 11111/ll'"'"d to tl11 ''!li}H'l'fll'. hut tlw princL's vakil pre-
stll!l'd """''!! !"ion; tl11 thto/11' with a him handkc-rl'hief ronnrl hiH
wrist; a11d "' llfl o/11; els wullltl t'fltlle<l to Inform Akbar of the
d1ath of Ins lrilld, Ahlt v.tkil P"'"it'lli<'l hitllsl'lf 11ith a Llue
hai!dl'''l'l'hldlwlon; t.l"' tin""'' Akh.1r lwwaikd Ahlt death
/\Iliff' than that of Ins soil; for SI'\'<'J'.d d.tys hi' would Sl'l' 110 oil I', awl after
ill'!llil'ln!.( i11to t }t, ,inllr/\l'<l . .'i hr; ,. ,,.L1111H'd, " If :-\.dint wish I'd to be
nqwror, lw lltlght<' ktlld ""' a111l sp.tnd Ahl1 'I Fazl," and tlwn
nwitl'd tIt< \'I'!';'<'
I\ I I . \ I I ' I I '
.)._\ ., : ';- -.:::-J ... _._ .. u}- ... .._::...:.. _; .....
1-\hay!ili 111 h1s Zl':d has!tlll'd to IJ\1'1'1 lllP,
lit \lrshtd to I"'' 111.1 il'd., and !.(:t\'t' up Ius l1f<'
.\ld''" 111 fltdtr t" jtiiiiL,h B11 :-ltngh, :1 dlal'lnn<nt lllldl'l' l'atr
D:-ls :111d IL"tj 1-\iugh
to I 'd..!t:-1. 'l'lwy d..f,:tll tilt' 1\nndPI:t dtief in
S<'I'I'I',Li ngag''ill<'ltts. dro\'t' lttlll front 1\lt:-nllll'l' a11d ,,Jnrt l11m up in
l ri"lt. \\' lttll t lw 'I<'!.(<' had pmgnsstd :tnt! a hnat'h \I as tlladt i11 till'
11:tll, l\1r :-llltglt '''"ll"'d by on of It-,] :-IIHglt'.s tnrwl!ls, :11td witltdnw to
till' jungh.s tln"h' jllll'.,lttd by !'atr ll.-ts ,\, 11. St't'lll<'tl hoplss to t:il<'h
l11111, :\ .t!l,d l'atr ll.-t. to ('.nll't; hut. ordt'r,d I hi' ollit'er.s ,,tation<'ll
about llddta to ktll tit llhtnvr Ill' shol\t'd hllll.'it'lf. In tit,
begirt IIIII!.( ol tit last \'t'.ll' ol AU,,tr's nign. Bu :-li11gh was IIIli'<' .stll'l'l i:.;td
hr ICtj.t H.lj :-ltnglt, 11 "'' cnL do1111 a good lllllllllt'r of hi.s follow .. rs. lltr
:-ltngh ltttll.'il'll 11:1s 1\0IIIldtd and h:td :tnarro\\ ''"':!}'<'. Httt. t!w <'lllJll'ror's
d,atlt, 11hid1 11111- long afl,tll.trds took pl:w1, nlit'\'t'd 1\ir Singh of all
ft':tl'."<, II, boldly prt:.;tnltd ltim:.;plf at .lahi"tllgir's <'olll'l, and ft'<'<'II'Pd
0<.1<'h:l and a <'OIIIIll:trrd of tltn thou:.;,md horsP as his nward.
" It has nf!t1t IH'I'II :t:.;strt.d, .. sa:s I h1 :tnt !tor oft hi' M!{i/8/r" '/-[ T man/,
that .\\,it 'I 11as :111 inli<ltl. :-\om<' sa: itt' was a llindii, or a f!n-
wotshippt'r, or a fnllllnk<'r, and som go still further awl <':til him
an ath<'L'I : hut. ntht'rs I'"' :L jn;;t .. r ;;,nt.nC<'. antl s:ty t.hat lw a
panth<'t,l, and that. itkt' othr h .. daimtd for himsPlf a posit.inn
, a hoi'<' t h, law of tht l'roph,t. Tittrt is no ,Jouht th,tt l11 was a man
'of lofty and dtsind to ltw :d p<'a<'e with alllll<'ll. ll<' wver
:uul ;,otl.
I ma.' rt'Jll,trk htrp tl1at 1 F.l71IlP\t'r *'l'tpkd a t1tlt.
Raitl anything improprr. Ahuo<l', stoppagPs of 11agt>s, finPs, ahsl'IH'C'
on the part of his srn:mts, ditlnot exist in Ills hous.hold. If lw appomt,d
a man, whom ht aftNw:ml' found to hi' n'"'lt>ss, hl' d11lnot fl'll\01'<' him,
but kl'pt him on as as he eould: for ht nsl'd to that, if ht dis-
him, 1wop!, would :H't'lls<' him of want of ptrwtratwn in havrn!.(
appointed an agtnL On t lw da_1 11 htn t h<' srnt Pn!tn<i
Ant's. hr in,prctctl his whnlt honschol<l and took ,.;tot'k. ktPpin!.( till'
invPntnry with himst>lf, all!! hmning L1st year's hook.;_ tit also ,l!.l\<' his
11ho!P II:Htlrohr to his servants. 11ith tht <"\t'<'ptroll of hi . .; troustrs. 11hwh
wt'Tr burnt in his prt'S<'IH't'.
''If,. had an txtraonlillan appPtitt. It rs "1id. that. <'Xt'lusi\'t' of
watPr awl fnl'l. lw t'onsunHd daily tlnllty-!lro spr; of food. !Irs son

r-lbl.nn:in ustd to s1t at tahl, as
(luad hntiPr): thP
snpcrinttntknt of tht kittllt'll, 11l10 was a :\luh.llllll!adan, 11a' :dso 111
attPnd:tlH't' and both watclwd to wlwther .\h\1 l-F:11.I 11ould Pat !11 !<'<'
of Oil<' :11ul thP sanJP dr..;ll. lf did, tlw tkdr 11.1 . .; stnt. up ag.1in t h
rwxt day. H allythin!.( apptartd tash!Pss. J\ln-1 '[ l<'a;d g:ll'<' rt to hr,-; '"lll
to tash'. and lw to th<' slljH'fillt<'lldtnt, hut no mml 11.ts sard al>ollt. rt.
WIHn .\hir was in tht ]l.1khi11. hr.-; tah!t' luxlln'PXt'Pt'<!t-d allll<'lid.
In an immt'!lse tPnt (-lululnl!l'oll) oilt' thou.;aild rwh drshts \lt'r daily
srntd up and <lrstrrlm!td amoilg tht .\mir.-;; a11d utar rt :lllllt!!l'r l:rrg<'
ttilt 11:1s prh'li>d for all-toJIII'rs to duw. whPtlwr rwh or poor. and /Judul t'ookPd all day and \Vas stntd out to :my Oil>' that. :1pplrd for rt."
".\:;a wrill'r. ,\hir '1-Fazl 't:rnd' IIIH'll',lilttl. [Irs styl ''grand and Is
fn>' from tlw t .... hnwalrti .. , and flirnsy pnttlllt:<s of otlwr :\lunshi . .; and
tht fort'<' of Ius word,, tlw strudun' of his H'nttnt't'" tilt' srrrtahl>'ll>'-s of
Ills l'OIIIJHH!Iltls. and the t"ltgantP of Jus ptnods. arP s1wh that rt wo11ld IH
drlliult for am Oil>' to imitatP thnr."
It is almo"t n,.;Pit:<s to :uld tn this ('ntumrurn htstolll'd on ,\b\1 '1-FH?.I's
stylt. ']l:lh. kin):! of Bubhi1r<i, sard that hP was mort afra11l of
Ahlr '1-Fa:::]'s pen than of ,\'s arrow. Ev,.rnl htfp 111 India Jr,. IS
known as" thr grt':tt :\lun,dri ". l11s l..ttPrs arP studiPtl 111 all
and though a hPgltlllt'r may find tlwm drllil'ult :111<l th .. y arP
perf<'d mot!Pls. But a gmrt. farnrli;trity, not only with th" i'Pr .
languagr. hut al:-<o 11 ith Ah\1 '1-Fazl's sty!<', is f<'<]ilirtd to lltakt- the fP:tdmg
of any of his works a plea sur<'. 11 is corn position stands u11i jill', and though
ewrywht'rt' studied. h<' ran not hr, and has not h<'t'n, irnitatd. The
Safm rhi -I']
Th1-; I"i al8n the opmiun of thf' auth11r of 011' 1'/liul.
aftr )
write in tJ,. ;,t \'1,. of tlw !':idic;h:ilm:ima, ,\.I:tmiin"i Sikandari
or i11 the still 111ore tu;.gid nwn1wr of the the
lkdil, :rnd ot h<r worb on Inshii.
A JH':IIS<'II'otthy of Al1tt II'Orks lif's in the purity of
tlrri1 t'llllftnl:'. ThrJSe who a1e acquaint('(! 11 rth Eastl'm literature will
know what t!Jt,..; lri<:rns. l havn conw anoss no p:tssagP where woman
rs It girt ly '1'"'-"n or. ondwn immorality is passe1l over with in<lifierencc.
or Ills lm'l' ol :lllil nobility of lllo S(lltinwntR l I have spoken
111 tlw l'nl:r
Ahii 'I infllli'lll'l' 011 his agt was inmH'IISI', It may lw that he
and Fap-:1 kd :Uiw:s mind away front hl:im and the J'rophPt-this
l'!rargP 1s hmught "againc;t tlum by tnry l\luhammadan writPr; hut
Al<tl 'I F:r?.l :rbo !.,[his sol'f'fl'tgn to a trw.' apprPciation of his dnti1s,
:urd fr"m the lllllllll'llt tlwt. ht.' nhnd C'omt. thP prohlt'lll of sncrpssfnlly
rnllllg o\'l'l' 1!11.\t'd whi .. h!l in hut f<.w otht'r conntrit's had
to solvt, was l'anfnllv con ...udtnIL and the polil'y of to1Pra1ion was the
rt'SIIit. If f1lt. till' ll<'t'I'H.sily of tlti.s new la.w, Abii rnnnciatetl
it. and fo11ght fot it. 11 it It his jll'll, and If tit!' 1\lt:in 1\lt:iniins gailll'll tltP-
vil'!mws, till' 11<'11' polll',l' nt'OIII'ild tht people to tlw foreign rule; and
whilst 1\kl"1r'.s apost.wv from is all but. forgolttn, no l'lll]H'ror of
tlll' has I'Oill<' nPanr to t!t1 idP:d of :1 fathPr of tlw people
tlt.1n lit. '1'111' nnr.s1on, on tlll' otlt1'1' hand. Ill lattr titms to the policy
of nltgtolls ni!oltI.i!!Oil, 11 1! has sllrronndPd in th<' t',\'I'S of the
\looll'lllo tl11 llll'lltol\' ol :\1\Tangz\h 11ilh t!J,. h:do of sandity :tllll still
!Itt pin11s to tilhr a wlu/11 ' '1/rh-/ui (\lay <loti han mny on
hint I) 11 h1'll h 1.s na Ill<' 1s llll'llt ioltl'd. was abo t h" l11ginning oft lw hrra king
UJl of t}w l'lltJ>II'I',
ll.t\ 111.g \'h'll ltnP gi1 <'11 nlllJHrous I'Xt rads fmm 1\nd:i.oni to slww
that .\ k ha r',; tomt l<'rs a.scnh1d It is :qHlst acv from J.-;l:i m to Fa\'Zl a111l
,\ htl 'I l':11.i. I ll<'l'd not qnot I' ot h1r \IIHb, and wtll lll<'rl'h a ll11dP to a
coupkt. h1 l' rlt fn >Ill of l11s ( l1 J,.s i11 11 hich hi' t j,l' Prophet-
-:_--' ..... \ .... , .. ......... :.--. ....

,1_, .J . ,I_ .. ...... ;;..._i_: ....

\,..,. _,.J ,/ \,..- o -' I_, .._.. ,/ ,I ,/ \..,.; .I'
t.---- ...:_<.} J ,) I J ._.\. 11,_,' '--': J\........., \,.' ,.\_ I 1._) .. ( J1, : ... ' .i: j ll
,I ,I .I J / / ...... ' '.I
0 l'ropltPt. protttt tl11 .losq>lt of nn soul (u. my soul) from the harm
of th1 hrotlt1rs: for thl')' :11'1' Ullgi'III'I'OUs and l'lll'inus. an1l t!PcPi\c me
ltk1 PVil opntl'' an< I lead Tll\' 1\1\lf-ld;p to tht wl'il (nf unlwlid).
Lt'f. radr (nu-..ult (;Jad\\in'-. ll{ :\h\i '1-Fatl':-; introductiOn to tho
fl\lll'th book nf tht> .rc./-1/,ll, pp :!:4.--. !H.
ll Flit" c; l"rfi \ Hh- p li:W. Tlw nwtn oft lw coupld Long Hamal.
I iii
.The commPntators t'xpl.lin this p:t<s:tgP as an allusion
to the hrothPrs Fay?-l ant! "\bii 'l-F.t?-1. l mal abo t'llt thP T:irih)! of
Ahtt dt'ath, which thP 1\hiin-i \lirz:-t 1\ok.t i--: said to h:tlt'
madt' >--
_\_ .J _..::. \..,1 ...; \ c ... ; \'--"'-,;:
'./' . / "" ..__
Tlw lrond<rful sword of <:(}(l's prnplwt. cut oiT t Itt !wad of t ht J'tlw]I
But Abtt '1-Fa{.l :tppt'.md to him Ill :t drP.IIll and s.ti.l. .. Tht d.i!P of
my dl'ath lits Ill tht words ,_,I ),\,
, "'J'h, .--:l:m' .\lni '1-l<'azl
which liktwise gtns .\.!!, 1011.
Ahii '1-Fa;:.l's 11 orb an t lw following --
(1) Tlw .lkhrtmiiltla with thP .['ln-i .lkiHul. t!s"t11ird \'oltnu. Tht
:i'ln-i .11./Hirl 1ras t'omp!Pttd Ill t lw l:!lld .\'Par of .\kb:n., rig11; otth
:l slight addttion to tt. 1\.ts mtdt in tltl' t:iJ'tl \'t',ll' Oil :tt't'OUIIt of tht
ronqmst of Bariir (\.Il, ];",!lti-i). 'rh .. t'tlldtnts of th, .11./mul<llll!t h:tl'l'
hPI'n dttaiiPd in tlw I'J'tfat't'. Tht so11d \'tdutllt' t'ont.11n--: :til .lt't'Ollllt.
of the first forl\-six _i'l':trs of .\khar's 'l'hl'l'l' t'\t.<ts a t'tlliltnll:diotl
up to the tlld of Akbar's nign h1 qn:i\,!(
'll.tlt Tl11ts al
ll'a<L the continu:ilor isc:tll<d in hm \]:-;:-; I lt:tl't' "'''11. I:lpltill,tollt'
sa\--: t.hat th 11.11111' of th l'ontntu:tlor i-; \luh:lllllll.ltl :-;,tlt.l. 11 hll'h St't'lll'
to ht' :1 t'tl!TIIJ'tloll of JJllh.IJIIIII:ld h.
(:!) Tlw Jfaklii/,iil-1 :tl.-;o <.died lns/111 'I' .1/JJ/ '/Fa/ Tit!'
hook <'ontain-; ldt<rs wrllha h\' ,\hii to and ch11k
thl'm an tl1<' lltftnsting ]t'lttr--: ll'!'!iltn to 11!1' l'ortllgllt'St' lll'lt'st<, and

'11:111 of llllhl!:"trii. in J'tply fq ln.s '1"'':-.llnn 1\lll'lhtr
l't'llOIInl'l'.j ],];1111. fltstdt-;, flll'f'l' .1!'1' prl'f.ll'l'' :tnt! 1'!'\'li'l\.-;, :1 l:llll.ill]t
Pssa1 on thP pro,gnss of lh<' art of po!tton-; of 11hll'h :l!'t' ,l.(II'Pn
Ill tlt<' ,I ill, <'k. Tlw l'olll ion '"" Ill.! tit :tlltr .\1,\t I l-'.11L; It-: II h

con of Af(.:d :\lull:tnlm:!d. 11 l111 ,,11 .s I h. II l11 '"'' "
'"il of ,\bt-l '1-F:t?-l's .sisttr :Jnd :tbo IllS Still 111 1:111'. Tltt' IJool,, a.--: al"''''
rtmarktd, is frequnllv n:lll in .\, :1nd t hrp "'1't llt:lll_l' l1llit>
graphPd tltlions. In :til of I lit l'o!tttnls t'llll,.,litult lli!t't' '"'"1,,:
hnt Amir lf:tyd:tr of lltlgr:tnt 'ay.s in till' prPI:ll'<'lo 111' S'"'''IIJJ[J 1
that lw h:td a <oll<'<'itoa of f,,llr '""'ks. nJ!l:lrklltg :tl lht 'llilt'
TI!P \\ ord ,.=.\.. lrfJbi. a, fl'btl, ha-. 1lw riilllll'fW,d \ al1w 11f Ill iJIJt I ill' Ill' ad (,Jf t I If'
lwtJ!tIOI:! 2 HJII,thc\tarrJftlwiiJr:J.JIJHhHhAbti
T Fa1.l \\ .t.'l murd<'nd. Tlw l!ldn 1d t lw h J'l Lonl!. Nlllflfll. "
Tlw-tGth fr!!rn tlw }.ith to HaJI\,lliJJ, !OJ(), 1 ,., to
aLout thr months btf(Jfl' .\!11-J 'J.F,L!l\ dt;dh
Hq:.trdm!..!; t \ .du.t hlP \\ o1 k, '!d+ Jl I. IH 1t t
time that .\1:-::-:. of tlw fourth an \WI' r:tl"l'. It looks. indl'cd, as if Amir
llardar's I"Of'}" 11:10 111111/11<'.
(:l) Thr /Jr7111sh,
11 hil"h I'> lllPnlionrd on p. il:!.
llr.'!dr,.;, I hal"<' '''''II 111 rliiYrrttl i>llok'i thai Ahii 'I-Fni nlso \\TOll' a
f{,,,iilri!Ji J!,u,r7J,7t. or '' Trr:ill;.;r of l'tayrrs"; :L "{.flluh_iil, a
i<'XII'O!.,'I"aphwai w"rk , and a 1\o.,/do/. 'J'h,. la,t. \l"orrl mr'.tns a ' hq.(gar's
or t;rtlwr th :;tn.di i,.,,ht or hrllll in ll"hwh lwggars in tht> East
l"oii,.ct. nrr, dat"' .. tr- .. ;!1\"1'11 as :dms, and tl11 t.nn is oft,.n applird
to mll<"it<>ltS of anrd"ts or ;,!tort. :;fort<''i. B11t ['l' sr'l'll no r'Ojlli'S of
titr"i<" 11orb. It, 11':\.'i :rl'" llwntiorll'rl ab01 that, .\i1ii '1-l<'.tzi prPsnted,
o11 lw; Ptirodwttr>lt ;d ('"nrt, t110 omH\I'Itf.trll's. "f whwh no .\1:-::-:. :;epm
to <'\1'1 :If l''"'"nl.' \or nPPd I :t.!f:llll tl'lr to thr p.trt 11 hirh hr took in
thP tr:tlt.,J:tttolt.'i from 1-'an,ldt( :1J1rl thP rllllij>ilatron of tlw Tii!I{.__Li .IIJI.
'['Jt,. f),,,.,u" '1-.ll!lnslulr. a llllld,rtl T:tllktm 1>1 .\lul_i:lllllllarl
I.Jns:tytli ,.j :;rlrrh tit" ll!'n!pt101l ll!"illl'll hv
AIJil "1-i',,,.J lor a tHqdr in 1\.t;.;iunir" :IS a 'iH'I'JIIIr'n hot h of :\hii 'I Fa0l"s
111"11-tng a11rl ol itt.' rritgtll\1.> J,,it..f. it. '' l"ntainh l'!'rV
and l'i 1':\,'iih' li'I'O!fnl/,1'" ;{'i .\l111 "i J.';tzJ's I'IJlllilll''lfiOII.
... .._
'' .
! _) ' / '!
.\.. .. >.' _,.- ..
.. .\ .... : .......
... .; \.- ,.;.
- .. ,.,
.._, ' ,J .LI ' _ _;,;
" _, -" I -" "'
... ; f J!, ... _, \....--'-"-\_.-::: .......... .: I
,\,,,',...,,if I
I I .
L--.' ...
... }

....... ..;_,___, ,.......;:.
'-'--' 1, ......... .._;;. \.,.., w \ . '
J.J1....' ...... '
/ ...
1\J "' .l.J _::_\.. .... ,,,:;
/ /j

._........: ....

, , 11 r .._\_,.............._, ( 1 / /
,.,_, .. :---- ....... ..: ..._..:. , .,::: ....;;-'-' ..:...,.- - ... :'.J ..__.::...\,._..."-
.t..: -- ,\} ... .. ;J. , ... ' \' -' ,:.. ... ',' ............... ..... } _. ,.,>.._(_, '-,',./:!.,._
; ' I ' ..L: ._ ... ,...!
.\-.I ht \Hil d Jll'tlllOIIIH't'd \ ll lndJ,1, lll"l t'll!! pf' 1; .II -I 1 ),\Jli."h ", ' I }lt' j t'.'il td '\!--dum,"
ThP aathnr ,,( th 1/!ljt f,J/1111 tn .dllllit In thH\\tJI... that .\hl1 'I-Fa7l,
nht'n lw hun111 \11. 1\liH), ,\,t." llll't'"llllllg tlw
J .\ln-1 'l-F.\tl mthe fi,lllth IH1llk ,,f tlw .l'ln- Tht' ht ... t pPtlpll' m 1\.,\..,Junir a.rt'
tlw Blah!Hl\11:4 .. \!though tht'\ lu\\t 11nt Yl't flt't'tl tlttJH-..cht:-l fl'tJlll tlH fdt1t8 (If hhnd
hdlPf a.dhtrttH't' to tlwv \tl \\tlt..,JJt]l "Jthout n.fitctatJnn. 'lhl'Y do not
.\t pt'tlplt of 11thtt ut(t.; Jlo dt:-.tJt'=', and dn not nm nftet June. plant
frmt tl"t't'"\ a11d t'tlntnbultll) till' \\tlfout 11f thtJr ftl!tl\\ Tlwv aht.\m f!tltll
nwal. and hH Til t'l'hh.\cy. Tlwtl' alt' ah11111 f\\0 thtiH-..ntHl thl'm tn
.\h,h,\r -"t't'lll" to ha\t' lool,t>tl upon the.-:t Kn--hmi1i" no:; lllC!tll'lllun.
,'.......J .} ..... +Jt.' : ... .l...; .:
.. .I "
. .SI

'. I _;1 -' '" .I -...:.:.-6...'\ .... \.."- ,.1

.J L.t-:r t_/-; , - ,
. ...;:...;. ,'> -': ... \ ._!'. ... .... Jl_,_,;.l .L.
/ ./ 'I l:. /
J,lw.l I ,,;,.::,.._\ ..,\,;...,.) .,_\...: .'..:.. _',;
.I ,.. ....._ \,of .I I
-.:...'- \...\.,\ .. '
._:; "'
.. ' ,15
> /
0 <:od. 111 P\'l'r\' I sl'<' ptopll' s1'1'k 'I\''1'. :11111 111 1'11'1'\'
I ,;pok,n. p1'opk pr<il'il' '1'111'1'!
l'ol.l'! hPISlll :1nd H:i Ill ft1l a I t"r Tl11'1'.
E:uh sal,,, .. Thou art o111'. \\llhmil '''[11:11.
H it. ht a llliN[Ilt'. l"'op!P llliii'IUIIr tht holy jll.i)'l'l. .1nd 1f 11 !"' .1
Clm,tian C'hur..!J. ptopl: nng till' bll front lo\'1' t" '1'111'1'.
IIIli'S I lntjllt'll! tht C'hn,!Jan ..!ol,(,r. and :--onll'illiw,; I"''
1110'< jill'.
llut II 1s Tho11 11 hom I sParl'h from (pmplt- to ttinplt.
Th 1 ebt haw no <lcal1ngs 11 1t h I'll Ill' I' horesy or ort hodo\_1' ; lor
lll'lth .. r o( tlwm .-<t.1nds llt'hlllll t :il'ft'l'll of Thl' (.rut h.
l!t'!'l'sl to thP ill'n(Jt'. ant! nl1g1on to tl11 HII1tJdo1.
l:llt tlw du.-<t ol tilt' ro'" j>l'lal
!J,Iongs to tho llt'al't of 1111'
Jl"rf llllle-:--PIItr.
Tins ttmpk ll:t.'i t'l'l't'(l'd for il11 pill'j>O.'I' of IJ1nd1ng togPihtr lh ho,ulo
o( tlH l'mtarl.l!L'i in and '''i"'t'lally thm<t of 1!1,; 1\or.-<hlj'i"'r'
that h\'t' 111 thu ]'10\'lll<'e of J\a,hnlir.
By ord!'l' of iiH' Lord of t h, 1111oll1' :111d t ht ITO II II. I !:1111]' of
natwn, .\kbar,
ln 11h11lll tht '<'\'t'l\ nllllf'rals find lllllf"rnuty, in 11hon1 lhl' l'o11r
<kmtnts atta111 JH'rf<l't llli:>.tur ...
Ht 11ho from 111'-lll<'l'l't' Jll(Jtil'ts dt.,tm\, thiS ltllljJI<', shotdd fir,t.
<ll'siroy hi." o\1'11't' of 11nr"hip; for If \II' follow tlw dwl:ti<''i of llw
!wart., we mu.;t bt:lr up mth alilllt'll, L11t if\\<' l()ok lo ihP 1.\ttm:d.
tim! ewrythin!! propt'r lo lw tleKin_l'<'ll.
I Thl.'l hrH H Thl lon!,!Jng ,,f thl' ltf,t.rl I' c;,,d ]"! ( ''HllJalt rl tutlw I'' dtlllH'
\\hrr h n ... fr,,rn tht rr'"'' tal". Tlw JHrfnnw" llrr, 1 r tlu l'rJJf,\JJ.uJ, l'l 11 ul.\ Jr hgrour;,
and 1-1 (quallv n JllrJ\r'd frr,rn lwri'"Y arr1i orth,,doxy
: J P. 1:-:1 tlw lll'flnl l.1iunl, ur I)IJftl t IIIIUI.
()floc!, Thou art just an<l jwlgPot :m action hy the motiV(';
Thou knrmi.'t wiHthN a is whlnur, alHlillkst the king what
motives a ktng should have.
I hav< a on ,\bit '1-Fa?-l's family, which may form the con-
,.]usion of this ],iographical not iccu. 'l'hr ,{In givts the following list of

I. l'ihayhh Al,it '1-l.<':ty?-, lH'ltir known mHler !tis poetical name of
Fani. lie \\':IS hom Ill A.l!. (.\.n. ]:)l7) ami iiCe!llS to h:we uiru
.. hddl<s:;,
,\l,ii 1-Fat.l, Lorn llth .January, 1551, mtmlnc<l l:2th
:1. Sh:trhh ,\hit] B:trakid, horn 17th 91j0 (15:-i:!). "Though
hn has not l'<':t('h('d a high <kgt'l'C of ll'arlllng, !:P knows much, is a practical
man. awl ll<'ll wr:;,.,[ in fPn<tng. l!c is good-natun<l an<l fond of
dPrl'tc<hos.'' lit SPl'l'<<ltt:t<ltr Ah,-t 'l-Fazl in 1\h:tndPsh.
1. 0lt:tybi! Ahtt 'l-1\l:ayr, hom:2:2nd.Jum:id:l I, %7. ''Jip is a 1\'Pll-
infotll\l'd yottng man, ol :1. ngula!ld mimi.'' liP, too. mn:-;t haY<' cntned
ltnp< .'<nif'l; for he ts mmt-ionPd Jll .11./)(/miimll havin;r
IH'('Il ''-'' lllf ('lll]'!'l'Ol' to the llakhinto ft('h Priuce n:,nviiL
fl. :-lha_vkl1 Ahlt hom :,!:lnl :-;h:\11\\'iil, llc was \vi],[
:If,, IJttf, ;_!ltlfi<d hv his fatlll'r lw l<anwd a good dal. J!, al.'io
nnd,r 0bh 1\ L11 '1-l'.tt l_t :-;hir:-tzi.
']'],,.'""'I'' li\'<' 11<'1'<' ail by tlw s:tnw moth<'r, \lhn, ,\s nm,uled
a]HJ\f', d II'" Ill
ti. :-;haykh .\hit Tm;tl,, hom :!:in! Zd llljj:tlt. "Though his 1notlwr
is ;;nolhn Oil<', lw is adnttlld :tl. (\nat, and is ng;tg<d in s"lf-
i nt]'l'll\ l'lt\f nl . "
ll<std,; th< ahow, ALii nwnltnns hm postltllliiOlls iillllS by
IJ'IIII/1111. or nn"nl,tn,s, viz. 0h,l.\ kl1 .\hit '1-l_l;lllltL born :lnl Habi ] I,
:tttd :-;h:lY!-1, Al,\1 IL'tslttd, bomlst .Jumi':da I, 100:.!. ''Titey fl'"<'llll1k
thir f:illwr."
or I lind loll!' llH'Illlf'll<'lllll tllf hi--t .. ril'S :-
1. On, tnarri,d to Khud.ill,\l\cll\h.'ln;hini: Ytde p. 1\10.
,-,tlls hn hush:lltd a i.l'. a ;-;hiah, and says h died in Kari Ill
:.!. lln<' marril to l,lu<mt" 'd ])in; ,id, p. 188.
:1. On<' nwrril'<l to :1 son of H:lja 1\ hiin ,,f 1\_h, Thrir
made, in th<' -13th )'l':tr of ,\'s reign, a com-
m;m<kr of nne thon'lall(l.
4. Uulli BPgam. manil'd to Isliim Kh:'in; \'HlPp. nott 1. T.\\'.
Beale of Agr.t, the learned author of the .ll;ftiih"'llfll''irikh, lllL'
that L:'it.l!i llrgam tliPt! in 1017, or fiw years lwfott' thl' d,,\lh of !lt'r
husband. liPr mausoltum. t'all,d the" L:-t<,lli !" about.
two miles to thP Past of Akbar's mausoltum at. :-;Jkandr.t, llt\ll' .\gr.1.
The intt>rior built of marble. aiHl tht 11 hok 11as !11 a 11:tll
of ml Fathpi'Ir s:mdstonP. ft was omp!dl'd in ltlOL ln lKt:l. 1\t.dP
saw Ill the H:mr.a several tombs without. IIISl'l'iptwn:.;, :md a fl'll' ytar:.;
ago the plate was sold by go1ernnH:nt lt) a mal!hy llind\1. 'l'llt' JH'\1'
ownrr dug up 1 he marble stow:.;, wit! t htm, and d:.;t royed t ht ttnn[,,;,
so that o[ tlw old Haw;a nothing nm1aday:.; hut. tlu sll!TOIIIHlulg
wall. }Ir. Beale thinks that tlw hodlt'S of :-;haykl; F.1y;i,
and Ahft \l't'!'l' hkPwisl' lmriPtl t.htn, ht'l'.lllSl' mtr tlw entr.tllt't'
the followmg msntptwn in Tughr:'i char.wttrs 111:1\' st til b .. St'l'll:

.. .. ;, ... . u I..,..>.;\ ...... :--. _;1.

J .I '-- J \ "'-' .; I " ..._ / \
... --....:..! 1 ....; L,w-'-' .c_:\

..... ... '-

I 1 /1' ' / / \... ' .....,;
... \s.....:l 'IJI .. . J .
, ,, - J - \,.,. - ,/ \..._
,,';1 ;,'..: )'....::...)'.! , . I:J,,- ._(;', , , I' . ...J;I
,..; ...;,.. / - ' 1/ "-
I I .__.::I '-' I I ... - J ...:.:..: ' ._:.: .-::.::- .. I ........ ... 1 A-...
I \...._-"' .-/ ' I
ln the of <Jo,[ t lllt'r\'i ful. t Itt ltnwnt, 111 11ltom I tr1I.'I. 1
mausol<'lllll rPdttl for tht di\'IIlt' H..iltli:Ir. tltt s.tgt of tit
dPrn.d, llt<' gathPrtr of kntl\I!Pd).!', ,J,th.irakull:dt (lll.IV It,, St'<Td
lw sand tlitl !). 111 lil1al p1dy l>y t Itt Ol't'a n of sritnto, :-;1ta1k ), .\ h\1 'I
-m.ty Uorl Alnugltty pnsene him! in t bP slt.tdow of llw 111:1j<st.y of
tit<) jw;t klllg, whom pollt'l', au.-;pwiousn<"i.', :11td gntrosity follow,
.Jal:ihttldunyii waddin Akbar, l':ult,lt:-dt i IIJ:tV C:od Altnigldy
perpduat .. the fonnLttions of k1ngdom
- llll<!tr tht.' .'illflt'IJJdnd,llt'tl
of Ahi'1 '1-lhrak:tt, in 100 I (.\.I>. lii!J:i-!!li).
Tillis it will app<ar that the l{:t\1'1.:1 w.ts ln1dt Ill tlw .r .tr 111 wlnl'!t
F.ty!.i di<tl :Shaykh :\luh;irak. llll'lltJt>llt'd alHII't', dlt'd Ill "'' lf'J!I:\.
It homvl'r, If 'Iul,:,rak and F.tni hal '"'''II IHtri,d
at a place (t) Agr.t, on tltt: ll'ft bank o[ tlt1: .l:tlllllll:t, wltn: hn
lirst s..ttletl in J;j.j[ : for Ab1-t Ill 1ksnipt11111 ,,f ,\i'l:t in
the .tln L ''On the oth1r of is tlw B:t:,lli \'di:J, built
by Firda\Y8 :\Iab'111i (thn 0lllf"'ror H:'tlwr). t It: :ttl thor IHJrn, and
:\ly tP\.t (dJ1Joll, p ttl. \'ult :d-,o p r;:m, J\, t'lw'" .1 if''' ft'uu/r', p 17, ,up! n dJJJg
Litlli l.kgum, p t.J. 'L,\,111" llli',Ul'i m a. pd ",
I viii
thrrP an pl:v:r.-! of fatiHr anrl his ehler brother. Sh:tyklt
'd-llin and "\lir f{afi"'d-din and other worthirs are
l!llril'd tlwn." WI' have no infrmn:d-ionregarding a remoY:d of the bod! PH
to t.lw ollwr 'id< of tlw .Janwn:-t, tho11gh AIHI '1-F:qd's msniption no rlouht
shows that- srwh a nrno1.d was Jllitnled. It is a pity, hml'rver.
I hat IIH ltrw(.a w.r.-; sold :rnd dt";t.rnyl.
Al>it '1-F.rzl's son is llw

'1:-lt\llll AFZ.\L KH
II horn on tlw !17!1. awlreniHd from his gr:nHl-
fatlwr lit Mlllllli narnn of 'r-Hal.11ni'm. ln tlw :l!ith y<'ar o[ Akbar's
nigrr, 11IH'II I 1\'I'JII,l' _l<':rrs of ag, ,\khar m:rrriPrl hrm to daughtPr of
Ia t. Y:l r 1\ok:t's hrollll'r. ll1 hr Ahd
'r- H:rl.lln:'tn h:rd a son, to whom
Akbar g.tll' tlw nalll<' of

\Vh"n Ahlt 'll'.u.l Ill rornnl:ln<l of th<' army in tlw ll.ddrin,

'r l{:rllln:'rn 11:rs, what lh<' l'trsi.rns l'all. tlw t/r-1-nl-_lfl: larf.-,rsfl-1-11.
''tlw arToll' at h.rnl at. th<lop oftlw qut\'rr , 1'\'1'1' rr:trh- to IH'dorm dnttL'C'
fmm 11 lrwlt ollwrs .-;lrr.tnk, :r.nd Wl<'ly an< I touragou,;h settlrng m.ttlr,;
ol rruporl.tll<'<'. Jl, l':>prtr.tll_l' 111 'l'alrng:tna. \\'hrn
\rrtlar, tnllrP [t;llt l'<',tr, \ ll.dt:ulur (p. i'J.-11;)
and h:td<n !"""'"""\of 1111' t'llllllil'l', .\hit 'I F.t!.l dt'ip:t!l'h"d
'r- Ba hrn:'rtt .tnd 1\ 11 :'tj.t. (I' :-1 Ill) to "Jl[lll'<' t hr <'11<'111 \'. Thl'y eros.--;rd
thl' Uod:tll.rri 11<':11' \:rnd,r .. 111d dtl.tltd :d tit .. \'t.
dtd not tr:rn--;J,r I> llr son tlr h.ttnd wlnl'lr lr<' lr.ul ftlt
fort It 1.11 lwr.< hrm .t t'llll\11\.ntd,r uf I 11'<1 thou'i.lltd hors<','e lnrn
tht t.tll 11! .\.J'; .. d .!ib.:llt. :til'! .tpj">nrll hun. ttt tilt' third w.rr of ht'i
nign. of 1\dt:lr. ,.,,.,. (-; 1\ (till' lrusl>and of .\.hii '1-F.tzl's
11hu 11.1' ol'llt to

r l'l't'<'ll'<'<l Uur:'d:hpltr
a-; J.tgrr. .\.-; ol, h" lwl h" lu.rd<Jll.trlrr-; at. P.rtll.t.
(ltH'I' lri'i """ll'''' ftom l'.lltt.l, a ,[,rvr,;lt of lit n.rrn of llnlh
'd dill :tpp<'<ll'<'<ltn tit rlr-;lri..t. ol 1\hnjpltr, 11lrwh to tlw thtrt
wry troul,J,.'<,ll\1' l'jJ.trrnva lbj:ts (p. :iii, not.). and'l' out
hi' was l'rrll<'<' 1\lru>ra, whlllll hrs llll'<ll<'l't''"ful rrbtllton :ml imprison-
ll\Pnt hy .l:rh.lngir hat! tn.u[, tft,. Ltl-otmt of th ]H'opk l'olll'dtng
a br_g<' lllllllhtr ol llll'll, h lll.trdt<''l on l'.ttn.t, ot'<'li[He<l 1 Jt,. fort. whwh

'r-ltilpu.ln';-; otlinr'' rtm:trdk gave
up. awl plnnrl<t'<'<l :\f;..d Kh.ln . ., proprrty :ttlll t It, lmprr:tl tn.t,;ury.

'r H.d_1ru:lll rrturn,d !rom Uor:ddtpltr .ts "Hill ,ts h !lt'.ml of
\rh11'h n:tmP ,,,\.., J,orne hv tht hrqthvr pf 1-.f.Llldl\.lr \\hn "' ... o llftnt mcnlhml'd
Ill '
rebellion. The pretender fortified and drtw up his anm at t ht
l'un Pun Riwr.

'r-Ral.nniin l'harged at ont'P, and aft,,,: a short
f1ght tlispt\fSL'd the enemy. (,)nth 11011' rd.naltd ttl t.h(' fort. lollm,,,,[ by

'r-R:tl.un:m, who SIHTt't'dPd 111 t'apturing him. lit t'Xt'tnt.d t.l1e man
at 01\t't', and SPlit Ius h:td to <'our!. togd.htr with t11o t'tlll,mil_1
otlic:ers . .Jah:-tngir, who was always mtnuLP Ill Ius punislu1wnt.s, lmd theu
hPatls shavtd and womn's put. Ol'tr t.lw l:tl't's; llt'rt' thtn
titd to donkeys, 1nt.h th<'ll' l!l'.uls to thu Llll:<, an I p'aradPd through
the town:< (lashhlr) a:< :t w.tming to ot.hl'r:<.
Not long afttr thi;; afrair,

'r-Ral.uniin [.,Jl ill, and 1\tnt.tot'ourt.,
whtm ht 1\H:l W<'ll rel'Pil'ed. Ill' ltngnd for a tllllt', and di,<l of an abst,ss,
111 tlw Hth o[ .l.tl1:lngirs ntgn (.1.11 or .,j;., t'll .l't'.trs afttr Ins
lat.htr's !llllrd.r.

't( l{lll\11\. II"Jt .\BCI 't.-F\zt..
fl,. was hoJII on tit :\nl Zi !J!J!J In tht lith'tngir,,
ntgn, h" w.L'l a on1rnand"r of '''l't'll hundr.d. 11 tt h tim h11ndnd hot"'
fn the lOth ol .Jah.ln., rr1gn, Itt ts ltll'lt( JOJit'd as a t'untntandtr
of ti1e hundnd 11ltwh rani. Ill' !lt'!d 11lun Itt' dJ,d 111 tit .. I!Jth )'t'ar
of t Itt S:llltl' rtJgtt.
BOOK F 1 ~ ; - i l
0 Lord, whoRe serrelR are for ""'' \'ell<'d
;\)l(l tWrft('hon know:-; not a. lw!.':llllllllf!,
En<\ an<l hoth :If<' \nst, 111 'l'hl'<',
:\o Ira<'< of tlum t< ftJu11d, 111 Thy <'I<TIIal rl'alm
\\(\Hh art lanll'. ton!,!llt', a tJ,ut;
;-;J,l\\ foot. ,\lld \\Hit 1:-; thl' 1'\ll,lJJ'-.t'
('onfu:wd an my thtliH.dit:-<. hnt lw.;;t pr.d"t',
In l't alonp I ..,,.,. Thct facp t1l fa1t
IT 1s prop<'!' for a m.m of tnw knm1 !Pdf(<' to pr:ttst' (iod not onlv in
words, hut. alw in dttds. :l!ld to Pndtal'ottr to ohLiill t'\'trlasting h:ippt
npss. hv puttmg lht \\'lndow of Ins lw.1rt oppositP tho slit. of Ins ptn,
and tltsntbing so lilt' of t lw wondrous 11 orb of llw Crt'.t!.or. J>,rhaps
tlw lushi' of royalt.v mav shtttt' upon him. anti th light. PnaJ,]p h11n to
gatlttr a ft>ll drops lrom tlw otPall, and a fPII atoms from the t'lltllt'.SS
fitld of Uod's 1\orks liP will thus .. ht:1111 t'\trl.isltng ftlwdr :1nd r<nd<r
fprttk th" drt,in t>\p:ii\S<' of 11ords .llld dttd.s.
I. ,\hCt 'J.Jia;l son of Jlnk1r:tk. ntmn thanb,;11111)-!lot:tHII,, stngtng
tlw of ro.\.dt1. and h.1 :;1 rin.;:tllg 11.> ktllgil l"'ll'ls ilpon I lit I hr<':Jtl
of dt:;<nptton. h1Jt. 11 IS not. ill\' illlttdlon to llt:dd IIJ.IIIktnd, lor lh<'
first !till<'. ,H't!'l.lillltd 1111h tltt glonolb dttds and t'\l'<llttil 1 ll'illt's of l't'lll.irk.thlt 111.111,
who t']otlw.s onr llon<i<-rfltl 11orld Ill lit'\\' t'olour:;
and is an lli'IJ.llllt'Jil. to Uod's nohk l'rt'.ilitlll II 111Hdd '"' .lh.stml oil Ill)'
part to spak ahtnilth.d 11i11l'h 1s known, I md,,. 111\."'lf
lnttt. of thP il':lfllt'd. It is onlv Ill\. l"'rsotwl knollltdg<' of htlll. a J>I'Jt'tltss
iwl, whi .. h [ stnd hJ tit Jll:lrkPt pJ.,,.,. of tht world. :md 1111' ill',ll'f. ft<ls
proud of lutng tng.tgtd Ill "''It .111 liiidttl.iktng lltd. 11. ""uld not lia\'t'
httn frum that I havt t:dd'll npon lll\',"lf to out.
so grtat .1 1,,,1, .1 llork 11hwh t'\.t'll ltt',l\'t'lllv !Htngs \\olild find lwsd.
11ith dit!il'ulti<'s; for a moti11 \\ottld t':>.J><>ot' Ill\' lll:dJJittv and
slwrtSJghtPdll<''' Jh sol<' o!Jj<'<'l. 111 lll'llillg t.lw; work 11.1s, llr.,t, to
impart to all th.1t t.1h anlntrt;,lm th1s aii'J>Il'IOII'i ttntmy. a knollltdg
of thl' wtsdom. nwgn.tllllllll_\'. and wrl!Y of hnn 11ito nndtr;,t,,nd, tiJ<
mmutPst mt!wattotts of all thlllgs. rw,ttl'd and dti'IIH', ;,lndlllg as lw dtws
.\ kl,ar
owr Lit<' fuld of knowJ..dge ; :md, Hl't'ullllly to leave futme gt'llPrations
n. nohle ltg:lt'y. The p:tynwnt of a d"ht of gmtitud'' is an of
ltfP and a pro11,;ion for man's last journ'T There may he solll<' in this
world of :lln\,lfiiiiiS st.nfe, wlurn natures so difYerPnt, dtstrPs so
lllllll<'rott., '''l'ul.y so rar<', and guidan<'e so st::trct, who, h.1 making use
of thi,; :;otlfl'<' ol 11 1.sdom, will tsc.tpe from tlw of tlu t'IHiless
ol knoll'l<dg<' It i.s with this :\llll that r dtsnilw SOillP
of 11!1' rgtt!artons of 1111' gr<.d K111g, thus leaving fnr :tnd 1\<':tr, a
sl.anrlard 1\llrl, I 11 """''! In dotng ,;o, l havP, of I'<HtrS<', lrbpP.d; nf
1'\,dl<d po,!lillll 11f .1 kt11g .111d .dso t.o d<snlll' thP t'Oit<lttton of llto . .;p
11ho <Ill' .ISSI'I.ll!l,.; Ill t.h1s "1'<'.11 olfil'l'.
dtgtttl.v Ls 'lttglll'r tlw ''Y"' of ( :od t.han royalty: and I
who 11 IS<', dnnk from t(.s <LIIoJll<'IOII:i .\ :iltilil'WllL pmuf of
l.h1s, for t.I11H<' wh11 otw, is tlw Lu(, t.hat. roy.dt.y is a fl'llli'lly for
t.lw spll'lt "f rIH'IIion. :tn<lllw nason why suhjt'<>L:l olH'y. I: I'(' I\ I lw lll<':lll
ing of the word l'.tdtsh:'dt sh<>IIS t.llls: for 'fltld signifl<s :<l.dnltly an<l
po.''''''lllll, :111d ,,/117/t lll<'.lns mlglll, lord. A kin,g IS, IIHnfon, I h, ong111
of si:d>dil.y :111d If royal(.\' did not. I'Xisl., lh< storlll of ,;(rtf,.
\VIIidd lli'\'1'1' oid>:<lik 1101' s<J(j,.;IJ :1/lllJillilll di.'-I.JlJ'I':II', 'f:Utkllld,
nndn t.i!l' illtrd<'ll .,( Lml<'"li''"' .t.nd lnsl, 1\'<Hdd '111k 11ilo ilH pil of
d,,lrwiHIII, tit 1\llild, llttsgr'd.I.Jil,\l'l;l. pLt<'I',I\OIIid loS< tis (>i'"'IH'III\',
.I IIIII h 11 h >I <'.I lilt I "'''"II\" .1 h.tiT<'II 11 ,l:il<'. lint. I>\' I It" ltgh I ol 1111 Jl'li.ll
JUSII<'<', .Si>llll' f"ll1111 \\' ch<'<rfnltwss I h" ro.1.d of lllwdi<'lli'l', 11 hd>l
oLhrs :dol.!lll lrom l'toll'ili''' through of Jllllll:ihlll<'lll , and out.
of lll'l'<':<sil.v 111,1k< <'itnic, 111' I h ol l'l'<'lit.wll'. Shlh I' ,1, II. IIIII'
given (o IIIII' 11ftn ,O,III'jl<ISSI'-; ftj-; f,JII)I" :1..; .1'011 11\.1.\' Si'l' Ji'lllil \\ll{',f,.; lik1
shtlh .<11/l'il, s/11/h 1tih: 11 I' a!'" a t1rm appl11d to a. l>rtdgnllllll I hi'
world, '" hrid. ft,rstll to till .. md l,,.,.olll<'' hb
Silk and ohort..;ight,d 1111'11 1':\llnot dtslmgui:;h a 1111' kt11g frum a
s,lfi.,h l'l!i<'r. \'or i . .; t.l11s l'l'lll.ll'kahl,., as hot h h:tvl' Ill <'llllllllilll .1
(,l'l':lSUr\', :1. llllllll'l'OII,.; <11'1\ll', 1'1<\l't'f :ier\'.lll(S, ohtdtt'lli Sllhji'I'(S. :Ill
ahundan<'<' of 11 I"' mn, a mnlt itudt of skilflll workmen. :tnd :t SIIJH'rlltuty
111' of t'IIJOI'Illl'nl llut. 11\1'11 uf .[,,per in,;i,o;ht ntn1rk a dtll',r,tw<
In the uf t IJ,. lonllr. I h" (.It j usl. now PnUiili'l'.li ,., L an l.1 -;I ing .
hut Ill th.!l of thl' l:ttter. of sh11rl. dural ton 'f'h, fnrlll<'r do''' not .tll.tch
hnnspJj tn lhtSf things, a' ohjtd. 1' t.o I'<'IIIOVI' oppn,;sion .tnd proiH!
for l'l'trythtng whi,h 1s gnnd. S,,nril.v. hP.dt.h, ,.]l:l:;tit.v. ptstu:r, pohtP
mamwrs. fait.hfnlnPS'<, trut.h, .tn mcreas o( sintrit.y. l'tc .. :m tht> wsnlt.
The lattt>r i,; hpt. 111 hondx by tht> txtrnal of W\'al powt'f, Ly
vanity, the slavislnwss of mrn, :uHl the dtsin of tnjoymtnt : hent't', l'\ Pr.l-
wlwre thrre is insecurity, unsctthdllt'SS, st nft'. oppn:"loll, L1l! h
Hoyalt.y is a light emanating from \:ud, and a 1',1\' i'rom thl' sun,
the illuminator of tlw nniwrsl',
t.llt' .lrgumtnt of thl' hook of perf,.,., ton.
the recrptaclc of all virtues. :\lotlern languag' calls t l11s light .fau 1 l:u/'i
(thr divine light), anl thr tongue of anti'luit.1 c.dltd 11 Atyrln J./ul/rl
(the snhlunr halo). His C<Hnmunicall'd h:- Uod to klllgs \ltlhout. tht
intPrml'dmte asststawn of .Ill.\' Oil!'. antlmtn. Ill the prPSl'lll'l' of 11, l"'nd
the forP!lt'ad of praisP t hl' ground of ,.,uJ,nu.-;sloll. .\g:1in. many
I'X('rlltn(. C[il:llitits How frnm thl' po.-<st'"ton of this l1ght. I. .I Jrlr'!'IIUI
/ol'l' /oll'lll'd., the Thnw;:lnds lind rt>t Ill t!w'!ol'<' of tlw 1\mg:
a111l sel'!arian diiTt'rt'llt't'S do 11ut. r.1i-"'' tht dust of ,tl'llt. In hiS llhdom,
the King \\'Ill lht spll'lt of tl11 :lgt. and sh:q>t !11.-< pl.ill-"
acrcmhngh. :! . . ! lrrnv lll'ru/. Tht s1ght of anyth1ng diS.q.;ntahlt dot's
nol unsl't(!t him: nor i:; \\':Int. of dt.>l'l'lllllll:illun for h1111 .t stl\I!Tl' of
dis.tppoiBinwnt. !liS <'tiUI',Igt :-del'' in. Ills d11illl' lirnlllt''" ).(1\'<'S 111111
tlw pmlt'l' oi' l't'<put.d. 11or tho high of an ol1tndl'!'
\\'llh 1t. Tilt' IH'h''' ol gmll and smaii.1w :ill1ndtd to .. 111d tlll'll' t'l.illlt-<
lllt'i't \l'llh n11 ,[..]a,- at, hi,; hand,;. :\. .I rlulllj 1/1<'/1'1/.,1111/ //Irs/ 111 lr'rul
\\'ht>n !11 pt>rfonns an act II. he ton.stdtrs (:or! a' t i11 r"al dol'l' of II (:111d
ltlllht'if ,IS fill' Jl\l'dlll!ll), (lt,i! :l t'Oiliiitl llf nlll(:\'t'S t'all J'I'Odtlt'l' llO
dt>l urh:tllt't' I. l'm.ljl/' r1111i dri'll/111/1. Tit" Hlt't't'" of illS pia ns 11 til
not ltad llllll tontgkd; nor 11dl :uil'<'l'.'ll_l' t'all"' hnn to <:od, a11d
madh t nht 111 nt.tiL lit pttl,; t lit !'t'lll' uf dt'"ll't' 11!1 o t Itt b:l!lds of .
in till llllltlitid 11f h1s dt'SII't''< ht dot'S not, pt'rlllll hillhtii' to trodd1'll
do1111 i>,'> l't',fi<'.S:'Ilt'."' IIIII' 11t\iiw lla.>(t I11S J'l't't lOll.' flll!t' Ill .ifltJ'
th.1t llhith l.' llllill'lljlt'l'. !It 11ralit. tht> I\'J'.illl, pay ittJIIt.lgl' to
111>dom, "l bitnd r:tg1 nu1 not g..t uppt>r il.llll. and ll!l'lll!'ilkr
atl'llt''' onr.-;t tp t h" propt>r hnllt s. lit "ils on t lw t'lltln<'ll<'t' of pro1 '1'1<1.1',
c<tl tlt:tt. tltnst> 11ho lt.i\'t' gotw ,ic,lr.l\' h.i\'t' :t 11'.1\' i..ft to l'l'ltll'll 111ilto11t.
<'X[ILN!Ig tht'll' h:1d dtt>ds to lilt> pnl>ill' g.l/,t'. \\'iwn ill''i Ill jtld!flll"llt,,
tilt' pt'lillolll'f St'l'lll'i to b" thn judg". :111d Ill' htlthl'lf, 1111 :lf'I'Oil!tl of ltts
nuldn"'" tlw stlltnr for ju,(lt'P. lit dot''i 11<1\. pt'llilll, lo '"'
dl'i:l)'t'd on tlw path of hopt'; ht tndt',i\11111'., lo promol1 I itt ltapJ'IIIt'''
o[ thl' tTl':lfllr<':i tnohtlhl'llll' to tlu wdl of th1 ('tl,llor. :.nd llt'\1'1' s1tl,s
to plt'.ISt' tho p<opiP incontradwtton t<J l'<':l'iOil lle "'for t'\1'1' "'.1/Titlng
.\khar wor-..Jtq1p d t!w l}w ff J'fl '-E lifalt\1 f (;,,d, and tlw IJrlTll! dirdt
of l 1ff'. lu ... {t,JJll ,,f "1 ''"l11 Jl, 1 1rh J, ]c,,\.
afkr those who speak tlw truth, and is not displeased with words that
srpm hitbr, hut are m rPality He consi<lers the nature of the words
and tlw rank of :;pPakrr. 1 [e is not content with not committing
violerwe, but hr mu.-;t that no injnstiee is done within his rralm.
lie is <ont.inna1ly attnt.tve to the of the body politic, and
applie.-; nm.,dH.-; to t.ho se\'Pral dtseascs A111l in the same manner
that t.hc (qui!t!Jrirrm of tlw animal constitution dPprnds upon an equal
nmtun of

