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INTEGRATION OF THE
SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE
OF COST ENGINEERING
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Section I - Supporting Skills and Knowledge
Engineering Economics
Terminology
Computers
Statistics and Probability
Optimization
Productivity Management
Human Relations-Behavioral Science
Organizational Structures
Measurements
Section II - Cost Estimating
Estimating Basics
Contractors Costs
Owners Costs
Section III - Cost Control
Work Breakdown Structure and Code of Accounts
Earned Value (also Achieved and Accomplished Value)
Key Cost Control Techniques
Section IV - Planning and Scheduling
Planning Basics
Scheduling Basics
Schedule Control
Section V - Contract Management
Contracting Arrangement
Contract Administration
Section VI - Economic Analysis and Business Planning
Budgeting and Cash Flow
Value Engineering
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Scheduling
Start of Chapter 13
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Become familiar with scheduling terms.

Gain an understanding of scheduling methods and techniques including each
ones benefits and risks.

Become familiar with the most commonly used method and technique that will
meet your project objectives.

Obtain an understanding of work breakdown structures (WBS) and the
dependencies between work tasks to enhance team efficiencies.

Apply overlapping schedule techniques and calculations that reflect real-world
management applications.

Become familiar with managing changes to the schedule.
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The plan, schedule, and progress of the program or project can be depicted
graphically on a single chart.
Figure 13.1 shows the six-activity plan, 15-week schedule, and current status.
The current status shows that:
- Activity B has not started and is behind schedule (by 5 weeks),
- Activity C is slightly ahead of schedule (by 1 week),
- Activity E is slightly behind schedule (by 2 weeks), and
- all other activities are on schedule.
-However, it cannot be determined if Activity B or Activity E will have an impact on
another activity or on the project completion.
Bar Chart (Gantt Chart) Method
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Critical Path Method (CPM)
The critical path method (CPM) is a scheduling technique using arrow,
precedence, or PERT diagramming methods to determine the length of a project
and to identify the activities and constraints on the critical path.
The critical path method enables a scheduler to do the following:
Determine the shortest time in which a program or project can be completed.
Identify those activities that are critical and that cannot be slipped or delayed.
Show the potential slippage or delay (known as float) available for activities that
are not critical..
Project Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
Project evaluation review technique (PERT) is a probabilistic technique, used
mostly by government agencies, for calculating the most likely durations for
network activities.
Discussion of CPM
Two basic methods of critical path scheduling are the following:
the arrow diagramming method (ADM) (also called activity-on-arrow, or
the i - j method),
the precedence diagramming method (PDM) (also called activity-on-node).
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Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
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Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
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Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
The benefit of using the PDM for networking and scheduling is the ease of applying
overlapping techniques to the activity relationships
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Overlapping Networks Techniques
Overlapping consists of two parts:
a relationship and a lag value or constraint.
Four types of overlapping relationships exist:
1. finish-to-start + lag (FS + N) Where N is lag,
2. finish-to-finish + lag (FF + N),
3. start-to-start + lag (SS +N), and
4. start-to-finish + lag (SF + N).
start + lag (FS + N) - to - finish A lag (SS+N) start + - to - start A
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Overlapping Networks Techniques
finish + lag (FF + N) - to - finish A
start + lag (SS+N) - to - start A
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WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
Activity Coding
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Figure 13.12Nonconstruction WBS
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Forward and Backward Passes for Overlapping Relationships
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Forward and Backward Passes for Overlapping Relationships
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Float
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Constraints
SCHEDULING LEVELS AND REPORTING
Milestone Level Schedule 1 Level
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SCHEDULING LEVELS AND REPORTING
Project Detailed Schedule 3 Level
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SCHEDULING LEVELS AND REPORTING
Interval Schedule - Short 4 Level
A Level 4 schedule is a two-to-six week look-ahead schedule
that shows resource assigned, detailed, and work activities, and is used for
planning and progress reporting purposes, review and assignment of current
week work plans, and advance planning for near-term future week work (Figure
13.21).
This level is sometimes referred to as short-cycle schedule since the process for
its use is a weekly cycle of collecting progress, working the current week, and
planning future work assignments.
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Schedule Reporting
Early Start Dates Report:
A listing of activities sorted by early start dates.
This listing provides the scheduler and management with the activities that are
scheduled to start by ascending dates.
Total Float Report:
The activities are sorted by total float in ascending value beginning with values
of TF = 0. The report first lists all activities that are on the critical path (TF = 0),
and then lists all other activities grouped by total float values.
Precedence Report:
This is a listing by activity early start dates.
However, the significance is the identification of all predecessor and successor
activities for each activity.
This report is used by planners for debugging schedules and comparing
relationships on the network diagrams to those in the schedule reports.
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Schedule Plots
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Schedule Plots
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Test Yourself!
1. The Work Breakdown Structure is valuable because it allows:
A. Project details to be broken down into different groupings for analysis and control
purposes.
B. All projects to be configured into the same number of work packages
C. The highest level of the structure to represent work packages for easy reference
D. Similar activities to have identical identifying codes
2. Activity A has a duration of five days. Activity B has a duration of 15 days and
cannot start until one day after Activity A is complete. Activity C has a duration of
ten days and cannot finish until four days after Activity B is complete.
The total duration of the project is
A. 30 days
B. 31 days
C 25 days
D. 24 days
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3. Refer to question # 2. What logic change would take Activity B off of the critical
path?
A. Replace the FS relationship between Activities A and B with an SF + 21 days
relationship, and replace the FF relationship between Activities B and C with an
SS + 9 days relationship

