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ECE 465 ACOUSTICS

LECTURE ON LOUDSPEAKERS
Definition:
LOUDSPEAKER is a device that converts eectrica AC a!dio c!rrent to an
aco!stica so!nd "ave#
Types:
1) according to Transduction:
a$ Electroagnetic principle ! aso %no"n as &d'na(ic) t'*e+ e(*o's a coi
o, (a-netic "ires "o!nded on a .o..in /this is the voice coi$ in .et"een a
stron- (a-netic ,ied o, North and So!th ,ied *oes o, a circ!ar *er(anent
(a-net# The .o..in (oves the s*ea%er0s dia*hra-(+ th!s so!nd is *rod!ced
in reation "ith the eectrica a!dio c!rrent#
.$ Pie"oelectric principle a s*ea%er t'*e e(*o'in- a .i1(or*h ee(ent as its
transd!cin- ee(ent+ the eectrica a!dio c!rrent "i ,o" thr!0 the ee(ent+
and once this ha**en+ the ee(ent "i vi.rate (echanica' (ovin- ,or"ard
and .ac%"ard+ and since this ee(ent is (echanica' connected to s*ea%er0s
dia*hra-(+ the dia*hra-( "i (ove air (oec!es in ,ront o, it+ th!s so!nd is
*rod!ced in reation to eectrica a!dio c!rrent and (echanica vi.ration o, the
.i1(or*h ee(ent#
#) according to $re%uency Response:
a$ &ig' fre%uency (&$) or t)eeters ! ran-in- ,ro( 4 %23 to 45 %23
/so(eti(es !* to 65 %23$
.$ *id+fre%uency (*$) or s%ua,ers ! ran-in- ,ro( 455 23 to aro!nd 7 %23#
c$ Lo) fre%uency (L$) or )oofers ! ran-in- ,ro( 45 23 to 555 23#
d$ $ull range spea,ers ! s*ea%ers "ith ,re8!enc' res*onse ran-in- ,ro( 45 23
45 %23#
Specifications to consider in c'oosing loudspea,ers:
1) Po)er -apacity ! re,ers to the *o"er that can .e handed .' the s*ea%er ,ro(
nor(a to (a9i(!( *o"er !nder a s*eci,ied condition#
Types:
a$ Contin!o!s *o"er the *o"er that can .e handed .' the o!ds*ea%er
contin!o!s' /,or 44 ho!rs$ "itho!t da(a-in- its voice coi: !s!a' a *in%
noise is !sed as a si-na "hie this is (eas!red#
.$ Pro-ra( *o"er the *o"er that can .e handed ,or a de,inite *eriod o,
ti(e /t'*ica en-th o, a ive *ro-ra($ and !s!a' ar-er than contin!o!s
*o"er in (a-nit!de as "e as .and1i(ited !sin- C1"ei-htin- ,iter#
c$ Pea% *o"er the *o"er .ased on transients or s!r-e c!rrents+ !s!a' 4
ti(es as hi-h as contin!o!s *o"er+ .!t can .e handed ,or the t'*ica
d!ration o, a transient si-na /ess than a second$# This *o"er "hen
a**ied to s*ea%er contin!o!s' (a' .!rn and destro' the voice coi o, the
s*ea%er#
Pea% ;!sic Po"er O!t*!t /P;PO$ a <ALSE *o"er co((on' !sed to
s*eci,' the *ea% so!nd *o"er *rod!ced .' a o!ds*ea%er that !s!a'
(iseads (ost o, s*ea%er .!'ers at eectronics or (!sic store# This *o"er has
no .asis "hether a *artic!ar s*ea%er can deiver the said so!nd *o"er "itho!t
da(a-in- or destro'in- its voice coi# ;ost cons!(er t'*e s*ea%ers !sed in
ho(e entertain(ent s'ste(s s!ch as CD *a'ers are s*eci,ied in ter(s o, this
*o"er "hich is NOT TRUE#
#) $re%uency Response as (entioned a.ove# The ,re8!enc' so!nd a *artic!ar
s*ea%er can re*rod!ce de*endin- on the ,re8!enc' s*ectra o, the a!dio c!rrent#
.) /pedance in AC+ "e de,ined this as the TOTAL o**osition to the ,o" o,
c!rrent considerin- the e,,ects o, reactive co(*onents *rod!ced .' ind!ctors and
ca*acitors /this ,or(s the o!ds*ea%er e8!ivaent circ!its$# This *ara(eter is
,re8!enc' de*endent+ !s!a' (eas!red at 455 23 tone# T'*ica va!e is 7 oh(s#
0) Sensiti1ity the a.iit' o, the o!ds*ea%er to *rod!ce a o!d so!nd /(eas!red in
d=1SPL$ at a distance o, > (eter in its ,ront !sin- a *in% noise si-na ,eed at an
eectrica *o"er o, > ?att#
2) Directi1ity factor (3) or Directi1ity /nde4 (D/) this tes the directiona
o!dness o, a o!ds*ea%er in a *artic!ar direction# This *ara(eter tes !s the
ocation o, the o!ds*ea%er: !s!a' (ore SPLs can .e heard on its ,ront direction+
(ini(a on .ac% and sides#
D/ (d5) 6 17 log 3
S*ea%ers !tii3in- 2orns -ot its @ on hori3onta /2$ and vertica /A$ covera-e
an-es+ a (eas!red in de-reesB
3 6 88888888819788888888888
sin
+1
: sin(&;#) sin (<;#) =
NoteB The hi-her the @ va!e+ the s(aer or the narro"er the s*ea%er0s covera-e
area#
;ore *resentation o, @ va!eB
a# I, @ C >+ so!nd trans(ission is isotro*ic+ e8!a o!dness eve "i .e
distri.!ted in a direction# This (a' .e noticed on so!nd o!tdoors s!ch as
,'in- aviation vehices+ considerin- the so!nd o, its en-ines#
.# I, @ C 4+ so!nd trans(ission is he(is*herica in sha*e .!t do!.es its so!nd
intensit' eve "here so!nd is directed# This (a' .e noticed on ,ast (ovin-
vehices considerin- the -ro!nd as the dividin- *ane+ so!nd trans(itted !nder
the vehice "i .e re,ected .' the -ro!nd in o**osite direction de*endin- on
the an-e o, incidence+ and th!s no trans(ission "i ta%e *ace !nder the
-ro!nd# The covera-e area is red!ced to 55D o, the tar-et area#
c# I, @ C 4+ so!nd trans(ission "i .e (ore directive+ this is e8!ivaent to a
so!rce ocated at a corner /t"o *anes intersectin-$ e8!ivaent to a s*ea%er
ocated at t"o intersectin- "as+ and the hori3onta covera-e "i .e i(ited
to E5F covera-e an-e th!s the area o, covera-e is red!ced to a(ost 45D#
d# I, @ C 7+ this is e8!ivaent to the octet o, a s*here+ e8!ivaent aso to three /6$
intersectin- *anes /si(iar to s*ea%er ocated at a corner o, a roo(+ 4 "as
and the roo( ceiin-$# This red!ced the covera-e area to >4#5D#
Assi-n(entB Pre*aration ,or E9ercise No# 6#
Loo% ,or *ro,essiona s*ea%er sho"in- the ,oo"in- s*eci,ications disc!ssed a.ove#
St!d' its s*eci,ications# ;a%e a disc!ssion o, its s*eci,ication disc!ssed a.ove#
Pre*ared .'B
En-r# E,ren T# Pineda
Instr!ctor