:;o al-;o doro.-; the political ronstitution brr:ome
w .. JJ l<mpNed loy :t proJwr dtvision of ranb; :tl\(1 by means of the
wannt.h of til!) ray of un:unrnity a111l conr:ord, a multitude of people
IHrorn" fu.->rd tn!.o otw l)l)dy.
Tltr) p<'oplr ,!(" Llw worlrl may be divirlPtl into four classcs.
I. 11'11 n lor.<, who in tlw pol t1 tt":d body Ita ve t hP of ftrc. Their llanws,
dtt't't'tt"d J,y Ulltlnstandrng, t'onsunw the straw and rnhhish of rebellion
and s! rrf. hut kind also tlw lamp of rest in this worlrl of rlistur-
hatJt'<'S. :! . . 1111ji,l'l's awl /l/l'fl1wllls, who holrl the place of air. From
!httr lahonrs and lr:ll't!s, Cotl'.s gifts lw('onw nnivPrsal, and t.lw brerze
of t'on!Pnt.Jlltnt. nouri:-dtt'S the rosP-trtt\ o[ lif<. :1. '/'he lmmnl, Kllf'h as
t ht> phtlosophN. ph.1.sician, th arit.hnwt.ieian, the geometrician, the
:ts!.ronontPr, who ns.mhlt> w:tkr. From th<'ir pen :nul t.htir \1 istlom, a
tivPr Ill tilt' drought of the \lorld, and tilt' g:trdm o[ tlw rnation
rni\,., from I luir irrig:d pmvPr<l ,t pecnli,tr fn:;!utP.,H. L llusluuul111m
and lalutlllrTs, 11 ho m:tv bt romt:lfl'l to p,trth Bv thPir Pxcrtion-;, tlw
s!aplr of iJf,. is i!l'ought to ptrfel'!ton, and s!nngth and happinl'SH flow
fr<tll\ thrr wurk.
It is t hPrl'fnr<' oltlig.tton for a king to put. Pach of the:<<' in it., proptr
pl:H'l', and h.\' unrting prrso11:tl :thilttv 11ith dn<' rt':<JWt"t for othrrs, to
cans<' tilt' world to !lotll't:<h.
And as tilt' grand body maintains tis r<p11lthrium by the
aho\'1' funr ra11b of men, 1m dot'' nnalty rl'trive ih fin:tl tint from a.
:;iruilar fomfold tll\ision.
l. Till' no/ties '!fthr slat,. who in rl'li.tnt'<' on thl'ir pmitinn lead every-
thing to a hapJl.l' i:<snt'. Illuminating tlw hattk-fieltl with the halo
of dPvohdr!t''" thPy lll:tk no account of tlrl'ir li\'ts. Tht>:<t> fortunate
tu the mnlllnl the<'fH'S nf tlw 11\Jdtlle agl'R
lus lllh' m :--.h1lhniima. m tlw tha1lft'r rntJtltd dar
1 .lrun,hid: f hit al.;,o \ Pn.-lr/11 }J,cfl(l1!rlr1J.ll. ';'.iH, s kr!tii.:i it 1\.lso found
m thP H!llltq t rhapttr '\,dar 'ndf, 1n tlw AUJ.l.iri Jalali, awl the .llJ.!!tiiJ-i
Srisni. the uldl':-.t of thrl'(' \b_bl:i.q"- nwnhoHt'tl.
courtiers resemble fire, being ardent in denltion, and con.,umin" ink.d
with foes. At the heail ot this is t\w rnk11. Wl\t\
attaine1l hy his wisdom tlw four <hgnes of ]wrkdion,
lieutenant in all matttrs omwdPtl with th realm anl tlt<' huu,;,hu\tl.
He graces the Council by wi,;,]om. al\ll '<'ttl,,; 11ith jll'lli'tratinn till'
great afTairs of the realm. Promotion and appnintmtnt
and dismissal, dqwnd on his ins1ght. It require,; t hPrdnn :111 P\ JHritntPd
man who wisdom, nobility of mind, athl>lilh, tinnno'""
magnanimity, a man able to be at p<'al'<' with any <l!IP, 11 ho L' frank.
single-minded towards rPlations and stmngPrs, inql.trt ial tn fri!uls
and enrmil's, who WPighs hts words, is .-;kdful in 11 ,Jii>nl.
esteeme1l. known to he trustworthy. ;;h.trp and,i_ghtl'd. :ll'<j<laJntd
with thP <"<'l'i'lllOniPo; of the court. l'o_gllJ!.:iliL of tlll' ,;on..t.'. pron1pt
in tran,;ading bn,in<''" un.!ll'tltel h_\' till' mult iplwit_1 of Ius dut
He shouhl con,Jdl'r it his duty to pmnwt. till' lli,dt<'' of ntill'rc<. and
base his actions on a due n.ganl to tlH dit1'1nnt ranks nf Jll<'ll,
evrn l1is inftriors \l'lth nsp<'d, from lh<' dt.,ir ol alt.whing to hilll"<'lt
the lwarh of all. ![,. tabs rar(' not. to I'Oilllllit illljl!'ll]'l'il'li<"' 111 1'1111\"<'l>'.t-
tion. and gu:trds ht!nsclf from i>.ul :ll'lillllS .. \!though till' fin.llll'iaillilil;
ar1 nut. Ullllor l11s illlllit'dJate Sil]'<'l'lllt<Jiill'll<'l', _1..t l11 f<'l'<'ll"<'d tlw \I'IIJI'IIS
from the heads of all fin:uwial ollit'<'s, :11111 11'1"'1,1' '"'"!'' abtra1 Is of tlwir
Ti11 .\1ir-rn:'d,
th 1\I'<'JH'f of till' seal. the \lir J,ah_li,hi,-
lh l1:1r
th1: tl11' \iir (111..d;,'; the \lir-l<:thri,
tlw .\lir' liw
\lir-\lam!l,'' tlw l\hw:m<il:tr,
thl' \1un-hi.
till' 1Jii ..

tlw .\Ll!t:1
helong to thi,; l'la:;-;_ i:l'l'ry Olli: of thl'lll ouuht 111 lw :;Jdli<J<ntiy
al'qnainttd 11ilh tiw \111rk uf tiw otlwr.>
.\J...J,:tr '-.tid th:lt l'''rfctL c'nll'-1'-icd 111 1/w rc.tdill' cd ":wri!lc Ill;! fr111r
-/Ill lbfc), /li'il (J'r''l'''ft.\), cFn (nli'-'H'Il), T/1,,.,. \\h11
lonkcd upon .\l,Ldr a . .., a Ill :-,pudtlal (]1i1) .til J,,,,li,lli \\Ill! h ,\ ll!llih
CIJ\df'd --Jirullll"l'd t') '-hll\\ tlu..; d1\okdw '--1, and I hr 11 to II II' rlinl 1/,,JII, r1f I hi'
IJt\IIW F.uth, thl' .rrlt1l1-., of whir h .\l,h.u had latd du\\Tl, Tt!.l\ l11 ,irJilrr]q\\
J l'nh;q"' all oBtrrr 111 oft ltr Ellll'E frJ! .., Jll J\ .liP
P.-L\ of thl' ('our!
.\n. ollwrr nho prr".rrJt-; at Com!, t!Htr JrrtdH'n", rlr lfr h ,.] .. r, r.rl11d
.llil 1"
of t!w
r, .\LhfiT of ( 'rff!JlOlt\1 .....
llarltn11r r t:r nr r.d Jl11d .\dTtttJ.d.
,..;11JII'flllfr ndr nt. flf tht lnqrrrt-d J',rr -.,j..,
w t)o.trtl'r \ of thP ('onrt .\kl,,lf- rrr'ltl '''" ftri]W!dlv lr.t\flllttJ!
ndrnt. nf thP 111\l'''rl:tl 1\.tldll 11.
Pnvatl' ,-.:r r rd :tr\.
;J{ tlw avJarw-., (f.t!rrJ!l"-, ]rl;._'rlrll'j. [llrad tlw I'
n[ lhr'
:!. The a,s{.,tanl' of cidor'f, the collrrton; awl those with
income an<l W\fll'ntlttttrt, who tn tlw administmtion resemble winrl, at
timn.; :t brel't,<\ at other time'l a hot, pestilential blast.
The heat[ of thi-; dtl'tsion l:i the al..;o called /Jiwiin. He is the
of tlw Enqwror 111 finallt'ial mattPr . .;, supcrintt>nds the imperial
treasuries, ant! clweks all accounts. i' the hanker o( the cash of the cultivator of the wtldl'rni''S o[ the worl<l. He must he a
of the' Divine f.',uth, a skilf1t! arithmetician, free from a\'arice,
c1r<ums1wt. ab.stincnt, active in business, pleasing in his
styli', elf'ar in his wnllllg . .;, tmt.h[ul, :t man of intngrity, condcstcnrling,
Zl'alons in his worli lle is in rc.dttv a book-keeper. He explains all
mat!<r.-; whll'h appPar too intricate for the ;llllslrwfi
; and whatever is
IH'.Y<llt<l hts own :dllltLV lw nfprs to t.lw Va!t-"il. The :\Iushwfi, the i'l:il.1ib-i
th" Aw:trja tlw mr-:Fun:'m,
the Nitzir-i lluyiHitt,'
tl1P IJiw:tn i llul'i'tt.:-tt.,t; !ht \Iuslmf.
of the TrP:tsury; the
!\awls." thl' \111il
of till' domams, lliHlrr his orders, and act by the
fol'l'l' of his Wlsdottl.
i'onw princ<s ons11lt-r th<' ollie<> of \'11.11'r as a part o( that of the
Vakil, and an\tOtJ.s to lind Ill thPir f<'alm a man who possf'SS<'-'l the
t'XI'PJI,.nt <Jit;thlis of tlll''il' two of 1111, t'dili('( of tlw Stab. But
as t.h<'Y an not. :tlll'.i\'S a hit to lind a lH'rsnn '[ll"lifit>tl for I ht oflin of :t
\'akll. tl11y< choiel' of :t 1\l:tn who h;ts :<<Hill' of his qu:thiHs. and
appomt. hint <ts .llus!m.f i /J'iti''ill, whi<h ollie<' i.'i lllghtr Ill rank than that
of IIH lliw:in, but lml'l'l' than of tlH \'akil.
:l. Tit,. mliiJilll/11!11< kil!l/, who an th1 ornaments of the court by
t lw light. of t h11r wtsdom, t ht ray of t hl'ir sharpsight.cdnt>s.'l. t.hrir know-
ltdg<' of th< timts. lhtlr nttim.t!.l' :tt''{llainLtm'<' with human nature, thetr
franknPss :!Ill[ poht" :tddn'.'" Through thl' I'X<'tlltll<'t' of thl'ir nligious
faith and good will. thousands opt'll in tht> markd. plact of the worhl
tht stnn' of\ irttt<'. \\'iStl\' fl'!tl'ring ant hit ion on th<' lmttlc-li..Id of
tlw \lorld. thy <':-..lingu1:<h tht sparks of wr.tth ll\ tlw rain of lhl'ir
lhputy JH\\,ill.
Thn \nounlant (lf .\n1n.
Tlw .\, l'tHIIlt,mt nf tilt' d.u!y'e:\}Wlldlturt' at ('ntlrt
Tlw ollll't'r ll\ of tlw ('ourt furllltnrt,
, of thn [mpertal \\Pfk.,.hop-.:
" Tht \('t'll!lntant of the lmpcrta.l
' l'krk.
wisdom ; whence they rt'semble watt-r in t ht' a ffairK of the body political.
When they are of a mild tl'mpermncnt. tlwy remove thP dnst of atlliction
from the hearts of men, and lwstow fre:<hness npon the mPatlmr of the
nation; hut if tllPy dt>part from motkr.ttion. they imuHLIIt' tht' worhl
with a deluge of calamity, so that numht'rs are driwn by t lw lloOll of
misfortunes into the cnrrcnt of uttN ext indion.
At the heat! of thiK rlass stands thP philosophr, who 11ith thP
assistancP of l11s wisdom aml examph' pnriftt'H th of tht' nal1011,
and girds himsplf \\'lth the noble aim of putting tlw of mankind
upon a souwl b.tsiK. The 0adr,
thP th tht' physil'i:tn,
the astronomer. t hl' pod, t.lll' sooths:twr, hPiong to this class.
. .
4. The sc/l'!lllls who at ('Oilt't prform the duties about the kill g.
Tht',Y occupy in the S\'stem of the Stat' the po"it iou of <'art h. As such,
thty lie on thr high ro.ul of snbmi.s-<ion, anl in dust hdnr tilt' tn.tjtsty
of the king. lf fn'c from l'hafT awl dro><s. they art' lik' an for tho
Lody; otherwise are an I dtrt uptHI t lw'l) of sus<. Tlw
table servant, the armour brarl'r, th sPrvants in t'lt:trgn of tht sharl)(!t
antl the water, the sPrvant in rhargl' of thP mattrp:.;s('' :ntd tltt' \lardrohc,
lwlong to this
1f king bt: \\'aitttl on by srr\'ants to whom goo<l fortune has
gtwn Pxcrlknt t htrp :t risPs somt't imrs a harmo11.1', \\'hl('h ts
hkt> a nnsegar front tlw flowPr-ht>d of auspiiotiSII<'S.' .
. lust as the \l't'lf:tr of tlw who!P \lorld dt'j>tnds upon ;-Ul'l't'ssful
\1m-king of thl' ahovl:mtntionPtl four ns s .. ttlt-d hv kmgs, so
dot'S the hodv politic tl!']H'nd upon th prnptr fonnatton ol lat!tr
four dt\'1>-ton,.;.
'I'IH: sag1s of nn(ttjUlt.'' nwntton t hr folic)\\ tng four ptr.soJJs as th'
rhid :.;upport:; of tlw StatP I. .l11 IIJIII.'/111 ('(11/ntor, 11ho prott'ds tht
hu,handman. \\,t!t'h!s m-lr the snhj(('t.-<. d!\'t'lops thl' o11ntry, and
intpro\'t'S thP l't'l't'llllt'S. :! . . I cOI/Sf/1'11/ioiiS I'0/11/IIIIIId<T oft !It' anny, adi\'c
and ><trict. :l. A ,)urj fnc front a\':ll'lt'e a11d sPIIishlll'"'' 11ho sits
on the t'llllllt'llt't' of cirrumspr..tton nnd tnsight. a11d ol,tatns <'lids by
putting vanous qut>stions, witho11t cxdusill'!y r..I\'tllg on \ltlll<'SSt'S and
oaths. 1. .In llllcilurncl'l'. who traJt.,Jnits t hn 1 c11ts uf th.: t llllt' wtthout
adt!ttion or diminution, ah1ays kpcping to thl' thmtd of truth ;tnd
1 .\lso C'allcd Juhti n, the ( 'hlt'f J u .... tJc I' and :\dw t r.d .,, ( ;, ll' 1 .tl 11f I lw 1 lllJllr .
'The lH'ars the case; the !lit >tlll<llce.
lt is mrmover incumbent on a jnHt king to make himself acquainted
with the characters of the following five kinds
of men of whom the world
is compose<!, and act accordingly. 1. The most commendable person
iB the sayar:ious man who prud<'ntly Jocs that which is proper and
absolutely nccrssary. The fountain of his virtue' <locs not only run along
his chann,.], but V<'rliant the fields of other men. Such a one
is the fitt<st person for a king to conwlt in State afiairs. After him comes,
secondly, thl' uian of yoorl inlfulwns. The rivl'r of his virtues docs not
flow owr !J,.d, an1l doPs nut thcnforc become an source
for nth< ,\I though it nmy proper to show him kindness and respect,
yet he not so high a tkgrcc of confidence. Inferior to him
is, thirdly, sunp/1' 1/UIII, who not wear the hadge of excellence
upon the :;leevc of his act.1on, yet keeps th<) hem of his garment free
from the dusl of wick<d di'P<k Hn <lws Hot desPrve any ;
hut oughllo he al\m,,.d t) liv at. hi.-; <'a.-;e. Worse than he is, fourthly,
tlw /1/(1/1, 11 ho fills his house with furniturP for his own
mi.schid, wtt.hout., hoii<'Ver, doi11g harm to ollwrs. llim the bng should
kc<'p in the hut pLl!'n of disappointm<nt, anl bring him ul!o the road
of virtue by good ad \It'<' and Sl'\ <'!'<' nprl'!um;lon. The last of all is the
vicious nurn, 11 hos hla<'k d. .. ds aLmn otiH'r.-; and throw, on a<ount of their
:1 whol<'. 11orld Into grief. If th1 nni!'di"' ntploycd in the
rase of lllt'll of the prr<dmg cL!ss, do uot a!l\l'lld him, the king should
eonsidtr him a and confine l1im stparatt from mankind; and
jli'OI'H i<'t l tIlls ha t na t llH'Jlt. dot'S uot. a 11 a k<n him fmm his sk<'p of <'IT Dr,
he shonl<l 1\l'l tlH' tortun of grid, :11Hl IH' h,<l<ishel from his dwPlliiig;
anl if this l'l'IIH'dy prodU('(' no ell' Pet Pit hPr, he should bt driven out oft he
kingdtnn to \\',IIHltr in wildPnuss of disappointniPnt.; :IIHl if C\'l'll
tlus should not inqm>vP Ills l'i<iDus nat me, ht shoull !J,. dPpril'l'!l of the
instniiii<'His o[ his 11 whdn<':-<s, and los!' his sight, or his, or Ius
foot. Bnt the I,ing ought not to go so far as to cut thread of hi,;
e.\'ll!'(' ; for inquiring s:lg<'s t'()llsi<ler thP hum:m form as an <'tliiice
mad by t:od, and lo not. l"'rlllit its <lestnl\'tinu.
It is tlHrdore IH'l't'ssnry for jllst k111gs, tn makt' tlwmsrlvcs first
:t<'quainttd 11 ith tlH ra11k nnd of llll'll, by the light of insight
an<l jll'IH'irat10n, and thl'n to ngulatc) lntsinPss acconlingl.1. And hence
it. is that thP sagts o[ anciPnt. tiuws have sai<l that princrs 11ho ll'l'ar the

_Tiw to lin\\ mg ls a. (r\'i' pa.r.\phr,be of a. in tho JUl,lt'itji .lluh'!ini, Chapter
XXX[[, (''l\ do!r Sl!foi.cil.
jewel ot wisdom do not appoint every low man to their on ,' ' 1
'd o,f\ \C(, ' t L\ L ( 1t'V
do er every one who has been appointed, to Ill' !],.,,.rYit;.,
of da1ly adm1ttance; that those who are thus hvottr'-1 .
t \1 f "'
l ..... u. l e to H'tf' ote
lleemed worthy to sit with them on the carpet of ; that 1 lv
who are worthy of this station, are not nl'eessari\y to the
pavilion o[ familiar address. that tho:--e who haw this aft' not
therefore allowed to in the august assembly; that those upon whom
this ray of good fortune arc not therefore !Pt int<r t hPir sper\'ls ;
and that those who enjoy the happiness of this st.ttion, arP not t-herefore
fit for admission into tlw C:tbinet Couneil.
Praise be to God, the Giwr of CVl'ry goo1l gi[t! exaltetl monarch
of our time is so endo\n'd with theo;p that it is
no exaggPration to eall him tlwir e.rordi11m. From thl' light of his wis.lom,
he disePrns the worth of mPn, and kintlles the lamp o[ tluir riurgy;
whilst evrr clPar to himself, antl without an rfTort, he adoms his wisdunt
with the brauty of practice. Who ean by tlH o[
powrr as a spirituallc:ttkr, anl his in the widP iiPltl of
and even if it were possible to give a dPscription o[ it, wilt) wmtl<l IH able
to hear anl comprehentl it? The best thing I ean do i,o; to abstain from
such an at tempt, awl to confine mys'lf to the tlPseription of sllt'h of his
wonderful as illustrate the worldly side of hi.o; nahirP, alltl his
greatness :t king. I shall spmk :--
First, of his rcgulationR concPrning the honselwld ; seeondly, of the
ngulat ions concPrning the army ; thirdly, of the rPgtdations conrrning
the empire, as t hrse t lme contain t lw whole duty of a king. fn doing
so, I sh:tllle:we pr.tdieal inquirers a prcst'nt, whith may s'Plll dillicult
to understand, but which is t"asy ; or ra tlwr, whieh lll:ty Sl'f'lll Pasy, but
is in reality dillil'ult.
Experienertl mrn who are acquainted with the art of go\'t'rning,
antl VN:lcl in tht hio;tory of the past, cannot comprclHJld how
have hitherto govPrncd, without these wio;e ngulations an I how the
garden of royalty l'Ould have brrn and verdant, without hPing
irrigated by this fountain of
This sublime volume then, is arrangerlunr!Pr thrPe hmds ; it rnahlPs
me, in some mcasurP, to cxprtss my of gratitude for favours
Akhar as tho spirituallr.vler of the nwmlo<r' to the lhvtne Fatth wrought
many mtmde, of winch som<J are relatoltn the scventy-,eventh A'in of tlus bo<Jk.
llemnrk by the Author.AR I ha<l Hornetirn!'s to '"C Hindi wordR, 1 have carefully
the CtllL'itlllllllb und \\1\l therdnrc have no dtftit:ulty in
n1:uhng-; nor \'till any from nwJtakl'H Ill copymg. LPttl'ri"' like alif, him
and a morf', rtrf !-lllflH untly ('knr from thttr nnnwR. Some [have U.iF.tinguisltrd
n.H rnanrJil.{tl, and f--llllllar 111 form, \'.Ithout swh a lmlltntion. Lcttr-rs which are
purely Plrtlian, i11n < hetn dist inglnKlud ; thu:i tl11 p lllJ>Ilfiul, tlw rh,_, m chnmun,
thf' !JiiJ m mr,ii.r, t}w zh 111 muzhda. 1-'omdJnws I have uddl'd to tht liiUJl('H of
ldtNH, tho luu'll/1) tl1r('l }1!/nf.. J,dttrs pftulwr to the lhndl language I hinc
rhstingtwJwd ns l!i11di. 'L'hP ldtlr yii as lfl ni,11. J tallcd lahfiim, awl tlw tr, as 111
da8t, Jrtu.'ljlifli. Tho h in adtlh, I havP nHrdy callt'd br. the ]('tfN-" niJn, wriw,
yri, and hP, \\hen cltarl_y haH he1n mertly de:-wnlwd a-. uii.n, 11'1/11', de Tlw
lllJ..H/l.l niin r havi call('d niln-i or pudui.n. The final ami !"dl'llt. " a" m
farkh_unrla, l havP t'allt 1l mrtlliiiJ, 1 P. \\flltPn, lint not pronumw(cl. 'J'hP 1 and 11, '' hC'n
to f' oro I havf' fnl!Pd lflf1Jh iii. ron:-;onant"i followt'd hy an al1j lmn thP \'0\\ d 11,
It waH nol 1\i-ct:-;:-mry to tlu-1r vo\nl"'.
TilE llOrSEliOLJ).
:f'in I.
He is a man of high undPr,t:mding and nolo!!' who, \\it.hout.
the lulp of othPr:<. nrognlzts a ra.\' of tht ll11 itH' jl0\\1'!' in till' smalltst.
things o[ the \IO!'Itl: \\Ito shap<'.'i hi.s lll\l:trd and oul\1:11'11 l'h:tral'ltr
atconlmgly, and sho\1:< dn n'"i"'''l, h1 hllll"'lf and to othrs. 11 .. who
do!'s not t q unl dicat.lons, ought. liD\. t ll !'11).!:1).!!' m t.he st ruggl<'
of t.hl' world, bni. oh:;I'J'I'<' :1 jlP:tttablt t'tll<hul. If t lu fornwr !H' ,).!I \'I'll t.o
rlc'tirPnHnt, he will tulti,at<\ Itohlt \'ll't\IPS: :tnd 1f his !""it loll ht\ a
dtptwltllt. o11e, hn will pnt Ius \\hoi<' luart. 111 t ],,. nt:lll:lgtlntnt. of Ius
aiT:tirs, and ]pad .1 !tf: fnp fmm dislnssing
Tnw gnatn"" 111 ant! ill worldh Jnat.trs. dot's not shrink
from t.he minui 1:1' of !Ju,lll<'S', hut, th<tr pnforntan :1s an ltd. of
1li1in\ worship.
1f he c:tnnot ]H'I'form t'\tryihing him'<lf, Itt ought. to s<lt:l'i, guid .. d
by tlt:-.ight, and pr:tdtral one or t.\\o 1\lt'J\ of sagattt .. l' and undtr-
;,t:mdmg. < f liiH'wl 1 11'\\':l 111 nh!!tous m:L11Prs. l'"'''":-.tng diltg<'ll<'P and
a kno11 ltdg.: o[ the hun tan h<'art., and lw gutd< d hy t!ItII' ad1 irl'.
Till\ \\'1St' ts1,t'<'lll him not. a king \Yho confiwc. hts altt'ltl.ton i.o gnat
mattl'r.-: onl.1, although sonu 11nparti:d jndgts t'Xt'tls< a ktn:.; that dots w,
Leutusc av:trll'ious symplmnts who nrlt:t\'<J\11' h1 t'lllllllllg to obtain t,he
po:--ition of { h: \'triII<JII', <Jf1<'1ll'l'llllllli h1111 uf t.h<: dtlf<nII<'I' of ranks, and
:-.urcl'ed mlullmg a,],.,.p 'll<'h k111g.; as an fond of xt l'tllal gratt11:-.s, t.h .. ir
only ohjl't Ltlllg to mab: :1 of tit" 1'<'\'tllll<''i uf tht: <'oltnt.rv, and to
promott' tli<troWJI But g11od pritii'<'S nt:tl": no dlfftnrlf'<: htl.wt:tn
great. and small mat tl'rs : till')' take, wtt h t ht of IJrHI, t Itt: l11tr<l<-n
of Llu., world and the nsponsdJtlt1s uf the \lor],[ to tonH, on tht: sh<Jiddtr
of :til< I yd. fne :md llld<']Hlld<nt, :ts is 1 Itt: <as.: With tlu:
king of uur t.lllH'. fn !tis wi . .;dorn, h<' makts !Jilll'<'lf :l<'fjllaint.Pd \11th 1 ht:
;,neressful workmg of !'Wry dtp:ut mtnt, "hith, altlitntgh forJJJI'f ntonanhs
.\ \1 ''" h AI. bar oflt'u u.<l'd.
have thought it to their yet the first towards
the estahlishnwnt of a go01l govnrnnwnt. 1wery hra.neh he has made
proper ngulatrons, anrl he in the performance of his dnty a means of
obtaining God's favour.
Tlw oft his \':tst unclPrt:tking upon two things: first,
wisdom and insight, to {':til into Pxistcn!'e srcondly,
a wat.<:hful eyP, to th<m carri.:cl ont hymen of mtfogrit.y and diligence.
Although many sPrvants of tlw houscltold tl\('ir on the
bt. of the :mny, was pard for tlw lrouscholtlm t.hirty-ninth year
of the Drvirw Pra, thl' sum of :lW, l.'l(j,7!Jii diims.
Tlw of this
:uconnt, as also tho tbilv IJl!'I'Pasing. nrc more than
e11w lllmdrcel and workshops !';tth restmhling a eit,v, or rather
lit,t.]p kingdom : :md hv t.h, llllrt'llllt.tlllg att.font.ion of his :\I:tjt"ity, they
an all t'lll\!hrt11'd with ngnl:tnt.y, and eonst:mtly rnneasing,
improV!'nll'nt hPrng amnpanud hy additional care :tll<l supl'l'vision on
t.hP part of his :\lap..;t \'.
1-\onu of tlrf' ngnlatrons I traw;rnit. :t:; a pn,.;ent, to fuLme
Pllfjllll't'I'S, and thus krndk 111 ot.lur,.; tlw lamp of \\iKdom and
As ngards 1lrm ngulat.rons wlrlf'lr am of a gtnf'r:l.ln:tt Ill'!', awl whwh
from tllt'ir suhjf'tt. 11\.tttl'r !J!'Iong to t:lt'h of t.lm:n tll\i:;ions of the
work, I haw put. t.hl'lll anw11g thf' ngul:ttrons of How;f'hold.
Till; Dll'EHI.\L
Elf'\'\' man of HI'I\St' ancl nndl'l'<ta.ndmg lmmYs that tiH IH'o.;L w:w of
t:od, ton,lsts 111 a\la1rng t.llt' distil,,,.; of tlw 111\ll'.', antl rn
the condrt.rll of 111an. Thrs dt]"'ncb. hmn-11'1', 011 at[Yancc-
IIH'IIt of :t,:.;ril'ldtlll'l', on tht ordn hpt 111 tlw ],,ng,, houo.;,.]w\d, on tlw
of tiH thamprons of till' 1'111]'11'1', and tlrP dtsl'iplilw of <Hilly'.
,\11 tl11:; '" a.g.t.lll t'OI\\It'l'(ld 111th tht t"\1'1'1'1'1' of prop1'l' e:tn' on tlw part of
t.hl' ll\OII:I.nh. h" lo\'1' for I h1 ptopl1', and 1111 lr an 11\t tllrg<nt m:tll:l!.;f'lllt'llt;
of ilrt nl't'l\111':-< :md tlw puhllf' t''\]H'IHirtnn. It IS onh llhtn tar<'d for,
that thl' rnhah1tant' of iht 1olllh and tlrm'l' of (.]w rm:tl dr,trrtto.;, are
:tldf' to ><ai.l><h tlrl'll' 11:11\t..;, and to I'IIJOI' proc]'l'l'lt.:. l!1'1l!'e 11 Is in-
!'llmlwnt. on Jll><t krill;', to t.m fm t Jr .. fomwr, and tn protect l<tt.ttr
e[a;..,; of 1111'1\. If OIIlf' 'a1 t h.t.t to I'OJIPI't wmlt h, and to a'k for mort
Or. (lnt lllpt't' (tlf .\)\h,tr) 11l rf11111'' Tht llt\IIW Pr.l, or
'l'rittl.h lf[,dii,l'- \khar ... ..,oLttt't,t,tlwto!lllllt'llt't'IIH'IIt of\\htt h L1!1 ... nn thl' FelJruan,..
1.->,)t); ht'lll'l' the tlnrt.' -n111th _\l'tH ... to \ D. ...
than is ahsolntely is loohd upon as rontPmpt1hle hy people
ginn to ntirrnwnt aJI(l stelnsion. whibt tht opposite is tht cast with the '
mlmhitants of the towns, 11 ho !1 l't in a dtptwltnt po..;ition, I would
:mswPr that 1t is afttr all only shortsightP<llll<'ll who mak t a.sst'ft.ion ;
for in rral1t\ both of lllt'll tn to ohta1n that whi!'h thl'l' think
. . .
lll'rP.;sar:. l'nor. hut ahst<m1ous p<'op],. tak.- a sufli,IPIIt qwmt it.1 of
fowl anl ralmPnt, ,,o as to h<'p up tht 'tnngth IH'l'<'"ary for th<'{llm;uit
of tluir l'll'luint'',:tntl to prot 1'1'1. t htm :tg:tlll'< inllutnct 'of thP 11 eat lur;
wluJ..;t tlw othtr <las..; th11tk to hal'<' ju.,t ,,nJli!'ll'llt. 11 llt'n lillt.lHir
tnasunPs, gathN armit-<, and nfl,tt on othtr mtans of inn<':t'tng thPir
jlOI\ t'f.
It. wac< from such 1i<ws, 11 htn lifting t ht 1 Pil and hq.(inning to fl:l)
:tt.tPnt.ion to thts<' 1\'t'l) .. dliy I'OIH'l'l'llS, that ln.-< \hj1'!.tY ntrns(<d Ins inmns\
SPt'l'els to thP /Ou!rljfl Sfl!'ltfC.!illlrtd l\lu711,
a ll:tlll!' 11 hich Ius \lajt.,ty had a
lJI'stomd upon him a' :t fitt111g tltlt. On :tt't'llllllt of th "'-IH'I'I<'Ilt'l' of tht\n
1\filtript, thP ntiPdions of hi . ..; :\lajtst: took a pr.tdllaltum, 111dnpd hy '
dtgrtPs, and at. last forth 111 t'\t't'lllnl. ngnlat wns. .\n tnpmy
rtgardmg th Illt'Oillt' of th dill'<'l'l'llf. k1nds of l:md 11as sp(. on fool, a111l
'ilt'l'l'S,flllly conl'!ndtd h1c I h1 \1 IS!Iom of 11('1'ighi. :11111 I''P''I'II'III't'd 1111'1\.
\\'1t.h a t'ompnhtn>inlli'"' 11 hii'II kn<'\1' no dill'<'l'l'II<'t' lll't 11 1'<'11 frwnrb and \,
t.h1 l:mtls ll'hll'h pa1d nnts 11ilo il11 IlllJII'rial I'SI'"'''I"''i' 1\I'J'n fr
HpnraiPtl fro1111h .l:igir lands: and z:dou.s a11d II(HI!fhlllil'll ,111'1'1' pn r:
Ill <hargo of till' 1'1'\'l'lllll's. ah o\'tr on1 1.1/rru of d<llil-'. lnl'<lrrnptdJie
/,ifo!.rki., \11'1'1' "l'l,.rlod to a..;sist. thnr. and Int.llrg<iJI tnii:III'I'J',S \\1'1'1'
:tpflOlllild, Oil<' for c:wl1. .\nd fro111 kmdlll"' and rar for 1 l11 agrl<'ldt.IJra.l
cl:J."I',.;, 11 \\';tei l'llllllll:tilrltd th:tJ, 1}11' f'O"I'I'(IIJ'S '"o1dd Jloi. IIJ.,isJ. II(HJII t.he
hu,lailliman p:tVIJlg l'lllll in f111l 1\l'lght, ],Ill. to lllllr a 1'1'1'1'11'1 for
wlw!<'l'l'r 'IH'l'l''' of mol\1'\' ht n11ght lr1n.g 'I'IIJS l:t1HI:dl1 ngulat.ttJil
rtnwntl till' ru.,l. "f lllll'l'l't:tlll(\ fnnn tlw IIIIIH!s of tl11 mll<<tor.s, awl fr
tc;tunri,f 111\\IIJ-.IIII'-/II'!JI/Iunr'' /\'l,lt'i)'l-fllri htlw !!liP rf llwrhufr!IIIWh HrH
fl',d J1,1lllr' \\,\-. Pltt-d \ftrr ,\,'f,,,j, 11:--d.-i to J,"" i:l), \\hr, IH"..,fmHr! ('(
up1111 lrrlll tlw frtlr ol l!ll''llllil/llrl Ahrio, hr rntrr,.,[ \l,\ "'nIt" \l,h:tr, ,dtrr tho)
dr-,Jth of

'r(.J)Jn \lull.unnwd l\h.!rr, hr .... /!J .... ttr Ld/wr. tulttrllf!lfld to
wt n ltr-. 1 1f hn.rnr ,., ,rrrd !r rrdrnu: t lw H\ t'l\t!l' I )part nrrrd :1 d111 rd t htl'\ 1''1, h1 a ppourh<1rd
(c;'trrn:ul h.h.ln, fq ft'tll,,,Jt! tlw IHLI!ilr'-., rru! .. rn:...r lrrrn .r ttJIItlrr.rrrdrr of ()rw
(l'l{t \ltli 1-F.rll .... /r .... t f)f \J,I,,I!'..., ' Ill p.trt oJJd, :\r! II!!), :t!ld (fJIJrlrrlll' 7;
up{)nlrrm fht tlll1 rd /c;fJI,,I!I AJ,,i,l llr.rpJH.rr .... toh.t\1' jJI'I/1n11wd lrr.drrfll" Ill :\l,hnr) .
...;lfr-Ltrii!Hl In J;,,;,;, he rurJ\1'\t'd tlw . .drlt'f' ,,f \llf,!rr \!tJkiral\ l..nrrof hh.lnd<HJ i.J'
to to .\klJ,rr'"' h.uf:lll, ltHJI.. ..... r p.trt 111 tlw ,;JIIIjll;'...,_f 1d' Hl'JJJ.{al
\dwnlw dr ... hr!!bl'lf. and"'" 111 ).)";'li, .rppollilr d !-'tJ\1 ,,f Bh.d,J.;ar.
111 I.) iS .\l ... lur .._ 1 \\,h rr'l{lllrf'rl 111 t hr I' tllJ-dJ, Jt:;t l!rr.ld hlr.-rn dl-.rfld t() JOIII hun.
In mdn tn h1" 1 ontt!l:fl'ttt, lw r'rJIII'I kd h1-. Tf'llf" .r11d rHJI<..tandl!t!!!-i, al-4 tf appt'IHH,
\\tth mtwlr h.Lr..,]ll\1'..,.., Tfll .... kd tq a 1 IJ/1-.ptr.rl y Jrr .... JJfl'. frr tlw "a rut' j't'ar he
\\'a" lllllrdrr1d hy a man JJ:\nli'd .\Ll'j"'iHl C:,\li 1 I f'marrt'.