B Remove the FS relationship between Activities A and B, and replace with an SS
+ 6 days relationship. Change the FF relationship between Activities B and C to
FF + 0 (no lag)
Create an FS + 10 day relationship between Activities A and C

C. Allow Activity B to start immediately after Activity A is complete and change the
relationship between Activities B and C to FF + 5 days

D. Change the relationship between Activities A and B to FF + 16 days and the
relationship between Activities B and C to SS + 9 days
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3. Refer to question # 2. What logic change would take Activity B off of the critical
path?
A. Replace the FS relationship between Activities A and B with an SF + 21 days
relationship, and replace the FF relationship between Activities B and C with an
SS + 9 days relationship

B Remove the FS relationship between Activities A and B, and replace with an SS
+ 6 days relationship. Change the FF relationship between Activities B and C to
FF + 0 (no lag)
Create an FS + 10 day relationship between Activities A and C

C. Allow Activity B to start immediately after Activity A is complete and change the
relationship between Activities B and C to FF + 5 days

D. Change the relationship between Activities A and B to FF + 16 days and the
relationship between Activities B and C to SS + 9 days
4. Refer to question # 3. What is the float of Activity B once taken off the critical
path?
A. 5 days
B 4 days
C. 3 days
D. 2 days
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5. All of the following are true of a dummy activity except:
A. It is unique to ADM networks
B. It has no time duration
C. It ensures an activity has a unique i-j designator
D. It cannot be used to show relationships between activities with more than one
predecessor.
Use the following to answer questions 6-8.
A project consists of the following activities:
Activity Duration Predecessors
A 10 -
B 15 A
C 12 A(SS+5)
D 10 C
E 5 B,D
6. The project duration is:
A. 30
B 32
C. 35
D. 37
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7. The critical activities are
A. A, E
B. A, B, E
C. A, C, D, E.
D. A, B, C, D, E

8. The formula for the early start of activity E is
A. B Early Finish 1
B. B Early Finish +1
C. D Early Finish -1
D. D Early Finish +1.

9. Free Float is
A. Always less than total float
B. Always more than total float
C. Less than or equal to total float.
D. Greater than or equal to total float

10. To crash a schedule you begin by reducing durations of the activities with
A. The most total float
B. The most free float
C. The least free float
D. Zero total float.
E. The greatest cost per day
End of Chapter 12
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Planning
Start of Chapter 13
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1. Planning can be defined as
A. Influencing the future by making decisions based on missions, needs, and
objectives

B. The process of stating goals and determining the most effective way of reaching
them

C. Future-oriented decision process defining the actions and activities, the time and
cost targets and the performance milestones that will result in successfully
achieving objectives

D. All of the above.

2. Establishing a planning culture
A. Minimizes the importance of management buy-in and support for the planning
process

B. Requires commitment by top management, continues with communication of that
commitment to mid-level managers, and becomes rooted when every employee
relates unequivocally with the companys goals.

C. Ensures that each organization has the authority to act independently of
established policies when developing plans

D. Is not beneficial to the goals of the company and the cost of establishing this
culture should be avoided
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3. Scheduling and planning are synonymous terms and are interchangeable when
describing logically arranging activities.
A True
B. False

4. Planning tools include commercial handbooks, company operating procedures,
model plans, checklists, and historical databases.
A. True
B False

5. The major elements of planning are
A. Scope of work, time, cost, resource, quality, post completion review and change.
B. Scope of work, scheduling, cost, resource, quality and change
C. Time, cost, resource, quality and change
D. Scope of work, time, cost, resource, contingency and change

6. Contingency planning is recognizing that change is inevitable and providing
alternatives in the form of:
A. Alternate plans
B. Budgets and schedules
C. Alternate plans, budgets and schedules.
D. Budgets and work-arounds
End of Chapter 13
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