relieved the subjects from a variety of oppressions, whilst the income
became larger, anrl tho state flourished. The fountain of the revenues
having thus been purificl, a zealous awl horwst man was selected for the
general treasurer.,hi p, and a rliirorj}}ft awl a clerk were appointed to assist
htm. Vigilmll'<! was established, ancl a stanlanl laid down for this
Whencvtr a (pmvinr:ial)>nrl'r luul collectel the sum of two lakhs
of diims, ht! ha;l to stllfl it to the Tnasnrcr at the Court, together
with tt mmnorandum H[H!c1fying the quality of the sum.
A separate 1.rP:tsurer was appointed for the pt8hka.'h
receipts, another
for receiving hPirles:; property, another for

aJHl another for
the mont!ys expend.! in wt:ighing tlw royal

and for l'h:nitable
'tlonations. l'rnprr l'f!g:ilatwns were abo m:\(le for the tlishurscmrnts ; and
horwst. supermt.ont!Pnt,, rliinu;has and clerb were appointerl. The sums
requiretl for t.ho annual pondit.nro, t\l'll pail at the C:mwral Treasury to
oarh of the anl torTeet receipts grantrtl for
them. A pmpor c;pt''m of U.<'l'Ount.s having thus hern inangnratetl, t,he
empire hl'gan t.D ln a shmt t.inw the j;rpasuries were full, tho
army was, nnd rl'fr:wi.orv reb .. l.s ll to i.lw path of obcdienct.
Inlriin and TiiriiJ,, ll'ill'n' ou!y lliW,unr IS appointed, the accounts
are in a confusPd statt: hut here mlnd1a, t.ho amount of the revPmws is "o
-great, an,tl "mn\i.,fanons t.httt. t.II'Pivn t.ntJ .. ,nnrs ttro lll'l'l's.-;ary
for storing tho llloi\P)', 111111' for tlw difl't,nnt l;mds of ca.shpt<.vments. awl
three for pnion., gold, and inl:tid j\II'Pilcry. Tlw exttmt of the
is !oo great t.o ;tdmit. of rnv gi1ing a propl'r de"'l'iption 111t.h ot.h .. r
matters bdoro I no. From Ins of tho work. and a.-; 11 re11 ;ml for
lahom, his l\fajPst .. l' vor.v oft.Pn h1s satisfact.1on, or convoys wpri
mands ; ovr.vt.lnn,g is Ill a ilomishing I'Ondition.
t.nasmrs 11 tw a.lso appoint.l'd for l':tl'h of t.he fmptnal
workshops t.h .. nutnlHr of ll'hil'h marl.1 llnl' hundnl. Daily,
qn:trtl'fly, ttnd y..arly <ll't'tHlltts :<rt llf thP nt'l'ipt.s anl diohlll'ot'lllent.s,
so tlud. in; hr:uwh :dso th Jll:trkttplace o{ the worll is II\ a f!uuri:-hing
,\gain hy the Imler of his :'llajt:<ty a of known llliPgrity kel'ps
'n t.he public :llldit'Jltt hall, sonw gold and silwr fnr th1 nted.v, who
have tlll'ir wants nliPYI'd ll'ii.lwut. dcla.1'. l\Iononr, a kann of diims is
kept in nulmess 11 it hin t ht palac. thnu<al\ll of whirh i.-: hpt in
matle of a coar.w m:ttrial. a hag ts callt<l in Hindi sahsah,
l'tde the eighteenth .[<;,. nf tho second book.
PrC'sl'nts, vo" f.'te.
[' Saha.ora S.-1'.]
and many of them, when put up in a lwap, ganj. his Majesty
entrusts to one of the nobility a large :nun of money, part of which is
carric1l in a pursr.
This is tlw reason, why digJmrsl'llll'Ht!-l are called
in the bngnage of tht eount.ry kl!_arj-i bah/a/1.
All the'c brrwfit$ flow from the wonderful liberality of his and
from his unremitting eare for the subjects of the empire. Would to God
that he might live a !
If I wPTc to speak ahout t.hc quantity a11<l l'lua.lity of 1lw;; 11
wouhl t.ake llll' an :LgP. T "hall tht>rdon :t fP\\' part.iculars, "gat !wring
an Par from ewry slwaf."
His appointntl for tins ollite an intt-lligPnt, trustworthy,
rlP\'er tnasmer, and as Jus assisL:mts, an P:O.ptriPJI<'Pd eiPrk, a
d'rfi)(J!Jfl, and also ski lfn I jl'Wl'lltrs. 'I' hi' found at ion t.herdore of t.his
important tltpart.nwnt rests upon thosl' fom pillars. 'l'hPy !'las.,ifi!'tl t.he
jewpJ.-;, awl thus l'l'lllCJ\'td t rust of ronfusio11.
Rubies.-- J.-;t elass ruhil'', not less than 1000 mnhrs in ; :iwl
class from ml!.l to !iOO mnhrs ; :In[ I'! ass, from l!l!l to :100 ; H h elass,
from to :!00; !ith rlass, from ]!)!Ito 100: lith fia'H, from !JD to{)() ;t,
7t.h class, from !i!J to 10 ; Ht.h class, from :l!l to :lO ; !lt.h dass, fr;>m 2!) to
10; lOth class, from !IJ t.o !i: lith class, from IJ t.o I muhr; l:!i.h da>'.
from ]muhr to .\ rupeP. Th1w madtl no account, of mhiPs of [ps:; va[IJ(
])IIIIJ/OIId8, l'i!ll:mld8, and the rl'd and !J/111' yiiqiits, Wlll'll rlh>.-;ified
follows: 1st elass. from :10 muhrs upwards; 2nd 1la:,s, from :!flJ to
mul1rs; :\rd, from I l '1 t.o I:!; Hh ci:Lss, from 11 t t.o 10; lith l'i1
from \1,1 to 7 ; lit.h class, from 111 to !i ; 7th clas:>. from 'f f to :\ ; Hth ela.
from 21 !)t.h class, from I'/ to I mnhr; lOth class, from rupeeH
to !i flljll'I'S: llt.h rlass, from J '/ to :! J:lt.h class, from lt to
l rupee.
The Pearls \\'PI'I\ dl\idPd int.o IIi elasses, and by HeoreH. 'fh
first strmg eontaimd tw1nty pParl.s, earh of a valiw of :30 muhrs !I.IH
upwards; :lnd ,.Ja,,; pearls Yaricd from :l!J to l!i muhrs; :lrd elass, from
H to 12 ; lth class, from Ill to 10 ; Gt h class, from to 7 ; flth claKs,
from Gf to !i ; 7th from 1l to :l ; 8th class, from to '2 ; 9th clalls.
A purse in Hmdi is called bah/a. I'. a pure, a fahom r's
from 1} to 1; lOth ela.,s, less than a muhr, down to :5 rupees; 11th class,
ess than 5, to 2 rupees; 1'2th class, less than '2 rupees, to 1} rupees;
13tb. \t\HH than 11 rllJH'es, to :10 rlii111s ; 1 Hh less than :lO diims,
to 20 diims; JfJth ('\ass, h-ss than '20 dii111.>, to 10 diims; !Gth class, less
than 10 rlii111s, to!) 1/!ims. pearls an upon a nttmber of strings
tluir tlass, so tlmt thosp of th1\ lf)th cl;tss ;tre strung upon
Hi strings. At the tnd of P:uh bundle- of strings tht, lllljJtH'Jal Sl'al is anlxed,
to a\ord lo . .;sts ansi11g frontunsoriJllg, whilst a dPscnption i . .; <tttarlrcrl to
caeh pParl, t.o prnvtJlt dJstmlr.
'rhe following are 1111, chargP.s for hcnng illdPpwlent of the
t.laily awlmontlily wag<'s of tlw \\orknttJJ. For a JH':trl of the lst elass,
! nrp(e; '2nd tlass, : :In! tl.ts.s,
" l'llJH'C: 1th cl:ts,.;, :1 diims: !ith elass,
1 sti!.i
: fjt,IJ class, I drin; 71 h las . .;, :1 rl1i111 : K1 h, rf,wl ; rla;:s,
1 <Will; lOth tlas:-:, .\dum: lith ,\dum: l:!th rbss, dllll: 1:11.h
elas . ..;,! rlllll; llt.h da . .;s, ,
, rf,lill; l;>t.h class,
., rlllll; lf)t!t elass,
and less.
The valtw of jt,\\'<1...; i.-; so \l'tdl knoll 11 t.h:Lt. tt. 1s IIH<lt . ..;s to s:ty anything
alJOnt. it.; bni. t.hosn whith an at j>rt'.'<'lll. 111 tltP I !'J':tsnn of h1s
may be t!PtaiiPd ;ts follml'
II Iii :!0 .wrkhs,'
and dlitiiiOIId.s of rq ltillks, l
l t:wh ontl:-ddt of I'IIJ!I'''': trnpraJd,.; \l'l'tghJng 1n liiuks. :1 s11rkhs,
52,000 fllj>l't'S: !!lljii/S of I /rillks, n mrklrs, and Jll':tl'b of i"> lrillks, l':ll'h
110,000 l'llj>l'l'.'
Till<: L\ll'J:IU.\L .
. b t.Jtt SIICI'PSSfiiJ \\'O!'J\Jng of iJH lllllli l!ll'l'l';I"'S t.lH trr:t,tll'l', :tlld IS
t.Jtp sourec of dtsp;tlt'h for wry dcpaltlll<'llt, I shallnwn1wll a ft>w dt'1:t1ls.
ThP of ilw I1111Hs nnd ilw t'llllll1lT pprform 1htrr
t.ransat'lillns 1>1 lll<'<tll-' 11f llllll\<'1. 1;,.,.1'\' 111:111 n."'s rt :tt'!'ordtll" to the
. .
"Xt.tJl(. of his lli'I'I'SSI(I<'S, j,Jtp \\'Jtos. hl',tl'(. IS fl'<'l' frolll \\IIJ'JdJ.r dOSII'CS
s,--,.,- 1-1 Ill. ,Jild ,,i!.t' t II' 1\ ltlllr-.llllta lnt I
I' '/';jk H. I "'''''"' I' I
Stu!J.!. !HI'Hll" 1111; al ... n,a 1111!1' -"!,( ll'lfh 'I !J!,,,I, ,ful on If, ,,,Jhd mlllJld.yhrullvlir.
AhrlH 'l'hl' l'tr,J,l!h calll'll 1t 1 },a,foll 1 ,.,H k':-. t'\1' Tlw :-.ct>d.., an
tl'i"d fur cluldHn'-.; ht.tccltl-. \h,-, 'l F.111 llH'.tlh hPil' llw "t' ,,dhd 111 Hu1d.
tali, wftf. s ,,/Ill, lis, (If's Ill''' l 111'/..:
/r(. I:! )//1/,hfi, 1 and so,,,,[,..;
':-ter. _.\ f1fnl. ndtud at l ml,ft,f-.:, but 1t nw-.t h.t\P \\t'Idwd a ltltle rnnn-, as m thP
tnth .l'in,.\hli '1-Fnli'i that the \\PI!!ht o! I drim ;) or l f,,/,r, S 11/,(,..:/i<i..:,
1.1'., I 11111!. tl:? 11/rt..,hri.-.: l 11/,,,},ri'l, l s/u/,1,,..,
sustains hy it his life, ant! tht worltlly man ennsidtrs it the final stagt' of
his ohjP<'ts --the of all an satisfit>d In it. Tht \\ise man looks upon
it as thl' foundation, from\\ hll'h tlw fultilnwnt uf Ius \\orldl.r allllnligions
\vislHs flows. It is :dlo<olutth- lll't'l''>an f11r t ht> r11nt Jnllal\1'1' of 1 ht hum:m
. .
fa<'P, llll'll oht:un J,y JIHJnl'_\" t luir food and riot lung. Ytl\1 may indtPd
tht>e two tlungs h\ undtrgllJHg labour, a' '"wing. rt>aring,
reapmg, <"lt:ming, knl':tdme!. l'llokmg, t \\1,1 111g. 'l'llll\lllg, \\ t:wmg, I'll'. ;
but tht;.,t :wtlon-; annot \ltll IH porflll'lllt'd \\ithllut :-<P\"l'l':d htlptrs;
f11r tlw stnngth of :1 sJnglt Pl:\ll 1s not ,u!litJtnt. and t11 do'" day aftt-r
day would lw d lllit1dt. 1 f !lilt 1111 P"''I hJ... .\gam. Ina n 1'\'tlui l'l'S a dwPII ing,
for kel'piiig his ]ll'lli'Jsions. This ht ralls In,, h111111', \\ hot hl'r It. IH :1 tnt., or
a t'll\'t'. :\ian's I'X1stt'll<'t, and tho tont1nlla!ll't' of h1s ld't, dt]H'!ld Ill\ li\'t!
thmgs a fat lit'!'. a mot her. l'hddnn. son .tnt..s, f11ott, t ht last. of whith
nquJrtd h: all. :\lono\'tr, 1110IIt'\' ;,; ntp11il'd, as onr flllllltnn and uteJI.Sds
hn:1k. tht\ l.t,t. Ill llll ta.sp \1'1'\' long. Bnt nlont.v dot'S last. long,
on :ttt'tlllnt of tht ;.,t,nngth and t'ompal'lnoss of 1ts matonal, and t'\'t'll a
httll' of 1t mar prodllrl' llltll'h. It also tnahlos 1\ll'll to tr:L\'tl. llll\v ddlicult.
would 1t Ill' to tarr.\' pro\'isJons for St'\'Pral da.n;, !tt. alonP for SI'Wr:tl
mont h.-; nr \'Pars I
By 1hl' h1lp of ( :od's gotH!Jitss t.hJs I'Xt'l'lltJit, pnt'I011S llll'i:d (gold)
h:ts t'Olllt' tot ]J,. shon of 1'\ISiPIIt't', and ljl\,.d t Itt storP of \If,. 11 1t holll llllll'h
on t Itt p.Lrt of m:\11. 1\v moans of gold, Ill :Ill oarrws out. no hit
plans, and 1'\<'11 ptrflll'lllS l>t\'lllt' 1\or.o..hJp Ill a propr !ll:tllntr. Uold
man_\' Y:du:1h\., t]ll:lhtil's: 1t. coflwo..,,, :1 good t.asit', and
lts t'Olll]lllllt'llt parts nr" 1\I':Hl.r t'ljlt:LI
111 \ll'ight. and th .. !ll:trk-, of 1.hl'
four t'!tllil'll1:; :HI' Ill tt.' propl'rt.tos. Its rolonr l'l'llllllds 11s of firP,
its jllll'ltY of :Ill', tis sofintss of \\:tltr. its hl'a\'lllt'S.s of oart h: lll'!lt'l' goltl
posst'.'"'" l!l<lll\' llfe-gJ\'IIIg rars. :\or ran anr of tlw fo11r olt'llll'!ll.s lltjlln
H: for tt dooo.; not IH!I'Il 111 t h" fin: 11 rt'lll:l.l!IS un:dl'tl'ttd ly ;m; nt:tJns
for a.e!t'S 1ts appoamnt alt hottgh kt];t. 111 11 attr and dot,, not. gl'l altt!td
\lill'll IHII'Il'd 111 tlw ground, \1 hl'foh.l gold Js dJs1JIIgiiJ.o..IJPd from tho othr
!lll'tak It. IS for t.\tJ.; nason t h:1t Ill old hool,s 011 11/ii\m.ophy 111 \\ lllf'h
lll:tn's mttllttt J:; lt'l'll\l'd tl/1' yrrr1IN i'riur'ljd,, gold IS talltd !Ill' /rs.,rr
a' tlw thll!)!S !'t'tjUlrt'd for human l1f,. dopt'lllillpoll tt. ,\rnong
!Is t'[lltltl'ts I may lllt'Jit Ion "t h" gJt:IJtltan of JllSt Jt'n .. : "t IH lllll\'l'!'
adJil'ti'l" .. }'{nd. mdtod, tlw :tdjitsli!Hnt of th1ngs d"]"'llds on gold,
I .\( 1 to tltf t lwrnbt-. til(_ gqJd r Ofl'-hf'l c,f qrw L"dHr aud
tak.l'll 111 propt,rtJr Jl'i; the lrttttr mu-.t, lnn\t\t r, pu""'''-.,"'1 r tJlourl!lg
proptrtlP". 1,,1 til(' thllttt_llt1r .
.! "\\erP tt !tot for put_\, l \\otdrl bow d1mu to gold atJd "l.\, 'Jlali!J\\Pd 1)( thy
and the basis of justice rests upon it. To render it service, God has allowed
silver and brass to come into usc, tlm-; creating additional means for the
welfare of man. Hence just kings and energetic ruler.-; have paid much
attention to these metals, aml crecteclmints, where their properties may
be thoroughly ;;tudiecl. The suer:ess of thi.-; department lies in the appoint-
ment of intelligent, zealous, and upright workmen, and the edifice of the
work! is built upon their attention :mel carefulness.
Aln G.
1. The Dtlroy}l-'l. He must he a eircunu;pc:ct and intelligrnt man, of
hroacl principles, who the curnhrous hurdcn of his colleagues upon
the shouldc:r of despateh. He must kcc:p every OJW to hi:; work, and show
zeal ancl intcgrity.
2. 'l'ho 8ayrafi.
The HIWCPss of t.hi;; important. dc:partnwnt. depends
upon his PX[Wric:nc'P, as he eletcrrninPs the degrpc:s of purity of the coins.
On aeeount. of t.he pro.<perit.y of tlu: prescnt agc, t.lwro are now lllllltbers of
Rkilful :
and hy thr: attPntion of Ius :HajPsty, gold and sdwr are
refinecl to t.lw highe:st. d!'gne: of puntv. Tlw higl1est degree of pmity is
called in L'trsta rlahdahi, hut t.hcy do not know above 10 dcgrpes ,of
fineness; whdsL in India 11. it ca!ll'el lnirahhiilll, as t.hey have t1wlvl'
degrees. Fornll'rl.v old /11111, whieh is a gold coin eurrent in the
was thought. to pmP, awl rl'ckonl'd at i<'n degrl'es; hut. his :'lfaiesty
has now fixl'd it. and t.lw round, small gold r!lll(tl' of ,\Ft
which was considercd to he l:l dl'gnl's, now tums out. tn he
Those wloo afl' l'XIH'I'il'nrPel in this lntstJH':,s lmvP rPiakd wone!Prful
stories of thl' purit,v of gold at tlw pr<'sent. !lllll',-:md rl'fl'rnd it. to witeh-
eraft and alciH'Ill!'; for they m:tintam. that. goll on clot.< not come up to
this fi!ll'lll'S . .;, Bnt. by thl' attl'n1 ion of his :\lajt,t.y, 1t has 1'011\n up t.o this
degree; htwe astonishment. of J>POJ>Il' :wqnaint.c>d w1th this hranrh.
It. is, hom'\'1'1', l'l'rt.ain, that. gold ean1wt he 111ade iinPr, and of a highLr
degree. I lmwst c!Psenbers and trut.hfnl tra\'l'llcors haw ill<l<'c'cl nPver
nwntioncd this dPgne : hut, "lttn gnlel 1s put mtn fusion. small partieles
separate from it, and mix with thP ashc,;, wlul'h ignorant men look
upon as ust>hss dros,.;, whilst thc skilful ncovPr the mrtal from it.
Although mallt>ahle gold ore he ealeil!ld :mel reduced to yet by a
Thr sunu aM or ''rllruj; hrnre a sl11ojj. a mou<'y lendl'r.
[ ..; ), J_,,;.. J} _.1-:J .... I' J
certain operation, it is brought back to its original state ; but a part of
it is lost. Through the wisdom of his Majesty, the real circumstances
connected with this loss, were brought to light, and the fraudulent
practices of the workmen tlmR put to the test ..
A'in 6.
An abbreviation for biinwiiri. Although in this country clever
are able from experience to tell the degree of fiJ}cncss by the colour and
t.he brightness of the metal, the follow;ng admirable rule has been intro-
duced for the satisfaction of others.
To the ends of a few long nec<llcs, of brass or such like metal,
small pieces of gold are ani xed, having tluir degrPe of lineJH'ss written
on them. When the workmen wish to a new piece of gold, they first
draw with it a few lines on a touchstone, all<! wme o1.h<r lines with the
needles. By comparing both sets of lines, th<'y <liscowr the drgree of
fineness of the gold. It is, however, nccesKary 1.hat the lirw:; he <lmwn in
the same manner, and with the same f<Jrr!', Ro as to avoi<l deception.
To apply this rulP, it is necessary to hav<' gold of various of
fineness. This is ohtaine<l as They nwlt together one 11/(isfm of
pure silver with the same <Jilantity of hest eopp<r; an<l let it get solid.
Thrs mixture they again melt \\ith li of pure gol<l of 10! degrees of
fineness. Of this composition one J/l(tshn
is t11kPn, and divide<! into sixteen
parts of half a surH each. If now surl-hs of gold (of degrees)
are mixed with one of the sixteen parts of the composition, the toueh of
the new mixture will only be IOl brin.a Rnnilarly, 7 surl.-hs pure gold and
two parts of the composition melted togeth<r, will give gold of 10 lxin;
6! s. pure gold and three part:' composition, brin ; 6 s. gold a!l<l four
parts composition, biin; s. gol<l ancl parts eomposition, brin;
5s. gold and six parts composition, 9 Mn ; l gold and seven parts
81/)(in; i s. gold and eight parts composition, biin; 0! s.
gold and nine parts composition, 8l biin ; :l s. gold and ten part!\ com-
position, 8 biin; s. gold and eleven parts composition, 7i biin; 2 s. gold
ana twelve parts composition, 7 lxin; l 8. gold and thirteen parts com-
position, 7! biin; 1 s. gold and fourteen parts compoHition, 7 bcin; and
This Hind. word, which is not given in the rliltionarieR, means the teating of gold.
This miuha contains 6 parts gold, 1 part and I part copper, i.e., f gold and
i alloy.
The Hind. term bcin means "temper, degree".
lastly, l s. gold and fifteen parts composition, 6! ban. Or generally,
every additional half surkh (or one part) of the composition diminishes
the finenesa of the gold by a quarter biin, the touch of the composition
itBelf being brin.
If it be required to have a less than ban, they mix together
i surkh of the first mixture which consisted, as I said, of silver and copper,
with surkhs of the second composition (consisting of gold, copper, aTLll
silver), which, when melted together, gives golcl of Gl biin; and if 1 surkh
of the first mixtme be meltecl together with 7 sltrkls of the second com-
pollition. the result will he 0 brin ; awl if they require still baser com-
poHitions, they increase mixtures by half sur!Jls. But in the 1/amn!ri,
they reckon to (l hrins only, rejecting all haxer rompositions.
All is pmforntecl by a man who unclmstands the tests.
3. Amln. He must impartiality ancl integrity, so that
frienus and enr)rnies can be sure of him. Hhould there be any clifferences,
he assists the daroul1tt and the otlwr workmen, maintaim that which i8
right, and prevents quarrels.
4. The Muslmj. He write . .; clown the daily expmclitme in an upright
' 1 and practical manner, ami kl1eps a systematic' day-book.
5. The Merrhanl. lie buys up gold, silver, :mrl copper, by which he
:gains a profit for hnnsp]f, assists the dPp:trtml'llt, aiHll)('neflts thr wvcnues
of the State. 'l'r:tde will flourish, whln justice is everywhere to be had,
and when rulers an not avaricious.
6. Till' Treasurer. He wakhl'S ovPr the ancl is upright in all
his dealings.
The of the first fom awl the sixt.h officlrs llifl'er from each
other, the lowlst of thl'm holdmg the rank of an Jhad/.
7. The Jl'eiylwwn. He \rtighs the coins. For weighing 100 jaliili
golLl-muhrs he gets 11 d1t111s; for weighing !000 rupc<'s, dii111s; and
for wrighing 1000 coppPr dc/m:;, of a rh/111; and, aftpr this mte, according
to tlw quantity.
R. The Jll'ila rif the Orr. He makPs small :tll!l largl' trpnches in a
tablet of day, which he h"smPars \nth grr:tst>, :t!lll pours into tlwm the
melted gold ancl silwr, to cast them into ingots. In the case of ropper,
instead of using gna-;l', it. i,; sufliciPnt to sprmk\1 ashcs. For tlw aboyc-
Tho Ah,,,J;,, <"Ornpon<h to our H'nrnrnl oOirfrs. Most clerks of tho Imperial
offices, the painters of tho our!, the foremen in Akbar's \\orkshops, etc., belonged to
this ('orps. They wrre <"nll,cl Alwdi.. or sznyle mor, b<'muse they stood under Akbar's
immediate order.. Tho \101'<1 .lhadi, the h of wlurh is tho Arnbte C' was spelt in official
returns with tho P,rsian S<> dc<'prooted, says lladaoni, was Akbar's hatred for
everything which was Arabic. [This wurd has come to mean in Urdu, lazy, indolent.-P.J
The following method of assaying is also used. They take two touis
of pure gold, and two toliis of the gold which passed through the fire,
and make twenty plates of each, of equal weight. They then spread the
a hove mixture, apply the fire, wash them, and weigh them with an exact
balance. If both kinds are found to be equal in weight, it is a proof of
10. The Meller of the refined 11wtal. He meitH the refined platl.'s of
gold, anrl casts them, as described above, into ingots. His fcc for 100 gold
mul!rs is three dan!S.
ll. The ?arriib. He cuts off the gold, silver ancl copper ingots, as
exactly as he can, rounrl pieces of the size of coinc(l money. His fees are,
for 11){) gold mu!trs, :H di'ims, 1fjetal.o; for the weight of 1000 rupees,
53 diims, 8! jetals, if he cutH rupees: anrl 28 diims in addition, if he cuts
the same weight of silver into quarttr rupees. For 1000 copper chiHtS his
fee is 20 diims; for the same weight of half ancl rtuart!-r diims, 25 cliinUJ ;
and for half-quarter which are ralld drtmiis, (j!J
In lr<in and 'fiinin they cannot eut these piel'eH without a proper anvil ;
but Hinclustani worknwn cut them with011t surh an instrmrwnt, HO exadly,
that there is not the difference of n single hair, which is renuubble
The Engra1er. He engraves the dies of the coins on steP!, awl
such lil.: metal.;. Coins are then stamper! with these dies. At this day,
l\Iawlii.-n:i 'Ali Al.nnacl of Delhi, who has not his equal in any eountry,
cuts different kinds of letters in steel, in such a manrH'r as to crpml the
copyslips of the most skilful caligmphcrs. He holds the rank of a
an(! two of his men serve in the mint. Both have a monthly
salary of GOO diims.
l:J. The Sik!.-achi. He places the rounrl of metal hetween two
and by the strength of the hammerer (putk-cki) both sides are
stamped. His fees are for 100 gmd muhrs, 1 * diims; for 1000 rupees,
5 aams, 9Uetals ; and for the weight of woo rupees oi small silver
1 dc'im, :3 jetals in addition ; for 1000 copper di'ims, :3 dams ; for 2000
half-d.iims, and 4000 quarter-diims, diim8, l8J jrtals; and for 8000 half-
quarter dc'ims, Out of these fcc; tlw sikkadti has to givr
one-sixth to the hammerer, for whom there is no separate allowance.
14. The Sahbiik make.> the refined Rilver into round plates. For every
1000 rupees weight, he receives 5l d.iims.
This Turkish worrl signifirs a commander of ou hundred m<!n, a captAin. A/.ladi6
of distinction were promoted to this military rank. The salary of a Y iizbishl varier!
from five to seven hundred rupoes per nu!Mem; vule the third of the second book.
mentioned quantity of gold, he gets d;jms; for the same quantity of
,silver, 5 dri.m8 and 13} jetals;
for the same quantity of copper, 4 dams
'and 21 jetals.
9. The Pltllemaker. He the a<lulterated gold into plates of six
or seven each, Hix fingers in length and brcarlth ; these he carries
to the who measures thl'm in a mould ma<le of copper, aml
stamps such as are suital,le, in order to prevent alterations and to show
the work done. He receives as for the above-mentioned quantity
of gold, 42:\ dams.
When the above-mentioned pb1tt>s have hccn stamped, tlw owner of the
gold, {or the weight of uvery I 00 jalrili gol<l mu hrs, must furnish
fou rsl:'rs of
saltpetre, and four sPrs of briekdust of rn.w brirks. The plates, nftcr having
been washe!l in de:m water, are stratilie<l with the above mixture (of the
saltpetre an!l hrickdust), an<l put one abow the other, the whole being
covere!l with !'OW!Iung, whi('h inllmdi is ealle<lupla. It is the dry <lung
of the W i/d
Coli'. 'I' hen th..y sp(. lire to it, awl let 1t gtntly burn, till
the dung is reduced to ashPs, whPn th!'Y le;we it t,o roo!; th!'ll, these
ashes !wing r!'movPd from are pns<ncd. They are calle<l in
Persian khiik-i :mtl in Hindi salon/. By a procpss, to be nwntioJwtl
hereafter, t,}uy !'!'!'OVPr silver from it. plates, and the ashes helow
them, are ll'ft as th<'y are. 'l'h1s l'rocess of setting lire to the <lung, an.[
removing tho :1sh!s at tlw sid!s, is twieu reprated. \\'h(')\ t hrPe fires have
been applitd, t.lll'.\' t;lw plates silri'i. ThPy are th!'ll;n \Ytwhe!l in
elean watPr, and stmtitie<l thnp t.imes with the ahov! mixturP, the ashes
d the sic!Ps IJPing nmo\ed.
'l'his opPmtion must l'<'pPahd till six mixtmPs and cightt>en fin1s
lmw lwPn applitd, wh!n th!' ph1tes <Lrt' ag<tin wasl\('d. 'l'h<'n the assay
maslPr hr!'aks o1w of tlll'm; and if t.h!rp comPs out a ,;oft and mil< I so11nd,
it is a sign of its h!'ing pure ; hut If the so1md is harsh, the
platts must mu!Prgo thre<' more tirl's. ThPn from paeh of the plates one
miislut is t.11kl'n awav, of whi<h aggngat.l a plate is nuttk Thi:; is J ried on
t.hc touchstone ; if it is sutlieiently tinr, the gohl again to
through one or two In mses, howewr, the tlesJretl effect is
obt!\intd h) thne or four lires.
'1\Hn!y-livt jela/,< make unc <l<im. l"dc the loth .t'i11.
['Usc.- -l'.j
(*, ija/irci'i. This probably mrnns jangli; i.e., 'not stalled or stnll-fcd."-l'.]
The of an alloy in silt'er. Silver may be alloyed wit.h lead,
tin and copper. In Iran and Tiirlin, they also call the highest degree of
fineness of silver dalulalti ; in Hindustiin, the use for it the term
bist bisua. According to the quantity of the alloy, it desel'nds in degree ;
but it is not made less than five, and no one would rare for silver baser
than ten degrees. Practical men ran <liscowr from the colour of the
compound, which of the alloys is prevailing, whibt by filing fllHl boring
it, the quality _of the insi<le is ascertained. Tlwy al:<(l try it hy beating it
when hot, and then throwing it into water, when hlacknrsR denotes lead,
redness copper, a white greyiHh colour tin, awl whitt'llt'HR a large propor-
tion of silver. '
They <lig a hole, antl h;wing sprinklecl into it a small quantity of
cow dung, they fill it with the ashrs of 11111ij}_l_i/iill thPn thoy
moisten it, and work it up into the shape of a dish; into t.his thPy put
the adulterated Rilvtr, together with a proport.ionat\' qnant,ity of ll'ad.
First, t.hey put a fomt.h part of the lu:ul Oil tho top of the awl
h11.ving surromvle<l the whole with blow t.he fire with a pair of
till the metal' are nwlt.ecl, whit;h opemt.ion is g<Iwrally rept:akd
four times. The proofs of t.he metal being pure are a lightning-like
brightness, ancl its btginning to harden at tl1e Hidts. soon as it iM
hardenetl in the middle, they sprinkle it '\ ith watN, wlwn
resembling in sh:tpe the horns of wild goats, from it. It then forms
into a disc, all<l is perfectly refined. If this disc he nwltcd again,
half a. snrkh in cwry lola. will hnrn away, i.r., G miisl111s aiHl 2 surf.-f,.q in
100 tuliis. The ashes of the disc, whwh are mixed with silver anclle:ld,
form a kind of litharge, called in Hindi khrwd, :mel in
kulw.a 3; the use of which will he hereafter explained. Before this
refined silvPr is ginn over to tlH!. {.arriih, fi 111iisl111s ancl G .wrkhs arc taktm
away for t.he Imprrial exehct1uer out of every hundred tuliis of it; after
which the :1ss:1y master the mass with the usual Btamp, that it
may not be altered or exrhllngccl.
In former times silver also was a:->saye<l hy t.he banuori syKtcm; now
it is C:llculaterl as follows :--if by refining JOO tolds, of sliiihi silw!r, which
is current in <;Jr;iiJ and Ji_buriisiin, lll111 of the liiri awl which are
note I, p. 21.-P.]
' Called in Hind. babul, a kiml of acacia. Its Lark is used in tanning. [The krkar
<Jf the Panjab.-P.]
' SJme !>ISS. have katah.
current in Tiiriin, there arc lost three tol<ls and one surl.-h ; and o the same
quantity of the European and Turkish narjil, and the and
of Gujriit an<l Miilwa, 13 tokts and q mashas are lost, they
become then of Imperial stan]arrl.
lG. The having heater! the refined silver, hammers it till it
has lost all smell of the lt'a<l. His fee for the weight of 1000 rupeea, is
lG. The examines the refined gol<l an<l silvt>r, and fixes its
purity as follows : -Having made two to las of the refined gold into eight
plates, he applies layers of the mixture as above described, awl sets fire to
it, keeping out, however, :11 <lraught ; he then washes the plates, and
melti! them. If they kwe not lost anytl1ing hy this process, the gold is
pure. The assay-master then tries it upon the tonehstonc, to satisfy
himself !m<l ot.hcrs. For assaying that quantity, he gets cltims. In
the ease of silver, he takes one tola with a like quantity of lead, which
he puts together into a hone crueibl,, and ke<ps it on t.lw fire till the lead
is all burnt. Having tht'n sprinkle1l the with water, he
it till it has lost all smell of the lead ; and having melted it in a new
crucible, he weighs it; a!Hl if it has lo,.;t in weight three
birinj (rice
grains), it is snfli<.:i<ntly pure; otherwise he melts it again, till it comrs
to th:tt dPgrPe. For that <ptantit.y, his f<'l' is :3 drtl/)s, ,j jetals.
17. TheN iyil.riya rolleet.H the khrlk-i awl washes it, taking two
sers at the timl': gold t.hlro mav Ill' anwng.-;t 1L will settle, from
it,s weight, to the hot.tom. Tlw k/11/k, 11 h1n thn,.; is calle(l in
Hindi kukmh,
and still l'ont.ains sonw gold, for the rrrovcry of which,
dircctio)ls shall henaftc-r !J,. giwn. The above-menti01wd adulterated
sediment is nthh1d togl'ther with quil'bilnr, at. t.lJ<' rate of six mushus
quicbilvl'r per Kt'r. The qHi1bihw from t(s )ll'trlik<t.i,o afrinity, draws
the gold to itsl'lf, and form-; an amalg:tm which IS kept ovl'r the fire in
a ntmt, till the gold is Sl'paratl'd from the qni1ksil\'!'r.
For (xtmtling t.h( gold from this ljll:tllt.Jt.y of !.hiik, the ,\'iyliriya
rec!ives ::o diims, 2 jl'lals.
The process of 1\.ukmh.
They mix with the k1tkmh an equal of punhar, an<l form a
paste of msi (a( pta, awl eo11 Tht>l' t.htn potuHl the
it "ith the pa,t.e, work it up into balls of two
sers WPight. whieh t.hty dry on a cloth.
' has .i.r.
[' \\'ord not traced.-P.]
Punhar is obtainecl as follows :-
They make a hole in the earth, and ft!l it with the ashes of Babal-woo1l,
at the rate of six fingrrs height of ashes for cnry nH\tlllcl of lt>r11l. The
lead itself is put at the bottom of the holt>, which has heen smoot.lw1l :
then they cover it with rharroab, and melt tht> kad. AftPr that, luwing
remo\ecl the coals, they plarP over it two platt.,, of l'lay, fixetl hy nwnns
of thorns, awl close up the lwllows hoh-, hut not tlw wnt. This the,r
keep coverer! with bril'b, till tlw thoroughly wake<! up the
lead. The bril'ks thPy fnrptnt.J_,. nmo\e to lt>arn tht> stat<- of the lead.
For the above-nwntimw1l qu:mtitv of !Pad. tlwrt> are I 11/lioh<rs of silver
mixc1lup with the a.,hes. Thcsp as!Hs thP_V l'flolm wat.t>r, whPn tlwy nrc
punlurr. Out of enry 111an nf karl t\\O S< rs hurnt; but. the
mass is increased hy fonr s1rs of so that tht> might of the whole
mass will he onn /111111 awl two st'l's.
Rasi is a kine! of al'ill, madt> of ashk/11/r
awl saltpd.rc.
Having thus Pxplaiued \1 hat fillllhrtr and msi an, r rctnrn to the
tlesrription of the pro('ess of 1\ukrah. mak1: an o\'Pn-lih \'esse!,
narrow at J,ot.h ends, :twl wide in thP middln, one and a half yards in
height, with a hole at the bottom. Tllt'n h:mn,!.( fiiiL'Il t.lw wss1:! with
coals within four of the top, thPy pl:we it. o\'l'f a pit. dug in t.he
earth, and blow the tire with two hcllows. After th:tt, afore-
ment.imw,J balls h!'ing hrokPn mto piP<'!'S, t.luy throw t.!wm into thn lire
ancl melt tlwm, \\ lnn the gold, sil\'c'r, ('OjlJll'r :md lc:td fall through t.l11:
hole in the hot. tom of tlw \'PHS!' I into thP pit, !.Plow. \\'hat.c'\'!'1' nmains
in the wssPI, is soft.I'Jli'd an.\ waslwd, and th1 IP:td separatcd from it.
They lihwise collect tlw asl!l's, from whcn<n also by a c1:rtain prcwPss
profit may IH derin:cl. The nwtal1s t.h"n tak,.uout of t.hP p1t., and mPIIe<l
according to the Jillllhar ri,Vskm. lcad will mix with thP from
whid1 thirty S<'rs WJII he Tl'!'llVrnrl, and kn scrs mlllw humt .. 'l'lu: gold,
silver and copp<:r nnmin t.ogl'thPr in a aud I l1is tl11y calllm.r;riill'ali,
or according to somP, fpdmlll'al'i.
The jlf'Jccss .if !III!Jrii!l'llll.
They make a hole, and fill it \1 it.h th1: of lm/!111-wflorl, half a ser for
C\'l'ry I no of lmqriill'ali. Thtse t!l!')' t.IJ,n mak<' up in form of
a dish, awl mix thl'tn up with addiu:.; ow tola of r-opper, alltl
twenty-five tolas of ll'acl. They now fill \1 1t.h r-o:d.,, and !'over it
with bricks. \rhcn t.he whole IJas melted, thPy nmovP the coals an<! the
Thr mngin uf >orne of the explain th1< word by the llmcl. sijji, 1mpurc
carbonate of soda.
bricks, and make a fire of habul-wood, till the lead and copper unite with

the ashes, leaving the gold and silver together. These ashes are also
called kltaral, and the lead and copper can be recovered from them by
a. process, which will be hereafter explained.
A'in 8.
They rtwlt this composition Hix times; three times with copper, and
three times with stdphur, callPcl in Hind. clt!uiclthiyii. :For every tola of
the alloy, they take a of eopprr, and two 11/(!slws, two surkhs of
sulphur. First tlll'y nwlt it with topper, and then with sulphur. If the
alloy be of 100 lolus weight, the 100 mashas of copper are employed as
follows :-they lirst melt fifty n<isl/lls with it, awl tlwn twice again
twenty-five mrisha.1. The Kttlphur is used in similar proportion:J. After
reducing the mixture of golrl and silver to small bits, they mix with it
fifty 1/l<tshas of copper, anti melt it in a emciblc. They have ncar at
hand a vessel full of rold water, on the surface of which is lai(l a broom-
like bun<ile of hay. Ppon it they pour the nwltcd metal, aJHl prevrnt
it, by stirring it with a from forming into a Then having
again melted thPse after mixing them with the remaining copper
in a crucihlt, they fd it to cool in the ; awl for every tola of thi8
mixture t1vo 111,islut8 and two surkhs of sulphur arc URrd, i.e., at the mtc
of one and one-half quarter srr Jler lOO tolas. When it has been
three times naJtpt] in this there apprars on the surface a whitish
kiwl of ash, whirh is sihw. ThiR is taken otT, awl kept separate; an(l
itH proeess shall hereafter be txplainc1L When the mixture of gold and
silver has thns hren snhjl'ded to tlme firts for the copper, and three for
the sulphur, tht wlid part ldt is the gold. In the language of the Panjiib,
this goll is calle<l kail, whi!Ht about Dihli, it is tenned pinjar. If the
mixture contains mnrh gold, it g1nerally turns out to Lo of ban, but
it is oftm only tlw, an,! even four.
In order to rufinP this one of the following must be used:
Either they mix fifty tola:-; of this 'vit.h 100 tolas of purer gold, and refine
it by the Sa/oni proeess: or ebe thPy usc the ,Jioni process. For the latter
'they make a mixture of two partH of wild-cow dung, and one part of
saltpetre. Having then cast the aforesai<l pinjar into ingots, they make
it into plates, none of which ought to be lighter than ll tolaa, but a little
broader than thoRc which they make in the salcm'i process. Then having
besmeared them with sesame-oil, t.hey strew the above mixture over them,
giving them for eYery strewing two gentle fires. This operation they
repeat three or four a!l'l if thty want the nwtal \'cry purr, they
rP.peat the till it 1 up to nint! The asht>s art! also colltctetl,
bt>ing a kind of kharal.
.i'in 9.
"'hatewr and drms haYc htt>n colltettd, both Ltfore awl after
the process of aloui, tlw.v mix with double the quant1ty of pure !toad, put
thrm into a cru<'ihk, <lllll ket>p them for ont! w<ltch onr the fire. \\'htn
the metal is colt!, reline it as dtsrribed undPr the article Sa!J/xi!., p. n.
The aslws of it arc abo khurul. The salon/ JI"Ol'tss is also performed in
<Jther ways well known to those cnnvPrsant with tho husiness,
IS. The l'a!t"illiir lmving lll<'ltt'd the khaml, stpamtl's tht\ sil\'l'r from
the eoplli'I". His f,.,. for 1ery tola of silv('r i.s dri111s. .b a rd.urn for
the profit ht> makes, he parK monthly :100 dii111s to the di11iin. }!;wing
relurPd t,lw khrrrol t.o 'mall he adds tn t;nry 1111111 of it HPrs of
tangrir (Lorax), and t.lme of jHIU!ldPd nat ron,
and them
together. He thtn puts this mas', str bv Kt'r, into tlw above
,Jl'srrihcd, awl meiLH Jt, whl'n ltad mixtd 11 it.h silvl'r t"ollrcLs in the pit..
This is aftprwards rl'finl'd h.l' the prot"t'S.i of 1..11t' .wr!Jbiik, and thl' ltal whi('h
Bepamtes frum this, and llliXt's w:th the .. s, turns JHinlwr.
19. Th" l'wktir buys tl:e salo11i and kh ,,z from thl! of the
city, and mrries thrm to the mmt to lw n,,. makes a profit on the
goll an.! sdnr. For CI"Pry 11/11/l of .wtlulti, hl' giw., 7 d'i111s, awl for the
same quantity of kharal II diims, to th ex,hqur.
20. The Ntclw'i-ll"t'ila brings old topper coin;, whid1 nre mixPd with
Hilver, to he nwlted; <md from lOU tolas of sik11r, rtljll'"' go to the
dlwun; anti whl'n he wishes to coin the Hilwr, he a fixed qunntity for
it as duty.
21. The /iltrik-siiO'f. \\'hen the owncrH of th nwtals get their gold
and silwr in the \mys which llilro now btn dt'sl'ribcd, the
b]11ik-shu1f swePps the mint., the SII"Pepings to h1s 011 n houst, washes
thl'lll, anrl gain.-; a profiL of the sweeprrs rarry on a vr;ry flourishing
trade. The htate rerel\"l'S from thiH man a mOJ.tldy gift of J
And in like manner nil the officers of the mint pay a monthly duty to
the at rat!' of time drims for evcrv 100 thims.
In the Per .. an ashi:J!.ilrl /,.,if!a.--l'.J
A'in 10.
As through the attention of his Majesty, gold and silver have been
brought to the greateHt degree of purity, in like manner the form of the
coins has also been im['roved. The coinH are now an ornament to the
treasury, and much liked by the peoph I shall give a few particulars.
A. Golri Coins.
1. The saliansah a ronn,l coin weighing 101 loins, fl mctslws, and
7 surkhs, in value ecpial to IOOla'l-ijalrili-muhrH. On the field ofonesile
is engrrwed the of his MajeHty, and on the five in the border,
'l-khiiqiin" kind/ad" Alliih" mulkalt" wa
rWr' 'l-kluWfat Aqm, "thc great sultan, t.hP clistinguished
emperor, may God perpetuate his kingdom anrl his rlign! Struek at
the capital Agra.'' On the field of the reverse is the hcaulijulfurmula,
and the following nrse of the: Qnr'iin Alliih" yazmf" man ?Jflslta'u
bi-allayr hi.wi/J'", " <loci is bountiful unto whom He without
measure"; ancl roundabout arc the names of t,hc first four
This is what wan first cut hy 1\Taul:in:i the rngravcr; after which
.Mullit Ahmad mad1 with gnat skill the following :Hlditions. On one
side AJ;ul" diniir'" if'll((trtfUIt" ru-mj11l" d'iniir"" iftllljtttflth" fi
sabil' 'lhlft, "the hcst f'Oin whieh :t man PXfll'ncls is a coin which lw
on his eo-n:ligionists iJ> the of r:oel."
And on the othPr side he wrote,
'{- al-khalifat" !JJ.allrul nlliiftu
mulkalt" It'" :wlliinah" It'" ab/Jad II'" ihstlnah", "the sublime
.,ul!iin, the exalted k/lllfija, may Goellhc Almighty pPrpetuatc hiH kingelom
and his reign, and given etemity to his justice and bounty ! "
Afterwards all this was removetl, and the following two
the court-pol't and philosephcr S/wykh Fay:;i were engraved by him. On
ono side,
1\/wrshid ki haft bahr azu gau}wr yaft
Sang-i Sl!tah az partav-i iin jmchar yiift
]{(in az nazar-i farbiynt-i !I zar yiift
W'iit! ::ar sharaf az sil-ka-yi Sliiilt Akbar yiift.
Also r&llcd Kalini<Jh, or the Confession of faith, Ia ilaluJ illalldh, !IuluJmm<Jdu,.,
I Qur. Sur. II, 208. [
" It is the Sun
from which the seven oceans get their pearls,
The black rocks get their jewels from his lustre.
The mineR get their gold from his fostering glance,
And their gohl is <'nnobled hy Akbar's stamp."
awl, Alltilt" akbar j11ll" jallii/a-lt", "Gml is great, may Hi., glory shine
forth ! "in the middle. Awl on the ot.h<'r
In sikka ki pTrtiya-yi umJuid /11mul
Br'i naqsh-i 1ltm'im 11 mim-i Jiicid bul'l!d
Si11ui-yi sr6ridat-ash ha111in bas ki bi-dal1r
Yak 1w:or-karda-yi k/1//rshirllmmd.
"This coin, which is an omament of hope.
Carries an C\'crlasting st:11np, awl an immortaln:tmt'.
As n sign of it.s aw.pitiow.n .. ss, it, is
That., onee. for all ages tlw sun h:ts east. a upon it.''
and t.lw datP, acc<mling to Dirillr' l'r!l, in the middle.
2. TIHru is anotlwr goltl ruin, of thP narnP nwl ,]l:lJH', \l'tighing
!)] tolas awl N uu7sluts, in Yahw et1ual to 100 rountlmnhrs, at II
eaeh. It has the same impression as the prPl'eding.
3. The Rahas is the half of eaeh of tlw two pncetling coins H is
somctinws marie square. On one side it the same impr('Ksion as tho
a!trl on the other side the following '
by fi'll!f?'i:
in ll!lfjd-i rariin-i yanj-i slu7/unshiiki
Hii ka!l'kab-i irjlllll k11nad l111111r11hi
K.lwrshid bi-por/Yir-aslt az tin nl ki hi-dahr
l'iibrtd sltaraf a: siHrt-yi .lkbarsluihi.
"This current roin of the Imperial
Accompanies the of good fortnrw.
0 sun, foster it, heeausn for all
It is ennobled IJy Akbar's stamp ! "
4. The Atma is the fourth part of the salumsa, round anrl square.
Some haYc the same impression as the sahansn
; and some have on one
flide the following Rubii'i by Fay;:o;i
In sikka ki dast-i bakht ra ZCU'(/1 brut
Piriiya-yi nult sipiltr u akhtar brid
According to the Natural Philosophers of the Middle Age, the inAucnre of the sun
c_all the metals, the pearls, and precJous stones into existence ; vide the thirteenth
A'in. The allusion to the sun is explained hy tho note to page III.
[' In the Persian .,r. ..... -P.]
[' $ad-muhri in the PerAian text.-P.]
(' Malik 'sh-Sbu<;ara in the Persian text.-P.]
Zarrin naqtlist kilr az- fi chiln zar bad
Dar dahr raviin bi-niim-i shiih akbar biid.
"This coin-May it adorn the harvl of the fortunate,
And may it be an ornament of the nine heavens anrl the seven stars -
ls a gold coin,--1\Iuy 1-(0itlen he its work!
Let it be current for all to the glory of flhfth Akhar."
Anrl on the other ,.;ile the precPding
5. The Rinsnl, of the sanw two a . .; the iitma, in value t-qual to
one-fifth of the first ('oin.
There are also gold l'oins of the ,,arne shape and impression, in value
equal to one-eighth, onP-t,mth, one twenty-fifth, of the
6. The Clmgul,
of a square form, is the fift,ieth part of the saha;tm,
in value cqu:d to two muhrs.
7. The round !,11'l-i ,Jrrlrili,a in and value <'qual to two munrl
muhrs, having on one side Alilih" ak/)([r, aJHl on the other Yri
" 0 helpnr."
8. The Ajliihi is round, weighs 1 /(}Ill, :l mr"i.,has, :m<l Jl surldts, in
value equal to 1::! rupees. On one side, '' .1//iih" akbar, jail'' jrdr"ilu-h","
and on the nthPr the date al'cording to thP l>ivin!' Pra, and t.he plare
where it iH Htrrll'k.
9. The 1/rihi routttl, woighH 111rishas, q s11rkhs, hear-; the aH t.he ..({!r"ilii, and hat; a v.dtH' uf 10 nqll'PH.
Or JU(/111. Ahi't 'l.Fnzl's spl'lhni( in the tPxt 1s
The <hiler. Most of them place thp C/wgul as the "'th cmn after the lJznsal,
and J'tzul : -
"The Clwgul, of n !'1qnare form, "<'igh111g :J lola .'I, rq sw!Jis; ItA value i" tlurt.v
rnprr'i. AIHo, of a trl/lnd form, \H'Ighinj.!; 2/uf,ts, U mr;.'l/tru;, havmg n 'alu( of thnp round
muhr.<, of II !llli-<llits tzuh (u., rz'l"'''<). But the InlJlrl'"toll of both is tlw sanw.
'flwy nrP tlw.fiflirlh part of th(' 8fllmn.,a."
Tlw laHt stntt'IH't' dntH not agrer \\lth thr vnln<' nncl \H'I,Ldtt of th<' 8alwnsa; for the
two as l(iVPil by Ahii '1-1':111, \\ould each be the hundrzd Ull<l thizd part of the
two kind of Sailllll"' not tlw Jijlil'!h part.
Mr. 'l'homus 111 hi"' t(ht 1on of Prins['p's l'.w'flll 'PaUl's, pp. 5, (), l\'1
ertra..ct from n. of till' .\'in m \\hwh nppPars to a_l!.rf'l \\ith thr nho\['
fORding; but, hf' Olll_\" ll\('llf!Oil"fhP .W[IHl11' form of the e/wyu/, \\('l,!.!blllg :Jto/'18, ;')}
wort.h :lO rupo<'<: an<l tlwn I'""''' on to tho '''!Jhlh <om, till' .ljltili.
Two other M,;s. th<'m t 'ol. n:ul ajtrr tht 11111-'111 (u., alter tlae
twenty.fifth Iilii' of p. my tnt
"H. 'rhP (or srJitarr), :l .)} s1u/J.!.s, worth :lO rnpef's.
u 7. The Utrd (or 1rJiflld); 2 B 111 vnltw rqunl to the 3 round
mnhr,q of 11 l':wh.
Both hn.vP tht> snnw impns:-.ton.
'l'ht' ('/tuqul, of a. form, thC' tiftit'th part of a in vnlut:' rqunl
t> two Laf;f.i .faUili
This obv ial<'s all <litli<-nlti<"s. lint t h<' real 'I ne>t 1011 is" het lwr the Chal"irgosha,
the Oird, and the 1'/wqul nn di,tm..t oms.
For thf rottml Laf:;/-i Jahi1i. only '
'The Otrd," i.e., round,
tho words Jal<ili to the prr .. rduzg. 1'11/e the tenth eom.
10. The square Jaliill is of the same weight nnd value ; on one
side "Alliih" akbar,'' and on the other "jail JaUilu-ftu."'
11. The 'Adl gutka is round, weighs 11 lll<islws, and a Yalne of
nine rupees. On one Hit!e ".Hliilt" akbar , and on the otlwr, " Yii
12. The Round nwhr, in \Ieight awl Yctlne Cljltl\l to '.ldl-gu{ka.,
hut of a different
is in WPi!!ht, \'alul', :tn1! stamp, the sanw as r01md
11. The J/16ini is both and round. In might awl Yalue it iK
er]u:tl to the D6/-i joltili, and the ro1md 11111hr. It. t.lw Htamp "ya
Hi. The Chahiiryosha, in stamp and \Wight. t.hP sauw t.lte Ajtiibi.
1li. Tlw fill"llts the h:t!f of tlw ll<ihi, and luts th sanw stamp.
17. Th) Dha11
is half a ,Ja/,rfi.
lH. The Salimi i:-: half of tho
19. Tlw Rl/bi" is a l[ll:trter of llitl .{ft<ibi.
20. 'l'llll .lion, is :t qn:trtPr of the 1/lihi, awi.Jalrili.
2l. TIH llalf Sali111i i:-: a qnart.<'r of the '.ldl-yu!ko.
2:!. Tlw Panj is the fifth p:trt. o[ the 1/iiki.
2:3. The Panrlau I' th<l fift.h part of the ./alii/1; oil OJW ill
a lily,
and oil the other a wild
21. Thl' 8111111!1, or .lsldsidrl, is CJJH'-l'ighth of t.h,. 1/iihi; on one sido
".11/iih"rr/..uar,"' and on the otlwr "ptl/''.i't/'7/rt-h"."
The /\flirt is tlw p:Lrt of tlw /lli/ri. It. has on both si<l<'H a
wild rose.
:!G. Tltt is the thirty-sel'ond part of :m 1/liki and has the HaJW)
as thl' krthi .
. \s ngards gold l'ollt.'i, the custom follo\\'<'d 111 thn impPrialmint to
coin johilis, /!/ums, a!ld .lfa11s, P:t<"h l'oin for t.hP sp:tr'l) of a month.
'I'll<' other gol1l f'oins are rwwr stamp('d wrLhout, special orders.
It Kaluna. (Sayytd Ahma<l's of the .!'in.)
' The figure ealled uuhrr;l,; " 0
[n Didtonury, drdwn.
' .\1:-iS. ,: lfalf" 'Juarler JJ,ihi and .Jakoll." ForLce give. eix
' Several have Jlabi. Prrhap we Hhould wrttc f/a/,1,;,
[' !.ala in Perstan text. 'fh1s is the rommon rrd poppy in Af!d!Jmstiin and the Panjiib;
and in Persia is applied to the \llld tuhp.---l'.J
B. Silver Coins.
l; The Rupiya iB roull\\, and weighs eleven and one half mashas.
It was first intro<lnced in the time of Sher }{/din. It was perfected during
this reign, awl receivecl a new stamp, on one side '' Alkih" akbar, jalla
jaliilu-h"," and on the other the date. Although the market price is some-
times more or less than forty dl1111s, yet this value is always set upon it
in the payment of salaries.
The ,Jaliila is of a square form, which was introuuccd during the
present reign. In value all!l Htamp it is the f:ame as Ko. 1.
3. The Darb i'l half a .Jnliila.
4. The Cham is a quarter .Jaliila.
5. The Pan! au is a fifth of the .Jaliila.
6. The Ash( is the eighth p:trt of the .J alii/a.
7. The lJasa is one-tenth of the .Jahila..
8. The ](alti is the Hixteenth part of the ./alii/a.
9. The Saki us of the .Jalrtla.
The same fmetionn.l parb :trc a1lopted for the [round] Riipiya, which
arc, however, JiHcrcnt in form.
C. Copprr Cuins.
1. The !Jrim weighs !I t.lks, i.e. l lola, 8 miishns, awl 7 surkhs: it is
the fortieth part of the nipi!frt. At iirHt this coin was called Paisa, aml also
Buhloli; now it iH known under this n:mte (drl111 ). On one Hide the phtcl' is
given where it was aJHl on the othPr the !late.
For the purpose o( ealculation, the dam iH divided into t\venty-fivc
parts, each of whieh is called ajctaf.l This imaginary divi.ion is only used
by accountants.
'2. The Adhda is lmlf of a dtim.
:3. The olii iii a quarter d<i m.
4. The Damri is one-eighth of a diim.
In the beginning of this rf'ign, gold was coinC>d to the glory of his
.Majesty in many partH of the mnpirc: now gold coins are struck at four
plares only, viz. at the seat of the government, Bengal, Al_JmalL'ib;id
(Gujriit), anll Kiibul. Silver and eopper arc likewise coined in these
four places, and besides in the following ten places: Il.ihaLiis, 1\gra,
Ujain, Sitrat, Dihli, Patna, Kashmir, Liihor, l\Iultiin, Tiin<Ja. In twenty-
eight towns ropper coins only are strurk, viz. Ajmir, Avadh, Atak, Alwar,
Badii'on, Bnniiras, Bhakkar, Hahirah, Patan, Jaunpiir, Jiilandhar,
Hardwiir, :Firibm, Kiilpi, Gwiiliyiu, Gorakhpflr, Kaliiniir,
1 Often misspelt chctul. The text gives the correct S!X'lling.
Lakhnau, 1\Iandii, "Ktigor, Rarhind, Siyiilknt, Saronj, Sahiiranprr,
Siirangpur, SaJ]tbal, Qanawj, Rantanbhi"1r.
!\lercantile affairs in this country are mostly trangaeted in round
muhrs, awl d(illis.
t"nprineipbl men a grtat dtal of misehil'f b.r rubbing 1lown t.he
coim, or by employing similar nwthuds: and, in of the
damage dune to the nation at largP, his eont.inn;tlly
experi<nrutl nwn, and from his knowltd.!!t' of spirit of the issues
new reg11lations in ordtr to prewnt sueh dd.ri nwnta I'I'S.
The currcnc_v undtrll'l'llt senml eh:tll)!t'.<, First, whPn (in the 27t.h
year) the rPins of the gol'l'l'lllllPllt III'W in the hands of Hiija Todnrmal,
ju11r kinds of mHhrs were allmntl to he current: .I. ThnrP wa.'l a
whieh had the name of his on it, awl \l'l'ighed
1 lo!o, 1 s11rkhs. It 11as quite pun, and had a Yaltll' of toll dii111s. Again,
there existe<l from tlw bt>ginning of this glorio11s nign, a nuthr with thn
imperial Htamp, of whieh lhrte chgrets aH cmrent, viz. : U. 'fhis
muhr, when perfertly pme, awl having tlw full weight of II miisltns.
Its value waH :31i0 If from wear awl tPar it, had loHt in \l'light wit.hin
three of rice it Htill allowed to be of the Hallie d<gree, and no
ditferenro '""" m:ttlc. C'. 'fho H:une muhr. whPn it had lost in lllight. from
four to six rice grains; its value was :l:)ii dii111s. D. 'l'lw Kame muhr,
when it hall lo'it in Wl'ight from six to nine ri<e grains ; its value was
350 diims.
Hiija Todarmal, a Khatri by ca,te, was born ut L:hor. He "PI"'Ill.< to hav< entrrt d
Akbar's Rrrvirc dnrmg the ISth year of the empNor's nrgn, \\lwn Ill """ <'lllploycd
to settle the affairs of UuJriit. In the lOth year, \\C tirHI hrrn 111 llcnl(lll in cornpnny
\Hth A'lt,in: unci three years lat<r ugam at. (;ujmt. In tlw 27th yenr he
was appoin!Ptl l!ill'<in of the empire, wh<n he rellrO<lcllcrl tlw nvcIIUP H,\Htcm. Aft...r an
unsureeSRful attempt on his life made by a K IHrlri 111 the year, h< "tlH f<tnt a!(ainst
the Yiisufz;iis, to avenge the drnth of Brr Har. ln the 31th y<ar, ole! al(l' and Ai<'knr
obhged hun to Ill his nsignation, which Aklmr unwtllmgly nrerptttl. Het n
to the bank8 of tuc Ganges, he died--or, uent to lul/, as cxprtsscH hims<lf in the
Clt>C of Hindus--on the I lth day A. H. or leth Novemlol'r, JijS!I, thr Rnme yrar
in which Rii]a Rhagwiin D1is died. 'l'odarrnal had rraehrd the rank of n l'haluirhrwiri,
or commander of .Four Thousand, am! was no less clrstingush<d for his [><'mona] coumgr,
than his tinaneial abihtrcs. H1s eldest lih;ini, a tommuwl<'r of RCven hundred,
was killed in tho war \lith T'hathn.
Abii dul not hke Todarmal p<'rsonally, but praises him for hiR stril't int<"grity
and abilities; he charges him with vmdrctrvrncHH of l<mrl<'r and Awrnngzeb
said he had heard from his father that Akbar complained of the riJa's independence,
vanity, and biqoled ad/U'rencc to llindui.m. Abu 'l.Fa7.l opl'nly eornplanwd of him to
Akbar; but the emperor with hi usual regard for furthful servic-es, said that. lu could
not drive away an ole! servant. In his adhtrcn<r to Hinduism, TcKlarmnl may be con
trasted with Bir Bar, who a shcrt time bcforc hiH drnth had ll<'eomc 11 member of the
Divine Faith. Once when accompanymg Akbar to the l'anjiib, in the hurry of the
departure, Todarmal's idols were lost; and as he transacted no busmPRB bdore his daily
worship, he remained for several days without food and drmk, and was at last with
difficulty cheered up by the emperor.
Muhrs of less weight than this were considered as bullion.
Of Rilpiyas, three kinds were then current., viz.: A. one of a. square form,
of pure silver, and weighing mashns ; it went under the name of
Jaliila, and had a value of 10 rliims. B. The round, old Akbarsltalt'i rilpiya,
which, when of full wcighb, or even at a less, was valued at
39 dams. C. The same when in weight two at 38 diims.
Hupees of less weight than this were considC'red a . .; bullion.
Secondly, on the 18th l\Iihr of the year of the Divine ern, c;A?ud"
'd-Daulah Amir J'atl.1" 'llah
of Shiriiz coming at the helvl of affairs,
a royal order wa.; that on the 111<thrs, as far as three grains ; aml on
tho rilpiyas, as far as s1:r grains short weight, no account should be taken,
but thab they should he rcclconell of full weight. If muhrs were still less,
they shoulll make a delluttion for tl1c deficiency, whatever their deficiency
might he; hut it \Vl>H not ordere!l that only muhm down to nine grains
less should be n:garde!l as nmhm. Again, arcording to the Hllllle rr>gulation,
the vo.lue of 11. muhr that was one s11rkh dPiil'ient was pnt down n.s :35[) diims
and a fraction ; and hence thPy the price of one surkh of coinrd
gold at the low rate of jour !htiiiS and a fmetion. Aceording to Todarmal's
regulation, a deduttion of ji1'1' dii111s was nu11le for a deliciPney of one
surkh; and if the muhr had lost HO!llethinM more than the three grains,
for which ht ha!lmade no ateount., ewn if it \\'Pro only surkh, full fin
Amir Fntl) 'llah of :-;hir:LZ wa8 the pupil of ,Jamiil" 'd-llin Mnhmiid,
Kamitl" d-Din of :-;]unliin, n:Hl \J.J>in of liP"' t'X!'dlrd
in all bmndtl'H of natural plnloHophy, ,.,pecially lll<'!'hanll'H, that A hit 'I- Fa1l 'aid of
him." If the bnui.H of anli<pLLty shollhl hll loHt. the Amii IlLII reslote them." At the
en.rnest solit-itationH Ad I of Bijiipin, h left for the lkl.han. In .\.II. 091,
after tho ti<'nth of <;Adl :-;hith, he wu' 11\\'ited h,v ,\],bar, 11ho ral,t'd hun to the thgmty
of n. and btHto\\'<'d npon h11n, thn'<' ,par:-J L1ter, the t1tle of .\minn '1-l\Iullc He
waR n.ppointrd to aH'HHt Tmlarmnl. nnd nmkrf'd good m \\orkm.Lr up the old
revenue books. HiH li!lt, Amin" to \\hll'h Abii 'J.Fnzlnllmlr' (11rlr p. 2H, I.()
of my text. rIItion), """in the same year chnngetl to 'rl-lialllah, or the mm of
.upirP. Tlw Amir '"'nt. nftNwnrtls to 1\luindeHh. Aftcr hiH retu1n 111 !i\17 to Akbar,
who WIIH then 111 1\1\Hhmir. lw \\1\H attn<'ked \\lth ftvrr, of whH"h he .Jkd. Tlunl,mj.( to
undersltuul the methtal 11rt, he rduHttl tht al vi<'<' of t h fnmo11H tIn kim c; Ali. an<! trittl
to euro tht fever by /uols (nrll' the L\\tnty-fuurth .\'111), wlueh au,rd Ius
Nt't tn Ahi1 'Fazl. Fnyzi, anti Bir Bar. tlw Amir 11as prrhap., tnoHt loved hy
Akhnr. HnvPrnl of ll1f'l'hnnll'nl nwntwnPd lwlow, nre asenbC'd bv
Abil 'lFit7.l t.o Akh1tr himself(!). Tlw Amir \\1\H, hn\\t'Vl'r, on the br"t tPrms with
Ahii whoRe Ron he inRtrut'trd. Areordmp; to the author of the Jlir'nt '[.<;.ilam,
he .. l\ worldly mnn. oftln af't'Ompn.n.ving tho on hunting parties. w1th
a ritlo on his shoul<lrr, nnla powtl<'r.bul-( in h" """!hand. treadmg down >cirncr, and
pcrforminp; ftats of whi<'h ltu,tam t'0Ultl not have performed."
It is st.l\tetl by the author of the Jf11'a<ir" '[./'numi' that arcortbng to some, the
Amir was 11 S1il-ha:tiri, or ('ommiiiHier of three thousand; but I do not lind his name
the li.t.s of Akbar' given in the Tabaqtll-i AAbari, and the last A'in
of the second book of thi work. lnteatl of Amir Fath
'll1h. we al;o find, esperially
m Baditoni, 8/liih FaH1" 'llt1h. He he buritd on the 1'als!!_li Sulaymiln. Fani's ode
on his death is very line.
dams were subtracted ; an< I for a deficiency of surkhs ht deducted ten
diims, even if the t!clicieltey shoul<lnot be quite surkhs. By the new law
of 'd-Dawla\h, the valm of n muhr hy six dii111s anl u,
fraction, itH gold was worth :l:'\:l d1i111s al\lla fmrtion only.
'ti-Dawl:\h abolishetl also t.hP ngulat.ion, aeeonling to which the
value of a round riipi!f'l had ht't'n lix,d at ortt dr/111 l,,s t.han tlw square on,
notwithstawling pprf,etion in 11eight awl purit.r. and fixrl vahw of
the round riiJII!frt, wlwn of full 1\tight or not ],.s, thart onn .wrkh, at forty
diims; allll wlribt forrntrly a d,dwtron of two dri111s was made for l\
ddiciency of two surklts, tlw.r now dtdud, for th<' same delicieney only
one drilll a11tl a fraction.

mdly, 11 lun 'd-lla11iah ll'l'llt t.u 1\h:irtdt>sh, the H:ija
estimate< I the \':dun of muhrs that had '"'"It <'.\fll't'Sstd in .Jalid:i rup<'<'S, in
round rupees; and from hrs ob,tinate and \\ranglm,!.!; dispo.,it.ion,
again the delicierwies ou muhrs awl rupPt's according to th< old
Fourlhly, \rlwn Quhj Kh:in I'I'<"Pired th ..!1arg1' of Lhe !(OVl'TUilH'llt
he a1lopted the H:ija',.; nuumPr of Pst.rrnatrng thP mnhrs; hut hP
ten for n <h-filiPJH'.V in tht> might of a muhr, for winch th<' H:ija
hat! deductrd lire dr//1/S: and t11 tnty d<f IllS for tlw formPr d<<ilrct,ion of
tl'll d<illls; whilst lw con,.;itll'red t'\W_I' rnuhr as lnrllion, if dtlinP!lt'.Y
was 11 s11rkhs. Similarly, erl'ry riiJ!/If<t, tht rklicirwy of 11lwh \\Wi one
surkh, was as bullion.
Fur 'd-IJ,l\\l.dt lwvmg lh(d \alul' of I ,,,uf.h of coi!Jt'd gf)Id at t,fti,,if
and a frat'twn, tiw of a muhr of full \\<Jg!d (II I I H
wa-; only II S (4 n 'llllall fraction) rhlnu, IJ'., l\l'('ordtll;!; to A hit 'l-Fil'tl, :J.r;:1
and a fractwn, of :JilO d<im8.
(Jul1j l\ltii.11 !IIPI\tlOIIPd durmg tlw 17th of Jttgn, \vhtn
he made g'tJ\C'rnor <1f tlw Fol't of \\hi< h ;\kbar afttr a siq!' of
hatl t'Oll411<'f('d, In tlw _Y('ar lw \\11:-. tc) c:IIJI-It; unci nftcr til{' ct'cnth ,,{
Hh:i.h wa-.:, t\\o _\(';HS latlr, appomted a-.: /Jimin. In tlw 2Sth _\l'ar IH' IH'I'OIIl
pan1ed the army durlll!.!: tiH' t1111qucst of (;UJI.-,t. In tlu ,\('ar he nct'J\c'cl SrJwh!ml
u-; J,i.gir. After tlw dtath of Todarmal. In wa-; a!..';alll appollltcd HK /Ji/l'(iJl. J)i
tunc to \\hlf'h Aht-1 '1-F.\I.IHftr:-.. In 1002 lw \\a" madt go\{'IIIor uf h.-dJul, \'.lurp he
ha-; not HUf't't''l:.ful. Afttl' ln., rPmoval, hf' n1 cofllJHtiJHd, 111 IOO.i, 1!1:--. Ill law Pr11we a.'i A!tilir;, or tnt or, but he :-.onu rf'tunwc! to 1\Umr. J)ui'JJtj! lh" ah,..,f'JH'f', m )007,
of thermp('rorlll Kh.indl'-.h, hr \\a,..;gonInorof Tno ,\l'ill'i I1111'T IH \\IJH JHIJnJOttd
to the govf'fnor:dllp of thP PanJii.h and J\,-tilul. ;\t tlw of .J.thttllgir, lw WllK
:-.ent to UuJrTtt, but nturned JH',\l \t'llf to llw Punjiih, ,dJfn had to fi,t.dJt ngaiuHt
UiPH.awshamvyahs. Hrdwd,atnn;Hhan(Tdll,l!P,JIIIH:I."i,or \ 1). Ahii'J.FnzJ,
m the la:-;t j t.'i of tlw "f'('OJHI hoof.;, h Jill a;; ( 'hfdlfil }ur;rl, i, cJr ( 'nmmnndfr of Four
Thow;;a.nd, v,}uch l11gh rnnk he n11l..,t ha\P }wid for t-:olllf' tmw, a"i Xt;:iiwil /Jarmri, iu
htR 'l'ahaqlil-l Akfmri, nwnt hnn :111d a., I ho a 11. \\ 111'11 tutor to P1 me(' J)anyUI,
he \\as promotrd to the command of Fo11r VnP Huudrcd. ()ui!J J\h1in \\OH
a pious man, and a staunch Sunni i hf' \\U"' nnwil t1d for hi-. lrnrrliJP!. A."' a poet
he JR known undrr the nnmc of Flfati; f..oiJlc of !11'1 nr:.r,., may be found Ill the eon
cludmg chapter of the JJnril" The high rank 1\hwh he helrl11aH lrHH due to
his talent as n statcman than to hi< famdy-colln<xion 111lh the kmg-H of 'l'imin. Of
his two sons, Snyfu 'lliih 3n<l \lirzi1 I hNI)Il li<.IIJ, t}u latter JK lll'>.l knuwn. [Vide
note 2 to :o;o. 42 of .(in 30.- -B.J
Lastly, his 1\Iajesty, trusting to his advisers and being occupied ly
various important atiairs, paid at but little attention to this subje?t,
till after having reeeived some intimation of the unsati:Jfactory state of this
matter, he issued another regulation, which saved the nation further
losses, and waH approved of hy every one, far and near. On the 26th of .
Bahman, of the year :36, according totlw l);,inc era (A.D.1Gg2), he adopted
the Decon<l [i.e. 'd-Dawlah] method, with one exception r,amely, he
did not approve of the provision that a rnuhr the deficiency of which did
not cxcce<l three, and a ntjJi!JU, the deficiency of whieh ditl not exceed si.r,
surld1s, Hhould Htill be nga.rded as of fnll weight. And this regulation was
the only offectnal mctho<l for prewnting the fraudulc-nt practices of
unprincipled rntn; for the former ngulations contained no remedy in when the olliccr,; of the mint coine<l money of the above deficiency
in weight, or when trcasnrers reducer! full coins to the same deficiency.
BeHicles, shameless thievish people nm<le light grain weights, and used to
reduce muhrs, deficient by t.hrep to six grains deficiency, whilst
they accepted mulm! six grains deficimt muhrs deficient by nine grains.
This reduction of coinH being eontimwd, large quantities of gold were
stolen, ancl the losseH Heenw<l never to end. By the eomm:m<l of his
Majesty grain weight:> of l)(cbc!!Jfl.tlii were made, which were to he u.-;cd in
weighing. On tbe same date other stringent regulations were
that the treasurers arvl rewnuc rolleeGors should not demmvl from the
tax-payers any particular spet"if's of coinH, and that the exact deficiency
in \wight and purity, whatovPr it might be, should he taken according
to the present mte and no mme. Thio order of his l\Iajesty disappointed
the wicked, taught covetous nwn moderation, and freed the na&ion from
the cruelty of oppn'ssors.
Having given Home account of the currency of the empire, I shall add
a few particulars rt'garding thPse two ancient coins, and remark on the
value of anrient
The Dirham. or Dirhtim, as the word is sometimes given, is a silver coin,
the shape of whieh nsemhlecl that of a date-stone. During the l.i/!.iliijttt
of c; Umm,
it was rhanged to a circular form ; an<l in the time of Zubayr
it was impressed with the words .llliih" (G01l). barakflt ffajjii.j
stamped upon it the chapter of the called ; a.n1! others say
that he imprinted it with his own nanw. Others that was
the first who stamped m: impression on rlirluuns; whilst, to
some, Greek, K_lmsr;wite, 1\IHI dirluuns \\Ne in circulation at
the time of 'J.jJalik, the son Jlllfmin, by whose onler I,lajj1lj, the
son of Ynsuf, ha1! struck l"onw s;\_v that refiwd thl' ba:
dwluuns, and coimd tht'lll with t.he words .1//iih" ttlurd (Co1! is ont), l\111!
All<ih" (ULHl i-; eternal); llll<l thPse dtrh.uns wl'fe ralhlmahti/m
(abominable), because Go1l's holy 11<\llle was thereby tlishoJI!Hll'<'tl,
this term he a corruption of some oth .. r H:lllln . . \fter l.fajj:ij, at the tinH'
of the reign of Yazi1l bin '1-)Ialik, q'mar bin llulmyrah coiiwl in
the kingdom of qri"111 better dirhuns than l,lajj:'1j had mad1\; and after-
wards bin 'll:'dt Qasri, wh,n gowmor of qr:iq, made t.hem
still line1, but they \\WP brought to th< dPgl'l'l\ of purit.y h1
of it has hPl'll ;.;ai<l that bin Zulmyr wns
the first who strul'k dirhums. :l<'l'otmt:; :\!'l\ gil'l'll of t.lll'ir WPight.::
some saying that they 11-e.fl' of t<.n or nin, or ;.;ix or mi<tJiils; whil;.;t
others give the ll'l'ights of twenty, twl'l\'l', and ten qiriil.<, asserting at. t,lw
same time that ha<l takl'n a dtd/lun of c:wh kind, and formd a
coin of fourteen qiriils, lwin!:( tiH third part of tlH\ sum. It is
likewise said that at the time of Pmat tlwre were rumnt. kinds of
dirlwms: first, some of eight, dtiii(IS, whieh 11wc calld lm'Jl!ll, afttr Hiis
ba'Jl!l, who was an assay-m:1ster, an I who st.ruek hy the !'omman<l
of ;
but others eall them ba'Jl!rrl/i, from lm'Jl!rd, which is the name
of a village;
seconrli.>J, some of four dting.<, whil'h were (.allerl lrtbri;
tllirdly, some of three drinqs, which wnrc known as tnr!!Jli.rilii: an1l/astllj,
some of one dang, IUIJM<l !f11WII!i, lmlf of which four kinds '
said to hal'e taken as a uniform weight. F:"i;il of K hujand says
that in former days dirhams had been of two kinds: jir8/, full of
eight an<! six drings (1 dring of his= 2 qirrils; lqirril "' :! lrtsstij; I lrmiij =
2 ; and secondlij, 1leficirnt ones of four diinys and a fraction.
hold different on this subject.
The D'intir is a gold eoin, weighing one i.!'. I! as they
put I misqril G diings; 1 diing = 4/asslij; llassiij = 2 !trtl;urJs; l !tab!Ja =
2jars (barley grains); ljav = 6 fl1ardals (mu.;tanl-gr:lin); I IJ!.nrdrtl =
12 Jals; l fals 6 falils; 1 .fatil . 6 naqir.s; I nrtqir ' 6 qilmirs;
and 1 qillllir = 12 One misqril, hy thiH raleulation, would he er1ua!
to 96 barley graim. Jf i.;qr1l is a weight, used in 1nighing gold ; an1l it is
.._,&,.. r in the Perstan.-1'.]
' According to some inferior MSS., the name of a. kim! of gold.
also the name of the coin.l From some ancient writings it appears that.
the Greek is out of use, and weighs two q'iriits less than this ; and
that the Greek dirham difiers likewise from others, being less in weight
by h or l of a misqiil.
Ain 12.
One round muhr of 11 uuislws buys one tola of gold of 10 biin; or
one tola, 2 sttrHs of biin : or l tola, 4 s. of l1iin ; or 1 tola G s. of
9} han ; or 1 tola, lmiislut of!) brln ; and similr.rly, according to the same
proportion, the decrease of one biin increases the <ptantity of gold which a
rnuhr can buy hy one miishn.
The merchant buys for 100 Jrtliil'i muhrs 1:30 I. :lu1. s. of llun
gold of Of this quantity 22 t. !) 111. 7 s. hurn awa.y in melting.
and mix with the f:Ji.iik-i so that 107 I. 1m. s. of pmc gol<l remain,
which are coined into IOi muhr,;, a rPmaindPr of ll<'<Uiy half a
tola of gold, the value of whi<h is 1 rupees. From the khiik-i
rerovere<l2 I. lim. 1 s. of gold, and II t. 11 111 . q s. of silver, the value of
hoth of which is !\ii ntpees, tanqas,
w that altogd.her the above-
mPntioned <pmnt.ity of 1/un gold yiP Ids I muhrs :\\J ({s. ancl dii111s.
ThiH sum is a<"<'otmtell for as follows. Rs. IS d. due to the
workmPn al:<"nnling tu the rat1s whieh hal'e hl'l'll l'Xf'laine<l :dJOYe ;
smmdly, f) Rs. S d. Sj. for whit'h sum iH made up of I R. 1 d.
q J. on n<Tount. of'll's usl'd in refining the met:d, Yiz. d. J.
dung :
: ,j d. '20.f. salo11/: I d. IOj. \\':Lt1r; II rl. f) .f. :uvl I Rs.
4 d. !iJ j. on :H'\'0\Illt of t.h1 klrik-i (Yi7.. :!I d. 71 j. Phareoal, anrl
:l /k '2:.! d. '21 j. !Pad); thirdly, G R.1. :n d., whieh tho owners of tlw gold
takn {rum the llll'l'<"h:mt., as a con"idPmt ion for ll'wling l1im the gold ;
thiH it1m goes to the lJ111'rtn if thl' gol1l lJI'lllngs to the exche<pur;
jollrthly, 100 ./a!ri/1 muhrs, which the merchant gets in Pxehange for
the goltl whi<"h he brought: jifthly, 1'2 /k :\7 d. :\Lj. which the nwrchant
takes as his ]'rofit; sll'lhly, f) muhrs 12 R8. :11 d., which go to the
A1'con1ing to i his proportion, merchants make their profits.
Although goltl is import1d int,o 1Ii111lust<tn, it itJ to he found in
alnmdanee in the nortll('rn motmt<tins of the country, as also in Tibet
In tnt "" !!<>hl ''"'" ". -B]
:: Ont' t(Hif)a .,...-., 2 now-a-days one tanga -- 2 pais.
'.r .....
' Thrre is n Rllght of ll jctals, as the se>eral items added up gi>e 105m.
Rs. 24 d. 23! j., but not 105 m. 39 1/s. d.
Gold may also be obtained by the Salo11i-process from the of tho
Ganges and anrl senral other ri1ers, as most of tht waters of
country are mixl'd with gold; howewr, the labour an<l expense greatly
exceed the 1rofit.
One Rupee buys I /. 0 111. :! s. of pure silwr: lll'nec for \150 Rs. tllll
merchant gets !lfi!ll. \) 111. Is. of sih-er. Out of this quantity, 1i t. 0 111.
burn awn_,. in ca, ingots. The renmi!llhr lUOu rupees, and a
surplus of silver worth rl(ims. The stwml items are first, ::l Rs. ::l::l d.
1:! j., as wages for tht' workmen (vi7. Tht JJ',i_qlttnatl ii d. ij j., the
Cluisltnigir :l d. ll : tlw fi d. j. : tht larriib :! Rs. 1 d. 0 j, :
the Sil:krrchl fi d. j.); smmdly, Ill d. Iii ,i., on ac<ount of rP<plisitts
(viz. 10 d. eharcoal, and J;)j. wakr): thirdly, iiO Us. 1:1 d. Oj., pa_\'ilble to
the Ditl'll n ; fotrlldy, !liiO lb., which the mpnhant in PXchangP for
the s1hw he brought; and }1jlltlt, :1 :!I d. 101)., lwing tht profit of
the m<'rl'hant. lf he nfinPs the base silnr at Ius own houst, his profit
will be much gnatPr: hut\\ lwn he brings it to be cointd, his profit mnnot
be so gnat.
Of tlu: Kdver miiPd liiii and 8ltiilti, arvl tlw ot.hN almvtHll<'lltioned
lmser coins, mw buys I I. 0 111. l R., so that. !l!"tO rupPes "ill huy
mm I. 7 Ill. ln the 8rtbbiiki process, It I Ill Ill. 1 s. hum :tway, LPing at th('
rate of I. per rt>nt. ; awl in making tl1l' ingot", l I. II 111. :1 s. ILrl' lost in
the fire. The renmiwkr yiPlds 101:! rup<'I'H; and from thP
:q Rs. are rcronrahle. TI1P itnms aw .first. I Rs. :!i d. :! q j.
on aerount of t.lw wag<s of t.h worknwn (viz. thP W<'ighman fi d. j. ;
the Sah/J(/k:! Rs. 0 d. I!) J. ; the (,ltmkoh I d. I !J j. : tlw (:/uislllli:;ir :1 d. 1 j. ;
the ;\[eltcr G d. l:l1 j.; 1.lw Ns. I d.; tlu Stl.-kor!ti fi d. J.);
srconrlly, !i Rs. d. Iii j. for nml'ss:triPs (viJ.. ii Us. It d. lead: 10 d.
eharcoal, :tJlll ]!) j. \mkr); llurdly, fif) Hs. :!l d., to the
.frJiirlhly, 9!;0 Rs. which till) llll'TTimnt n'l'<'ii'<'K for his sihPr; jif!My,
1 Rs. '2!) d. his profit..
i"omPtinws the m<rchant g..ts 1.111' sd\'l'r ehca)J,
when his profit is mu!'h larger.
lOll dii111s buy one 11/1111 of <'OJl]H'r, i .... at tht r:tt<\ of :!fi d. per
Out of this quantitv. one spr IS burnt :limy in m .. Jting: and as Paeh xrr
yields :10 drims, then are coinrd altog..t.hl'f II iO d1ims, from which the
mrrchant takPs his capital, and IH d. I j. as profit., :n d. I 0 j. go to the
workmen; and I fi d. Sf. for (vi1.. I :1 d. H j. for rharcoal ; 1 d.
for water: and I d. for clay) ; d. go to the
Thcc ttrm< M!<led gtve /In, 1015, 2.j d. II) j., ;,,., a ltttln more than the sum
mentioned by Abii '1-Fazl ( 1015 Rs. 20 d.).
The Creator by calli11g into existence the four elements, has raised up
wonderful forms. FiTe is absolutely warm, dry, light ; air is relatively
warm, moist, light; water is relatively cold, heavy; earth is
absolutely cold, dry, heavy. H('at is the cause of lightncBs, and cold of
heavinesH; moistness eaHily separates particles, whilst dryness prevents
their separation. This wonderful arrangement calls four compmmds into
existence, Jir8l, the 1islir-i

secondl!J, stones; thirdly, plants;

fourthly, animals. From tlw heat of the sun, watery particles become
lighter, mix with air, a1ul rihe up. Such a mixture is callc<l bukhiir
(gas). :From the sa11w eause, earthy partides mix with the air, an<l rise up.
This mixture is calld dulchiin (vapour). Sometimes, however, airy
particles mix with the earth. f-1everal philosoplwrs both of the above
mixtures bu[.;}l_<lr, IJllt distinguish the mixture of watery particles anrl air
by the name of moist, or w:1tery lmkhiir, whilst they mil the mixture
of earthy mul air dry {JIIkhiir, or duk/1(/ni b11M:Jir (vapour-like
gas). Both mixturPs, they say, produce above the surface of the earth,
clouds, wind, rain, snow, etc. ; and, below the surfare of our earth,
earthquakes, sprin:,is, awl They also look upon tho lmkhiir
as the hotly, and upon the d11khiin as the sotzl of things. From a difference
in thl'ir rptality awl quantity, various bodies arn into existence, as
described in books on philosophy.
111 inPrals are of live kinds those whieh t]o not nwlt on arcount of
thrir drynrss, the !f!lqiit; strond/y, those whieh do not melt, on account
of thl'ir liquidity, as quickHilvrr; tlurdly, those which can be meltecl, being
at the same time 1wither malleahlc, nor inflammable, as hlue stone ;
fourtldy, those which can be melterl, bting, howeVPr; not malleable, but
inllmnrnable, as sulphur; .fiJihly, those which can be melted, and are
mallPahle, but not inflammable, as gold. A borly is said to melt when
from the union of the inhPnnt principles of rlryness an,] moisture its
purticleH are movable ; and a body is eallt<l nu\llf'nble when we can make
it extent!. in snrh a manner as to yield a longer anrl wider surface without,
howrVl'r, either separating a part from it or adding a part to it.
When in a mixture of bukhiir with duklliin, the former is greater in
quantity, anrl when, aft\r their mixturl.' and complete union, the heat of
the sun rauses the whole to contract, quicksilver will be produced.
Or <Iaing& from on as rain, snow, etc.
Since no part of it is destitute of duHiin., the dryness is perceptible;
hence, on touching it, it does not affect the hanli, but flees from it; an1l
since itM contraction was pro<luretl by lwat, no warmth ran diMSolve it.
Again, when in a mixture of buklllir anti dlfkluin, both are nearly in 'qual
proportion, a ttmwious greasy moi,ture is prmhuttl. At the timo of
fermrntation, airy particles entN, when rolt! eau::ts tlw whole to contraet.
This mass is inAanunable. 1f the dukl11in and t.he nrc a litt.ltl in
sulphur will be prot!ured, in colour eithtr rttl or yellow, or
grey or white. If the proportion of t ht d1Hiin is largo, anti that of tho
grease lcsl, aNnic will whi<h r"d and .nllow. :\ntl if the
quantity of the bukhiir is gr!'ater, pun, bJa,k 111\'l )'l'llow naphtha will
arist, after tJt,, mixtnrP got.s sulid. SiiH'P. in all, cold 11as the eause
of the contract ion, tlwy ran lip melkd : and oJt :ttroHnt. oft lw prP\'IIlmlce
of greasine"s and tenaeiow; moist Ill'S', t lu.l' art abo inllamm:\hl", though,
on account of the not ttt:dltai.It.
Although quicksilnr awl sulphur an tiH only compon1.nt of
"the seven '',then) arise Y:trious fonns from a ditftf'<'lll'P in purity,
or from prculiar rirclllnst:lllrPs of thP mixtun, or from :\ mriPty of the
action of the rompotwnt parL,; on Paeh ot.h<'r. Thus .drcr will r<sult,
when neith)r of the t\\'o miXt'" with P:tti.hy part.iell's, wh1111
they arc pure and htf.orn" (H'rfl'l'li,l' and whonflw sulplntr is white,
and lrss than the quirksill'tor. Or," hl'n bot.h an in l' propwt.ions and
tlw sulphur reo!, and rapahl" of colouring, gold will onginat ... ,\uain. under
Rimilar rirenrnstanres, if both f.'OJ.Ifmf.'t aft. .. r tlw, hut. hdore u.
complete union has bttn Pll', /Jj_lirdiinl willlle prodtH'I'<I. This body
is also ralletl Al!lllll'hini, :uvl rPally to h" raw gold ; sonw it is
a kintl of roppl'l'. Ag:\in, if onl.v til!: bt: intpHn', and quitksilvrr
the larger cornp<lllPr t., with an arldttional ]'<l\l'f.'t' of hurrung, ropper will
J't)rmlt. Awl if th< mixture be not thorough, ancl tlw quieksilvPr larger,
tin will he produrrd ; R:t:V that purit.v of t.h .. f'ompnnPntH iH
If both compounds be of an inflrior kincl, cloHely mix('d, ant! if thn <arthy
of t.hc quicbilver a tnndewy of sepamtin!-(, and the power
of burning be inherent in the sttlphur, iron Will nsult.. And if under
Rimilar the intrrmixturc IH not ant! tho qHi!'ksilvcr
quantitatively lead will <'otnc into These seven metals
are called the seren bodiPs; awl <ptirbilver has the name of the 11ot/wr of
the bodies, aJt(l sulphur, the fatllfr of the bodies. Quieksilver is alw
denominated the spirit, anrl arsenir, and sulpllllr the 71imts of life.
Jas/ (pnwter),
which, accorrling to the opinions of Rome, is Ril?t-i
Or zinc?-!'.]
tutiya, and resembles lead, is mentioned in philosophical books,
but there is a mine of it in Hindustan, in the territory of .Jiilm, which is
a dependenry of the of .Ajmir. Some practical mechanica
are of
opinion that the metal railed a silver in the state of lepro:;,y, and
quickRilver a silver in thr stat.e of apoplexy; that lead is gold apoplectic
anrl burnt, and bronze crwlo gold ; and that the rhemist, like the doctor,
can rest.ore thrsc disease<! metals by the principles of similarity and
Practical men form of the ahovc seven bodies, Reveral compountb,
used for vessels,etc. Among them I may mention: 1. Safidrii,
which the people of Hindustan call k.isi. It is a mixture of I sers of copper
to 1 ser of tin, melte<l tngetlwr. IWy, 1 scm of copper to 1 of lea<!.
It is calle<l in this eour.try bha,l(]iir. :1. Rrnss, which the Hinrlflll call p'ital,
is made in threP wayo: first, copper to I scr r1V1i Wliyii, which is
malleahh, when l'old; secondly, 2 sPm of copper to 1 of tiitiyti,
whieh is maliPahle, wh<n hl'ated; thirdly, Hers of copper to 1 Her of
rii)1-i tiiliyii, not wit.h t\w hammer, but hy casting. 1. Sim-i
siikhta, of lead, and bronze: it has a black lustre, awl is
use<l in painting. iJ. whieh, like the T{_{tiirchini, is nowhere to be
found ; it is f->aitl to ronsisG of six metals. Some call it lrll'iqiin, whilst
others give this name to rornmon copp,r. G. Aslttdhiit, a cornpmm<l of
eight viz. the six of t\w hoftjosh, rii?t-t liiliij!/, mvl k<isT. It is :1\so
made of sevPn compounds. 7. 1\wtlpatr, sers of saf!dni, anti l ser of
coppf\f, It is coloured, and loob well, awl belongs to the inventions of
..l'in II.
It has leen :;aitl above that various eompmuHls rpsult from :1 mixt.ure
of lmkhi'r alltl d1tkhiin, which themselvPs eon.<ist of light awl heavy
element,.l. lmkhiir is tct! or dn; ; awl a romplde union of the two
in. somet.inll's lwfort\ and :tftcr t.lw mixtun, and sometime., in either
of t.hLse ('ondition:;. It is on this :>rcount thtlt a compouJHI whoHe fiery
and airy particles ar, more numProus tlum it.,, watery ami earthy ptuticles
is lighter than a mineral in whieh there arc more watery and earthy
partit'lcH; awl likcwiHI', ewry minPral in which the l111ldu'ir prc(lominates
Arl'Ortling to thr Hmdft'l.
This phrase seems to menn thnt tho invention was mane at the time of Akbar.
'()YCr the dukluin is lighter than 11 mineral, in which the opposite iH the case.
Again, 11 mineral in which the complete union of the lmkluir mvl dukluin
has set in, is than one whil'h not rl'aehttl t.his degree, becanse
the inter,tices IJetween the partwJt.s, aiHl the of air, nmh a body
large awl light. lltaring t.hi,, in miwl, \\(' h:we a nw:ms of discovering tho
weight awl ligh1.nt's of ('\'try hod_, .. ont,
now long n.go tlead, hag
CXpi't'S<('tJ the \l'tight of Sl'\'l'I'<II hod it'S II\ \'efSt'S (llle1re Jfuj/ass) :-
l' ni-y1: j11ssa-y1 11 yak dim111 iimab,
('/u/ o shush as/, u siyu lutshl sl/111/l{ir,
laha/, as/ s111b J"lnjah 11 1111h, ihan rlul,
Uitl!lj" IJiis dulu/" l'anj, llllljl'll Jlltlljah 11 chlir.
"Quil'b-ih er is 71 : H11y is Iii : 'I'm is :1:-1: \:old 100. l.tal fi!l; Iron
10: Bra's and ('oppr J;>: fJ!.'' 01.hers lmw PXprPssttl thll
numll\'rs by lllll<'lllo-kl'llllical \\ord:; in rhym" Na111al) :---
SIIh .fili::-1 liiiiS/IIil'l.'f.'i" '/ rii rhfin llllf-koshi,
mt:ll dtirad h!r ya!.-7'117 is!ttilni!t.
lttr lakun, :i/"11/ ala111, ll.<f/11, dalton, ar:i: liul,
nad, tihan yuk-i, Ill ISs H sltohth 111<1h, 1iiy 111iih.
"If you \nigh I'<]U:tl volunws of tlw folio\\ i11g II. lilt' m.-tab, vou will
douhtll':dy fiwl t.lwir thO'erl'nt \l'l'lghts as gold lu/.-rw,:
ultn11, dtr!t1111, tin h11l, sd11'r uad, 1ron yo!.i, l'opptr :tnl brass moh,
riiy /llri!t." If nf thesl' ninP 111<'1ab, pitt'I'S b .. t:tk<n of .. qnal thnwnsions,
tlHir \\<igJ1ts mlll11 diffl'fl'llt. S:t,l!I'S :tSI'I'Ihl' \:tritty in \\'Pight
to t.llP dl!l'tl'l'l\l'l' in tht 'Jilahtatll'l' on.tilution of tlw J,odi .. s, and tmrp to
it thl'ir or hl'aliwss, thtlr iloatmg <>I' m \latr, and thPir
\\eights aR iwhmt.P,[ hv cornnwn awl hrdrost:1tic halaws.
tltrp-sightl'tl philm;oplwrs t.he W<i.1.d1t of \I 11.11 a nfrf'llt'"
to \\:tt\'f. ThPy till a s\llt.ah],, l'l'ssl'! with \\at...r, and throw mto 1t ]00
wi.,qii/8 of P:wh mtal: and from t.lw <Jil:tllt.ltl!s of wa1r t,l,rollll out. upon
the introduction of the mdals, are found ddl'trcnrs l)(t11 rn tlwm in
volume anl WC'ight. The grcatlr the quantity of tlu: ll:t!n which 100
1/IIS?Iils of a hn<lv rlisplact, tlw gmlir IS 1t.s volunll' :wltlw k:,s ib 1\'l'iL(ht,
1 Swrt CJf l<':lr:dJ, a tm\ n 111 ='IJI'Lin. 1i1-; nal nan1f' l'i
Badr11 'd-llin. lfr }J,J<; "nttPII a r,Habu];Jf\' 111 rh\'JJJI', l'llllf),\1 .\"l'fi/11 . .'..,'d,IJiin,
\\lwh for ha"' hNn f('.ld 111 warh 1,f J',r .... J ud .ttrlt!
,/(Jt/111''' .1. ,"''nr. iJdlf/'tf, for }SIH-\, p. ;, .
\\'e Hx the '--PP{'Jtle l-!Ta.\'Jtll''i rt" (olhm.;;: r;/Jld .\{rrr11n1 1:; (); /,r(lt/ 1132!3;
Stlrer 10-ti; Copper !l; 'Pw 7 Iron ; 7, for \\lllt h TJUIJI\wr'i \\atfT l'i umty.
Abr1 'l-Fa7l gul(l a" "tanrlard; and a.;,"Hmmg, for htH valuPH, aM Sftc<Jtil
gra.v1ty, we would j.!rt, Jlerr.11ry 1:1 Lc,rrl ll ,r.}tll Pr lO tO; C'Jpprr MH7; Iron
ii6; Tm i32: ](,;!! sHi;.
' The Arable rononants of the mnrmo-trchnical \\orris lnkon, aTam, etc., represent
numbers; thus, I ! k , n 30 ' 20 r 50 ; a " I t m I 30 1 40 ; etc.
reversely. Thus 100m. of Hilver displace 9 rn. of water, and the same
' quantity of gold, rq m. If the weight of the water displaced by a body be
subtracted from its weight in air, its weight in water will be found. The
scales of the air-balance are both suspende<l in air ; those of the hydro-
static balance arc both on the Hnrfacc of the water. As the heavier body
possesses the greater po\\w for sinking, it will, in any case, move in the
direction of the perpewlicular; hut, if either of the two scales he on the
surface of the water, and t.]w other in the nir, the latter scale, although
perhaps tho lighter, will ncct'Hsarily sink, as air, being a finer substance
than water, docs not offer so much resi,tance. A body will sink in water
if the quantity of water rlisplaee<l by it he les.; than the weight of the body,
and a body will float if that quantity be greater ; and if the water diH-
placed be equal to the weight of the ho(ly, its upper side will coincide with
the surface of the Abii RayMn
(lmwn up a table which I shall
insert here.
Quantity of wain by 100 .lpparrnt wr-ight (weight in water) of
of 100 of
Jlt-4f/!tl, JJ<iny. J',,'l,'lllj. ])rlnfl. 'l'rrsMtj.
.......... !i <inld, 0 95 4 2
Quicksilv(r, 0 7 Quieksilvt'r, . ....
:3 3
J,ead, 0 H
;; ;)
Le:>d, 0 !ll
Silver. !J I ::-lilver, .. 0.

Rity, .......... II /Uiy, 0 HH I 3
Copper, ........ I l :I :;
Copper, . . . . . . . . 8H 3
Brass, .......... II l :\ BrasH, '0 . 0. 88 3
Iron, 0 12

' 0 87 3 2
Tin, 0 ):\
Tin, . .........
2 3
l'!iqtit (light blue),

Yriqlit (light blue), H .f 2
l'iiqiit (ml), 21i :I 3 Yaqiit (red), 71 3 3
Ruby .....
2 Ruby .....
72 2
Zwuurrud, . . . . . . :IG :I Zwuurrud, ..... G:l

......... :H :\ Pearl, 0 0. 0 G2 5 3
Lapis lazuli, 0 :18 :I :1 Lapis lazuli, . ... 61 3 3
Cornelian, ...... 3
Cornel ian, . ..... 61 :3 3
Amber, ......... :\!l :I :I Amber. . ........ fiO 3 3
BulWr, ........ 10 :\ :3 R11lllir, 60 3 3
.j'r-' 1:11>.:, :'' --P.j
With tho of Silter, nnd Ytiqut (light blue), the numbers
given in tho MSS., tmd tho above lit, nrr lightly because the sum of the weights
and t_ho ought_to 100 (I m, = 6 d.;
Tl1e tl'eight (in air) of the under-
TIU'tilionrd 111etals, the 1'0l111ne of
100 misqiils of gold be in.'] takm as
the unit of tolume.
Mrxqul. ]J,;ny. 'Pu8,,,i).
Gold, 0 0 100 0 0
QPicksilver, ..... 71 I
Lrad, 0 0 w :2 :.!
Silver, ........ !H :I :I
Ruy, ... 0. IG :.! :I
Copper, ........
:I :I
Brass, .......... Hi :I
Iron, ...........
0 0
Tin, .......... :38 2 2
TIIP tt(qltt (i11 air) of the undtlr-
,nentionnl prccimts sto11es, the
ml111111' of I 00 of tl1e blue
yiiqiit /winy taken as tlte lltlll of
ml !til! I'.
Mi<jril. /hing.1.'118Sitj.
l"iiJtif (lil-!ht hltw), !H

l'riqtit (nd). :I 3
Huby, . ... . . . . . !:0 2
llllllllfflld, 0 li!l :I :l
. ... ' .... fi7 r> 2
Lapis lazuli, . ... lili
3 :2
(?)Cornel ian, ..... (H
1 2
:\mber, 0 IH :I I
l1111/lir . ....... n:1 a :3
His l\Iajcsty is a great friPnd of good onlLr and propm1.y in
Through or1ler, the worlrl becomes a !llPadow of t.ru1 II and rmlity ; and
that which but xtPrmd, rPcPiws through it a spirit.ual ;uaning.
th';-; reason, the large numher of \1 omPn
a wxat.ious lfiiPstion even for
weat statesmen furnished his :\lajl'otv with :m oppor1uni1y to display
his wisdom, :ml to rise from the low of worldly to the
eminence of perfPct freedom. 'l'lw imprrial and household are
therefore in the lJPst order.
His l\lajeoty formH matrimonial alhmvro with prirHrs of llirulustan,
and of other countries: and hy tiPs of harmony the p!'ace
of the worhl.
As the sovcr!'ign, by tlw light of his wisdom, has fit persona
from the tlust of obscurity, and appointed them to various olliees, RO docs
he also elevate faithful persons to tlw HP\'eral ranks in the service of the
seraglio. Short-sighted men think of impure gold, whieh will gradually
turn into pure gold ;
but the far-sightrrl know that hill MajcHty under
stands how to usc elixirs
anrl chemical prmcssl's. Any kind of growth
[' .
' So acrording to opinion of the of the Middle Age.
Elixirs change quickly which is worthless into pure gold.
will alter the constitution of a body; copper and iron will turn to gold,
and tin and lca1l to silver; heure it is no matter of if an
excellent being changes the worthless into nwn. " The saying of the wise
is true that the eye of the exalted is tlw elixir for producin!.( goodness."
Such also are the results flowing from tlw love of order of his Majesty, from
his wis<lom, insight, regard to mnk, his rPspect for others, his activity,
his patience. Even when he is angry, he does not deviate from the right
path; he loob tit evnything with kindly feelings, weighs rumours wdl,
and is free from all prejudice; he considNs it a gnat to have the
good wishes of tlw and does not nllo\1' the intoxicating pleasures
of this world to overpmnr his l':tlm judgrmnt.
His has made a Prtclo-;urn mt!t fine huildin,';;s insi1le,
where he reposes. Though tlwre are more than five;antl womPn, he
haR given to mtelt a sl'pamte :tpartnwnt. Ht\ lms abo dtvi1!Pd t.hPm intu
sections, awl keq>s thl'nt at.tPHti to tiLi r dutit'.''. chasti\ womrn
have been appointt>tl as diiror;/!.ls, and ouptrinkndtnts O\'l'r l':wh s1etion,
and onn has hcl'n skdntl for tht\ dut.11s of 1\'l' Thus, as in t.hl' imperial
is hl'I'P abo in propl'r ordn. Tht sal;trits an
libeml. Not tiH\ pnstnts, 11 illt'h his most g<'ll<'T'Ottsly
tlw wonu11 of t.hl' r;mk l't'!'<'irn from liilO to lii1.'1 lb.
per men.v111. Home of tlw strvanls h:wn from !i! t.o :!0, ot.IHn; frum 10 to
2 Us.'hl'!l to thP pri1at.t' :\ll>lttJtrl' hall of the p:tlac<' is :1 t'knr and
znalous writtr, who suptrint.Pnds eXjH'Iltli1,urP of thl' lbnm. all< I kPPJlS
an ae<ount. of tlw cash and th<' stons. lf :1 11 nntan \\';mt.s :myt.hi11g,
within tlw limit of h .. r salar,r, slw appltes t.o oJW of th<' Tf/(urildiirs (m:-;h-
keep<'fs) of t.hl' S!r:tglio. The Talurlldr/ t.hon spnds a mtmomn<lurn to
the writ.>r, who cht1b it, wlwn tlw UtJwral Tn;v,url'r makes th,. paynwnt
in C;lsh, as for \'!aims of this naturl' no chPqws are gin'JL
Tlw writ.Pr ;tbo out. <Ill t> of the :tlllHI<d expt>n;]itnrP,
write:' out a renipt .. whieh is rountlr:-;igmd h: t.IH' mini,km
of the state. It iH th,n ll'ith a pPettliar impNial s!':d, whieh is
only Wetl in gmnt< <'Ollll\'!'ktl with the Ilarem, \\'hen the n'rlipt hrconws
pt1Jtlhll'. The lllOll<','.. itsp]f is ]mid by the cash-hepcr of the General
'l'rcttsmy to the Gent>ml Talnr/ldiir, who on lhP nnler of the writer of
the Harem, it o\'l'r t<l the stnm\ Suh-1'a(11r/ldiirs for 1listribntion
among the servants of the sPmglio. Allmmwys are reckoned in their
salaries at the rnrrcnt rate.
The insi1le of UtP Hanm is gnanlt'll hy sobt'r an1l active women; the
At 40 dam. per rupee.
most trustworthy of them are placer! about the apartments of his
Outside the Pnrlosurt' the tunuchs are plartrl ; and at 1\ proper
distance, there is a gu;ml of bithfnl Rt(iJnl/s, lwyowl whom are the portmg
of t.lw gates. BesHles, on all four si<IPs, thtrt are guards of Noblcg, A(uufiS,
and other troops, according to thlir mnks.
Rcgrii/IS, or thu wins of nohlPs, or ot.ll\'r wonw1t of chaste, clt>sirc to hl' pnsrntPd, t.h<'.l' tirs! not.If.v t.hPir wish to the servants
of the seraglio, awl wait for a nplr. From thenec s!'IHI tll!'ir rcquc:;t
to the otllcprs of the palar't', aftrJ' whirlt thnse who are Pligiblu ure
permittrrl to Pntt-r the llarPIIL :-:onw WOIIIr'll of rank obtain permis:;ion
to rPmain for
Notwithst:md111g t.lw ).!I'Pat. ll!IIlllH'r of faithful guards, his Majnsty
dol's not disppnse mth his own YigdaJve, but krP]IS whole in proper'
.I 'i11 I ti.
Tt \mnlrl IJp rllilindt. to dr'"Tdw ;t rJlt':Wq>rntnt. ; but I shall say
sonwtl11ng on tht t'tjlll]lago tbrd for hun!.JJil( pM(Jt>,.; and short joJtrnnyn.
1. The (,'u/iii-IHir is a gmnd t'llr'ltJHIII'<', 1 hr in1 tnt.loll of
tllt' door.-; of whwh an: m:Ld: Yt'l')' ,;l.rong, an I .'<'t'lll't'd 11 ii.!J loeb and keyH.
It is lll'\'t>r lts-; tlw.n ow: hundnrl yard:.; ''l'ian.
At it.s ea.'itern ewl
a pardJo!l of t.wo rntr:utt'"' is l'olll..tlllllll( !11 21
long anti 11 IJI't>:td ; and in tho middl.: t.htn ,(.and-; :1 l'!u71Jin ni,o{i,
and round :dHHJt it. a srlntjlrlrrlrl.:l .\djo1ninl( t.o tl1" r/nil1in, t.lwy built. up .
:t t.wo-cd.uricd p:i,,i!Jon, in whit!, Ins )laj''tv prrfonns d1vinc
awl from the top of \1 hirh, in t.lw IIIOI'IIIIll(, he re<'ei vrs thn
of thn Hohility. Xu on<: conneekd wJt.h t.!Jr' iirraglio rntt>rs thiH huil1ling
11 i tlwnt sper:iallea Out s1dc of it., t wt nt.y- four dlftl1i 11 rri,olis are crcetcrl,
lO yards lung and I) yards r:wl1 st>paratt:tl J.y a <'anvas, where the
fanmrite women nc,Hk also ot,lll'r p:tvd
rlls :mrl tents for the
snrnmts, wiLh sii!fobiins
of gold cmbroir!Ny, anrl velvet.
Adjoining to this is a .wmi]Uirdrl of carprt, r;o yanlH stjll:lrr:, within which
a few kilt!.-; arr: rrcckd, plac1: for lJ rrlri-!Jrgis,
awl few ale
(1 In tr:\.t L,..!t_.,. T. propf'dy lllf'all<; "altutk, lt'if.!ault ". Yiirish-hd
s('entG to mPan h('re "nuhtary -P.J
[' ;: , .. }Jj{ .... -!'.]
' Dc,cnherl in the twcnty-fi"t A 'in.
' Armed womrn.
setvants. Fart.her on up to the private audience hall, there is a fine open
space, 150 yards long and 100 yards broad, called the Mahtiibi ; and on
both sides oi it, a screen iH set Ull aR before described, which is supported
by poles (i yards long, fixc<l in the grountl at dixtances of two yartls. The
poles are one yartl in the grounrl, an<l arc ornr.tmente<l with bmss knobs
on the top, and kept ftrm by two one passing inside awl the other
outside of the enclosure. The gtmrtls wakh her<, as has been described.
In the midst of the pbin iH a mised platform,
whi<'h is protected by an
awning, or Nam-,qira, supported by four poles. This is the place where his
Majesty sits in the evening, mHI none but those who are particularly
favoured are here admitted. A1ljoining to the C:uliil-blir, there is a circular
enclosure, consisting of t\wlve <livisions, each of t.hirty yanlH, the door of
, the enclosure opening into t.he Jllahtiil;i; and in the midst of it is a
OhUbin rii,o(i, tPn yartln long, awl a tPnt containing forty divisiom, over
wllich twelve awnings are sprt'lttl, earh of twelve yanh, and separated
by canvases.
'l'his place, in evPry of which n. conveniPnt
oloset is constructed, is called which is the (Chrr!Jiutlti) name
used by hifl MajeHty. Adjoining to this a Sarii-,1mdn iH being put up,
150 yards in length and breadth, containing oixteen divi:,ions, of
thirty-six square yaniR, the s.,ru-]Htrdu being. as brfore, sustained by
poles with knolm. In the mi<bt of it, the state-hall is eredcd, by means of
a thousand carpet.s ; it contains sevent.y-two rooms, and has an opening
fifteen ytuds wide. A knt-like covering, or Qalandar'i, made of wax-
cloth, or any other lighter material, is spread over it, which affords
protection against the rain allll the sun; and round about it, are fifty
awnings, of twelve yanls each. 'l'he pavilion, which serves as Diuiin-i
khii{l{l or private hall, lms llropcr doors and locks. Here the nobles
and the officer:; of the army, aftlr having obtained leave through the
Bllkh.shis,' pass hefore the Emperor, the of off'tccrs eligible for admission
changed on t.ltc fimt of every month. 'l'he place is decorated, both
inside and outside with carpets of various colours, anrl resembles a
beautiful flower-be<l. of it, to t\ <listance of 350 yards, ropes are
drawn, fastened to whieh ate set up at a di,tance of three
yards from each other. Watehmen are Rt<\tioned about them. This is the
Diu:an-i' Amm, or publie audiPIWe ht\11, roun<l which, as ahoYc described,
As may be still in tho ruins of Fatl.tpur f'ikri.
l!JU.; "tcnt-wnll".--1'.]
[I In text
, ' Paymasters. The Comm .. nding at the same time payma.sters, aa
. they oollected the rents of the lands assigned to them for the payment of their
' contingents.
the various guards are placed. At the end of this place, at a disbancc of
twelve lanabs
is the .Va1qlira ll_/dina,
and in the of t.he the
.I klis-diya
is lightt><l up.
Rome encampments, as now are smt off, antl one of
them is put up by the Famisht's on a pit<'!' of grmm'l which the Mir
Jfan:ds havt! sPh-tetl as an t>ligihlc spot, whilst. otlwr mmp furniture
is srnt in a<lnmcP, to await the approa!'h of his Each encamp
ment nqnires for its earriag<' 100 <'ll'ph:mts, WO l'<lllll'ls, IUO rarts, and
101) It is t's<orkd by GOO t.ronptrs, fi .l(111dis. Besi<hs,
t.IH!rc arc cmploye<l a thousmvl natiws of ir1i11, Tiir:in, and
H indust:in, GOO i.lionrl'rs, IOU water-canitrs, !iU <':\l'ptnt.ers, tent.- makers,
anti torch-lll'arprs, :10 workers in IPathPr, and lfiO sWt'CJll'rs.
Thr mont.hlv pay of the foot Yarii'H fmm :lHl to 1:10
Tlm OF 'l'lm AlDIY.
Although his but rarely eolltcts his armitH. a number of
troopR accompany him in whatever <lirel'tion an <'Xpedit.ion may go;
hut a number, in every proviJWl', are employe<! on various
awl arc not allowe<l to follow him. On a1count of thr
of awl the numhcr of the troops tlwmselvts, it would take
a soldier days to liwl his tmt: anrl how much 11orHe woul<l it be fora
stranger ? His l\l;\jesty has imPnterl an admira!Jl() nwtho<l of emamping
his troops, which iH a source of much l'omfort to them. On an open 1-1round
they pitch the imperial s<mglio, the auditn<e hall, and the Narjttra-khiiMJ,
all occupying a space the ll'ngth of whieh iH I!i:\0 yards. To tho right
and hft, anrl hhind, is an open space of :lfiO whieh no one but
the gmmls is allowed to enter. Within it., at 11 distance of 100 yards to
the left" aiHl cl'ntrc are the t<nt.H of Maryam an:l Gulbadan
Regum, allil ot.lwr chaste ladies, and th of l'r1nct ll;iny:'ll; to the
[I .;$ .:.-.:. ..... I;J,.-1'.]
' A turret on the top of which the band play<. ltrgnrdmg the lanilb, vide the tenth
A in of the third book.
A high pole to the top of which an immense lamp is fixed. Vide p. 50.
' Quartermaster,,
' Grandees.
[' Qol, M. is .aid to be the centre of an army in bnttle array.-!'.]
' Maryam MaMni (i.e., dwelling '"'th the \'irgin Mary, who together with Aaiyah,
the wife of Pharaoh, Khadija, Mul)ammnd's firt w1fr, and F>illmah, hiM daughter, are
the four P'rfect women of lllim) i the title of Akbar's motlwr. Hrr name waB
BaniiBegum; vide Badlioni, ed. Bib!. Ind. i, p. 437. Gulbadan Begum (i.e., Lady ROBe-body)
appears to be the name of one of Akbar's w1ves. [No, his aunt.- B.J
right, those of Prince Salim, and to the left, those of Prince Shah
Murad. Behind their tents, at wme clistance, the ancl workshops
are placer!, and at a fctrthcr distance of :lo yarcls behincl them, at the four
corners of tho camp, the hiiziirH. The nobles arc encamped without on all
sides, accorcling to their rank.
Tho guardR for Thursclay, Friday, and Saturday encamp in the centre ;
those for Sunday and :\Ioncl:ty, on the right; and those for Tuosclay ancl
Wednesday, on the left.
His Majesty maintr1ins that it is a religions duty an<! divine praise to
worship fire awl light ; surly, ignorant men consider thi-; forgetfulness
of the Almighty, ancl fire-worship. But the dcq>-sightecl know better.
As tho external form of the worship of "the select,
is based upon
propriety, ancl as people think !Wgleet of some sort of worship
abominable, there mn he impropPr in the veneration of tlmt
exalted elonwnt whieh is tlw wurre of man's (xistenre, ancl of the duration
of hiH life; nor llhould base thoughtH enter sueh a matter.
How beautifully has 1-'hayl,h Nharf" said : ''What can he done
wit,h 11 man who is not Ratisficcl with the lamp whrn the sun is down ? "
Every Aame is clcrived from t.hnt fnuntnin of cliYinn light (the sun), and
boars tho impression of its holy rssence. 1 light ancl fire exist,
wo shouhl he dl'stitute of food awlnwclicinl's ; the po11W of sight would be
of no avail to the The fire of t.lte sun is the torch of Go<l's sovereignty.
At noon of the <hy, whm tlw scm Pntl'rs the 19th dcgree of ArieH, the
whole worlcl lll'ing then KlliTOllllll<'tl by his light, they !'X posen round piece
of a white awl shining stnnP, mllecl in Hindi Stin(jlmilll, to the rays of the
sun. A pilee of cotton is thl'n lwlclnPar it, which catches fire from the
heat of the This rPlPstial fire is cormnittccl to the care of proper
persons. 'l'he lamp-lighters, torch-hearers, ancl cooks of the household,
use it for t.h('ir ancl when the year haH passed away in happiness,
they rmew the f!re. The in which this fire is preserved, is called
Agingir, i.e. fire-pot.
The members of the Dir!IJC Farth.
This famous saint died in the of the fifteenth rentun. Munair is a
town in Bahiir; .-ide Journorl A.<. &c. Brngnl, 1868, p. 7, I. 3, from below, and the
biographies of Indian Saints in the fourth book. His works are to be found among
the Persian MSS. of the Society's Library.
J 0
,I -
There is also a shining white stone, ealle<l Chandrlmlnl, which, upon_
being cxpose<l to the beams of the moon, drips w:ot\'r.
Every afternoon, one yhari
lwfore his )faje:-.ty, if riding,
or, if sltt>ping, hl' :1\\<lk<'ll<'<l. II, th,n by,; a.,idl' tht spl<n<lour of
royalty, awl brings his external app<'ar:mr<' m 11 ith his heart.
An<l when the snn the attPndants light t.\\('l\'1' 11 hit1l candlts,
t1nhe candlestickH of goltl and ,.:ilvPr, and tht>m l"'fon his )lnjesty,
whtn a sing<>r of sw<'et 11 1th a candl1 Ill hi" hand, ,.:ings 11 variPty
of dclight.ful airs to thl' of Cod. lwgumJl,i! :ml <'Oiit'ludinl-( with a.
prayer for the continuance of this Ills )laj1st.y attaehcs
the utmost Import.ance to pmis1 aJtl pr:t_l'l'f, :tnd t':lllll'stly asks Ullll for
renew1'11 light.
It is impo:-.,.:Jhle to ,1,:.;rnh1: t.l11: Ll'anty and l':tt'IOIIH forms of t.lw <':tiHlk
sticks :11111 :.;hadPs, an<l to g1w :m :ti'I'IHI!lt. of th" ollil'l'.' of worlmwn.
Nome of tln candlPsticl,s llt'igh 1<'11 1111/IIS :ml up11ard.'>, and an. adornl'<l
ll'lth various d,.:igns; of t.wo ],rawhps awl
tlwy gin light, to tlw int<r!ial l',l'l'. l11s '!:til'l'IY has illl'<'llt.Pd a l'illHllll-
1rk, mw h1gh. othLrs an pi:LI'I'd on 1 hi' top of it, :md t'lL!'h
adorllld With tlw fignn of an anllll<Ll. \\'lnt 11:1'\ candlt,.:, tlmP
and upwards in length, an (':t,.:t for 11, w t !tat a i:L<Idlr is to m11ff
it. lhsidts thl'l'l' an nry11 l11n: tlam!.I':\1\X,
l.ot.h msHit a11d o11bidP, whih
iiliTI'il'.;e till' l1ght. \Pry Jlllll'h. '1'111' awl t.ltird niglil.'> of 1'\'<'I'Y
lllll<ll' month, "h1n 1,.; llliHJ!llq.dtt, J,ut. for a :-.hor1. I IIIII', Pight. wi1'!,11
from fomth to tltt 1nt It, t.IH'I' dtt'I'I':\St: ol\1' in llillllhtr
l'ler_v lllght, so that. on tlw knt.h 1t1ght, 11 hPtl t Jt,. lll'"'ll 1s 1 1'1',1' lmght, ow
1s sutli('JI'llt; :ul'l t.lll'y contllllll' 111 t !tiS :-.tat" j,JIJ t lit' fifltlnt.h, anrl Jlll'l'l'aHe
o1w 111ck <:ltry clay from sP, to lht Jllll<lnlh. For the
tll'l'!>th night til\' 1\lllldHr IS tilt' !'o:\1\\<' :LS 01\ f h<' lllitl't<<; Oil the
twtnt.y-first and twlntv-.stl'llll'l th.1 iwna''' "ll" d.Lill'; I.II'I'Hty-
tlmd is t.lw ntllll: as tii'I'Jtlyst'('o!ld; :111<1 from t.ltr l.ll!'llf._l'-fo1111.h
to th1 la:-.t., l'lght. 1vicks are liglitl'd 11]'. 'l'!lt'_l' a I loll' for <:1'1'1)' 11 wk O!lll s<r
of od, and l1alf a Sl'l' of cotton. In sonw plars thr an: fat lmnwrK, 11 h<ro
grl'rtSC is hnmt of od. Tlw all<111 1 arts aordmg to tho:
of the wick.
In order to nnder thll royal 'amp r ompi!'II0\1.' to I hosn 11 ho r orno
from far, his has caused t.o I.e Pnrt .. d, Ill f1on1, of Durbitr,
a pole upwards of fort.y yards llllfh, whirh is Slljlp()Jt<d hv sixt<'<:n rope:;;
Orw yhtJri 24 mmu!fo.,
[2 \,.U..:. l f, \\<.\X P. J
3 Otl- with t-wHrn.l \\11 arc v('ry common m I ndta.
For each flambeau.

:yhftop of the pole is a large lantern, which they call Akiis-diya.l
, ,, from great distances, guides the soldiers to the imperial
helps them to fincl their tents. In former times, before the lamp
the men had to suffer hardships from not being able to find
.this department Al;tadis, and other troops are
The allowance of a foot soldier never exceeds 2400, and is never
80 dams.
Ain 19.
;!-:The Sltamsa
of the arch of royalty is a divine light, which God
directly transfers to kings, without the assistance of men ; and kings are
$9nd of external splendour, because they consicler it an image of the Divine
Jlory. I .shall mention some of the insignia used at present.
1.:.: The Awrang, or throne, is made of several forms; some are inlaid
precious stones, and others arc made of gold, silver, etc. 2. The
Dhmt, or umbrella, is adorned with the most precious jewels, of which there
are never less than seven. 3. The 8iiya-bcin is of an oval form, a yard in
length, and its hanc.lle, like _that of :}w with brocade
and ornamented w1th llrie of the attendants holds it,
t,o keep off the rP;s of the sun. It is also called Aftiibgir. 4. The Kawkaba
of .wt.ift\ oeveral are hung up before the assembly hall.
These four insignia are used by kings only .
. , 5. The or standard. When the kingrides out, not less than
nve of these are carried along with the Qar,4 wrapped up in scarlet cloth
bags. On days of festivity, and in battle, they are unfurled. 6. The
Ohatrtoq, a kind of but smaller than it, is adorned with the tails of
Thibetan yaks. 7. Tho Tumantoq is like the C/w,trtoq, but longer. Both
insignia are flags of the highest dignity, and the latter is bestowed upon
great nobles only. 8. The is an Indian flag. The Qiir necessarily
contains a flag of each kind ; but on great occasions many are displayed.
Of musical instruments used in the Naqarahkhiina, I may mention,
t. tM Kuwarga, commonly called damanuJ ; there are eighteen pair of
-- ,- .,.,

From Aka.. sky, and diya lamp. The Akilsdiya is also mentioned by
81w.'tllla is a picture of the sun affixed to the gates or walls of the palaces of kings.
theae pictures are illuminated.

Ville the pbtea 1
.The oar is a of llags, arms, and other insignia, which follow the king.'
he goes. , , .t.
n va
them more or less; and they give a deep sound. 2. The naqiira, twenty
pair, more or less. 3. The dulaul, of which four are used. 4. The Kama
is made of gold, silver, brass, and other metals, and they never blow
iewer than four. 5. The sflrnii of the Persian and Indian kinds ; they blow
nine together. 6. The oofir, of the Persian, Europ!lan, and Indian kinds ;
they blow some o! each kind. 7. The sing is of brass and made in the form
of a cow's horn; they blow two together. 8. The sanj, or cymbal, of which
three pair are used.
Formerly the band played four before the commencement of the
night, and likewise four gharis before !lOU'
midnight, when sun hi!' and the second time
dawn. glulrt before sunrre;'t1ie musicians commence to blow the:.
81trnii, and wake up those thjl/ are asleep; and one ghari after
they play a short they beat the kwtVJrga a little, whereupOn. !
they blow the kanu'i, t)(l oofir, an(l the other instruments, without, ..
however, making USf'6f the naqara ; after a little pause the 8UTMa ate
blown again, thH1ine of the music being indicated by the oofirs. One
hour later naqiiras commence, when all musicians raise "the.,
. ...ump1cious strain."
After this they go through the following seven
performances. I. The Mursali, which is the name of a tune played by the
tnttrsil ; and afterwards the bardiisl1t, which consists likewise of certain
tunes, played by the whole band. This is followed by a pianissimo, and
a crescendo passing over into a diminuendo ; 2. The ph\ying of the four ,,;
tunes, called iHtlii!i, ibtidili, shiriizi, nigar

or nu&l!tltl
qatra, which occupies an hour. 3. The playing of the old
tunes. Of these his Majesty has composed more than two hundred, which
are the delight of young and old, especially the tunes Jaliilslu'ihi, MaMmtr'
karkat (?), and the Nawrozi. 4. The swelling play of the cymbals. 15. .
The playing of Bii rniyiin dawr. 6. The passing into the tunes azfar, also ..
<'ailed riih-i biilii, after which comes a pianissimo. 7. The K.b'.Viirh:mite
tunes, played by the Mursil, after which he passes into the muraali;
he then pauses, and commencea the blessings on his Majesty, when the
whole band strikes up a pianissimo. Then follows tl1e reading of beautiful ,
sentences and This also IB.I!ts for an hour. Afterwards the BUrftiJ- .
l Or Ka.rranii.. [In text l:armi.-P.]
Probably bleninge on his Majesty. . ,
I Several of these names of melodies are unclear, and will in all probability remain .
eo. Perhaps the words 1hinizi qalandari, "a hermit of Shlraz,'' belong to each other. 1
Nigor qfJ!,ra means, bUiold tllc tur. [Qalandar is a kind of wondering dervish of wild,,
.appearance.-P.] "'"""'
['In text" old and new."-P.]
player:; perform for another hour, when the whole comes to a proper
His Majesty has such a knowledge of the science of music as trained
muAicianl'l do not possess ; and he is likewise an excellent hand in per-
forming, especially on the nttqiim.
ancl other troops are employed in this depart-
ment. The monthly pay of a foot-soldier does not exceerl 340 and is not
leRs than 74 dams.
.tl'in 20.
Seals are used in the three 1 SEALS.
man requires them in his transactions.
lr the Government; in fact every
reign, Mawlfmii the seal-engraver, cuthe beginning of the presenb
surface of steel, in the riqii& character, the name in a circular form upon a
of his illustrious ancestors up to Timflrlang ; nf his Majesty, and those
another similar seal, in the nasta&liq character, only
afterwards he cut
name. For judicial transactions a second kind of seal waffl1 his Majesty's
in form,
which had the following verse rounfl the name of his l\11.J
RO.sti miljib-i klmdiist kas nadidam ki gum shud az r(ih-i
" Uprightness is the means of pleasing God ; I never saw any one lost in
the straight road."
Tamkin made a new seal of the second kind ; and afterwards :1\lawliina
C:Ali of Dihli impro,ed both. The round small seal goes by the
(chagflptii&i) name of Uzuk, and is used forfarm(in-i sabt'is;
and the large
ope, into which he cut the names of the ancestors of his l\Iajesty, was at
first only used for letters to foreign kings, but nowadays for both. For
other orders a square seal is used, engraved with the words Allah" Akbar
jall jakilalni, whilst another of a peculiar stamp is used for all matters
connected with the seraglio. 'For the seals attached to Jarmiins, another
stamp is used of various forms.
Of seal-engravers I shall mention
1. Mawlanii of lliriit, one of the servants of Humiiyiin, whQo
writes well the and characters. The astrolahe, globes, and
Corresponding to tho threefold division of the A'in-i Akbari.
The word muhr, n seal, means also a stamp, and generally, the signature of a man.
We sign documents, Orientals stamp their names to them. Sealing wax is rarely used
on account of the climate; a tenacious black liquid, or the juice of the Bhela nut is pre-
ferred. [The marking-nut tree commonly called bhildwa.-P.]
I Vide note p. 30.
Vide the eleventh A'in of the second book.
nnions mislars
which he madt>, wt're much admired by peoplo of
experience. The patronage of his Jlajl'st.y pPrft>dttl his art.
2. Tamk'in 1\tillll. lie 11as ,.,\umt,d iu his n.ttiw t'<lllllt.r.' anl
brougl1t his art tn :-.ueh a. Jll'rfootwn :1s tn l':\t'ih tht jt>alous.l' of tlw
preeedmg l'n!!mnr, whom lw'"'d in tht lltl.<ltrqi,J.
.1/'ir JJ,J.\1 4 J\,ilm/. I It- cuts both t hl' 1 and ch:mwt ... rs
Ill rorJ\llwn. Ill' t!ows nut l'Oilll' up to tlw pttt't'dlng art1:-.ts. llis is
lwt.t,r than his 1/lf,,f,rqi,/- 11 .. a!"' und"tand, ""':ll'lll:!.
I. 1/Juih'illl. In th art. of ,utt.lll!! ornlian' h r:-. th pllJHI
of his J,rot.lwr of Yazd. lit t ht all<'lt'lll t'il'!J'al ,.,.,: and
Jt. 1s l!llJH''"d>l to th:-.tmgul:;h h1o and from tJ,,. ma:-.ltr-
f'lt't'ts of !lit ht:-.t. calll,!!f.IJdtt'J'S. lit <'ll!!l'il\t'd tilt' 1\oitl.s t>l'
glonolts rul,,-, 11pon aii!IIIJ"'I' ntiHs of \.1111<'.
i'1. .If a 11 fri11ii .1111/111<1 .,f I )lid i 11 l1o, .ut"rd I" a llmlli !!iilplwr:-.,
stands lil\'llfJ11"'''t! :1s a ,,,.,.J <'1\C!I;IIr. "' IIIHI'h "' that hiS ollglal lll!!s
:tit' 11:-.d a-; ''"!''''" lit:< 1s olialllllllg: I nit. lw 11 nt1'" a!""
elmradts ns \\tll. 11,. ll',llll"t! tlw,. f1o11t l11' f.t1lw1 :-;IIIII h.!! llu,,llll
:-.tlldi<'d t.h1 IIJ:II\Ilt'f of \1;11\rl!ll 'h'j'tid, ilild 1'\t'l\lii,dl_l Slllj>il' all
TilE F.\Hit.\:-;11 1\11.\\.\.
Ill' ''"11''"''1>- tl11S .. , as an t'\<'l'llont. dllt'lllll!!
pl:l'<', a :-.htltrr fro111 lwat. and l'old, :1 l''"t11't"r ;l!!.llll',j tl11 1:1111. a; th1
Ofll,tlllt'!lt. "f !'tlYillt 1. I It- looJ.., ll]'toll II' tlllllt'll<'l' ;t 111\1' oft ho lil"Wil'a of
a rul..r, and thortforo ll'ldtJs tho '"''ttllll'd "l"'n II as a 1a1t. "f
ll11 Ill!' ll<lf:;hq>. '1'111' dopallnwnt. ll.k> '"'''II litll<'h IIIII''"\ .. ,J, lol h Ill 1111'
qualJt.\ a no! t.l11 quant 11_1 of I h 'tow<, :1nd "'"'' I ill' 1111 rod11 11"11 of 1\1'11'
f.t . .,Jn<>JU. I :-.hall !1\l'llt.loll a f111 p:t11JtiilaJ.' a. 'i"'''illll'll' fo1 fllllil'<'

1. Th .. fi,ilfJt!h, 11honlar;!', 1; ;ddo to l'tilll:lllllllllit' tl,,lll tnthou,aad
r (',fp\J-..1-.. t,dd a pw1P a,rrd ,,f t\w '-dlrH 1/1 a., tlw i''JHr 1111 tlt('j
\Hlk Tlwn h\o \PrtJ! ,d !JJJI-.., 1 ;]( h ,d,qtJ1 .til 1111 h frcrn h\o
\l'ltw.ll "ldf.; of tlu pa-...tPho.trd \JI,Il,! tlw-.r hnt.., tiP.\ IIJ.d,,. "-lJJ,dl l11d', nt
m!tn:!l ... , and dLI\\ a ... ttlll!.! frorn tltt flr._f !J,tJ,. at tlw lr ft h.tnd to tlw tu .... t IJtdl' of tiH
n\..!ht oft lw pa..,kho,Jrd r 1,, t lw t \\ ' ... ,.( und IPd ., .1 II' J''ll!l rl. ar1rl '-II or1, 1 un ),, rllg
taktn that tlw h(Jnzont.d are p.ndlrl. 'lh1-. IIJ!Ifrl\anrr 1-. r.dlrd fr1JU1
saftr.-, .l IlTle The cop\ t lull p11f 'it lw ldanh. 1 t" lrll I ht t11p 11ft lw lltlf,u, It ltd )tfP"'Hf'K
on thrm \\tth tllf' h,lnd'.j, \\hl'll tile ''dllra\f' mark" on tlw papN ... uOtr trntly
rhar to prt\rnt thr \\fltf r from \\Jtftn!! rrf,oJ..rdly
2 .S1:'im of Htr,i.t,m fuq Tabaq,-ltt.:\klmri, 11lf'IJti(JnH hun anwng thf'l'oHftlfl)'llfnwow
Persian poet,, nnrl gi\'es a few nf h1s verses.
[' ,\\';1>.-P.]
people. IL takes a thousand farrashes, a week to erect with the help of
machines. There are generally two door poles, fastened with hinges.
If plain (i.e. without brocade, velvet, or gold ornaments) a biir,giih cost!>
10,000 rupees and upwards, whilst the price of one full of ornaments is
unlimited. The price of others may be estimated from the price of a plain
one. 2. The C!lidiin riiwati is raised on ten pillars. They go a little into the
ground, and arc of equal height, with the exception of two, which are a
litt.le higher, as the crossheam upon them. The pillars have, ahove
and below, a dr7sa,
to keep them firm, awl several rafters pass over the
and the crossbeam, the whole being kept tightly together by
clamps a111l bolt:> and nuts. The walls anrl the roof consist of mats. There
is one door or two : and at the height of the lower diisas there is a raiser!
platform. The inside is ornanwnterl with brocade and velvJt, and the
outside wit.h sf'arlcbaekcloth,
tied to the walls with silk tape. 3. The
Do-iishiyrina 111anzd, or house of two storeys, is mise1l upon eighteen pillars,
six yards in height, 11hich support a woo1len platform; and into this,
pillarH of four ruhits in length arc fixed with holt anrl nuts, forming an
upper The inside atl'l outsi1lc are ornanwnted, as in the preceding.
On the march it is user! by his Majesty as a sleeping apartment, and also
aR a placl' of divi1w worship, where he prays to the Run; and hence the
building resemhhs : man who strives Go1! without forgetting his
worldly dutirs whose one rye is dinrtP1l to thr> solitude of pnrc devotion,
and tlw othrr Pye to tlw motley sarri of tlw world. A ftrr the devotions arc
over, the womln an allowed to tntcr to pay their cornplinwnts, and after
them, outsulcrs. On jonrnlys his :\lajrsty inspcrts in this building the
rations (of the ehphants, e:trnels, etc.), whirh is callerljhanika,
or window.
4. The Zrr111indo: is a tPnt made of various forms, sometimes with one,
sonwtinll'H with t1ro door pol<'s : srrerns are also hung up within it, as
to form divisions. fi. Tlw fj(i'ibi consists of nine awnin)!s on four pillars.
Ji'ive of thr awnings are square, and four taprring; Hometimcs they make
it to contain one di1ision only, and four tapering; sometimes they
make it so as to contain one division only, snpportcll by a single pole.
!i. The Mandai is composed of five awnings joined together, and is
by four poles. Four of thl: awnings arc let down so as to form
a privat1 room: smnetimes all four are dmwn up, or one side only is left
oprn. 7. Th<' . f{lr-kluntrba consist,, of scwnkl'll awnings, sometimts
A triangular ptcrr of wood llxed into the angle fomwd ly the wrtieal beam nn<
the rross.beam, a .!upporl.
[' Saqir/.al, p<'rhaps a scarlet
[' J!to.raka, a oma\1 window in an upper storey, espcrially one in a palace, to obtain
a view.-P.]
separate, sometimes joined t.ogethtr ; thty nn hy eight poles.
8. The !iltargiih is 1\ folding tent made in rarious ; some with OllO,
others with two doors. 9. 'l'lw 8/ilillly(i/la-awning is made of nuious sizes,
but ne1w more than of tmlYe sprnn. !0. The has ht't'll
11. The SarriJIIlnla was rnadt in former t.inH'S of conrse
l'llll\'as, hut his has 11uw raused it to l>t lll:lth of, 1111<1
therl'Ly improretl its appt'ar:ut<'t and w-..Culntss. I:!. Uuhilxir is a
wootlen screPII, ib parts llling fas!tntd tngdher, hkt tl1t 11alls tf the
1\hurgiih, with ll'athPr straps, so that it ran he fuldtd tngtthtr 11lwn the
camp br<'aks up. ThP gllltiiJ!ir is cowr.d 11ith nd rlnt.h, tied with tape.
I! is jt,t y ha:< caused carpets to },,. nl:tt!t of 11 on< lt-rf ul lari,t its ant!
eharming textures: h<' has appointed lllll'l.nttn, who haw
produced many mastt'rpit'l'<'s. 'I'IH' ytlims of lri1n and TltrilllarP 110 rnore
thought of, although lllt'IThallb ;;till nnport t'arpt'ls from l:oshkitn,:!
1\_l_lftzi:<tan, Kirrni111, and . \11 kinds of l':tf}H't ll<':ll't'I'S haw
settled hen>, and driw a tlonri:.;hing tradt. Th<'H' art found in <'l'l'l',l' town,
in Agra, Fatl.tpiir and Lrd1or. In 111<' llorkshopti
single yilims are made 20 .t/'1: 7 ftrsslij.-s long. and ti yo: broad,
at a cost of rupres, 11 hil'h tho,e 11 ho are :-krlkd in 111<'
have valu\'d at :Ji I :i
Taklfilllllllllllis. or IIOtll!tn t'O\'trlt!,;, ar<' l>rought fro111 l\idHrl ami
but an made 111 this t'OIIIItry.
It would take up too much tinw !11 dt'kt'l'lh<' tht .J'l)'llll-', s/wlnujis,
baliuhls, alit! the fine rnats whil'h look :U' rf IIOI't'n of 'ilk.
A'in '
IIi; :\lajt''ty call.s this some of tilt' 11attr of inllr1ortality ",and
ha.., cormnitted the earc oft his d<'part nwnt to prop<'r dot's not
drink n111ch. hut pa1s lllll<'h att<iilloll tot hi, rnatttr. J\.,111 at horn<' and
1 l'>dc p. 4H.
f1 In U:-xt !Jiltm. whwh i8 a ('aqwt \\Jthout a pdP -l'
r:o8hl..rill, or a. town 111 ha!f\\,1\' lJ, hufu Kii"'1111n and
1\hltt.L.,t[lll tlw PN'IJ<Ul prnnrwf of \\hH h or f'lm..,1nr, 1'4 the
cap1tal; the an< i<nt StHiflfHl. K1rm:in I"' l hr tapl1al (,f thf' l',r:-.lall pro\'IH<'l' K1rmiin_
whll'h on SofJZ,II'tir 1'1 ()1\t' of lht diif fttlf'k c,f tlw r{'rStan
pronnce bet \leon (\fe,flfrl) and tJ,, (''"!''"" Se11.
l' In text .: ...
wdi!Jnl. Both eountno' are kno11n hy the name, a alHo England
in modern times.-P.]
on travels he drinkH Ganges water. Some trustworthy persons are
stationed on the banks of that river, who dispatch the water in sealed jars.
When the court was at the capital Agra and in Fatl.lpiir, the water came
from the district of Roriin,
hut now
that his :\Jajcsty is in the Panjab,
the water is brought from Hardw:tr. For the cooking of the food, rain-
water or water takrn frolll the .famiHI aiHl the Chanitb is user], mixed with
a little GangPs water. On journeys anrl hunting parties, his Majesty,
from his pre<lilndion for good water, appoints cxpPricnced men as \later-
Haltpetre, which in gunpowdPr produces the explosive heat, is usrd hy
his 11ajcsty as a nwans for rooling watrr, and thus a source of joy for
great and snwll. Haltpetre is a saline rart h. They fill with it a perforated
vcssPl, anrl pour SOIIIC water ovPr it, and coliPcting what drops through,
hoi! it, d<'an it, an<llt>t it rrystallizP. One sPr of watrr is thrn put into
a gogld of or silvPr, or any oth<'r such tnrtal, and the mouth elosPrl.
Th<'n two :111tl a half SPT'S of saltpPt rP am thrown into a vPssel, toget ht>nYit h
ft ve sPrH of lmtPr, anrl in this mixt urc the goglut is stirrt>d about for a
< of an hour, wlwn tlw water in the goglet will bPcomc cold. The
priee of saltpt>t re variPs front 1 ttl !1111/IIS JH'r l'll]H't'.
Hi nee t hirt iPt h yt>ar :1 of the lhtint' Era. lrlH'II the imperial
.standards Prei'!Pd in thr> l'anj,ih, snow and ice ha1p co1nc inlu u,<'.
lee is brought h1 land and 1mttr. hv post !'arriagt'H or ht>anr.s, fmm the
<liHtrirt of l':mh:in, in the nortlwm 1nouldains, about fortv-fiw kos fmnt
Liihor. 'l'h<' dt:dt'l's t!t>ri1<' a t'tlnsidPrahiP profit. two to lhrPc sers of ice
being sold JH'r l'lljll'<'. 'l'hr gnattst profit. is derii'Ptl when the ice is
brought. Ill' 11aler, nt'\.t whtn b1 taningPs, :tntllrast when by bt'<JT't'f><. The
inhabitants oft ht> 11\0IInLnn,.; bring 1t in loads. and sell it in pill's t'tllllaining
from :Ji) to :10 strs, at t he ral ,, of.-, diims. ] f t lwy han to bring it wry far,
it costs:! I d. 17 j. : 1ft hP he an awr:tge <>Ill'. 1.) d.
Out of lht it'll bo:d:.; t'lllfllo.nd forth<' transpmt of i<'t'. one :Hrii'<'H
rlaily at the P:tpital. l'a<'h lll'ing m;tnnPd by four boat 1\lt'll. The lt't' bundles
cont .,from six to 1\Yeln atcording to tlw tPmpPratun. A mrriagc
brit load.s. Th<'rl' arP fourt<'Pll 11hcrc tltt' hor:.;cs are changtd,
an <lilt' elephant T11ehr piccrs of ten to fom st'rs
ar B1 this kintl of trall.'fltlrt, a ol'l' of icc rosts 111 1vinttr
:' . during the mins U d. ; in t ht inhrmPtliat<'tinte \J d. 2J! j. ;
t'l11' statwn 011 tht' from .\!,!'r.l.
I) A. I> Ll!)() .\'1 111 l.JSti F.1thptir hJd cpa:-:;l'd to he thr capital. Akbar rC'sJdC'd
.ostly tn tht> l'nnJ.ib.
'A.D. 1586.
and in the awmgt>.
,-,d. !.iU. If it brought by
!liP II an nqnind fort ht> fonrtPPn Til.' bring !'Hr.' day onr load.
('Oiltaining four par .. ,!". In tht lwginning of tlu nar. tln i\'e
5d. l\.l1j.: in tlw Jnidtlle lli d. and in th Pntll\ld.
in thP anrag'.t
Allmnb in :illlll!l\l'r: t nohk,; 11"' it t hronghont the 11 hole
TilE DIPEI1l.\L 1\!Tt'IIE\'.
JIL'i t'\'1'11 P:>.tnL; hi., atf,ntJon to this dq>a!fnwnt. and lmH
gJI'PI\ lll:tlll' \II'L' ngJdatlllli' for 11: llt>r an a 11':1'"11 11hy ht
should not do"''"' thl' plllii>lltllll ,,f !JJall, nalllll'. till '''''ngth of th
thP ap.dnlity of n'<'<'l\lllg and l!lttJn.tii,J,"IIlg>', and tht
a<'<!ill'lflon of 11oildh :111d nhgious :llh.illLI.!.!t'S. dt'JII'illl ldtnn:ltth on
proper <'an ill'lllg ohllllll fill' appi'OJ>!iatt f, .. t) 'l'hb ),llllllicdgt ,iJ,tl!l-
guiolll':i lll:lll fronJI)(,t,(:i, 111th llhoJJI, a-< far a,; llll'l'<' :Jflng l't't>!H'PI'IH'd,
he :.lands upon tht oalllt' 1<11'1. If hi, dHln"t i'""'''s st> l .. fty :1
llli!ld, HJ < <Hil)>!'t'htn,ill an undPr,(:Jn<ling. "' \llllll'l'.d :1 k!ndntss, ln
ln>tdd ha1 l'ht>.'t'l\ tl11 l'atl1 of ,,,)itndt'. and gllt'll np ''"''!'and futHI
altogPtlwr: and <'l<'lllliJII', 11 h<n lw takn IIJ'"" illlll'<'lf I ill' t<'IIIJ'Ol'a!
and SJ>Il'll\\'l',hl}> of tli 1'''"1'"'- tl11 'f\ll'otit>ll, "\\ !J:Jt dinntr
h<rn )>I'P)I:i!'<'d '' IH'I'I'r J'l""' lll'l'l' In th<'
of tlll'lltl -flltlr hours his :ll:tj<,;ty mts but 111\<'t', and ),a\ ,., oil' lH'Iow he
is full:; :.ati.,litd: Jwithl'r is thtrt any tix<d !1111<' for tlllc nwal, but tlw
nrrants haiP always tlnngs so far rPadY, that in th<' 'l'"''t' of an l1our,
;1ftrr the ord<'r has lupn gi11'n, a hundnd di,ht,; are otn,d up. 'f'h, food
allowrd to the wonwn nf the Hraglio ornlll<'ll<'<'.'i to lw t:d ... n front the
kttehen in the mormng, and f.;'H'-' on till night.
Trustworthy and experiem,d an appointtt! to this dtpart-
nwnt ; and all gond "errants at ta..!wd tot IJ,. I'Ol\l't, a 1'1' n,,.,1_1 Pd to }'PI'fllrlll
well llhatJnr,ice tlll'y hal'<' undPrtaktJi. Tlw1r lllad is """'t<d by
the Pmne :llini:.ter hirnself. Jli:; \lajrcty has tntrw-t<d to latter the
affair:; of the :.tal<'. but ''"}W!'ially th1s irnp.,1tant dtpal!nwnf.
standing all this. !tis \lapsty is Ill<( unmindful of tlw l'lllldU('t <1f tl1c
senants. If app<lint:; a ZPa!ow; and oirw<n man :h .lfir flrtk,lnd, or
1 Thr tr\t ha'i MHii1lri, v.hJ( h mar uw"n tfw IH!t ttlC' l'fl<f' },y
Ablt'l-Fa7l Iii.. not an av1rag{'. Tlw f11r H" n.t 1JH tunP of Akhar tony be
{'om pared to the pnr ''"'of th(' pn ... rTit :1;2." lfn, 111 ('alt utta, tser of .AmcrHun
ire costs t"o anna.", or 1 rupN, 1 e,

- .) of Akbar.
Master of the Kitchen, upon whose insight the success of the department
depends, and gives him several upright persons as assistants. There
are. also treasurers for the cash and the stores, several tasters, and a clever
writer. Cooks from all countries prepare a great variety of dishes of all
kinds of grains, greens, meats ; also oily, sweet, and spicy dishes. Every
day such dishes arc prepared as the nobles can scarcely command at their
feasts, from which you may infer how exquisite the dishes are which are
prepared for his 1\'lajesty.
In the beginning of the year the Sub-treasurers make out an annual
estimate, and receive the amount; the money bags and the door of the
store-house being sealed with the seals of the Mir Bakii1cal and the writer;
and every month a corrert statenwnt of the d11ily expcnrliture is drawn up,
the receipt for whieh is scaled by the same two officers, when it is entered
under the hear! of the expenditure. At the beginning of every quarter,
the Di1ciin-1: lmy1illlt
anrl the Mir Bahil!'al, collect whatever they think
will be necessary; e.g. Sukhdiis rice from Bhar:-1ij,:1 Dmzira rice from
Gw:iliar, Jin)t:n rice from H:ijt\ri aJH! Nimlah, yhi from
watPr-fowls, and certain vegetables from Kashmir. Patterns
arc always hpt. The sheep, goats, bcrbcrirs,
etc., are
fatterwd hy the cook:1 ; fowls are never kept kss than a rnouth. The
6laughter-hon>:c is without the eity or the camp. in the ncighbonrhood of
rivers and tanks, where the meat is washed, when it is sent to the kitchen
in sn.c:ks sealrel by the cooks. There it is again washed, and thrown into
the pots. The water-carriers pour the water out of their leather bags
into earthen vesseb, the mouths of which are covered with pieces of doth,
and scaled up; aud the watt>r is ldt to settle bdore it is used. A pbcc is
also tole! oii as a kitcht'n garden, that thNe may be a continual supply of
fresh greens. The Mir Bakrilfal and the writer determine the price of
every eatahlr, whirh hecnmt'K a fixed rule : and they sign the day-book,
the est.inmtes, the rerripts for the liHt of wagrs of the
etc., and watch evrry tra ion. Bad idle talhrs, unknown
persons are nrver rmployt'd : no one is entertained without a personal
securit.y, nor iK acquaintance sufficient.
The victuals are up in of gold and silver, stone and
earthenwarr': wmr of thr dishes being in ehargc of each of the Sub-
I' Fasl.-P.]
Sup<rintrndent of the stores, workshops. etc.
I' lhhr:-nch.- B. I
f' Q<i: T. goose not duck.-P.l
[' Appnrently the Barbary goat.-P.]
[' Qiiz T. goose.-P.]
Bakiiwals. During the time of cooking. and when the victuals are
out, an awning and ktpt away. Th<' cooks tuck tn
their and th, hPms of thtlr garnHnts. nn<l hold tlwir hands befor
their mouths a!Hllwscs when thL food is tahn out: the t'Ook nnd tl '
B11kiilcal taste it. aft,r 11ltith it is II\ tht Jlir 11akiiwal,
then put into the ThP gold and disiHs nn tied up in rf/
cloths, ant! thw"' of ,nppPr and ,h1na Ill 11lut Tht Mir Bak1iwa
attachts his and on it tltt nanws of th ront,ntH, whilst
clerk of the pantr:> writes out on a 'htt't of papr n Ji,t nf all veHsels tu
dishPs, whi!'h hP "'ntis in,lth-. witlt tho sPalof thl' .1/ir llllkoill'al, that non
oft hP ma\' h .. changPd. Tht dtshts an carriPd hy till' /Jakciwals
tin cooks. and
e otlll'r stnant,, and nl<l<'tl>tanrs niH! follow
to pre\'Pnt peoplo. m appro:l<'hlng tht'lll. Th" of the pantr'
S<'tHl at thP sn nw t inw .. hag' mnt a11ting t lw '"'alof tlw llllkiill'al,

kiuds of lon:Ld, "luttrs ot piJ,d up, and stnall :-lands eontuinin:
platrs of pil'klts. fr"'h gingor. hnii'H, and varto11' gn'<'JIH. The
of thl' paLtcl' again ta,te thl' food, 1111' tal>lo cloth on tlw grnum!
and arrang the dic;hps; and \l'hPn aft or :-.onu t lltlf' I'OJri:
ntell<'l'S to dill!'. t!tl' tah!P t-1'1'\':tnb stf "PI""''" htnt 111 att .. ndaiH't'; firHt
thl' 'han of tlw derwishl'' i, put apart, ":tj,fr <'OIIIIIH'nl'CH will
milk or l'ur<k .\ft,.r hl' has dtnl'd. Ill' hint:-.olf in pmyt>r. Tlu
J!ir /lakrimtlts ah-.:1;-s in at!l'tHI:llH''' Th,. dt.,],,.s an takl'll away accord'
111g to tlt< ahon li-t. f'omr Yictuals :d."' ko-pt half fl'ady, Hhould
he callo-d for.
ThP l'llJIIH'f u!Ptbils are fllllH'tl twirP a llllllllh: thosl' of the prineeH
de., once: 1\ltatl'wr is hrokl'n is givPn to till' who makP ne\\
onrs. '
Tlwrr tnany tlishrs. but thl' drsniptiort is dilliult. I shall give
some particulars. Covkl'd viduals rrt:tl' lw arrangd undor three heads,
first, tmch in which tl!ltillat is wPd, call<'d now-a secondly,
such in which ml'at ricr. ell'., ar" 11:-Pd ; tlurdly, meatH with 1:1pices.
I shall gin> ten recipPs of each kind.
First. 1. Zard hirinj: ]() s. of rice: :; s. of sugareandy; s. of ghi;
raisim, almmHis, and piHtachios, 1 s. of eaC'h ; l s. of salt ; of fresh
ginger; q diims saffron, ri!INrJiils of einnamon. This will make fo\U
ordinary diRhes. Some make this dish with fewer spiceR, and even without
lny: and instead of without meat anrl they prepare it also with
}eat and salt. 2. lilwshkn: 10 s. rice; s. salt; hut it is made in different
!IJS. ThiH willlikowisc giYc fonr dishes. One maunrl of Dndra paddy
reldR 2fi s. of rice, of whit'h 17 scrs make a full pot; jinjin rice yields
3. J(hichri: Hicc,miinydiil,
andghi:is.ofc:wh; this
,ivesscvcndishes. 1. 8hirbirinj: lOs. mille 1 s. rice; ls. sugarcandy;
d. salt; this gives five fttll dishes. :i. 'l'/,illi: 10 uf wheat, ground, of
hich one-thin! will he lost; half of that quantity of ghi; 10 mi:"l'i/s of
lppcr; 4 m. cinn:unon; 111. rlo\'t'S anrl cardamums; 8. salt; SOJUC
1drl milk aml sweetmeats: this givrs four di:;hcs. (i, Chikhi: 10 8. of
m:uk into a pa>J<, anrl washt>d tllltt is rcdu,t>rl to :l s. of 1\ne
,Jastc. '!'his is mixl'd with spies, and dre:;:.;ccl 11ith Yarious kinds of nll'at.
, s. ghi; 1 " onions; sa limn, f':trdmuJns, nut! dove,;, of raeh;
:nnamon, round pepp<'r, an<l r:oriandn :;,ed, .l d. of eat'lt : frP:-dt
. alt :l d. of e:teh: this gil'l'o twn dishl's: sonte :tdd Inn<' jute!'. 7. IJtidlll-
10 s.; q s. ghi: ;):/s. onions: l s. ging<'r anrllintc jttiec; peppn
.mrl eoriander sPed, G 111. of rw.h , do\'1'', l'a.rdanJutns, anrl a"af<l'lida,
.each m. This gi\'l'o six \lisl]('s. K. l'rtlu'l: For ten sr'To< of d:\1 of \'f'tdl('s
:(or gram, or skinJtrd J.ntils, dr.) take :l\ s. g!ti; l s. of salt and fresh
ginger; :l m. uunJtnsePd; llm. assafutida: this yiehb fiftePn <lishes.
't iH mostly eaten with 1{/wshka. !J. S<i.'J : It is nmdc of spinaeh, and
.1thcr greens, ant! is one of the most pltas:mt llishts. 10 s. spinach,
fennel, ete., ll s. ghi; l s. onions: l s. fnsh gingrr: ;,l111. of Jll'Jllll'l';
l m. of c:mlamnms anrl doves; this gives Hix dishes. 10. Ualirii:
Flour, sugarcanrly, ghi, 10 s. of raf'h, which will give fifteen rlishes; it iii
eaten ill various ways.
Thrrc arc also various kinds of sng:trerl fruits, anrl rlrinks, which 1
cannot here de,;erihe.
Secondly, l. IJalllili: 10 8. rice; 7 s. meat; :q s. ghi; l s. gram
skinned; 2 s. onion-;; s. salt; .l s. fresh ginger; l'innatnon, round peppl'r,
of l d. ; eanbmums and clons. of some add
and raisins: this gives dislws. lJu:dbiry<in. 10 s. rice,
s. ghi; 10 s. meat.; l s. salt: this giws Jiyc dishes. :l. Q'ima
Hice and meat as in the pnct,ling; I 8. ghi; 1 s. peeled gram; 2 s.
onions; R. 18. fresh gingrr, anrl ]ll'ppcr; cnmin,;ccd, carda-
. mums and doves, l d. of each: this gil'l'R liYc dil'hrs. 8hulla: 10 .1.
'ilneat, s. rice; :l s. ghi; l s. gram; s. onions; s. salt; l s. fresh
All .<plit po,;, pulse, knt1l<, ntches, c!<'., ore called rl<ii.-P.]
I' /lridn1jrin i the or -P.J
[' Qim11 is pounded (or mmcod) mrat. -P.]
gmger; 2 d. garlic. and rollntl pt'ppt'r. cinnamon,
l d. of each : t hi,; giYt'" ,j:-,: t!l,ht'" . Jiu,,lllii: 10 11\l'!l( ; :1 s. Hour;
q s. ghi; I s. gram; 11 s. nncgar; I s. :-:ugarcaudy; oniPn:<,
turnil'' 'J'Ill:wlt. ft'lll\1'1. g1ngt'l". \ s of t'.lrh: "dTron, <'ln\"t's, tnnl\
mums, t"lll\ltil"'''d. I rl. of !':tell : lllllall\1111; 111. 1"11111\d pt'l'l"'r:
tills gi\"t'> ll\t'he di:-:lwo. li (/iu,a Slnlr/,1. Ills. 11\l':tt; Is. rlct';
ghi; 1 s. gram :111d tilt' n,t :h 111 tht 8hrrllrr: till, gilt'.' It'll full di.>ht,;.
7. !lurlm : Ills. 11\t',\1 .. , . . t"lll,htd 11 111':11 . s. glti. s. 'lilt ; :! d.
Clllllal\1011: till, gilt'' til,. di,ht:.;. Ji,,,ft/, Ill.<. 1111'.11 : ;, s. l"I"IIShtd
1\hPat; :\.,. ghi; Is. gL\11\. \ s. :.;alt. I)' ni!IIIIIS; s. gingPr: I d.
ei1111:1111o11: :.;;llltt>n. clnlt'' t"l\11\\ll't't'd, of t:uh: this
g11 I'> li 1 ,. d 1'!"'' //,{; 111 : Tl11 lttt',\ t. 11 "' <1 111. , and 'a 11"rnn.
as in th Is. glti: llilllll' t",llllll'. 'lill.lth. ltnn-1. \ s. of
1';\l"h: thi,; gin, It'll t],,IJ,., Iii (,lllli/,, I\ ltich tht 1"'"1'11' of lli11d Pall
Thh 1, lll,'dt 111 "'l<'l:tl 11,1\o Ill.<. 1111'.!1, Is lint lltl\11";
:2 s. ghi; I' 111111111'' \ ' r, . ,h ,!!lllgl'l' : S, ,,dt ' 1"'1'1"1" and ('OI'i:tn
dtr ,.., . .j: c:\l'd:illllllll'. t'lllllill"''''l. clolt'' I rl . .,f .wh: \>of .111/llli'l'/
Tin> raul"' c""];,d 111 l\1<'111\ dil),.,,.ll( 11<11' .. tnd gilt'.' f11ll ,j,,h,s.
Tlurdl!f. I. Ji,l'lf<lo. F11r .t 11h11lt /!a,Junalldl s. :.;a]t. Is.
ghi; :! 111 ,,dTron. l'ltllt'.s. \1"\1\11'1'. l"llllllll"'''rl: 11 '' lli:trlt 111 \':llitlll' \lays.
:l. l'a/.1,111
. for Ills lllt',il. takt Is o1111111:.;, a11d
, s. ,t\t. :1. l'ul1111!:
A'<'}l 1:< ".drlttltn \\:tll'r till all t lw """' o111'' 111l 11 '" t 111'11 prt'par.d
ltkt> !fl/l.-!1/il. or :Ill! utlll'r \1.11": Lut a l:tlldt. til' a k1d. '' 1111111' j>l'l'fl'r:tll!t-.
1. J\,(/11{/, l:i of lal'lou' ki111b Ills 11\1'.11. s !!l1i. c:tlt. fn-h gingPr,
Oillllll>', \ s of ::uh: l'llllllil'l't'd, '""riandtr "''''!. i"'l'i"'r. l':lld:IIIJIIIIIH,
dolt'>, d. of t:uh. :'1 .. ll<t"lilil/111/l '!'Itt\ takt all till' !Htllt'>\ ont of a
fm1 I through
ntt-k, I i11 f1111 I Jl'lll.iilllllg 11 !tolt: i IIIIIH't'd nwat;
s. gl1i; .1 Pf.!f.!''. l s onions. IO 111 torl:lltdtr, lll111. fn,h g1ngl'r;
f1 111. :-all; :1111. round l"'jljl"l"; 111. ,,,Ill"" It i:- I''"J'.ind aH tlw pre-
crling. li. IJIIJII.'f'l:'t: It I' ll!l'al t I tal '" llliddling fat . s. ghi; :l
onion,;; \ s. :-all : s. fn,h P''l'l"'' . t'111111il't't'd, t'flll:llttlr H'Pd, l':trtla-
llllllll>', t'loi'P."i. l d. of P:l<'h: :.! d P''i'l"'r. till, 11111 I!''" li1" dl.'htH. 7.
:.;itt'<p: IO s lllt':il that i:; lltiddling fat , , .. gl1i; s. gram;
.1- s. ging<'r; I d. rn11nd I"'Jll"'r, 'l"l't':<. l'ard:lllllllltK, coriatl 4
dl'r sercl,:! d. of (':ll'h: this 11 ill !!11'1' :-el'f'll di,Jw:-. f11ll. It j, abo m:ult; of
fmd awl ti:<h. H. /Jalllp>tkht: a IO s. nwat: :.! s. f.!hi, l s. t 1ionH; II m.
fresh ginger; 10 111. pepper ; :! d. l'iol'ts : :l rl. :). (,lrtliy!f :
l'n!Jini 1M a ura>y "' hroth -I'.)
l>o<"'! tl"' moan frll"d "!I

JJam-pulht mcan'i cookmg 'ilo'r'.lj 111 a \r':-."'el "1th Jlli l1d rln'wd by JHlKlf. P.]
10 s. meat; 2 s. ghi; 1 s. onions; 2 d. pepper; cloves, cardamums, 1 d.
each ; k s. salt : this will give eight dishes. In preparing qaliya, the
meat is minced and the gravy rather thick, in opposition to the muf.anjana.
Here in Hind they prepare it in various ways. 10. Malffhiiha: 10 s.
meat; 10 s. curds; 1 s. ghi; 1 s. onions; is. ginger; 5 d. cloves:
this will give ten dishes.
in 25.
This belongs, properly speaking, to the preceding chapter. Bread is
made in tho pantry. There is a large kind,
baked in an oven, made of
10 s. flour; 5 s. milk; q s. ghi; l s. H(tlt. They make also smaller ones.
The thin kind iK baked on an iron plate. One ser will give fifteen, or even
more. There are various ways of making it ; one kind is called chapii.t'i,
which is sometimes made of khushkn; it tastes very well when served
hot. For the bread used at court, one man of wheat is made to yield { m.
of fine flour; 2 s. coamely pounded flour; and the rest bran; if this degree
of fmeness be not required, the proportions are altered.
Tim DAYS OF AIJSTINENCE. (81ijiyrina.)
His Majesty cares very little for meat, and often expresses himself to
that effect. lt is indeed from ignorance an<l cruelty that, although various
kinds of food are obtainable, men arc bent upon injuring living creatures,
and lending a ready hand in killing and eating them; none secmH to have
an eye for the beauty inherent in the prevention of cruelty, but makes
himself a tomb for If his Majesty had not the burden of the
world on his shoulders, he would at onre totally abstain from meat; and
now it is his intention to quit it by degrel:'s, conforming, however, a little
to the spirit of the agr. His abstained from meat for some time
on Ji'ridays, and then on Rnndays; now on the first day of every solar
mont.h, on Sundays, on solar and lunar eclipses, on days between two
fasts, on the Mondays of the month of Hajab
on the feast-day of every
Probably n lnrgc tla.t cnko.--l'.J
Livinb aeronhng to the manners of the Sit !is.
Akbar was born on the tilth of Rajah A. H. 9-!9, a Sunday. This
to the 15th October, 1542. The Mondavs of the month of RaJah were observed as
fasts, the Sundays had heM inciuded in the list of fast days. The members
of the Divine Faith likewise during the month of their birth.
'solar month, during the whole month of Farrmrclin,
and during the
month in which his was born, viz. tlw month of Abiin. Again,
when the number of fast of the month of .-li><itr had brromc N]URI
to the number of ytars his had li ntl. tlays of t ht> month
of A::_ar also were kept as fasts. At pnscnt tht fast l'Xtl'IHb O\'l'I the
whole month. Thesr fast days. hnwPwr, from pious motins, an annually
increased by at le;\,t five tbys. fasts fall togPtiHr, tlwy ketp the
longrr one, and transfer th1 smalltr h_1 di,tnlmting rts day.-: onr other
months. \\'htncnr long fasb art' l'tHlt>d. t hP tin.t dishts of llll'nt como
<lressed from thr apart mPnts of .\lak;ini. next front t!H other
brgums, the princrs, and thP
In this dqmrtnwnt nohJ,s, al11ulls. and othPr rnilitary, arc Plll)lloyrtl.
The pay of a foot sohlicr mrics froru 100 to diims.
The of roursl' vary, as onnmrchPs, or during the and for
other reasons: hut 1 shall give llt'n' the anragP price's for the information
of futun
. I. The SJ!rtii!J harvtsl .
Wheat, JWr 1111111 u d.
fllowPr ,ppt] (ntrt har1111H),
K:-thul gram, do. lti d. do. H d.
H\aC"k gram, t!o. H d. Fenugrcek, do.
Lcntib, clo. d. l'caH,
lhrle:v, do. H d. "u,tard sctd. do !:! d.
l\1 illet, do. li d.'tl, do. 7 d.
Linseed, per 111111 10 d.
fl. The autwm1al hanrst.
Mushl.:in, paddy p<'r man 110 rl. .Jinjin ricP, do. FlO d .
Siida paddy, do. 100 d. Dakah (?) ri<'P, do.
!)() d.
Sukhdiis riel', do. 100 d. Zirhi ri<e, do. 40 d.
rice, do. d. Htt1 hi rier, do. 20 d.
Siimzira rice, do. !lO d. Mii11g (blaC"k gram) do. IR d.
Shakarchini rice, do. !JO d. lt!tlsh (a kind of vet Ph) per
Dewzira rice, do. 90 d. man . Hi d.
I :or Marrh nncl I?-- Pj; nrle the li"t A 'i" of the thircl
book; A ban rorreponch to Odober-Xovember.
[' Mashang or mttRhang, a pea ?-l'.J
Mo(h (a kind of, Lahdara, do 8
prr rnrm Ll d. J(odram, do. 7
White H\'Hilrnr, tlo .. 20 d. Kiir I, clo. 7
Blaek HeH:tnu, 1lo. lU d. Slumul@ (Hind. Sttll'ank),
f,ohiyr7 (a kind oflwan), do. 12 d. do.
.!ull'iiri (a kind of millet), (/!il (Hincl. Kanyni), do .. 8
do. 10 d. :\lilld (!find. china), do .. 8
M iill!f rlril, per num . 18 d. D1il of prr man
Nu@1id diil, do. rl. .l{u/!1 d,i/, do. 12
Wheat flom, per J/1111! 22 d. N 11!.-lnl,f flour, ]WI' IIIII/! 22
Do. eoarne, do. lfi d. Harley f!om, do. ll
C'. l'eyl'fa7Jlf's.
FrmH'I, per 1111111 10 d. per scr
Hpinaeh, do. Iii d. Upalltik, (from 1\a:<hlllir)
do. 10 d. do.
d. .!it It, do.
Garlic, do. 10 d. <linger (green), do.
.... ,
TumipH, do. d. I'o,l, do.
C'ahlmge, per Sl'l'
I d. Kach nrir buds, do.
/\au kl!l'hlul, f 1'0111 1\:tslt- ('ftt/kii (HOITl'l), do ..
111ir, do d. Batlunt, do.
/JIIi,lll'l'r'/1/, 2 d. Ratsl/1.-ii, do. I
Shwfiirflll (11 ild do. :I d. ( 'luwlri .i, do.
n. /,il'lll!f U/!111111/s 1111d 1111'1!/S.
I lii,Jnnanrli HhPPp, IH'r hmd R. :\Tnt ton. pl't' 1111111
.\f!ili:ln HIH'Pp,IKt kind. do. R. r:o:d, do. .i I
Do., kind. do ..
UerKP, prr hmd
Do .. :\nl kind. do. 1\ R. llurk p<r hl'lld I
do. qH. TII!JIIIf(/ri

do. :20
llinduKtiini HIH'l'Jl, do.
l.t, R.
Ku/any (nam),
1\arh:tri goat. IHt. kind, do. I fl. (a kind of
Do., kind. do ..
I' 'l'rol rnd1h. not t url\lp. I'.J
I' Or" lid l"'"mp' I'.J
1 R.
I' 7'u!Jl!_dari lluhnm P.l
[" 1\.lllan!JIR the Common CrarH' or'' l'oolan
d .
I' l'or c'larz. In Bnlud11stnn thl' 1s the nnmr of the Huhnra, lout rlsr\\hrre of
the Flonen n. --I'.J
lhnriij ('k partridwl.
pPr hmd :l d.
(partndg,). do. d.
H ,,,f,nw, do. d.
( :h;, jl<'f 11/11/l
Od, do.
\ldk, do.
( do.
ill-, d
"'' d.
:,!.-. d.
1:-: d
l.r'wah:' do. d.
fir I/ 1/'ll/111/. l,.'l Ollt' t'lll'lt'\1).
do. :!tl d.
,{.., d.
Jt,lind :-;11gar. st'l'
\\ hilt '11;..:.11 t.1nd1, do
\\ liilt -'11!,!.11', 1<'1' 11"111
!;I'll\\ II "-li!,!.U. dt
ti d.
: J d.
1:!:-i ri.
.-Jti d.
F. s
Ji,., ..
!-i.t!Tron. l"'r srT
IIIII d. Ttllllil'lll illllld. llflidl)
( lolt,.;, do.
(',mi:tllll!IW<, do.
l(onnd l'"I'P<'I', do.
Long pqpr, do.
lln gingr. do.
Fn.;h do., do.
('llllllnH't'tl, do.
. \ni't't'd. j>t'l' .<r'/"
So11r II'''"' I"'" .<a
L<'nloll-JIIIt't'. do.
\\'111<' 1 ""'gar
\ lllt'if.ll'. do
1'1< kl<d 1/,,hfrU!//"il, do.
111 od, do.
IJo. Ill l'ill<')-!.11'. do.
LPnlln.; Ill od, do.
Du. in 1'1111')!:11'. do.
l>o. in ,alt, do.
Do. inl<'lliOnJIIl<'<', do.
!'i .. klrd gingN
Adarsluikh, do.
Turnips in viwgar, do.
L'irklt>tl l':t rrot s. dn.
1;11 ,f.
:,:_! rl.
I I d.
Iii d.
)I tf.
. , d .
I d
li d
.) 11.
. ) d.
" d
) d.
) d.
) d
) d.
) d.
:! d.
I 'orl.lll< !.- r "'''d. do
,<..;"I' t!u I,-; 11 1 ! ll111 d. I." f, IIIII/; I.
\ .. .. lith, ""
:-;1\t't'l lt'llllt-1. d ..
('1111\.11111111. do
:-':tl I . 1 ,, r li/11/1
l'it ltdlllltllll, j.t'\ '<I
llo "1'1'1''' du
!lu. 'lllllll't"<. du
!) .. !!"'''' ""
I lo Oil IIIII. do
I )u lnirlulj<lil I'C'!! jhnt I.
I )., I .II'"''' :I lid )JII/iff/1f1f11. I
l>o /,
I l11. I"'"'''"'' do.
I Jo. w!IIJ)/11/ rllol'.'l'
rad u.h)
l>o. hi(// 111u/s (<'a ppa fl'),
I the ('hukor partndg( I' J
I' The ('11mmon ()uad. I' I
i' The H<wk llush-<Jnad. 1'.]
t .K1shmrsh "'ultana 111111lfl?']'l larl!,l' k r:WJIJ'' }']
111 d.
:\ d.
I I, d.
) d.
II I d .
\ti d.
" d
d .
:-: d.
:! d.
Pickled karil berries, per ser
Do. suran, do.
Do. mustard
Do. tori (a kind of cu-
t d.
l d.
i d.
Do. cucumbers, do.
Do. biidrang,
(gourd) do.
Do. lcachalii, do.
Do. radishes, do.
A'Zn 28.
t d.
i d.
t d.
t d.
His Majesty looks upon fruits as one of the greatest gifts of the
Creator, and pap much attention to them. The horticulturists of iri'm and
Tiiriin have, therefore, settled here, and the cultivation of trees is in a
flourishing state. Melons and grapes have become very plentiful and
excellent; and water-melons, peaches, almoJHl8, pistachios, pomegranates,
etc., arc cverywlwre to he fonml. Ever since the conquest of Kabul,
Qandahi'lf, and Ka:;hmir, loads of fruit are imported ; throughout the
whole year the stores of the dPalers arc full, and the biiziirs \Vl'll supplied.
Muskmelons eomc in Kl':tson, in Hindi'lstiin, in the month of Pancard'in
(Febnuny -:'vlarch),
and are plenty in Frd"ibihish (:\larch-A pril).
are delicious, trml<'f, opening, sweet smelling, especially the kinds called
niishp"il'i, 1)(//Jiishayk!._i, alcha, barg-i nay, diid-i chiriiylt, etc. They
continue in for two monthH longer. J n the bcginningof Shari war
tlwy come from Kashmir, and before they arc out of HeaHon
plenty arc brought from Kiihul; during the month of Ji;ar (Novrmbcr),
they arc imported by the caravans from Badah_hshiin, and continue to
be had during Day (llcccmbN).
When they arc in season in Ziibulist;\n,
good ones also are obtainable in the Panjiih; and in Bhakkar and its
vieinity they arc pkntiful in seaHon, except during the forty cold days
of wintrr. Various kinds of grapes are here to he had from L(hurdiid
to ..!nwrdrid (.July),' whilst the markets are stocked with Kashmir
grapes during 8hahriuar.
Eight sers of grapes sell in Kashmir for one
diim, and the cost of the transport is two rupees per man. The Kashmiris
bring them on their backs in conical baskets, which look very curious.
llridrn11g, not gourd. Perhaps a citron.-P.]
[' Marrh-A pn!.--P.]
[' April-May. -1'.1
(' Novemher-December.-P.]
[' December-January.-P.]
From Mihr (September) 1 till Urdibiltist
grapes come from Kabul,
together with cherries,
which his Majesty calls sluiluilii, seedless pome-
granates, apples, pears, quinceR, guavas, peacheR, apricots, gird<iliis, and
iililchas, etc., many of which fruits grow in Hindilstiin. From Samar-
qand even they bring melons, pearR, and apples.
Whenever his Majesty wishes to take wine, opium, or kiihuir (he calls
the latter sabras), the servants in charge place before him stands of fruits;
he eats a little, but most is distributed. The fruits are marked according
to their degree of excellence: melons of the first quality arc marked with
a line drawn round the top; those of the second, with two lims; and
so on.
In this department A?/(ulls, and other soldirrs arc em-
ployed ; the pay of a foot sohlier varirH from HO to 100 d.
The following tablrs contain particulars rrganling the names, srasons,
taste, and prices of various fruits.
A. 1'1/riin"i Fruits.
A rhang melons, 1st
quality, at R.
Do., 2nd and 3rd do., at 1 to R.
Kiibulmelons, lst do., at 1 to 1 R.
Do., 2nd do., at to 1 R.
Do., 3rd do., at to lR.
Samarqand apple:;, 7 to
Iii for R.
Quinces, 10 to :30 for R.
Pomegranates, per man,
to Hi R.
Guavas, 10 to 100 for R.
Kabul and European
apples, 5 to 10 for R.
Kashmir grapes, per man 108 d.
Dates, per ser 10 d.
Raisins (kishmish), do. 9 d.
Abjosh (large raisins), do. 9 d.
PlumR, do.
1\lni.biin'i (dried aprir:o!H),
per ser
Qandahar dry grapes, do.
Figs, per scr .
Munrvwr, do.
J uj nbeH, do. .
Almonds, without the
shell, do.
Do., with do., do
PistachioH, do., do ..
Chd!JI' llza
nuts, per ser
Sinjid (jujubes), do.
Pistachios, without Hhell,
.Jauz (nuts), do.
Filberts, do ..
nuts, do.
H d.
8 d.
7 J.
7 d.
Gi d.
28 d.
II d.
9 d.
8 d.
6 d.
4k d .
3 d.
' The original has a word kilas, which is not to be founrl in our dictiOnarieR. It
may be cerasus. [Gilas is the common name in Peria and on Kahmlr for the white
.sweet cherry.-P.]
A town in Bada Kbhiin.
[ Edible seed of Gerardiana.-P.]
[ Girdgiin is properly the walnut.-P.]
B. The sueet fruits of Hindustan.
Mangoes, per hundred, up 1'endii, do.
to 10 d. Us ira
Pine-apples, one for 4 d. Dates, JlCf scr
two for 1 d. Ang1lhal
Sugarcanes, two for d. Delii, do.
.Jaekfruits, two for d. Oiila
Plantains, do. d. Blwlsarl, per sa
/Jcr, lH'r ser 2 d. 1'arkul, two for
l'onlegranatcs, per '1111!11, Panifjr'ila, per ser
80 to 100 d. Lahsaura, do.
two for d. (hutibh I, J o
Figs, per ser . d. I\arahri
Mulberry, Jo. 2 d. Tarii
one for . d. Banga, two for
prr man 10 d. Oiilar,
per scr
Water-melons, one :l to 10 d. l'illi, do.
Khirnl, per scr 1 d. Baraula
1lf alwwii, do. 1 d. Piylir, do.
/Jcphal, do. 1 d.
* Thr ongJIHll does not rurntwn the pnrC'.
2 d.
4 d.
d .
4 d.
2 d.
! d.
4 d.
2 d.
4 d.
l\lulbcrriL'S and !fillars are in s<'ason during spring; pine-apples,
oranges, sugarcane, bcrs, iislriis, blwlsarls, fllll!ihhls, dL:p!zals <lming ltinter;
jaekfruits, tarkuls, JigH, melonR, lahsauras, karahrls, uwhw('(/s, tcndlis,
Jliliis, /}(lrmlias, during sWI!IIICf; a1Hl mangoes, pln.ntainH, dates, rlcliis,
!Jiilas, pnmLgranates, gmwa8, water-melons, paniyiilas, bangas, khimis,
piylirs, during the rains.
Coco-nuts, one for
Dry Dates, per scr .
Walnuts, do.
Chirauwhi, do.
n. Dried Fruits.
'l d.
ti d.
R d.
l d.
Makhrill7, per ser
Silp!J!iri, do .
Kaulyalla, do.
4 d.
8 d.
Dates, walnuts, chiraunrhis, and kaulgallas are in seasons during
summer, and coco-nutH, makhr'imls, and supy1iiis, during uinter.
I' "''"''" 'I I
[' .l lllllid but 111 Persia and \orally too in India, a pear.-P.]
Swl<iphal. The <ustnrdnpp\e '" .il<iphal.-P. I The ongmalsays that custard
apples arc to be had throughout the whole year. This seems a mistake of the Mi-lS.
'l'hf' rrmark !hf' nr:\t fnnt (melons).
[' Oular w1
IJ. rcgt"tablcs.
Pallt'al, prr scr
:! d. 1\achiilti, jit'l' .<t>r
2 d.

d. ('hachlmlii, do.
2 d.
Riidi11jiin, Jll'l' sa
j I,
d. Sti/11/1, do. d.
Tum,/, do. q d. <'arrot:4, do.
K!llu!liri, du. q d. Stllyhlil'tl, do.2 :I d.
se-111!, do. q
d. S1ilak. do.
:l d.
l'c!h, do. q d. l'uuliilti, do. :l d.
H.arlla, do. I\ d.
ll.aktira, do. q d.
1\asn 1i, do. :l d.
8/im11s nnd styalt., an Ill '<';t.,on during S/11111111'/': f!altmls, gourdH,
1111'1/.ls, kuhiiltis, t>lllu-h'illil<is, kandtiJis, -'<'Ill!.<, f!<'lits, karl/a.,, kaktims, nn<l
8111!/hrlras dunng thP !'<1111-': and t':lfrot,;, .<<iluks. l'indiil1is, and kascnis,
d11ring tl'i/111'1'. lili'llltjlt/ls :m to l1ad throughout the \'l':tr.
II'. Sot//' Fr11ils.
LiiJH'S,jotll' up to d.
Ohe I'
.lmallwt, do. d. f!tjlltlrii. om for
Galyul. t\\O up to d. .fll'lii,aJH'l' SI'J'
Limes and 1i11'la> are to lw lm<l Ill SUIIlllH'r, the others
F . Fmits SOIJII'tl'hrrl lll'id.
. lmbili, prr scr :l d. /\ad, four up to
lJ<IIihal, OIH' for d. l\iillkti .
1\rwlrllk, fom up I o d. l'rikar, ]H'r sa
two up to d. 1\1(1'1/lt, OIIC for
.\lount :tin grapes
l.rd!lt I rii
.liilllrl/1, ]H'r scr d. .!a11hhlri, five up to
i'htllsa, do q
Karaundri, 1lo. d.
* The ong1nal dor.':l not mrntion th(' prH'I'.
d .
/(amraks and 11iiranyis,
are in ll'i1111'f; mJd,ills, '"llllw.!s,
rnmntai n-gm phiilsas, lolJh I nis, d mi ng ,1'11 111/l!ff ; and ko its, pri kras,
kornr7s,jr7mans, karaunrltis,]ltrmiJhills, the rr1i11s.
'l'he frnitH of Hin(lustan are Pit her H\I'Cd, or suha('id, or ra!'h ki!l(l
is numerous. Home fruits also taste wrll 11hcn dry; othrn; ar; above
are used when !'ookcd. I shall now a few detail,.
[1 1\wlii pumpk111.- P.!
I' Tlw \\aler-nut. I'.J
The cmhlw myrohalan'-' P.]
[' The orange With clu<r sJ,Jn.
The Mangoe: The Persians call this fruit Nag]J_wk, as appears from a.
verse of Khusraw.l This fruit is unrivalled in colour, smell, and taste ;
and some of the gourmets of Tilriin and Iran place it above muskmelons
and grapes. In shape it resembles an apricot, or a quince, or a pear, or a
melon, and weighs even one ser and upwards. There are green, yellow,
red, variegated, sweet, and subacid mangoes. The tree looks well,
especially when young; it is larger than a walnnt-tree, and its leaves
resemble those of the willow, hut are larger. The new leaves appear
soon after the fall of the old ones in autumn, and look green and yellow,
orange, peach-coloured, and bright red. The flower, which opens in spring,
resembles t!Uit of the vine, has a good smell, and looks very curious.
About a month after the leaves have made their appearance, the fruit is
sour, and is used for preserves and pickles. It improves the taste of
qalyas (p. G !), as long as the stone has not hecome hard. If a fruit gets
injured whilHt on the tree, its good smell will increase. Such mangoes
arc 'L'hc fruit is genemlly takrn down when unripe, and
kept in a particular BmnnN. l\langocR ripened in thiH manner are much
finer. They moHtly comml'nec to ripen during summer, and arc fit to be
eatPn during the minH ; otherH commence in the rainy season, and are
ripe in the beginning of winter; the latter are called Bluuliyya. Some
trees bloom a!Hl yield fmit the whole year; but this is rare.
eommerwe to ripen, ;dthough they look umipc; they must be quickly
takPn down, e!He the sweetnc's \l'lHll<l produce worms. Mangoes arc to
be found everywhere in India, espcui;dly in Bengal, Gujriit, 1\I;ilwah,
lih:in<l!'sh, and the Dckhan. They are rarer in the l'anFtb, where their
cultivation lms, however, inerca;;cd, since his .Majt'sty nmde Liihor his
capital. A young trrc \rill hear fruit after four years. They put milk
and trPnele round :1hout the tree, which makes the fruits sweeter. Rome
tree:; yit>hl in one year a rieh ltancst, and lcRs in the next one; others
yield for o1w yPar no frnit at all. When many mangoes arc eaten, digeR-
tion is asHisted hy drinking milk with the kernels of the mangoe stones.
The kernels of old Ht<>IH'R whaeid, and taste well ; when two or three
years old the: arc used as mcdici1w. lf a half-ripe mangoe, together "ith
its stalk to a l0ngth of about two fingNs, be tahn from the tree, and the
broken end of its stalk he closed with warm wax, and kept in butter,
or honey, tlw fruit will retain its taste for two or three months, whilst
the colour will remain C\'Cil for a year.
I' ide the fourth note on p 75 of my text e<htion.
[' Shigarf, beautiful, fine.--!'.]
are also called ka!hal-i safari, or travelling jackfruits,
because young plants, put into a vessel, may be taken on travels and
will yield fruits. In colour and shape t lwy resemble an oblong orange ; '
and in taste and smell, a mangoe. The plant is about a yard long, and
its leaves the shape of a hand. Th<'rdgl'S of the leavrs are like a saw.
The fruit forms at the rnd uf the Htalk and has a few lr:wrs on its top.
When the fruit is plucked, they cut out them, and
put them singly into the gronn<l; they arc the se(dlings. Eaeh plant
bears only once, and one fruit only.
lmvc the colour of saflron, and t lw of <[UimPs. Thry
belong to thr best fruit;; to he had in Thr tne the
lime tree ; its Hower has a weak, hut fine
Sugarcane, which the Persians call Sayshaktrr, is of various kinds;
one speeit's is su tender nn<l w full of juicl', that a <'an maim
it flow out by pec.,.nC it; and it woullllmak to pit'l'l's, if !tot fall. l"ugar-
cane is either soft, or hard. lattPr is u'cd for th<' pnparation of
brown sngarcandy, common sugar, \\hitr, rand.\', ant! rl'litwt! 'ugar, an<!
thus becomes usrful for all kinds of It i, ntlli1;dPd :w follm1s.
Thry put some healthy sugarcane in a cool p!.tec, anll it d;tily with
watrr. Wlll'n the sun entHs thr, of th<',V cut oiY pil'tl's, a.
anrl upwards in length, put them into soft ground, and l'o\'l'l' them
up with earth. The harder the sugarranc is, the dcl']H'I' thPv put it.
Const:mt irrigation is rclptired. Aftl'r Sl'VL'n or <'ight 111ont hs it will
come up.
Sugarcane is alw used for thr, preparation of intoxi<'ating li'luor, but
brown sugar is better for this pnrpo;;e. Tlwrc various ways of pre-
paring it. One way is as follows. They JHlllllll nalllil
bark lllixing it at
the rate of ten sers io one man of wga l'<'anP, and put t h ne t i lilt'S Jnueh
watrr it. Thrn they take largr, jar.', fill tht'm with 111ixtme, and
put them into the ground, with dry hon;<'-dung. From
seven to ten days are l'Cltuircd to produc<' ft>rmPntation. It is a sign of
perfe<.:tion, when it a Hwcet, hut a st ringl'nt. tastl. \\'lwn ltquor
is to Le strong, they again put to the mixtme sonw hro11 n '-IIWtr, and
sometimes even drugs an<l pl'rfumc:;, as atnlH'rgris, catllphor, Pte. They
also let meat dissolve in it. This bcveragr, wh<'ll strained, may be uBcd,
but it is mostly employed for the preparation of arrack.
,Jahiingir in his Jfemoir8 (Tv.zukl Jahnngiri, Ran11l A!)m3ci, p. :J)
that the pine-apples at his tlme came from the harbour towns held by the Portuguese.
[2 K<iwlri.-P.]
[' Wajab, a spnn.-P.]
l' A species of acair, the kikar of the Panjiib.- P.]
They have methods of distilling it ; first, they put the above
liquor into lmtss vessels, in the interior of which a cup is put, as not to
Rhake, nor must the li<ptid flow into it. The vessels arc then covered with
invcrtPrl lids which are fastened with day. After pouring r.old water on
the li<h<, they kindle the fire, changing the watN as often gets warm.
As monas Ute vapom inside reaches the cold lid, it and falls as
arraek into the eup. Srrwuli!J, elose the sante vessrl with an earthen
pot, fastPn!'d in the sarne rnanncr with clay, and iix to it two pipes, the
free ends of whidt \':tdl a jar attached to them, which in cold
water. The vapour t hrongh the pipes will l'ntcr the jars and condense.
Thirdly, they fill an eartlwn wssPl with the a!Jo\c-mtntioned liquor, and
fastrn to it a large SJHHlll with a hollow h:mdlP. The end of the handle
they atta!'h to a pip!'. which leads into a jar. The wssLI is covcml with a
lid, whil'h is lull with !'old w:ttPr. The arra!'k, whrn condensed,
llom.; through spoon into tlw ja,r. distil the arrack t wier, wl1Pn
it is !'ailed l>1ullas/ur, or bumetl. It is \"Pry strong. Tf you wet
your hands \lith it, and hold thcrn ncar tlw fin', the spirit \1 ill burn in
flame:; of dificrrnt colours \\ilhouf, injnring the h:wds. lt is remarkable
that wl1Pil a vt,;sp[ containing arraek is s!'t on fire you !'annot pnt it out
by any means; bnt if yon conr thr I"!'SSt'l, the fire gets cxtingnishe<l
at once.
The ./((1"/.fmit hast hP shap!' of a hl:wk-pudding,
looks greenish, aJHl is
so!ndiiiH'H a yard long, and half a yard broad. \\'hen :mmll, it resembhs
a w:1t!'r-ml'lon: its peP! is full of thorns. It, grows out of the branehes, the
trunk, and the roots. Those that grow below the ground are sweetest.
On opl'ning you :.;pe ronnel e]m;ters, so viscous, that the fmgcrs stic.k
togPtlter, \I hen yon take t hPm out. The tr!'e looks like a 11ut tre<', but is
higg<'r and has larger [paves. The flower, like the fruit, h:ts a
good s11wll. The fruits also t:lktn down \vhen unripe. They then
apply limP, I'll'., whrn the will grt ripP.
ThP 1'/anlaln treP looks straight hke a sprar; the come out of
the trunk thil'k and soft, awll"l'scmble a.nnnsrwn plaited
:;kew, but are
mueh largPr antl withr. Out of thP middk looking like
a :;pindiP, of a lilac :J !'olonr: this is lmd. The fruit ronsistR of a cluster
of 1-it'\'cntv to eighty plan In :;hape the.v small ;
the pt'el i:; ca,.;ily ren1ontl. As are Vl'ry hetL\")', you eannot eat
many. Tlwre are various kinds of plantains. The plant is cwry year
1\ipti !he of a 'herp 'lulft'<l \lith mince and ricr. P.[
I z ... y\ mean
Sfisan the common purple tlag-ir1s.-P.]
cut down, and a stump only is left of it : if this is not done, it will no
longer fruit. The vulgar believe that the plantain tree yitlds
camphor, hut this is wrong; for the camphor trer, aR be herl'afttr
exp:<tined, is a <lifferent tree, although it haR the HlllllC name. Thl.'y
say pr1nl)originatc in plantain trees -another upon which
the li1rht of does not
The Maltiw,i. tree rt'Hemhlts the mangoc tre<'; its wood is uRed for
building purpoH<'s. The fruit, which aiRo called Udaunda, yields an

liquor .
, The Bltolsirl tree i large and handsonw,
thP fruit, has :m orange
colour, and rcs<'nlhlPH the jujuhr.
The Tarl:ul tr<'e, and its fruit, resrmhle the cn<o-nut palm a1Hl its fruit.
When the of :tIll'\\' leaf conus out f a branch, th<'y I'Ut, ofT its <nd
and hang a \'<'o<Hl'l to it. t,l n'I'Pi\'e the out-llowing juicP. The wHsel will
fill twice or tlme tinws a day. The juil'e is <'.alkd liiri; whPn frPsh it
is wlwn it allowt<l to stand for Rome time it turns suhaeitl anti
is incbri:tting.
The Paiii!J!Ila fruit n'sPmhlPs the 1-ardii/ii
and its tr<c the linw tree;
the l,';tves are like thosP of the willow. WhPn unripe th<\ fruit is grpen,
and reel whPn ripe.
The OumhhZ has a strm the branchL'H of which are like r:rcrpPrs; its
leaves and fmib, as those of the kumlr, come from lwlow the root H.
The J'arr'i forms at the root; 1t grows mostly in the mountains, and
weighs a man, more or less, when the creeper is a Far old ; and two, when
two yran; old. It looks like a milbtone. \\'l]('n oldPr it grows larger
according to the same proportion. kavrs nsemhle tll(lHl' of the
water ml'lon.
The 1\IJIIr is like a small grape; hrmmish all< I sweet. The inside of
the kernel is like butter, and is used in the pnpa ration of food ; it is
called C!tiraunfi. Its tree is about a yanl high.
The Cocu-nut is called by the Persians .Jmcz-i Ilindi: the tree resembles
the date tree, hut is larger; its wood, however, looks better, and the leaves
are larger. The tree hears fruit throughout the whole y<'ar ; the fruits
ripen in three months. They are also taken down, when unripe and green,
and kept for some time. Their inside contains a cup full of milk-like juice,
which tastes well, and is very often drunk in summer, mixed with sugar.
When ripe, the fruit looks brown. The juice has now hccome Holid, and
The text has here a few words the meaning of whieh 1 do not understand.
l' Zard<i-lu the ac1d aprirot.-P.]
gets black when mixed with butter; it is sweet and greasy. eaten
with piin-leaves, it makes the tongue soft and fresh. The shell Is used for
spoons, cups, and ij}l_ichaks (a kind of violin). There are nuts having four,
three, two, and one, holes or eyes ; each kind is said to possess certain
ualities the last beinrt considered the best. Another kind is used for
' b \
the preparation of an antidote against poison. The nu!s weigh some-
times twelve sers and upwards. The bark of the tree is used for ropes ;
the large ropes used on ships are made of it.
Dates are called in Hindi Pin-khajiir. The tree has a short stem,
rising little above the ground, and producrs from four to five hundred
The Sftpyiiri, or betel nut, is called in Persian fiifal. The tree is
graceful and slender, like the cypress. The wind often bends it, so that
1ts crown touches the ground ; but it rises up again. There are various
kinds. The fruit when eaten raw tastes somewhat like an almond, but
gets hard when ripe. It is eaten with betel leaves.
The Singhiira is a triangular fruit ; its creeper grows in tanks, and
the fruit is on the surface of the water. It is eaten raw or roasted.
The Srilak grows in tanks under the earth. They go into the water
and dig it up.
The PinrliiW is reared on lattice work, and grows about two yards high.
Its leaf resembles the betel lead ; they dig up the root.
The Kaserii grows in tanks. When the water gets low, they take it
out of the groun<l and eat it, raw or boilc(l.
The Siyiill root long and conical; the plant is a creeper, to whose
root tlw fruit is attached.
The Omnye
has the shape of an egg. One kind is called kiighazi.l
Between the peP! and the fruit is a thin white membrane. The fruit is
juic)> and on_e is to he hart throughout the whole year.
. hke a lnnc, and very wur. If you put a steel needle
mto tlus fnut, tlw needle in a short, time will dissolve and a white shell
when put into ih; juiee will soon disappear. '
'l'h.e Kamii rl'sl'rn_hles an apr:le: and a wears after the plant has reached
the tlmd yPar. At hrst the fnut rs grcer1
r " 1 J 1 t b'tt
' ' " ' oll( a so somew !a l er,
but turns afterwanls wllo1-. and hit.tcr ,,.]
't 1 d t
, . . : ' npe 1 1s ret an swee .
\\hen 1t IS kept lonu. rt, tums rrreen 'tg'iil ']'] t ! I l'k
" . h ' " . 1e ree oo .:s 1 e an orange
tree, but tlH' !raws are somewhat hrot(1er "I 1 th h 1 1'1 ;! 3
, , " H e m s 1 (C nne arrows.
. .Y{iutnj, orangP ?--P.I
[' Linui, June. l\fi,1/w;;_i I< apphcd to" Rmall "
. . .
papci'.-1'.1 ' orccn une 1nth a skm asthmas
Payktin-1 IJ!.,;ki? l'.l
The flower is white, and has four petals and yellow It has a fine
smell, and used for ambergris; hut it is beyond my power to dtscribe the
of the manufacture.
The is, propl'rly spt>aking. a vrgdable, bnt call
it an excellent fruit. :\lir 15husn\\ om of his wr:.;rs, says, "It is
an exeellent fruit like the llom:rof a ganltn, till' fruit inllindusbin."
The eating of thr leaf rrnders the hreath agretnhlt>, and repasts odorous.
It strengthenH the antlmakr:.; tlw hungry and the s:\tisfied
hungry. I shall describe some of the various kindH. l. The ltaf called
Bilahrl is white and shining, and dues not make the tongur harsh and hurd.
It tastes \)('st of all kinds. After it llits bern taken away from the creeper
it turns whitt, "ith some care, after a month, or ewn after twenty
days when greater efTorts arc made. 2. The 1\iika leaf is wlnte with
and full, and has hard veins. \Vhl'n mul'h of it iH l'aten, the tongue
wts hard. 3. The .Jaisniir leaf does uot. gt't, white, and is profitably sold
mixrd with other kinds. i. The Kr1piir'i le:tf is yellowish, hard, and full
of wins, but has a good taste and smrll. G. The 1\azJiirkiint leaf is
yellowish-grel'n, and pungent like pq>pcr; it smells like l':tmphor. You
could not eat more than ten lcav<'H. Jt, is to he had at Banitras ; but
even there it does not tht vein ewry soil. u. The Brtuyla leaf is broad,
full, hard, plushy, hot, and pungrnt.
The cultivation is as follows. l n the month of ('hait (1\Iareh-April),
about New-Year's
time, they take a part of a crPrpt>r four or five fingers
long with Karhauj leaves on it, :tnd put it helow the ground. FTilm
fiftePn to twenty dayH after, according as lt:wts ami knots fonn, a new
nee per will appl'ar from a knot, and as soon as a not hPr knot fon11s, a leaf
will grow up. The crccpem and new leaves form for sewn months, whPn
the plant epascs to grow. No cnt>per has more than thirty IP:tVPH. Ao the
plant grows, they prop it with ea1ws, and eovPr it, on t.lw top all< I the
with wood and so as to rear it up in tlw ,]JadP. Tht> plant requires
continually to he watered, except <luring thl rains. :<onll'tinll's they put
milk, sesame oil and its <lrrgs, etc., about the plant. Tlwre are Keven
londs of known under nine nanws : J. 'l'hP 1\arlumj leaf, which
the.\' stpamtc for "ccdlings and mil i'l'r'i. The new !Paf is called Urulaulrt.
The Nrml'i leaf. :1. The Bah111i ]paf. '1. (.'hltiw leaf. G. Tbe
.ldluuldii leaf. (;, The Agalmiya or /,l'll'iir l<af. 7. The Harlwnj leaf
ibelf. With the exception of the Ua(lauta, the arP tahn away from
the creeper when a month ol<l. The last kind of Ira is eaten hy some;
[' Tho 21st iR New Yrar' IJny.-l'.]
others keep it for seeding : they consider it very excellent, but con-
noisseurs prefer the Peri.
A bundle of 11,000 leaves was formerly called Lahiisa, which name is
now given to a bundle of 14,000. Bundles of 200 are called J)holi; a
lahiisa is made up of (lholis. In winter they turn and arrange the leaves
after four or five days ; in summer every day. From 5 to 25 leaves, and
sometimes more, placed above each other, and displayed in various
ways. They also put some betel nut and kath
on one leaf, and some lime
paste on anothPr, am! roll them up; this is called a bl?'ii. Some put
camphor and musk into it, and tic both leaves with a silk thread. Others
put single leaves on plates, and use them thus. They are also prepared
as a dish.
As I have mentionerl various kinds of food, I shall also say something
on flavours. llmt renders pungent that which is agreeable, bitter that
whil:h is greasy, ami brackish that whiuh has the proper flavour; cold
makes the first acid, the and the third tart.
when afleuting the tongue merely, is called in Arabic qab:;; and
when aiiecting the whole frame. A rn.oderate tempemture renders the
first quality greasy, the seuond sweet, and the last tasteless. These are
the fundamental flavonrH. Others count four, viz., the sweet, the bitter,
the acid, the brackish. The flavours produced by combinations are
some have, howr,wr, nanws, e.g. ba8fiii'at is a bitter and tart flavour, and
zu'ilqa 11 combination of the bmekiHh and the bitter.
His is font! ,of pcrfunws, encourages this department
from rehgwus mot1 ves. I he court-hall 1s continually scented with
ambergris, aloewood, and compositions accordinrr to ancient recir
es or
b '
mvented his Majesty; and incense is daily burnt in gold and
s1lver censers of varwus shapes ; whilst sweet-smelling flowers are used
An astringent VPg<tnLle extract eaten Ly t.ho natives of India with tho piin
loaf; It brow!I and stn'.''" the tongue and the gums red. [Catechu ?-P.]
In Persmn chuna; but 111 Anglu-Indico, chunam.
in large quantities. Oils are also extracted from and nRed for the
skin and the hair. I shall gin' a few recipes.
1. Sanliil.: is used for keeping the fresh: 1 lolas Civet; 1 t.
; 2 miishas Clwmhcli 2 bottles of ros<'-water. 2. Argaja
l s. sandalwood; 21. lkslr and Mid; :l I. Chiiwa; I I. violl't. root, and
geh/'1 (the seed of a plant); 1m. camphor; 11 hottks of rose-water.
It is used in snmnwr for heping the cool. :1. Uulkiima: Pound
together I I. best Ambergris; L1idrm: 2 I. best musk; 41. wood of
aloes, and H t. and put it into a porct'lain w;;sel, mix with it
a sa of the juiec of the flowrr eallc<l Oul-i surkh.
and <'X pose it to the Hnn,
till it dries up. Wet it in the evening with ros<'-\1 atPr and with t ht' extract
of the flower called Bahiir, and pound it again on Sm/1(/q
stotw. Let it
staml for ten days. mix it with the juice of the flowt'r called llahiir-i
Nrirany} aiHllct it dry. During the l\t'xt
some juice of the 1Jiaek Ray(llin (also called hl:wk N1i:hlt).'' A part of this
mixture is addrd to the prc<:eding. 4. JWh-aj:li. fi s. Aloewood; ll s.
Sandalwood; 1.} s. Ltidan; Iksir, L1ibiin, Dl11ip (a root brought from
Kashmir), 3i I. of Pach; 20 I. violet root; 10 I. l!sl111a, called in Hillll.
Chharila: Press till it gets tenacious like syrup. To be made into discs
with four bottles of It is burnt in e.t'nsl'rs, and very fine.
5. Opatna is a scentl'<i soap: 21 s. Ltidan; 1 s. 0 d. Alocwood ; the
same quantityof Balllir-i N<imnj,
and s. of its lmrk; ls. IOd. Sandal-
wood; l s. 0 d. 8wnlml" '!-lib, called in Hind ('hhar; the same tpmntity
of Ushna; t. musk; 1 s. 4 I. pridut lravrs; 3(j t. apples; II t.
called in Hind Mo(h; 5 d. violet root; 1 t. 2m. 1Jl11ip; l t. Ikanki (a
kind of grass); thr same (ptantity of Zunmduid, called in !lind. kachiir
(zcrnmbet); 1 t. 2m. L1iMn; lOG bottb of rose-\mtcr; !) bottles of
extract of Bahiir. Pound the whole, sift it, and boil slowly in rose-water.
Whrn it has become less moist let it dry. G.

4 d. Aloewood;
2 d. Sandalwood ; 1 J. violet root ; :3 d. Sumlml" '!-lib; 3d. JJuwalak;
4 t. musk of f{hatii (('at hay); Liidan: n d. JJaluir-i Naranj. Pound
and sift, boil over a fire in lO hott!Ps of rose-wat<'r, and put it into
the Rhadc to dry. 7. J(ishlll, t. AloP\\orHl; /,1idan, Uibiin, and
Sandalwood; lkslr an<! !Jhiip, 2 t. of each; viokt root and musk, 2 t.;
Thts and the following names of perfumr arc cxplamr<i further on in thiH
I' Gul.i .lur!JI in Persian is a pink fragrant r<"e that loloom Ill f;pring.--1'.]
I' 8umwiq (v1<ie .wmuq) '"the hardest kind of marblc.-P.]
[' Orange-flower bloom.--!'.]
[' Rwet basii.-P.]
Vide below the twelfth flower.
1 t. Ushna; mix with 50 t. refined sugar, and boil gently in two bottles of
rose-water. It is made into discs. It smells very fine when burnt, and is
exhilarating. 8. Bu!sJJ.Iir: 1 s. Aloewood and Sandalwood; is. Iiidan;
2 t. musk; i\ t. I kslr; mix with two sers of refined sugar and one bottle of
rose-water over a slow fire. !l. Patila: 5 s. Aloe wood; 72 t. Sandalwood;
lksir and fiidan, 20 t. of each; :\ t. \'iolct root; 10 t. Lilban; 3 t. refined
sugar ; mix ll'ith two bottles of rose-water, and make into tapers. 10.
lliirjr7t ; l s. Alocwood ; :\ t. Liidnn; 2 t. musk; 2 t. Sandalwood ; 1 t.
L11biin; J t. Camphor. Then distill it like C'hiiwa (vide below). 11.
1 ksir: t s. Sandalwood ; 2G t. Iksir; 2 I. 11m. musk. Pound it, and dry it
in the shade. 12. l!has1/l (a liquid soap), :lr\ t. Sandalwood; 17 t.
Katiil (?)
; 1 t. musk; l I. Ohiiwa; 2m. Camphor ; 2 m. Mid. Mix with
2 bottles of ro;;c-water .
.I l,ist of Perfumes
and their Prices.
mbnr i ashhab
ZaMd (civet)
Lignum aloes Hind . . lqar
Chilwa (Distilled wood of Alots)

Bhimsini C'amphor

(from Km;hmir)
Niifa-yi muslik
Kalanbak (Calc:tnhic)
Siliiras .
K!({tlr-T (.'/i lnrr .
Fitna .
BM-i Mushk
Araq-i !Jal111r .
1 to 3 per tolii.
} R. to I Jli., do.
l to 41 R., do.
2 R. to 1 M., pt:r ser.
g R. to 1 H., per tala.
3 to 5 R., do.
3 R. to 2 M., do.
1 to 3 R., do.
12 to 22 R., per ser.
I to 3M., do.
8 to 12 R., do.
:12 to GG R., per nwn.
:; to 12M., per ser.
10 to 40 R., per ?/tan.
:1 to 5 R., per scr.
lJ to '1 R., do.
1 to 2 R., do.
l to 3 R., per bottle.
I to JR., do.
I R., do.
I to 5 R., do.
to k R., do.
} to 1 R., per ser.
Arrorrlin!,! 1o somr 1\anll'al.
' Most of the following tl>\lllc' arc e'phinerl below
In tho text .. p. 85, by m1stakc Kaurah. V.:de my text edition, p. 94,!. G.
Azfiir" '1-lib
Barg-i Miij (brought from Gujriit)
Sugandh (iligalli
Ltibiin (from f'argard ?)
L!lb(in (other kiuds) .
Alak, Hind. Chhar .
Dw{'(ilak, Hind. Chharlln
Geld a

1! to R., per scr.
to 1 R .. do.
10 to 13 R., do.
& to 3 R., per /o/,1.
l to :.! R., JH'r scr.
I to R., do.
:\ to 1 d., do.
* The origmnl doe's not mC'ntwn tht:'
A List of s1nclling Ploll'aS.
l The Sc1ctl. Whitish; blooms the year, especially towards
the end of the rains.
2. The Jlholsaii. Whiti:;h; in the rains.
3. The C/l(unbcli. White, yellow, and blue. In the rains, and partly
during winhr.
L lWy-ln{ Whitto and pale yellow. In the end of the hot and
the beginning oft he
fl. Tlw .'lonyr(i. Yellow. In summPr.
G. The Clwmpa. Ytllow. All the year; Popl'cially when tlw sur
stanJs in antl Aries.
7. ll.ctk1. The upper lea\'CS arc grctn, the inner one:; )'l'llowi,.;h-white.
It blooms during the hot surnmPr.
R JU:a. \\'hit c. Durlllg the hot sl'ason.
!l. The l'ridal. Brownish lilar. In spring.
10. The J 1/hl. White and y<'llow, like jasmin. I lnri11g t hr min:.;.
ll. The Nitciirl. Whitish. In :.;pring.
l:l. The Naryts. White. In spring.
l:t '!'he Kctmra. Ji'rom Leo to Lthra.
1 L The C'lwlta.
Fi. The au/iii .. In :.;pring.
16. The Tnsbih White. In wintrr.
17. The Sw.r;tirluir. It has ;,mall white pdals. r n t hr hot. srai'on.
18. The I' iolrt. Violet. In the hot scawn.
19. The l\llnW. White. In spring.
:w. The l\.np>ir hi/.
21. The Lilac-colour. In autumn.
A List of Flowers notable for their beauty.
1. The Gul-i Aftiib. Yell ow.
2. The Gul-i Kiiwal. White and also bluish. In the rains.
3. The A golden yellow, or orange coloured, or greenish.
In spring.
4. The Gwllwl. Of diiierent colours, red, yellow, orange, white. In
the rains.
5. The Ratan-manjani. Bright red. It is smaller than jasmin. All
the year.
G. 'rhe Kcsii. In the hot season.
7. The Senbal. Dark red. In spring.
8. The Ratan-nuilii. Yellow. In spring.
9. The Sunzard. Yellow. In spring.
10. The Oul-i llfiilti.
l 1. 'I' he K arnpluil. A golden red.
12. The Karil. In spring.
13. The Kaner. Red and white.
14. The Kadam. green ; in the middle yellow threads ; the
inHide leaves white. In spring.
l:J. The Niig-kcsar. 1n spring.
16. The Surpan. White, with red and yellow stripes in the middle.
During the rains.
17. The Siri khnnrl!. Inside white, outside reddish. In
1il. The .!a it. Inside yellow, outside a blackish red. In the rains.
19. The Champala. White, like orange blossoms. In spring.
20. The Liihi. It blooms in Pisces.
21. The Oul-i Karaundn. White. It is smaller than the Chambeli,
and blooms during the rains.
The Dhanantar resembles the Niliifar. During the rains.
23. The Oul-i !linnii.
2!. The Dupahriyii. Bright red and white. All the year.
25. The R1uin Chal!ipii. Peach coloured.
26. The Sudarsan. Yellow; it resembles the N'iliifar, but IS
27. The Ilanghi.i. There are two kinds, red and white.
28. The Sirs. Yellowish grt'en. His full of stamens. In spring.
29. The San. Y cllow. During the rains.
On tlw Preparalio11 of some Perfumes.
1. Some say that grows at the bottom of the sea,
and that it is the food brought up again after tating. by animals
living in the sea. Otlwrs that eat it and die from it, ami that it is
tahn from their According to it is thr dung of the Sl'a-
cow, callrd slirt7; or the foam of the Otlwr;; again it triddes
from the mount:lins of islands. Many look upon it as marine gum;
othcrH whose opinion I adopt, take it to lw wax. lt iK that on some
mountains a gre:lt deal of honey iH to be found, Ko mueh in faet that it
runs into the sea; the wax rises to the surfact', when the heat of the sun
reducPs it to a Holid state. As tht\ bees collt'l'.t thl' hoJH'\' from sweet
smeliing is, naturally, Hl'l'nttd. Jli'PH an :tl,o
found in it. Abii 8iuii think; tlmt. then\ is :1 fountain nt the hottom of
the sea, from whieh wlnn it is carrit>tl by \\a vi's to the
when the heat of the t':l\lst>s it to dry up. It is
of various colours: the white the brst, and the hlatk is the worRt.;
the middling sort is piotachio-eolomtd and yellow. The ]w:;t kind goes
by the name of ashhab. It feel:; greasy, and of layPrs. ] f you hrmk
it, it looks white. The whiter, l1ghter, and more f!Pxible it is
the better. Next in quality is tlw pistachio-coloured and the
inferior to it the yellow kind, caliPd J(/wshkhiis!ti. The hlack kind is
bad ; it i:; inflammablt>. Greedy biiziir-dealerK will mix it with wax,
Mandai, and Liidan, etc.; but not evPry mw lms recour:;e to such pmeticcs.
Alandal iH a kind of taken from the intrstint'H of dead fishes; it
does not n'uch.
2. Liidan iH also oftrn called It is taken from a tree which
grows in the confines of (Cyprus) and (Jisiis (Chios) or Qist(Js. It is a.
moisture that scttlrs on the leaves of the tree. When goat:; in grazing pass
ncar it, the hairs of their t highH and the horn of tliPir hoofs stick to it, and
the whole then dries up. Rueh Liidnn as is Jnixcd with goat.'K-hair is
counted wperior. lt looks aTHl has a gootl smell. But Vidan
whi('h is mixed with horn is looke-d upon as infPrior. Rometimes p<'ople
tie roprs round about thn and t]l(\ liirlan whil'h stickH to
them. Afterwards they boil it in walPr, dran it, and make it into cliMes.
3. The Camphor tree is a huge tree growing in the of llindustan
and in China. A hundrrd htmemen and upwards may rest in the Hhade
of a Hingle tree. Camphor iH collretcd from the trunk and the branches.
Some say that during summer a large number of snakes wind themselves
round about the tree for the sake of its coolness; people then mark such
trees by shooting an arrow into the trunks. and collect the camphor during
the winter. Others say that eamphor trees arc much frequented by
leopards, 1 whir:h like eamphor w much that they seldom leave them. The
camphor within the tree looks like small bits of salt ; that on the outside
like resin. It often flows from tlw tree on the ground, and gets, after some
time, solid. If thrre earth<1uakes during the year or any other cos-
mica! disturh:mccs, camphor is foun<l in large <11mntities.
Of the various kinds of camphor the be,;t is ealled RibiP1i, or

Although <lilfcrcnt in name, they arc the HllllC; for it is said that the
first earnphor was found by a king of the name of Ribii!1 near
which is a place ncar the islam! of Ceylon. According to wmc hooks, it is
white like wow; and this is true, for I have broken it myoelf from the
tree. lbn BayUir, however, s:1id that it was originally red and Rhining,
and only got white hy artificial crystallir,ation. Whatever the case m:ty be,
there is certainly a kind of camphor which is white in its natural state.
And of all kinds it is the best, the whitest, has the thinnc:-;t layers, and is
the cleanest an<l l:ngest. I nfcrior to it is the kin<l called Qurqtiy, which
is blackish all!! <lirty. Still inferior is the light hrown kind called Kawkab.
The worst camphor is mixed with pieces of wood; it goes under the name
'of BiiUis. lly artificial crystallir,ation each kind will become clean and
white. In some books, camphor in its natural state is called Judiina or
Bhimsinl. If kept with n few barley grains, or pcpprrcorns,
or surkh
drin1I, it will evaporate the bs. The camphor which is made of Zurumbiid
by mixing it with other ingre<lientR, is called C!t'in"i or Mayyit-camphor.
White Znrmnb:"td is finely puun<led, and mixed with sour cream
of cow
or buffalo ; on the fourth day they put fresh cream I to it, and beat it
with the hand till foam which they take away. With this they
mix camphor, put it into a box, and it for wme time in the
husb of gmins. Or, they rctluec wmc white stone to fine powder, mix it at
the mte of ten dirhams of it with two dirhams of wax, and half a dirham of
oil of Viokt, or oil of Sur&J. r;l!l. 'J'hc wax is first mclte<l, and then mixed
with the powder, so as to form a They then put it between two
stones, :m<lmake it thin antl flat. Wlwn it, gets cold, it looks like camphor,
bitR of whieh are miwd with it. Unprineipled men profit in this manner
by the losR of other,;.
4. Zabiid (eivct) is also called 8/ui&J.. It is a moist substance secreted
during the rutting Sl'ason by an animal whi(',h resembles a cat, having, how-
[1 Yil::, the- rhretn. or
to .Marro Polo. Pnn.rnlr 1s a st1te in H
1Hzr"ir dra.ler:i ,t(lVC a few pPppPH'orns along With C'very p1ccc of
[' Do:1il buttermilk, not crram.-l'.J
a larger face and mouth. The :a!Jad whirh is brought from the
harbour-town of Sumatra, from the territory of Iehin. h.v the name
of Sumatra zahiid, aiHl is by far the lwst. The moist itself is
yellowish white. The animal has lwlow its tail a hag, oft hl' sizr' of a small
lmzPI nut, in which thr'rc an' from fiVL' to six holes. The hag ma.v he
emptiP1\ every week or fortnight, and yiPirls from h:tlf a lolii to Pight
nulshas. Rome rivet cats become so tame as to kt>Pp still whrn the bag is
being emptier\; hut in the ease of most animals, thr'y han to cateh holrl
of the tail and draw it through the ('age when tlwy take out the :aluid
with a shl'li, or by prPssing gt'ntly against. tin' hag. Tht.' price of:\ l'ivd. cat
varies from 300 to i'JOO lh ThP :a/Hid oft lw male iR lwtt Pr than that. of
the ftmalr, because in the !at trr the vulva is just a bow t hP hal.(. \VhPn
remond, the :11luirl is washetl, anrlllPt'OillL's aftl'l'wards ont of tht fitwst
JHrfnmes. 'l'hP perftlllW will n'umin a long limP in t hP l'iot lws, and tnn
on the skin. ThNe are wap of it. If the quantity he
small, they put in into :t cup, or if great('!', into a largrr Vl'ssl'l. anti wash
it tlmty times in colt! water, and three timPs in warm wahr. Thl' bttl'r
renders it thin an1l rPmovrs impurities. Thrn t hl'y wash it again in colt!
till it gets solid, when t.hry wash it three timrs in lime juiec, which
all unpkasanl sml'll. After this, they wash it again thrPe timPH
in cold water, pass itt hi'Ough a piece of cloth, pnt it into a ('hi na l'll)l, and
wash it three timPs in rose-wattor. They tlwn snwar the :abiid on the
inside of the r.up, hep it at night inverh'd in P:dr:wt of ( 'luunlw/1, or
Rtiy-licl, or 811rkh y1d, or Uul-i Karua, anti it at daytimn to the
rays of the sun, with a pinee of white doth till all moisture goeH
away. It may thPn he nsetl, mixPtl with a litt.le rose-water.
ii. a a 11m looks greyi,h white, hut dms not smell so WPII as the: pncf'd-
ing. It is a moistnre duriug the rutting sf':tson by :til anunal
like the tivct eat, lntt soHH'wh:ct largPr. It is ah:o brought fro111 thl'
conl!nrs of Acltin. The price of this animal varirs from 100 to :!00 lb.
G. Jlld
th" prPeeding, hut is infl'rior to it. Tlwy mix it
with otiJPr substances: lwncc they s<'ll it in larger <Jllant it iPs. ThP :tnirnal
which yirlds ,1!/rl is found in various <:l!unt riPs, awl sells for front fivP to
six only. f-lomc say that Mid is the driPd hag of civPt mt,
pounded ant! 111 watrr; the greasy which ri'e"' to the
surface is the .11/d.
7. Ud, or wootl of A lors, called in Hind. Agar, is t hP TtHJt of a t rcc.
They lop it off and bur:: it Ill the rarth, whPn whatcwr is bad rots. and the
,... w1th the k3'rah, a k1nd of perfume. Ka8hf" '1./ual!_lit.
remainder is pure aloes. Some say that they do so with the tree.
The statement occasionally found in some old books that the hab1tat of
the tree is Central India, is an absurdity of fanciful writers. There are
sevt:ral kinds; the best is called Mandali, and the second in quality,
Jabali or Hindi. The smell of the wood, especially that of the first kind,
is a preventive against fleas ; but some think both kinds equal in this
respect. Of other good kinds I may mention the Samanduri; the
Qumiiri, which is inferior to it; the Qiiquli, next in rank; the Barri; the
and the Chinese, also called Qismiiri, which is wet and sweet.
Still inferior are the Jalcili, the Miiyatiiqi, the Lawiiqi, the Ritali.
of all kinds, the Mandali is the best. The Samandilii is grey, fatty, thick"
hard, juicy, without the slightest sign of whitishness, and burns long.
The brst of all is the black and heavy; in water it settles at the bottom,
is not fibrous, and may be easily pounded. The wood which floats is
looked upon as bad. I'ormer kings transplanted the tree to Gujrat, and
nowadays it grows in Chiinpiinir. It is generally brought from Achin
and DahniLsari. Nothing is known of the habitat mentioned in old books.
Aloewood is often used in compound perfumes; when eaten, it is
exhilarating. It is generally employed in incense ; the better qualities,
in form of a powder, are often used fc,r rubbing into the skin and clothes.
8. Chilwa is distilled wood of aloes ; it is in general use. The pre-
paration is as follows : They take fine clay, mix it with cotton or rice
bran and beat it well. When properly intermixed, they take a small
bottle large enough to put a finger in, smear it all over with the clay, and
let it dry. After this, they put very small pieces of wood of aloes into it, so
as nearly to fill the bottle. The wood must have been kept wet for a week
before. Another vessel, with a hole in the middle, is now placed on a
three-legged etand. Into this vessel, they par;s the neck of the little
bottle inverted, placing a cup full of water at the bottom of the vessel
in such a manner that the mouth of the bottle reaches the surface of the
water. On the top of the vessel they then put cow's dung, and light a
gentle fire. Should flames break out they extinguish them with water.
The wood of aloes will then secretr. a moisture which trickles on the surface
of the water where it remains. This is collected; and washed several times
with water and rose water, to take off all smell of smoke. The oftener it is
washed, and the older it gets, the better will be the sct>nt. It looks black,
although experienced people make it white. One ser of wood aloes will
yield from two to fifteen toliis of Chiiwa. Some avaricious dealers mix
sandalwood or almonds with it, thereby to cheat people.
The last three names are doubtful.
9. Sandalll'ood is called in Hind. Cllaudan. The tree grows in China.
During the present reign, it has bt>cn plant<'d in India. There
arc three kinck the whitt', thc yellow, the ml. :-;otllt' takl' thc red to be
more rcfrrshing than the white; others prdl'r the whitt'. The latter is
certainly mort' cooling than the red, and t hl' n'd mow than the Y<'llow.
The h<st is that whirh is yrllow and oily: it hy the name of
Handal\\ood is potmdPd ami rubbed onr the skin; hut it is also used
in otlwr ways.
10. Siliiras is eallcd in Arabie It. is the gum of a tree
that grows in Turkey. Tlw kincl \rhich is rlPar is called siiyiltL
(liquid); the othtr kinds, yrlhi.w (dry). Tlw IH'st kind is that
whieh spontaneous[_,. !lows out of the trunk : it is yPllo\rish.
II. 1\a/an/)((k ( ca lt'lll hie) is the wood of a tne hroug ht from ZirhiHI (?)
it is hPavy and full of wins. :-;ome believe it to lw raw \\nod of aloes.
Wlwn pounded it loob gny. Th<y use it for compound perfumPs; and
they abo make rosarirs of it.
The Maliiyir is a tree nsembling thP fofl!JPr, only that the wood is
lighter and not veined. \VIwn pounded it looks reddish whit!'.
1:3. Lubrin (frankincense) is the odorous gum uf a trPc which is found
in.Jav;;t. :-;ometakeit to he the as :1115ah-yi yiihi.wt. WhenPxposcd
to fire it evaporates like camphor. The Lu/}(/n which the eall
J(undur-i daryii'l (mastix) is a nsin brought from Yanmn; hut it is not
H. A::Jr"ir" '1-l,ib, or scented finger nail:<, are callcd in Hind Nakh, and
in Persian Niiklmn-i boyii. It is the house of an animal, consisting, like a
shell, of two part:>. It has a sweet smell, as the animal feeds on sumlml;
it is fouml in the large rivers of Hindnstan, and Bal.mtyan, the
latter being consi<lercd the best. It is also found in the Hcd Hea, and
many prefer it to the otlwr kinds. It is hratcd in butter ; HOIIIC expose it
to the fire, pound it., and mix it with other perfumes.
Hi. Suganrllt gl"iyalii (bdellium) is a plant very common in IIindustan;
it is used in perfumes.
As I have said something on perfumes, I shall make a few remarks on
several beautiful flowers.
l. The Sewti resembles the Gul-i Surkh, hut iH Rmaller. It has in
Zirbrid (Ziril.bad), a town near tho frontier of Bengal. lihiya" 'l-luaf!;il.
[The Persian translation of the Malay Briwah angin, " Lelow the wind, leeward,"
being the Malay name for the countries and islands to the East of Sumatra.-B.l
the middle golden stamens and from four to six petals. Habitat, Gujrat
and the Dakhin.
2. Of the Cltambeli there are two kinds. The R(iy Chambeli has from
five to six petals, outside red. The Chambeli proper iR smaller, has on
the top a red stripe. Its stem is one and a half or two yards }ugh, and
trails over the ground. It has many long aml broad branches. It flowers
from the first year.
:3. The Riiybel resembles the jaKmin. There are various kinds; single
and double, etc. A quintuple is very common. so that each petal might
be separated as a distinct flower. stem grows a yard high. The
leaves of the tree resemble those of the lime tree; but they are somewhat
smaller and softer.
4. The Munyrii resembles the Riiybcl. It is larger, but inferior in
perfume. It has more than a hundred petals; the plant grows to a large
IJ. The Champa flower has a conical shape, of the size of a finger,
consists of ten petals and more, lying in folds one above the other. It has
several stamens. 'l'hc tree looks graceful, and resembles in leaf and trunk
the nut tree. It flowers :tfter seven years.
G. The f{ctk'i has the form of spindle
of the size of a quarter of a
yard, with twelve or more petals. its smell is delicate and fragrant. It
bears flowers in six or seven years.
7. The Kewm resembles the preceding. hut is more than twice as big.
The petals lmve thorns. As they grow on <liffercnt places, they are not all
cqu:d. [n the midst of the flower, there is a small branch with honey-
coloured t,hrcads, not without smell. The flower smells even after it is
withered. Il<>ncc people put it into clothes when the perfume remains for
a long time. The strm of the tree is above four yards high; the leaves
arc like t,Jtose of the maize, only longer, and triangular, with three thorns
in c:wh corner. lt flowers from the fourth year. Every year they put
new earth routHl about the roots. The plant is chiefly found in the
Dakhin, Gujritt, and Bth:ir. .
. il. The Oludtn rc8cmble:< a large tulip. a It consists of eighteen petals,
stx green ones above, six others, some red, some green, some greyish
y<'llotr, atl<l :<ix white. ln the midst of the flower. as in the flower called
llamesha Bahiir, thNc :ue nearly two hundred little yellow leaves. with a
red globule in the centre. The flower will remain ttnite fresh for five or six
Orientah, ''"a rule, have vrry small hands and finge
[' Sall<ibari-paykar, a tir.eone ?-l'.]
Lilla 1s the namo of the common rod poppy, as well as of the tulip.-P.]
days after having been plucked. It smells like the violet. When withered,
the flower is cooked and eaten. The tree resembles the pomegranate tree ;
and its leaves look like those of the lime tree. It blooms in seven years.
9. The guliil has a fine smell. The petals have the form of a
dagger. The stem of the plant is two yards high. It flowers aftrr four
years. They make rosaries of the flowers, which keep fresh for a week.
10. The Blwlsari is smaller than the jasmin; its petals are indented.
When dry the flower smells better. The tree resembles the walnut tree,
and flowers in the tenth year.
11. The Singiirhiir is shaped like a clove, and has an orange-coloured
stalk. The stamens look like poppy seeds. The tree resembles the pome-
granate tree, and the leaves arc like the leaves of a peach tree. It flowers
in five years.
12. The /( iiza looks like a Gul-i surkh ; but the plant and the leaves
are larger. It has five or a hundred petals and golden coloured stamens in
the middle. They make c; Abirmiiya and an extract from it.
13. The Piial has five or six long petals. It gives water an agreeable
flavour and smell. It is on this account that people preserve the flowers,
mixed with clay, for such times when the flo>ver is out of season. The
leaves and the stem are like those of a nut tree. It flowers in the twelfth
14. The Juhi has small leaves. This creeper winds itself round about
trees, and flowers in three years.
15. The Niwiiri looks like a simple Riiy-bel, but has larger petals.
The flowers arc often so numerous as to conceal the leaves and branches of
the plant. It flowers in the first year.
Hi. The Kapur bel has five petals, and resembles the safrron flower.
This flower was brought during the present reign from Europe.
17. The Za'fariin (saffron).
In the beginning of the month of
Urd"ibihisht, the saffron seeds arc put into the ground, which has been
carefully prepared and rendered soft. After this, the field is irrigated with
rain-water. The seed itself is a bulb resembling garlic. The flower appears
in the middle of the month of Abiin; the plant is about a quarter of a
yard long ; but, according to the difference of the soil in which it stands,
there arc sometimes two-thirds of it above, and sometimes two-third:-;
below the ground. The fluwer standH on the top of the stalk, and consists
of six petals and six stamens. Three of the six petals have a fresh lilac
colour, and stand round about the remaining three petals. The stamens
Vide a similar account of the saffron flower in the third book ICdml).
are similarly placed, three of a yellow colour standing round about the
other three, which are red. The latter yield the saffron. Yellow stamens
are often cunningly intermixed. In former times sa!Tron was collected
by cornpulsorv labour; they pres,;eclmcn daily. aml made them separate
the saffron the pcta!H and the stamens, arul gave them salt instead
of wages, a man who cleaned two prds receiving two Jlals of salt. At the
time of Ohiir.i Kbiin,l the wn of (Kh<iji) Chak, nnother custom became
general; they ga vc the workmen eleven larks of saffron flowers, of which
one lark was given them as wages; and for the remaining ten they had to
furnish two Akharsluihi sers of clean, dry saffron, i.e., fur two Akbarshiihi
of saffron flowers they had to give two sers of cleaned saHron. This
custom. however, W<ts abolished by his IIIajesty on his third visit to
Kashmir, to the great relief of the people.
When the bulb has been put into the ground, it will produce flowers
for six years, provided the soil be annually softened. For the first two
years, the flowers will gww Hparingly; hut in the thircl year the plant
reachcH its state of perfPrtion. After years the bulbs must he taken
out; else they get rotten. They plant them again on some other pl<lce;
and leave the ol<l ground uncultivated for five years.
Saiiron comes ehielly from the place Panpilr, which belongs to the
of .\larar;-tj.
The fields there rxtcnd over nrarly twelve kris.
Another plaelc' of cultivation is in the Parganah of Paraspfrr, near Jndrakul,
not f<Lr from Kanmij, where the fields extend about a Xos.
lH. The Lljt1ibi (sun-flower) is round, broad, and large, has a large
number of petals, and turns continually to the sun. Its stem reaches-a
height of three yank
19. The 'rhere arc two kimk One opens when the sublime
Sun shines, turning wherever he goes, and closing at night. It resembles
the shaqiiyiq,
hat its red is paler. Its petals which are never less than
six in number, enelose yellow stamcnH, in the midst of which there is an
excrescence of the form of a cone with the base upwards, which is the
fruit, and contains the RcedR. The other kind has four white petals,
<>pens at night, and turns itself aceording to the moon, but docs not close.
H? was the contemporary of i'Jhe1 Kluin; !'Ide Abii 'll<'a?l's list of Kashmir
Rulors.m the tlurrl bo_ok .. A bwgraphy of l!hrizi Kluin m1ty be found in the
mg of tho Maa'''"' Ra!111111, PerSian MH. No. 45 of the Astat.ic Society of
: One T<trk=S Mrs (of Kashm. mans; 1 Kash. man=
4 Kash. scrs ; l Kash. ,,cr '= 7\ pals.
These places to the south of Srinagar. the capital of Kashmr. f M -
the text has t:\Jr" Vide f:liiba Kihul, third book.
' or arura)
[' &haqayiq i probably tho anemone.- I'.]
20. The Ja5fari is a pretty, round flower, and grows larger than the
{ladbarg. One kind has five, another a hundred petals. The latter
fresh for two months and upwards. The plant is of the size of a nmn, and
the leaves resemble those of the willow, but are indented. It flowers in
two months.
21. The Gu{l!tal resembles thejt7It/i_tisft tulip, and has a great munber of
petals. Its stem reaches a height of two yards and upward:-;; the leaves
look like mulberry leaves. It flowers in two years.
22. The Ratanmanjani has four petals, and is smaller than the jasmin.
The tree and the leaves resemble the riiy-bel. It flowers in two years.
23. The J(esu has five petals resembling a tiger's claw. In their
midst is a yellow stamen of the shape of a tongue. The plant is very large,
and is found on every meadow ; when it flowers, it is as if a beautiful
fire surrounded the scenery.
2,i. The Kaner remains a long time in bloom. It looks well, but it is
poisonous. Whoever puts it on his head is sure to fall in battle.l It has
mostly five petals. The branches are full of the flowers ; the plant itself
grows to a height of two yank It flowers in the first year.
25. The !(adam resembles a turnligj]_a
(a royal cap). The leaves are
like those of the walnut tree, which the whole tree resembles.
lt 2u. The Nag kesar, like the Gul-i surkh, has five petals and is full of
fine stamens. It resembles the walnut tree in the leaves and the stem;
nnd flowers in seven years.
27. The Surpan resembles the sesame flower, and has yellow stamens
in the middle. 'l'hc stem resembles the plant, and the leaves those
d the willow.
28. The Srikandhi is like the Chambeli, but smaller. It flowers in
two years.
29. The (finna has four petals, and resembles the flower called
Nrifarrnan. Different plants have often flowers of a different colour.
30. The Dupahriyr"i is round and small, and looks like the flower called
Hamesha-baMr. It opens at noon. The stem is about two yards high.
31. The Bhun clwmpa resembles the Niliifar, and has five petals.
The stem is about a span long. It grows on such places as are periodically
under water. Occasionally a plant is found above the water.
32. The Sudarsan resembles the Ray-bel, and has yellow threads
inside. The stem looks like that of the Siisan
l' ,.,\ JJ gets entangled in quarrels ?-L'.J
[' J'urwi[lhtt locally in the sense of a hood.-P.]
l' Stisan-ls properly the flag-iris.-P.J
33. Senbal has fiye petals, rar:h trn fingers long, and three fingers broad.
3<1. The Ralmll!liilr! is round :tnd stnall. Its juice, boiled and
mixed with vitriol and uwasfiu,
fumishes <t fast dye fur stuffs. Butter,
sesame, oil, are also builccl together with the root u[ the plant, when the
mixture becomes a purple elye.
:JG. The S1inzanl rescnthlc;s the jawtin. hnt is a little larger, and has
from five to six pdak The stem is like; that. u[ the; ('hamlJdi. It flowers
in two years.
:w. 'l'hr Jlliilti is like the Chaudil'li. hnt smal!Pr. In the middle there
arc little statnt'ns looking ltkc poppyseed. It llmrcm in two yrars more Gr
:11. '!'he Karil has thrt'c small pe;tals. It. flowrrs luxuriantly, aiHl
looks very well. The f\owL'r is also boihd awl Paten ; they also make
pickles of it.
:JR. 'l'hc; Jail plant grows to a large tn;c ; its ka\'CS look like
Tamarind le:wes.
39. 1'he C'/uwflrdn is lib; a nosegay. 'l'he leaves of tht' plant arc lilw
walnut It. flowl'rs in two yc'ars. The bark of thr plant, whrn
hoilecl in watN, makes t.he water red. It grows chiefly in the it&
wood bright like a candle.
JO. The Uihl has n stem one a11d a half yards high. The branches
bcforn t.hc flowers appl'ar arc made into a dtsh, whidt is eaten with bread.
When camrls flcd on this plant they gd. fat and umul.L
'11. The 1\araund't rl'sembles the .!tihi flowN.
12. The D/umanlar resembles the Nlliifar, and looks Yery well. It is
a creeper.
'l'he llmnr C'onsist.s of silk-like thrl':tcb, ancl rrscmbles a
tnnuigi/CI. H Sl'nds its fragmncr to a grl'at cli,.;t:tlll'C. It is the king of the
trees, although thr llinelus rather worship the l'ipal :wel 11a() trcPs. The
tree grow,.; wr.v largt: its wood is user] in building. '\\'it !tin the stem the
wood is bla!'k, and rPsists the stroke of the axl'.
1!. The Ila nq/17. i has ti l'l' petals, t':teh four fingrrsloug, and looks very
beautifuL Each bra.twh product's only ow flo11W.
Li. The San (ht'tnp) looks like a The leans of the plant
re,;emhiP;n of the ('hiwir.:
Of the hark of the plant ropeR are
llt:llk One kind of plant. hears a flowt>r like the cotton tree, and iR
ca11Pd l'a(-san. lt makcB a H'l'\' ,;oft ropr.
l' tH perhaps ba<tnrcl saJTron,-.p J
l' Bar tho banyan trec.-1'.]
l' Clunrir. the plane tree.-P.]
It is really too difficult for me, ignorant as I am, to give a description
of the flowers of this country : I have mentioned a few fur those who
to know something about them. There are also founu many flowers
of Iran and as the Gul-i surkh, the Nargis, the violet, the J"iisman-i
kabUd, the Siisan,

the the Zebii, the Shaqii111:q,:
the T(ij-i khurils, the Qalyl!.a, the Niifarmiin, the [(j_wtm/,
etc. Garden
anu flower beds are everywhere to be found. Formerly people used to
plant their gardens without any order, but since the time of the arrival in
India of the emperor Biibar, a more methodi(al arrangement of the
gardens has obtained; and travellers nowadays admire the beauty of
the palaces and their Juurmuring fountains.
lt would be imposHible to give an account of those tr('l'S of the country
whose flowers, fruits, buds, leaves, roots, etc., arc used as food or medicine.
If, according to the books of the Hindus, a man were to collect only one
leaf from each tree, he would get eighteen Mrs (or loads) ( iJ surlchs c= 1
miislw; karg; 1kargsccclpal; lOOpals-ltula; 20tuliis=
1 hr1r) ; i.e., according to the weights now in use, !)(j mans. The same hooks
alw state that the duration of the life of a tree is not less than two gharis
(twice 24 minutes), and not more than ten thousand years. The height of
the trees is said not to exceed a little above a thousand ji1jans.
When a
tree dies, its life is said to pass into one of the following ten things : fire,
water, air, earth, plants, animals, animals of two senses, such :m have
three, or four, or five senses.
His l\lajesty pays much attention to various stufl's; hence lriini,
European, and Mongolian articles of wear are in abundance. Skilful
masters and workmen have settled in this country to teach people an
improved system of manufacture. The imperial workshops, the towns of
Liihor, Agra, Fati.Jpflr, Al_1madiibiid, Gnjnit, turn out many masterpieces
of workmanship ; and the figures and patterns, knots, and variety of
%san, the ins.--1'.1
l' ilayluin, sweeL baH!l.--P.l
8haqriy1q, tirle p. 815, noLe 1.-l'.]
Klwtmi, the hollyhoek and the marsh rnnllow.-P.]
Hcgnrding this meaHure, vide the fourth book.
The text has a word Ji}} which oeeurs abont thr0c times in this work. 1 have
also found tt in Sayyid Ahmad's ed1tion of the Tuzuk i .Jah:tngiri; hut I cannot. lind
it in any Persian or Chagatiii Dictionary. The meaning. a wardro!Je, is however clear.
[Also spelt .;1;. J}.-B.]
fashions which now prevail, aotonish His Majesty
. If . '[Ill 'l c]till't tnnc :1 theoretiCal and practical knowledge of
llllSC al'<lllll'l'l ' '
I 1,
r' 1, ..
] on account of the care bestowed upon them the
. te 'h to e '"< c , ' . .
t 11 . t . rJ

of this L'Ot1lllrv won unproved. All kmds of hair-
Jn c l"l'll 110 ' . .
antl silk-.spinnrng to pcrfect1_on; and the
worksltop.s fnn
alit hose wlneh arc made Ill other countnes. A
task for fitw m:Ji rrial has sinec lwuome general, and the drapery used at
feasts ,
q 1,h""' 1'\'l'f\' dtstription .
. \11 :uirdts \l'hich hare hc<'n bought, or woven to order, or received as
. or pn,;cnt>'. arc cnnfullr pre,.; erred; find f\Ccording to the order in
vJach th

we pn.srnerl. thcr me again taken out for inspection, or
given onll u lw cut anrl to lw ma<lc np, or given away as presents. Articles
whir:h arrin :1t thr ;;an1e time, are arranged according to their prices.
gxperienced JH'oplt inljuire continually into the prices of articles used both
foJ'Ill('rh antl at prcc;ent. :1s a knowledge of the exact prices is conducive
to the incrrase o[ the stock. Even the prices became generally lower.
Thus a piPl'e woven lw the famous llhiyiis-i Naqshband may now be
obtained for fift.y nmhrs, 11 hih;t it had formerly been sold for twice that
sum; am! most other arl!clto have got cheaper at the rate of thirty to
ten, or C\'Pll lortylo ttn
His :\lajestyalso ordered that people of certain
mnlo; shoulrl wc:tr f'ertain art iclt':i : and this was done in order to rt>gulate
the dcmand.
I sltall not '<1." rnuch on this subject, though a few particulars regarding
tlH article.s wom h: his ;\lajcc;ty ll!ay he of interest.
l. The Takrtltl1ti'Jil is a coat without lining, of the Indian form.
Formerly it l.1nd shts in the skirt, an<! was tied on the left side; hisl\bjt>sty
has ordm<llt to l1e marie 1ntlt a round and to he tied on the rirrht
Jt n't[lllf<''i \'ards and and five girihs for
hrr11ltng ThP pritr fur making a plain orw varies from one rupee to three
'l'S; hul1f il11 I' oat he adorned with ornamental stitching, from one to
fOi\f:IIHli\trriII\IIJ'Ipj'<J'IIJll'"' J>.'J . f ']]' 'd
., , , '' >P.,u es a mt.<qa. o Hl { rc<illlre .
- I l"''/n.11: i:J r"at opPn in front) of the same fonn, but tics in
front.. It
' liJll' il':tdl' without st.riugs,
I Or .t .... \lc :-,tY. t ht I'' I'' I I
2 'l'lH ('Ill I
1 ,
"\e Hcome Je:;H bv ancl oven 70 Jll'f l'Pllt
' ' " ,1'1 II II" 'I(' I\ lJ( j \ j lf 1 'I'
':h.tpr rq1r dtt .... .._
,, r()l'
._(;' "
IW UR nn(l 1n

, , ' "' "" "" k) l111t rtt r 1 t 1 1 1 1
0111' 1\\1) ' I l[lg lj:!l \\\('fCtlC (J\\('frli,_,
ll1ndn; on 11
,. I

' ". '"
adam make, the tic on the IPft and till'
II ,,, I' II I(' F i t f ' .
''l"r't lht "1.1 lh'n f 1
' '
llenval mauv
J I" 11/J!l (I \\1',1 fl '1'1 'I " I ' J
' I,, "''I '!.li<d
Jl c uusewn Jllf:Je of muslin (rhiular).
I. I II I /1 .I( Ill Ill\' '/I 'h tl t 'I
h\ I
'"''""''""I'"'''" til<' tlld ' i: the rliVJHton at prcRcnt. For other
l'""'""llll't.i111 Inrlin Uti .!
"' '
f this hook. The l'l'rsian word ginh is
3. The Dutiihi (a coat with lining) requires six yards and four girihs
for the outside, six yards lining, four girihs for the binding, nine girihs for
the border. The price of making one varies from one to three rupees.
One of silk is required.
4. The Shiih-ajida (or the royal stitch coat) is also called

(or sixty rows), as it has sixty ornamental stitches per girih. It has gcner
ally a double lining, and is sometimes wadded and quilted. The cost of
making is two rupees per yard.
5. The Suzani requires a quarter of a ser of cotton and two darns of
silk. If sewed with bakh11a
stitches, the price of making one is eight
rupees ; one with afida stitches costs four rupees.
6. The Qalarni requires g s. cotton, and one diim silk. Cost of making,
two rupees.
7. The Qabii, which is at present generally called jiima-yi pumba-diir,
is a wadded coat. It requires l s. of cotton, and 2 m. silk. Price, one
rupee to a quarter rupee.
8. The Gadar is a coat wider and longer than the qabri, and contains
more wadding. In Hindnstan it takes the place of a fur-coat. It requires
sevengaz of stuff, six yards of lining, fom girihs binding, nine for bordering,
s. cotton, 3m. silk. Price, from one-half to one and one-half rupees.
9. The Farji has no binding, and is open in front. Some put buttons
to it. It is worn over thejiima (coat), and requires G gaz 12 girih stuff;
5 gaz 5 girih lining; 14 gz'rilt bordering; 1 s. cotton; 1m. silk. Price,
from a quarter to one rupee.
10. The Fargul resembles the yripanji,
but is more comfortable and
becoming. It was brought from Europe,
but everyone nowadays wears
it. They make it of various stuffs. It requires 9 gaz girih stuff, the
same quantity of lining, G m. silk. 1 s. cotton. It is made both single and
double. Price from! to 2 rupees.
I Bakhya, in Hind. bakhiyii, corresponds to what ladJes call &ark8ldclttnf!. Ajida
is the buttonhole stitch. These, at least, arc the mcamngR which lwN!.Ya and llJida.
now have. 8tizrmTr a name wluch in the text transferred to the coat, is a kmd of
embroidery. resembling our satin-stitch. 1t is used for working leaves and flowers,
etr., on stuffs, the leaves lying pretty loosely on the cloth; hence we often find st/zani
work in rugs, small carpets, etc. Tho rugs themselves arc also called S>izani. A term
somet,imes used in dictionaries as a synonym for siizani is chikin; but this is what
we call while emhroidery.
A coat used in rainv weather. Calcutta Chagatrii Dictionary.
' The etymology of the word fargul is not known to me. The names of scvrral
articles of wear, nowadays current in India, are Portuguese; as siiya, a pett1ront ;
fila, a ribbon. Among other Portuguese words, now common in Hindustani, arc
padri, clergyman ; girjii, a church, Port. iyreja; kobi, cabbage, Port. cuove;
chabi, a key, Port. cluive.
Abil '1-Fa?.l's explanation (vide my text edition, p. 102, I. 16) corrects Vullers II,
. p. 663a.
11. The Chalmwn I mnde of broadcloth, or woollen stuff, or wax cloth.
His Maje.sty has it nmde of ])(irii'i wax cloth, which is very light and
pretty. The rain cannot go through it. It requires 6 gaz. stuff, 5 girih
binding, and 2 111. The price of making one of broadcloth is 2 R.;
of wool, 1 N.; of wax cloth, N.
1 :!. The Shu/ /I'Ur (drawers) is made of all kinds of stuff, single and
douhle, and wadded. 1t requires 3 yw::; 11 girih cloth, (j girih for the
hem through which the string rmm, :3 gaz 5 girih lining, 1 i m. silk,
s. cotton. Price, from } to rupee.
There are various kinds of eaeh of these garments. It would take me
too long to dPscrihe the cltims,jmo[as, and dupa!!as,
or the costly dresses
worn at. frasts or presrnted to the grandees of the present time. Every
season, there arc made one thousand complete suits for the imperial
wardrolw, and one hundre<l and twenty, made up in twelve bundles, arc
always hpt in rt>adinrss. From his indifference to everything that is
worldly, 1lis prefers and wears woollcn
stufTs, especially shawls;
and I must mention, as a lllost :curious sign of auspiciousneRs, that his
:VIajesty's clothes becomingly fit every one, whether he be tall or short, a
fact whieh has hitherto puzr,led ltlany.
His i\Iajesty has ehangetl the names of several garments, and invented
new and pleasing terms.
Instead of jiima (coat), he says sarbgiiti, i.e.
covering the whole body; for iziir (dmwerR), he says yiir-piriihan (the
companion of the coat); for nim.lltmt (a jrwkct), tanzeb; forfauta, patgat;
for lmrrta' (a will, chitragupita; for kuliih (a cap), sis solihii; for miiy-MJ
(a hair rihllOn), kcsyhrm; for pa{kii (a cloth for the loins), katzeb; for
shiil (shawl), }Hifl/111111'111 ; for ... ,
parmgarm; for kapiirdhiir, a Tibetan
stu II. /;op1lmlir; for ji<<!J-afziir (shoes). rharndlwm; and similarly for
wnrcl not. gLrC'n in any didionary, the vowels dvnhtful. So is
\ uliC'r s form
' Sin if< of dill<rrul 'hape; used for making turbans.
In to tho }JrndlcP of )11Jis, who only WPar garments mn(le of wool
(snj). Abu 1-laz\ often ti'H'< to represent Akbar as a ,9,tfi of so high a degree as to
be able to work, mr:wle<, anrl ho 'tates below that it was his mtention to write a
book on Akbar< m:raclcs. The of fulsomeness in praise has often been
brought ag.nn<t Abu '1-Faz.l, though it would more appropriately lie ngainst. 1<'a!Jzi,
hko the of Imprl'lal Home-represents tho emperor as God, as mav bo
seen Ill the portrcal rxtrnets of the second book. But the prniscs of the two brothers
throw .
pc ulwr hght on Akbar's ehamcter, who received the most immoderate
encom!UTllB w1th srJf.romplat'rnry,
' The following pa><ago i' a< it shows Akbar's predilection for Hindi
' The MS:>. ha\'e an unintelligible word. Th B - !VIS h
or European Pardak (?). e anaras ' as pardak Jr'irany,
A'in 3:2.
His Majesty improved this department in Jour ways. The improve-
ment is visible, first, in the J'ils shawls, which are made of the wool of an
animal of that name; its natural colours arc black, white, and red, but
' chiefly black. Sometimes the colour is a pmc white. This kind of slmwl
is unrivalled for its lightness, warmth, and softness. People generally
wear it without altering its natural colour; his MajPHty has had it rlycd.
It is curious that it will not take a red dye. Scrondl!J, in the Safld Alcltas,
abo called in their natural colours. The wool is eithC'r white or
black. These stufTs may be had in three colmirH, white, blaek, or mixed.
The first or white kind, was formerly dyed in three ways; his
has given the order to rlye it in various ways. Thirdly, in stufl's as
Kaliibatiin, Kashida, Qalu{w''i, Biindlmiin, Chhin(, Altha,
Purzdiir, to which his Majesty pays much attention. Fourthl!J, an
improvement was made in the width of all stuffs; his Majesty had the
pieces maJe large enough to yield the making of a full dress.
The garments stored in the Imperial wardrobe arc arranged according
to the Jays, months, and years, of their entries, and according to their
colour, price. and weight. Such an arrangement is nowadays called
a set. The clerkH fix accorJingly the degree of cvrry article of wear,
which they write on a strip of cloth, and tack it to the C'nd of the pieces.
Whatever pieces of the same kind arrive for the imprrial wardrobe on the
U rmuzd day (first day) of the month of Famard'in, provided they be of a
good quality, have a highrr rank assigned to them than pieces arriving on
other days ; and if pieces arc e<1ual in value, their precedem:e or other-
wise, is determined by the character a of the day of their entry ; and if
pieces are equal as far as the character of the day is concerned, they put
the lighter higher in rank; and if pieces have the same weight, they
arrange them according to their colour. The following is the order of
colouri'l : (us, safidalcha, ruby-coloured, golden, orange, brass-coloured,
crimson, grass green, cotton-flower coloured, sandalwood-coloured,
almond-coloured, purple, grape-coloured, mauve like the colour of some
parrots, honey-coloured, brownish lilac, coloured like the Ratauman:fani
Alcha, or .1/richa, any kind of rorrled (11111l;!!,rtllal) Htuff. ?'arhdrir means curded.
Zardooi, Kalribai'iin kalab11lhin), Kllshida, arc stuffs with
gold and silk threads; Brindhniin, are 'tuffs dyed differently 111 different parts of
the piece; Chhint is our chintz, which .is derived from Ohhint. Purzd<ir arc all kmds
of stuffs the outside of which is plush.Jikc.
Akbar, like t.IJC Parsecs, brliovcd in lucky and unlucky days. Thr arrangement
of the stores of rlothing mu!'t strike the reader as most H1milar arrange-
ments, equally curious, will be found in the following A 'ins. Perhaps thry indicate
a progress, as they show that some order at least was kept.
flower, coloured like the Kiisni flower, apple-coloured, hay-coloured,
pistachio, ... ,t bhoj]l((tra coloured, pink, light blue, coloured like the
galghah flower, water-coloured. oil-coloured, brown red, emerald, bluish
like China-ware, violet, bright pink, mangoe coloured, musk-coloured,
coloured like the PiifJJ.trL.
In former times shawls were often brought from Kashmir. People
folded them up in four folds, and wore them for a very long time. Nowa-
days they are generally worn without folds, and merely thrown over the
shoulder. His Majesty has commenced to wear them double, which look!;
very well.
His Majesty encourages, in every way, the manufacture of
shawb in Kashmir. In Lf1hor also there are more than a thousand work-
shops. A kind of shawl, called rniiyiin, is chiefly woven there ; it consists
of silk and wool mixed. Both arc used for chims (turbans), fotas (loin
bands), etc.
I subjoin the following tabular particulars.
A. Oold stuffs.
Brocaded velvet, from razd,a piel'e
Do. from Europe, do ..
Do. from Gujriit, do. .
Do. from Kisluin, do ..
Do. fromlliriit, do.
Do. from [,iihor, t!o. .
Do. from Barsah (1), do.
Mnlabbaq, do.

llfilak, do.
Brocadt, from Gujrftt, do.
-Brocade, from do. do.
15 to lGO M.
lO to 70 M.
JO to GO M.
10 to-10M.
10 to 40 ]If
:l to 70 M.
2 to 70 1rl.
3 to 70 M.
4 to GO M.
I to :Jfi M.
The tf'xt two doubtful \\ords. The ncxi word blwjpalllllS the hark of
a tree used for ma.king l!uqqa t.nLcH.
l', 1-\lU:I". ;, tho of Tnt!ia, the 1'urlur risoria of Jert!on.-P.]
}a.d ". tlw l!rtnrtpalnty m tho south of thr PPrstan provmrc of Khuriis:in.
lws 111 <;:ljrLJni, north of T. .. fahiin. "The aHses of Khii.Rfin ire wiRer
than the mrn of ],fahan," winch latter town is for l'N<ia what Bmotia is for Ancient
Grercr, or thr Hretagnr for Framt', of the kingdom of Fife for Scotlanrl or the town
of Sdnlda for Ucrmanv, or Tlihiir for lnclta-thc home of fool<. .Durm;, the time f
thr Ha.yyHif-1 of Biirh:1h enjoyC'd a f<llntlar notoriety. t-
, ' A!11tnbl;a7. a k!nd of dnPI!y brought from khallukh, and from
111 rurkrRt.."LU. Ulnyusu l-hl[fhat.

!,'<l9mrans.generallybtrll':t<lc; !Jri:a.ibtijis a kind ofbroca<led silk; Muqayyash
". stlk wtth stnpcs of "lver-thc r.Juya< ''Y' that Jfltqayyash come& from the
Hmd. ke.h, half t? whtch the stlvcr-stripes are compared, and that it is an Arabicized
form the word as qaranful. a clove, for the Hind. karnphul; itrifal, a kind
of medJrmc for lrtphl. as 1t of fruits, etc. Mushajjar is a kind of silk
":'th and l>ra,nche,s m tt: JJ,eba" coloured silk; Khiira, moiree antique;
Ji.]!m JSfiloselle-sJIK. Jior lahtla (rtde Freytag III, p. 353), we also find tafsila.
from Gujrat
Muqayyash, do.
Shirwiin'i Brocade, do.
Mushajjar, from Europe, per yard
Deba silk, do. do.
Do., from Y azd, do. .
Kharii, do.
Satin, ffom Chinese Tartary
Nawiir, from do.
Khazz silk
(a stuff from Mecca)
K urtahwiir, from Gujriit
Chira (for turbans)
Dupa{!ii, do.
Fofas (loin bands)
* The Text doe3 not give tho
B. Silks, etc., plaiu.
Velvet from Europe, per yard
Do. from Kiishan, per piece
Do. from Yazd, do. .
Do. from Mashhad, do.
Do. from Hirat, do.
Do. libiifi, do. .
Do. from Liihor, do.
Do. from Gujnit, per yard
Qalifa-yi i Piirabi} do.
Toja-brif, per piece
J)iirii!i-biif, do.
Mutabbaq, do.
Shirwiini, do.
Milak, do.
Kamkhiib, from Kiibnl and Persia, do ..
Tawiir ( ?), do. .
Kl11lri (?},do. .
Mushajjar, from Europe, per yard
Do. from Yazd, per piece
' A kind of velvet.
2 to 50 M.
l to 20 1,1.
1 to 4 M.
1 to 4 111.
1 to M.
5 R. to 2M.
from 15 to 20 R.
1 to 20M.
1 to 14M.
l to 8 M.
9 to 8 R.
t to 12 M.
1 to 20M.
1 to 4111.
2 to 7 M.
2 to 4 M.
2 to 4111.
1 to 3M.
2 to 4 M.
3 to 4M.
1 to 2 R.
1 to 1} R.
2 to 30 111.
2 to 30 111.
1 to 30M.
to 10M.
1 to 7 111.
1 to 5 111.
2 R. to 2 111.
4 to 10 R.
2 R. to 1M.
1 to 2M.
Satin, from Europe, per yard
Satin, from Hiriit, prr piece
l{}uirti, per yard
per piece
front Europe, per lfrtrrl
Anbari, do.
SitiJniri, per pin1
Qabiibanrl, do.
'/'ril bnnrlpiiii, do.
hilt, J!l'r yard
111 i 1)('T picre .
Srir, per yrrrrl
per pierr:
Plain Kurlall'iir, per yard
Kapllrnlir, formerly ('.:tiled ](a plirdluir, do.
Alclw, do.
JWr p;,.,.,.
lll1risa, per jllt't't'
Chaulrir. <lo.
.Ma1mal, do.
'l'ansllkh, do.
SirT 8rij, do.
Bltiraun, do.
Sa?um, do.
Jhmw, do.
A!iin, do ..
Asiitmli, <lo.
Biifta, <lo ..
Malnmidi, do.
1 Chnnp:ing
( '. Cotton cloths.
A stuff made of silk and \\'ool.
2 R. to 1M.
!i R. to 2M.
1 R. to 6 R.
1 to 3 111.
R. to 2M.
1 R.
po 2 R.
4 d. to R.
. : R. to
2 R .
6 R. to 2 kl.
6 R. to 2M.
2 R. to q ill.
} to
l R.
,\-to R.
2 R.
to 1 R.
to 1 R.
to 2 R.
7 to 12 R.
:3 R. to 15 III.
2 R. to !JM.
4 R.
1 R. to !i Jv/.
2 R. to 5M.
4 R. to !i !11.
i R. to 4M.
1 to 3M.
1 R. to l M.
. 2} R. to 11'r!.
1 to 5M.
R. to flM.
} to 3M.

Generally translatrr! by linen. All dictionaries agree that it is exceedingly
thm, so murh so that >t tears when thr moon ehinrs on it; it is Muslin.
Properly, Jtnl'ell : hrnre taffeta.
' Nowadays rhirily mntle in Rerbamporc and Patna; vulgo, tessa.
Panclttoliya, per piece
1 to 3M.
J/wla, do ..
to M.
8iila, 11er piece 3 R. to 2 Jll.
Doriva, per pienJ G R. to 2M.
Baluidur Shah/, do. GR. to 2 i.ll.
Ga.rba 81111, do. q to 2M.
Shela, from the Dnlhin, do.
2 111.
]l{ihrkul, do. 3 R. to 2M .
.Mindil, do.
to 2 lli.
Sarband, do.
to 2 ill.
Dnpa(ta, do. R. to l lll.
J(atanclw, do. l R. to 1 ill.
Pola, do.
4 to
Goshpech, do. 1 to 2 R.
Chhin!, per yard 2 rl. to 1 R.
Gaz"ina, per ]Jicce to R.
Siliilw(i. per yarrl 2 to 1 d.
D. lV oollen stuffs.
Rcarlet Broadcloth, from Turkey, Europc,
and Portugal,
per yarrl 2l R. to 4 M.
Do., from Niigor nnd Lahor, prr 7riccc 2 R. to 1 M.
1 to l!J M.
i'it({-i ... ,
do. 3 R. to l .\ M.
J>annnarnr, do. . R. to 20 111.
do. 2 H. to 2G ill.
Fota, do. . to a M.
,JiimnnY'ir-i Panmurnu, do: to 4 M.
Goshprch, do. 1 R. to 11 ilJ.
Sarpech, do. i to 4 11!.
A!ll!.ri, do. 7 R. to
'l'hc imported from Enrope were broadcloth; n111"ical instru.
ments, as trumpds; pictures; curiosities (v;de Bad,ioni II, p. 2UO, I. 2 from below;
p. :l38, I. 7) and, sinec 1600, tobacco. Of the names of cloths mentimJt'd by Ahi1
'1-Pazl several are no known, as native weavers eannot <ompcto w1th the
English Longcloth and the cheap European ,\lusling, Alpacas, Chintzes, and ll!ohnir",
which arc nowadays in commnn usc with the natives all over the East. At the time
of the Moguls, and before, the use of woollen st.uffs and, for the poor<r classeH,
blankets, was much more, general tlwn now. Even the light caps generally worn hy
Muhammadans in this country, called in Hind. (opi, and in Persian la!i]!fifa (ride
Bahiir-i <; Ajam) arc mostly imported from England. Jam not aware that tho soldiers
of the armies of the Moguls were uniformly dressed, though it appears that the
commanders of the contingents at least lool<cd to uniformity m the eaps and turbam.
The MSS. have an unintelligible word.
Parmgarm, per piece
Katiis, do.
Philk, do ..
Durman, do.
Pa?il, do.
Rewkiir, do.
Burd-i Yamani, do.
Mrinj'i (?) namad, do.
Kanpak (?) namad, do.
Takyal nnmctd, from Kabul and Persia
Do., country made, do.
!.Ali, do ..
Blankets, do. , .
Kashrnirian Caps, do.
Tho price not givrn in the text.
Ji'in 33.
. 3 R. to 2l 111.
. R. to 10 M.
to 15 R.
2 R. to 4 M.
1 to 10 R.
2 R. to 1M.
5 to 50 R.
5 to 35 R.
2 R. to 1 M.
2 R. to 1M.
1}to 5 R.
. 14 d. to 4 R .
10 d. to 2 R.
2 d. to 1 R.
White and Ll::tek are believed to be the origin of all colours. They
are looke1l upon as extremes, and as the component parts of the other
colours. Thus white when mixccl in brgc proportions with an impure
black, will yield yc/low ; and white and black, in equal proportions, will
give red. White mixed with a large quantity of blaek, will give a bluish
green. Other colourH may be formed by compounding these. Besides,
it must he borne in mind that colclmakcs a juicy white body, and a dry
body Lbek : and renders that which is fre:.;h black, and white that
which iB dry. These two powers (heat aJHl cold) produce, each in its place,
a change in the colonr of a body, because bodies arc both qiil>il, i.e. capable
of being acted upon. and JJwqtrca, i.e. subject to the influence of the
herwenly bodies (ehirfiy the sun), the active origin of heat.
Jiin 34.
What we call forrn leads us to recognize a body ; the body itself lead!
us to what we call a notion, an idea. Thus, on sering the form of a letter
we recognize the letter, or a word, and this again will lead us to some idea
Similarly in the case of what people term a picture. But though it is truE
that painters, especially those of Europe, succeed in drawing figures
expressive of the conceptions which the artist has of any of the mental
so much so, that people may mistake a picture for a reality: yet
pictures are much inferior t9 the written letter, inasmuch as the letter may
embody the wisdom of bygone ages, and become a means to intellectual
I shall first say something about the art of writing, as it is the more
important of the two arts. His :Majesty pays much attention to both, and
is an excellent judge of form and thought. And indeed, in the eyes of the
friends of true beauty, a letter is the source from which the light confined
within it beams forth ; and, in the opinion of the far-sighted, it is the
world-reflecting cup
in the abstract. The letter, a magical power, is
spiritual geometry emanating from the pen of invention; a heavenly
writ from the hand of fate ; it contains the secret word, and is the tongue
of the hand. The spoken word goes to the hearts of such as are present
to hear it ; the letter gives wisdom to those that are near and far. If it
was not for the letter, the spoken word would soon die, and no keepsake
would be left us of those that are gone by. Superficial observers see in
the letter a sooty figure ; but the deepsighted a lamp of wisdom. The
written letter looks black, notwithstanding the thousand rays within it ;
or, it is a light with a mole on it that wards off the evil eye.
A letter is the
portrait painter of wisdom ; a rough sketch from the realm of ideas ; a
dark night ushering in day; a black cloud pregnant with knowledge; the
wand for the treasures of insight ; speaking, though dumb ; stationary,
and yet travelling; stretched on the sheet, and yet soaring upwards.
When a ray of God's knowledge falls on man's soul, it is carried by the
mind to the realm of thought, which is the intermediate station between
that which is conscious of individual existence (rnujarrad) and that which
is material (rnaddi). The result
is a concrete thing mixed with the absolute,
or an absolute thing mixed with that which is concrete. This compound
steps forward .on man's tongue, and enters, with the assistance of the
conveying air, into the windows of the ears of others. It then drops the
1 fihilqi (from IJJtlqat) referring to states of mind natural to us, as benevolence.
wrath, etc. These, Abu l P n ~ l says, a painter may succeed in rcpresentmg; but
the power of writing is greater.
The fabulous cup of King ,Jamshcd, which revealed the secrets of the seven
liuman beauty is imperfect unless accompanied by a mole. For the mole on
the cheek of his sweetheart, I_lii.fir, would make a present. of Sam:trqand and lliil!hira.
Other poctb rejoice to see at least one black spot on the beautiful face of the beloved
who, without such an amulet, would be subject to the influence of the evil eye.
The spoken word, the idea expressed by a sound.
burden of its concrete component, and returns, as a single ray, to its 01i
place, the realm of thought. But the heavenly traveller occasionally
gives his course a different direction by means of Juan's fingers, ami having
passed along the continent of the pen and crossed the ocean of the ink,
alightR on the pleasant expanse of the page, aJHl rl'lums through the eye
of the reader to its wonted habitation.
As the letter is a representation of an llfti('ul:tte sound, I think it
necessary to give some information regarding (hP, htter.
The sound of a letter is a mode o( cxdcnf'c dcp(']lding on the nature of
the air. By we mean the striking togethrr of two hard suhstanees ;
and by the separation of the same. In both en.scs t,Jw intcrme<liate, like a wave, is set in motion; and thus the state is prorluccd which we
call sound. Some philosopher;; take soutH! to he the sreon<lary e!Ieet, and
dcfme it as the air set in motion ; hut others look upon it as the primary
eficet, i.e. they dc! sound to be the very or the of any hard
sub;;tances. Sound may be accompanied by modifying eircumstances ;
it may be a piano, deep, nasal, or guttural, as when the throat is aflectrd
by a cold. Again, from the nature of the organ with which man uUers :1
souwl, and the nmnner in whieh the partieles of the air divided, another
modifying circumstance may arise, as when two pianos, two deep, two
nasal, or two guttural sounds separate from each ot,lwr. Some, as Ahft
Sinli, call this modifying element, the sound of the letter;
others define it as the original state of the wund thus modified
but the far-sighted define an articulate sound as the union of the modifying
element anll the original state modified. This is evidently the correct
'l'hcre are fift,y-two articulate sonnr!R in Hindi, so and so many 1 in
Greek, ami eighleen in In Ambic there are twenty-eight letters
represented by <'ightecn signR, or by only fi.ftem wlwn we count the joined
letters, and if we take the llam:ah ltS one with the a/if. The reason for
writing an ali] n.nd a him separate! y ltR the end of the single letters in
the Arabic alphabet is merely to give an example of a siikin letter, which
must necessarily be joined to tnothcr letter; and the reason why the
letter l1im is preferred
aH <tn example is because the letter liim is the
Ah,-, 'I Fa?.! has forgotten to put iu tho n11mber. He en11nts e1ghtcen letters, or
rathrr 81J;!HS, 111 Ptrs:an.' bt.causc i:"' t nnd i.L' have the snnw fundamtntal f'ign.
Or rather, _the alf wa< preferred to the 1l"<tll' or yr/, heeausc these two letters
may be c1thrr .<akw or tnlllaliarnk. Hut the custom has become c'tahhsheu to. eall
the al1j, lutm:ah; and to eall the al1j, "hen srik!n, merely a!
,!bdulw1w, of Jlan8ah, Ill h1s excellent Pers1n11 Urn mmar. entitled H<B
llayi Abdui.
was. wh1ch 1s read all over Imha, says that the larn-allf has the meaning of not,
middle letter of the word alif, and the letter al1j the middle letter of the
word lam.
The vowel-signs did not exist in aneient times, instead of which letters
were dotted with a different kind of ink; thus a red dot place(! over a letter
expressed that the letter was followed by an a ; a red dot in front of the
letter signified au; and a red dot below a letter ani. H was Khalil ibn-i
the famous inventor of the Metrical Art of the Arabians, who
fixed the forms of the vowel-signs as they arc now in usc.
The beauty of a letter and its proportions depc!Hlmuch on personal
taste; hence it is that nearly every people has a separate alphabet. Thus
we find an Indian, flyriae, Greek, Hebrew, Coptic, !Uifi, ]{a8/nniri,
Abyssinian, Rny//(tnl, Arabic, Persian, Ilimyaritie, Berbery, Awlalusian,
Ril/11lni, and several other ancient systems of writing. :I'he invention of
the Hebrew chararters is traced in some poems to Adam-i Ilafthazi"ni;
hut some mention IdrTs
as the inventor. Others, however, say t.hat ld ris
perfected the character. According to several statements, the
KiHic character was derived by the libalifah from the
The difterence in the form of a letter in the several systems, lies
in the proportion of straight and round Htrokes ; thus the KiHic character
consists of one-sixth curvature and five-sixths straight lines; the
has no curved lines at all; hence the inscriptions which are
found on ancient buildings are mostly in this character.
In writing we have to remember that black and white look well, as
these colours best prevent ambiguities in reading.
In lri"m and Tiiriin, India and Turkey, there are eight caligraphical
i.e .. " do not read this compound lrim-al1j, hut P"" over it, when you say tho
Alphabet: look upon it as a mere example of a &il:in letter."
The term hamznh, as used here in native schoob, '"e:trefnlly chstingni,hcd from tho
terms Shakl-i Hamzah ancl 11Iarkizi J/amzah. Shakli llamzah '" the small sign
cnnsistin;; of a semicircle, one extremity of which sttmds upon a stra1ght line sl1ghtly
slantmg. Mar/n:z.i Hamzah is e1ther of the letters al1j, U'liw, or yli, but ehietly the
latter, when aceompaniccl by the 8/taJ.:l., lf11mzah. lfnmzah " a !(etwral term for
of the three letters al1j, W<iw, 1Jii, when ac-eompamccl by the 8hak/.i 1/amzah.
In grammars. the ehapter on Uw llamzah badly treated. beeause all
cxphtin the word Ilamzah as the name of a sign.
Another peculiarity of European grammars iB this, that 111 arranging the letters
of the alphabet, the wa1v is placed after the he; here in the East, the he is invariably
put before tho ya.
I He JS said to have been born A. H. 100, and died at Basrah, A. H. 175 or 190.
He wrote several works on the science which he had estabhHhrd, as also several
books on the rhyme,.lcxicographieal compilatwns, etc.
' Adam is called Haft-haoari, because the number of inhab1tants on earth at
his death had reached the number seven thousand. A better explanation is given
hy Badiioni (II, p. 337, I. 10), \yhO puts the creation of Adam secen thousand years
before his time. Vide the first A of tho Third Book.
ldris, or Enoch.
current, of whirh each one is liked by some people. Six of them
were derived in A.H. :no by lbn-i Muqlah from the and the
Kiific characters, viz., the Mu!wqqaq, NasYJ., Raylyiin,
Riqli5. .Some add the I ;b uoa1, and that this seventh character had
likewise been inwntcd by him. TheN asYJ. character is asc1ibed by many
to Yiiqut, a slave of the Kbalifah Billiih.
The ,Sul8 and the
N as@: consist each of one-third
curved lines, and two-thirds straight lines;
the former (the is J'aTi,
whilst the latter (the nasf!JJ is !sJiafi. The
Tauqi5 and consist of three-fourths curved lines and one-fourth
straight lines ; the former is jali, the latter is !sJinjl. The Mu!wqqaq and
Ray(tiin eontain three-fourths straight lines; the former, as in the pre-
ceding, is jal'i, ami the Ra!J(u!n is ls.!J.ufi.
Among famous copyists I must mention ibn-i Hiliil, better known
under the name of Ibn-i Bnu:zl'iib;
he wrote well the six characters.
Yi'Hjilt brought them to perfection. flix of Yi'tcjilt'H pupils are noticeable ;
1: Shaykl! Al.mmd, so well known under the name of Shayhh-ziida-yi
Suhrwardi; 2. Arad!im of Kabul; 3. )iawli'mii Yitsuf Shiih of .Mash,had;
4. Mawliini't Shiih, styled Zariin-qalmn (t.he golden pen; 5.
l.Iaydar, nandafmawls (i.e., the writer of thejali); G. Thlir Yal.Jya.
It'' remarbblo that, 111 t.hc whole chapter, there Is not the slightest allusion
to the art of printing. Nor <io Abti 'J.Fn?.l's letters, where nearly the whole of this
Arn is repeated, contalll a reference to prin!Pd boob. "The flrst book printed in
India was the Doctruw CliristlflnrL of Giovanni Gonsalvc7., a lay brothtr of the order
<>f the .Jesuits, who, aq far as l hnow, lif't ra>t Tamuhc rharal'tcrs in the year !577.
After this appeared, in 1578, a book entitled Flos Sanclorum, which was followed 17)
hy tho Tamulic l>ictionnry of !'ather AntoniO de Proenza, printed in 1079, at Amba-
lncnto, on Mw of From that Period the Danish Missionaries at
Tranqnohnr haVI' pnntr<l rnan,v work<, a catalogue of which may be found in Alberti
Salutaru; lu.c Hl'a1UJP!ti.n Johnston\ translation of Pra P. Da 8an
]omen',, l'oyaye to the Bast indo,,, p. :JUG. The l!ahan Original has the same years:
1577, 1\ii!l.
' He w.ts tht Lt>t an! rPigtwd from 1212 to 1258, when he wa., put to
drath by grand<on of 1\h:in. [/Jiihih Is uot in the text.--P.]
3 HrrH'l', t lw name .utl.>f, or onP-tlurd.
' Ja/i (1.0. dear) i.s a ttrrn u.<l'il by copyists to express that letters are thick, and
written 1nth a p<n fnll of 111k. 1/hois.---Khafi lhuld:11) '"the opposite.
. ' .ll'.''>l llrlll';'rib, and Yiq1it are the three oldest <:aligmphists men-
twnr<ln Vltflous hts!one<. rile followutg notes arc chiefly extracted from llakhiitwar
1\hiin' Mir-rif11l -
Ibn Jl11qlalt, or according to l1is full name, A Ali Muhammad ihn-i ibn-i
J_!a"'"'bn- Muqlah, was thr vtwr of the 1\halifah.< Muqta<!tr billah, Alqiihi(billah,
aud ArH:il.i lullah, who ned from A.D. 007 to 0-W. The last, cut off Ibn-i )fuqlah's
nght hand. He <lied 111 pnson, A. H. 327, or A. D. n:lS-V.
Ilm-i BIIU'I
'rib, or Abi1 '1-lla<:m dm i Htlal, ltved under the!th
Ahj<illlr, billah (.\. n. the I'Ontcmporai'Y of ll!ahmia] of <{Lazni,
ami r!t<t! A. H. 41 u. or A. D. l 02<>.
Y1iqil, or ;lha?Jili ,Jam<il" ."!-Din, wa., born at and was the Librarian
ol bilbh, the tlmtv-scvrnth and last l\halifah, who imprisoned him
tunc on_ n:c".'":t of Ius tendelllics. He sutvivcrl the !(l'neral slaughter
( J.a8) of Hahgu l\!nn, and tiled, at t.]w of one hundred and twentv A. H." 697
or A.D. 1297, durmg the retgn of <lhiiziin K)litn Haliigit's great grandson'. '
The following caligraphists are likewise well-known: RiHi Nasr" 'lliih,
also called Sadr-i qriiqi;; 'lliih; l\JJW<'ija

Sayrafi; ]:Ii"tji l\Tul.tammad; l\Tawliinii "Jliih-i Ashpaz; l\Iawliinii
Mul.t! of ShirCtz; 'd-Din-i Tani.iri; Shams" 'd-Din-i Abd"
'r-Ral)im-i Khali.ili (?); '1-l.layy; l\Iawhini"1 Jaqar
of Tabriz;
.Mawliinii Shah of l\Iawli"nui l\b5ri.if
of Baghdad; l\fawliina
Shams" 'd-Din Biiyasanghur; 'd-Din of Far;ih: '1-I,Iaqq of
Sahzwiir; :\lauliinii 'Wih-i Bawwiib ; Klnviijagi Mmpin-i
l\brwiirid, the inventor of variegated papers and sands for strewing
on the paper : Sultan Ibrfthim, son of l\Iirzii 8hCthrukh ; l\TawEmii
Mul.tammad Hakim }Etfb:; J\Iawliini"t l\Ial.mtild Siyii,iish; Mawhinii
Jamal" 'd-Din !Iusayn; Mawllmi"t Pir l\Iul.tammad; Mawliini"t Fazl
'1-Ifaqq of Qazwin.
A seventh kind of writing is called which has heen derived from
the Hirjli5 antl the Tawrfi5. It contains very few straight lines, aml was
brought to perfection by Klny<-tja Tiij-i Salmi"Llli,
who also wrote well the
other six rharaeters. Some say that he was the inventor.
Of modern caligraphists I may mention: 1\Tawl;inii bd" 'I-I !ayy, the
Private Rccrctary
of Bult,i"m Abti 1\Jirzi"t, who wrote well;
Amir Mawliinii Ibri"thim o Astariibi"td;
Klnyiija Ihbtiyi"tr;
'd-Din; Mulptmmad of Qazwin;
l\IawEmi"d dris; IUnyiij;1l\lul;ammad II usayn M unshi; and Ashraf l51tiin,
He l1 ved 111 the beguuung of the Jifteenth century, at the tnnc of lllirzii i:lhiihrukh
I 1401-4 7).
A contemporary and nval of the great poet Salm'-"' of ;;;,-,wah (died 7()9). Tho
nttrne to have been commonml\aglldad since the tunes of tho famouK
saint of 1\.arlsll (:t part of Baghd:id).
The JJ!akillb<it and the Mir
<i( also mention 1\Iull;i AbiL Balu, ttnd Shay!ili
' Aceordmg to the Maktiibiit anc1 several M;;;s., Sulaymiiui.
In the original text., p. 1!4, I. ii, by rnislttkc, 'J.IJnyy and the
l\Iun"hi of ilnlt:in Abii
1\IawLinit Darwish :Vluharnmad was a friend of the famous Amir Shcr, tho
vizier of Hulu'in llu"'tyn 1\lirz[t, king of Kllllriisiin (A.D. l-170 to 1505), and the
patron of the poet Jiimi. Mawlanii Darwisb entered aftcrwarcls tlw service of Shtdt
.Junaycl-i king of Pcrsi11 (A.D. 1499 to 1525). A biography of the Mawliinii
may be found in the Ala
dxir-i Ra!1imi, p. 751.
7 Kh\viija lkhtiyar, tho contemporary nne! successful rival of tho preceding
caligraphist. He was Priv:1te Secretary to SuJtiin Husayn 1\firzii.
s This is tho title of Muhammad As!!:har, a H11yytcl from lllashhad-or according
to the 'fahaqiit-i Akbari, from Ho served Humiiyim as Mir Mumhi,
and Mir :liiili. He accompaniccl Tarcli llcg on his Jhght from Dihli, was
imprisoned hy Bayram, and had to go to Mecca. He roJmncr1 Akbar m A. H. 9u8,
when B11ynim had just fallen in disgraro, received ill the following year tho title of
Ashraf Kluin, and sorved under 1\h;in in Bengal. lie dted in the tenth
year of Akbar's reign, A. H. 973. In Abu 'J.J<'azl's list of grandees, in the second book,
Ashraf l;\]1iin is quoted as a commander of two thousand. lladii,oni mentions him
among the contemporaneous poets. Abu Ashraf Kl1iin's son, was, A.D.
1596, a commander of five hundred.
the Private Secretary of his who improved the very
The eighth character which I have to mention is the it
entirely of round lines. They &ay that Mir of Tabriz, a
contemporary of Timl!r, derived it from the Naskh and the but
this can Hcarccly he correct hecau::;c there exist books m the
character written ]Jeforo Timl!r's time. Of 1\lir pupils, I may
mention two:
MawEnii of Tabriz, and Mawliini't Azhar; and of
other caligraphiHts in 1\hwliiwi Mnl.mmnutd of Awbah (ncar Hiriit),
an excellent writer; Mawliin:i Biiri of Hiriit; and l\lawli'ma Sultan

Mash,had, who surpasses them all. He imitated the writing of Mawliinii
A11har, though he did not learn from him personally. Six of his pupil&
are well known: Rulti'm Mul,Ianunad-i lQJandan;
Sultan Mu]:lammad
Nur; Mawliini't 'd-Din
of Hiriit; l\1awliina Zayn" 'd-Din (of
Nishiipilr); Mawliinii of Nishiipilr; Mu]:lammad Qiisim Shiidi Shah,
each of whom possessed some distinguishing qualities.
Besides these, there are a great number of other good caligraphists,
who are famous for their skill in as Mawliinii Sult;iin of
l\Iawliina of Mashhad;
Mawliina Hijriini;
after them the illustrious Mawliinii l\Iir

the pupil, as it appears, of
l\1awliinii Zayun 'd-Din. He brought his art to perfection by imitating
the writing of Sult.<in of Mash,had. The new method, which he
established, is a proof of his genius: he has left many masterpieces. Some
one asked him once what the difference was between his writing and that
of the Mawliinii. He said, "I also have brought writing to perfection;
but yet, his method has a peculiar charm."
The Jllu'<it mentions a tlmd l!nmedinte pupil of 1\!ir Mawhin<i
lifn!atmmad, and re!at<s that he put Mir name to Ins own wntmgs, without
gtving offrnce to his mastrr.
l!e also was a fnend of Amir .\li Sher, and <hed A.H. 910, durin a the reign of
Sultlin llusayn )lirzii. mentioned m the fourth note. b
He called lihanrl<in, as he was always happy. He was a friend of Amir
Shrr, and dicrl A. H. 915.
' Jn tho Ma4lilb<il 'd.!Jin Muhammad of Hiriit.
' llo was the instructor of l'ultiin llusayn Mtrz.i's children, and died A. H. 914.
Q<iytn is a town, il.E. of 1\hur[tsiin, near the frontier of Afgllanistiin. It is
:-.pPlt Uhrtyan on our maps.
' Acconlin!-( to the Jlakltib<it, l\Iawlan'i Sultan 8her of l\Ia&hhad, which is
evidently the correct read mg.
A poet and friend of Amir Hhe1. He d1cd A.H. 921.
' Mawliin'i 1\Iir a Sayyid of Hinit, diod A.H. 924. As a poet ho is often
with A!ir Ahmad, son of lllir Khusraw of Dihli, and Bayriim JSliiin,
Akbar s K!Iankhauan, as a master of Da/il!_l poetry. DalsJil, or entering, is the skilful
use wluch a poet makcq of verse,, or parts of verses, of another poet.
In conclusion, 1 may mention: Shah l\Ial.unild
of Nishi'tplir; Mal.uniid
Is-4iiq; Shamsu 'd-Din of Kirmiin; Maw lana Jamshed, the riddle-writer;
Ilusaynof Kbujand; .MawEmii Ghiyrtsn'd-Din, the gilder;
Mawliini't 'Abd" Mawliinii Malik: 1\l:mlanii 'Ahdu '!-Karim;
Mawlanii 'Abdu 'r-llal,1im of TQnviirizm; 1\fawhinii;
Mawliinii Shah l\hl,nniid-i Zarrinq:.tlam (or gold pen); l\lawliinii
mad Husayn
of Tahriz; Mawli\nii Ilasan 'Ali of ?IIir :\lu'izz
of Kiislvin; l\Iirzii Ibrahim of ; and several others who have
devoted their lives to the improvement of the art.
His MajeHty shows much regard to the art, and takrs a great interest
in the different systems of writing; hence the large number of skilful
caligraphists. N asta'liq has especially received a new impetus. The artist
who, in the shadow of the throne of his llajesty, has become a master of
caligraphy, is linl_lammad I,Iusayn
of Kashmir. He has been honoured
with the title of Zarrinqalam, the gold pen. He surpassed his master
Mawlam'i 'Ahdu his rnaddiit and dawii'ir
show everywhere a
proper proportion to each other, and art critics consider him equal to
l\lulla Mir 'Ali. Of other renowned caligraphists of the prcs<:nt age, I must
mention Mawliina Biiqir, the son of the illustrious Mu!Hi :vlir 'Ali; Mui.Jam-
mad Amin of Mash.had; Mir l:fusayn-i Kulanki; Mawliinii 'Abd" '1-I.lay;
l\lawliinii Dawri;
l\iawliinii 'r- Ral)im ; l\Hr 'Abel" 'lbh; of
Qazwin; Chaman of Kashmir; Nflr" 'llah Qasim Arsaliin.
His library is divided into several parts ; some of the books
are kept within, and some without, the Harem. Each part of the library
According to the Mnkt,;(,,lt and the Jhr'rll, :,>hiih Muirammod of Nishiipur.
Both mention another caligraphist, Mir Sayyid Ahmnrl of Ma,,hharl.
' He wo.s the tc<tcher of tho celebrated cahgraphist 'Irnrid, whor.e bio11raphy
w>ll be found in the Mir'rLt. Vide also tho prefare of Dr. Sprenger's Guli.<Wn.
He died A. H. 1020, six years after Akbar'H death.
' By Jludd<it (extensions), caligmphhts mean letters hkc ......,, ...; ; by rlawri'ir
(curvatures), letter,, hke "'' 1:'
Draw four horizontal lines at equal intervals; cnll the .<pare., between thorn
a, b, c, of which a h the highest. Evory letter whirh f11b i he sparr b i,l a
8hil8ha; as i, ll, "" The diacritical points aro immaterial. BvPry line above fJ
i' called a rnarkaz; every line below b, in c, a dawa11, eon"ists of a
sh1isha and a markaz; V" of a 8hilsha and a drim11n. The knob uf a{' .._;, or J
iJ called kalla. Thus ...; is a Madrla, comisting of a kalln, and <1 drinuw; so also
t: L'' J. The Jconsists of a rnarkaz and a driman.
In Grammar the word markaz means the same as sh<islw in caligraphy ; tl1us
l, J., consist of a rnarlcaz, and <I shakli hamza.
By mean any additional strokes, or refilling a
writ.tcn letter with ink (Hind. Biyiihi IJharna), or erasing (thnd. chhil>ui).
6 His name is Biiyizid; he was born at lhriit. Dawri IS his poetical
name. Vide Badaoni's list of poets (vol. iii of tho Bib\. Indica). Al<bar lHstowed
on him the title of Kiitib 'l.JIIulk, the writer of the empirr. HI< pupil was l_\h\)'iija
1\'lui,Jammad Husayn, an AI,Jadi (vide Radaoni, ii, p. 39-1, where for Ibrahim, in the
Tari!lh, read Bardhim).
is subdivider], according to the value of the books anJ the estimation in
which the arc held of which the books treat. Prose books,
poetical works, Hindi, Persian, Greek, Arabic,! are all
separately placed. In orJcr they are a!Ho inspected. Experienced
people bring them daily and read them before ,\Iajcsty, who hears
every book from the beginning to the enrl. At whatever page the readers
daily stop, His Majesty with his own pen a sign, acconling to the
number of the pages ; and rcwarJs the readers with presents of cash,
either in gold or silver, according to the number of leaves read out by
them. Among boob of renown, there arc few that are not read in his
MajeBty's assembly hall; and there arc no facts of the past ages,
or curiosities of or of philosophy, with which
His Majesty, a leader of impartial :;ages, is nn;uIJIIaintcd. He docs not
get tired of hearing a book over again, but listens to the reading of it
with more interest. The A]ilil<-tq-i the Kimiyii-yi the
Qiihusniima, the works of 8hamf of (vide p. GO), the GulisEtn, the
of l,!n kim 8an<-t'i, tlw l\[asnawi of the Jiim-i Jam, the
Bustiin, the 8hiilm<i nm, the coller:tcrl l\lasnawis of Hhaykh Niziimi, tl1e
works of 1\ and ,\[awFtH<-t .Jiimi, the Diwiins uf l""biirjiini, Anwari,
and several works on History, arc contirmally rea1l out to His Majesty.
Philologists const.aHtly engage<! in translating Hindi, Greek, Arabic,
and Persian boob, into other l<tnguag':>. 'l'h11s a part of the Ziehi-i .T adirl-i
Mirzi't'i (vid1 :lr<l book, A'in l) was tr:w.,Jaterl ll]l(lrr the superintendence
of Amir Fatl.1" 'llah of 8hiniz (vide p. 3,f), :nul also the KiohnjoBhi, the
Gang:-tdhar, the ,\l:thiinaml, from Hindi into Persian,
according tot he intr'fpretation of the author of this book. The :ll'Iah:-t-
bhiimt which belong:; to the ancient books of has likewise been
translated, from Hindi into unrlN the superintendence of Naqib
l\LmFtHi't '1-Q<idir of Hadiiou,
and Slmykb. Sultan of
Ob<!'C\'C thal tho AmhH illlob art pLH'rtllast. [But see p. 10+, hne 4.-R.]
ltrg1tnling thi-, n'nowtll'(l man, vHle Ablt list of UrandPc:-1, 2nd book,
No. Hi!.
'-Mull:\ .\lHl
'1-Q,\tltr: portil'ally st.ylel q,;diri, was lwrn A. H. D47 for D+9] nt
Badnort, 11 town ncar lllhii. He was tin two )'l'nrs older than Akbar. HIS father
whom IH' lost in illi!l, was calll'<l Nh:d,, atHl was a pU]Hl of the Satnt
Bechii of S,tmbhal. Abdu '1-Q.itbr. or llod1ioni, as wo eall him, studied
scteuce"' nuder t hr H'llO\\ twd at11l pion"! mrn of hHl Hffl' most of whom ho
in tlw br!.!inmng: of tlw third volume of his JlwlfakhaiJ. He oxcolled in
llis:.ory. and""" on ac<nunt ht< bca1;tiful voi<'c appointor!
Court Imam for \\ l'<lnc<days. lll lwd early hcf'n mtrOlluect! to Akbar by Jaliil
Khin Qiirchi (l'idc of Ur.utder. 211<1 book, No. 2l:l). For forty yrars Rad<ioni
lived in company with Rhaykh an<l l<'a.v!i and Abi't '1-Fa?.l, the Shaybh's
sons; but '"" no su1core fnend<lup between them, as Badiioni looked upon
them as heretlcs. At the command of Akbar, he translated the Ramayan ( Badiioni,
The book contains nearly one hundred thouRand verses:
His Majesty calls this ancient history Razmniima, the book of Wars. The
same learned men translated alw into Persian the Rami'tyan, likewise a
book of ancient Hindustan, which containR the life of H<im Chandra, but
is full of interesting points of Philosophy. J:Iiji Ibrahim of trans-
lated into Persian the Atharlmn
which, to the Hindus, is one of
II, pp. :l3U, 3liti), from the Hans<rit into Persian, rec<'II'IIIi( for t\\enty-four thousand
sinks 150 Ashrafis and 10,000 Tangahs; nn<l parts of th<
from the History of H:tshi<l; am! the lia!o>< 'klsmrir, 11 work on the Jlodi.<, A ropy
of anot.her of his worl;s, entitled NaJiil'' 'r-llas!tid, may he found tlw Persian
MHS. of the As. Soc. Bengal. His historiral 11ork, entitled MnnlrrfJ!.at" 't-7'auriri!J!.,
is much as written by an enemy of Al<har, whose rharader, in its grandeur
and its failings, mul'h mnro promi11r11t t.ha11 in 1lw .Al.'6GJ nri nw or the '!.'abflqfi,t-i
Aklmri or the Mn,;.<ir-i llahimi. lt is espol'inlly of value for I he rPiigiou' viewH of
the emperor, and contains of most famoH:'l mrn and poctH of
Akbar's time. The H1slory ends with tlw brginnin;r of A. H. OI' ('irY<'n J<'ltrS
bf'foro Akbar's <kalh. and we may c:onclnde t.hat lladiioni di<d soon afttr that. year.
'l'hc book was kept secret, and aecordinf( to a statement in the Nirar" lam, it
Wil" made public during the reign of Jahiingir, who his d"plcasme by diB
bolwving the statement of lladi\oni's dJildrtn that they tlwmsrlv<'Y had lwcn
unaware of the existence of the book. The Tuzuk-i .Talu!ngiri unfortunatPiy says
notlnng about this circumstttnt'f'; but Batliioni's work was l'rrtamly not !mown m
A. H. l02ii, tho tenth year of .Jahiinf(ir's reign, in "Judi the l!ahimi was
wnttPn, whose author complained of the w:tnt of a history Lesid the 'I' a baqiit, ttnd
the Akbarniima.
1 n point of style, llacHoni is much iniPrior to llakhLiwnr Khan ( Jl!ir
at" lam)
and Muhammad Kazim (tho Nauw), but some" hat. superior to his friend
Mirz:i Nnftmu 'tl-Din Ahmad of Hiriit, author of the and A btl" 'I llarni<l of
Liihor, author of tho l'tidishtih11uma.
'1-Qiidir of lla<hion not be confounded with Mawliinii Qiidiri, another
leamed man eontemporamous with Akbar.
Vide Badiioni l!, p. 278; alit! for l_lii]i luriihim, iii, p. 13!1. [Ii, p. 278.-ll.]
"In this year (A. H. 983, or A.D. 1575) a learned Brahnun, Hhayklt Bhiiwan,
hat! come from the Daldlln and turned Muhammadan, when l!Is Majest.y gave me the
order to translate the Atharban. Severa.! of the rehgious prccrpt.s of tins book
resemble tho laws n Islam. As in translatlll)l I found many dillicult passages,
which Shaykh Bhiiwan could not interpret either, I reported the circumstance to
His Majesty, who ordered 1-lhaykh l<'ayzi, and then l,liiji l briihim, to translate it.
The btter, though willing, did not write anything. Among the precepts of the
Atharban, there is ono which says that no man will bo s:>vcd unless he read a certain
passage. This passage contains many times the letter l, and resembles very much our
La illrih" illrZ '1-li/h. Besides, I found that a Hindu, under rertfiln conditions, mav cat
cow tlesh; and another, that Hmrliis bury th<ir dead, but do not burn them. \Vith
such passages the Hhaykh used to defeat other Brahmins in argument; an<l they
had in fact let! him to embrace Islam. Let us praise God for his cuuverswn!"
Bmlrioni, ii, p. 212.
Tho translation of tho Mah;ibh;irat was not quito a failurr. " For two nights
His Majesty himself translated somo passages of the l\fah1ihhiirat, aiHl told Naqib
1\Juin to write down the genoralmeaninq in Persian; the third he associated
me with Naqib K!Jan ;'and, after three or four months, two of the eighteen chapters
of thoso useless absurdities-enough to confou!ld tho eighteen worlds- were laid
before His Majesty. But the emperor took exception to my tr:mslatwu, and called
me a Ilaramls!!_ur and a turnip-eater, as if that was my share of the book Another
part was subsequently finished by Naqib Khiin and Mull,i Hhcri, and another part
by Sultan I.liiji of Thancsar; then Shaykh Fayzi was appointed, w}JO wrote two
chapters, prose and poetry; then the l.liiJi wrote two othPr part,, adding a verbal
translation of the party that had been left out. He thus a hundredjuz together,
closely written, so exactly rendered, that even the accidental dirt of flies on the
the four divine books. The Lilawati, which is one of the most excellent
works written by Indian mathematicians on arithmetic, lost its Hindii veil,
and received a Persian garb from the hand of my elder brother, Shaykh
'1-Fan-i Fan;Ll At the command of His Majesty, Mukammal
Khan of Gujriit translated into Persian the Titjak, a well-known work.on
Astronomy. The Memoirs
of Bitbar, the Conqueror of the world, winch
may be callcrl a code of practical wisdom, have been translated :ro_m
Turkish into Persian by }Jirzii Khiin, the present hhan
Khiinim (Commander-in-Chirf). The History of Kashmir, which
over the last four thousand vears, has been translated from Kashmir1an
into Persian 3 by l\Iawl<in:i Sl;:ih 1'1Jul_1arnnwl of Shiib;ib;id. The
'l-Buld(7n, an excellent work on towns and countries, l1as been translated
from Arabic into Persian bv several Arabic scholars, as Mullii Al.mmd of
Qiisim Beg, Sha;kh Munawwar, and others. The Harib(7s, a
book containing the life of Krislnm, was translated into Persian by
l\Iawliinii Sheri (vide the poetical extracts of the second book). By order
of His Majesty, the author of this volume composed a new version of the
Kalilah Damnah, and published it under the title of Diinish.
The original is a maHterpicce of practical wisdom, but is full of rhetorical
difficulties; and though 'llah-i i\lustawfi and Mawliinii I.fusayn-i
Wii 'iii has tran,lated it into their style abounds in rare metaphors
and difficult wonk The Hindi story of the love of Nal and Daman, which
melts the hearts of feeling rradrrs, has heen mctricnlly tranKiated by my
original waB not. 1<-ft out; but he was soon afttr dnv<'n from Court, and 1s now in
Bhakknr. Other translators arul interprPters. however, continut> nowadays the
fight between Parr<)i'" and the 1\ ur[rs. May Uod Almighty protect those that are
not engaged in this work. and their r<pcnt.ancr, and hear the prayer of pardon
of evC'ry orw who tloN1 not hult\ dtsgust, and whose hC'art rl'sts in lsl1im; for
'He allows nH'n to rPturn to Hun in rPplntarwe!' This Razmniima was illuminated.
and repeatedly copir<l; the grandrcs were ordered to make copies, and c;Abdn 'l.J<'azl
wrote nn introdndron to it of about two juz, ete." Badiioni, ii, p. 302. A copy of
this translation in two volnmee, containing <'iglrteen .fans (,) IS among the MI-lS. of
the As. Soc. of Bengal, No. J:l29. Oneju:(;;-) =sixteen pages quari,o, or 1-\vo sheets.
This work has ueen printed. Abu 'l.l'a?J'S words llu!d<t ve<l are an allusion to
. Lilawati's AOX.
Vide 'l'uzuki Jah>ingiri, p. 417. Tho Timiir were translated into
Persian. during tho rl'ign of by Mir AM T:ihb-i Turhati. l'iidshiihnama
ii, p. 288, r.dit. Ribl. Indiea. "Conqueror of the world." geli sitiini. is Ri\bar's title.
Regarding the title> of tho Mogul Emperors from Biibar to Bahadur Shiih vide
Journal As. Soc. Bengal for 1 HtiH. Part I. p. 3!l. '
" During this year (A. H. 999, or A.D. 1590-1), I received the order from His
Majesty to re.write in an easy style, the HiHtory of Kashmir, which Mullii Shah
Muhammad of SIHih:ibi\d, a very man. had translated into Persian. I finished
this in. two when work was put into the Imperial Library,
to bo read out to Hts lllajesty rn 1t.s turn. Bwl!ioni, ii, p. 374.
' the tragic end _of this " ", v1de Badrioni, ii, p. 364. Notices
regardmg the other two men w11l be found m the third volume of Badiioni.
For c; Tyari Danish. Such abbreviations are common in titles.