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FUNDAMENTALS OF RESEARCH

Coverage for Midterm


Introduction to Researc
Researc Definition
The process of gathering data or information to solve a particular or specific problem in a scientific manner (Manuel and
Medel)
Parel defines research as a systematic study or investigation of something for the purpose of answering questions posed
by the researcher
Treece and Treece commented that research is the collection of data in a rigorously controlled situation for the purpose
of prediction.
!ur"oses of Researc
#
. To discover new facts about !nown phenomena.
". To find answers to problems which are only partially solved by e#isting methods and information.
$. %mprove e#isting techniques and develop new instruments or products.
&. To discover previously unrecogni'ed substances or elements.
(. )iscover pathways of action of !nown substances and elements.
*. To order related+ valid generali'ations into systemati'ed science.
,. To provide basis for decision-ma!ing in business+ industry+ education+ government+ and in other underta!ings.
.. To satisfy the researcher/s curiosity.
0. To find answers to queries by means of scientific method.
10.To acquire a better and deeper understanding about one phenomenon that can be !nown and understood better by
research is why women are generally smaller than men.
. To e#pand or verify e#isting !nowledge.
Caracteristics of Researc
$
. Em"irica% 1 research is based on e#perience without giving consideration to scientific !nowledge or theory.
". Logica% 1 research is based on valid procedures and principles.
$. C&c%ica% 1 research starts with a problem and ends with a problem. The conclusion of a problem can give rise to another
problem and other several studies can be conducted on the conclusion+ hence research is cyclical.
&. Ana%&tica%
Historica% Researc 1 data gathered focus in the !AST.
Descri"tive Researc 1 data gathered focus in the !RESENT.
E'"erimenta% Researc 1 data gathered in the FUTURE.
Case Stud& 1 data gathered focus in the three2 !AST+ !RESENT+ and FUTURE.
(. Critica% 1 research e#hibits careful and precise 3udgment. 4 higher level of confidence must be established.
*. Metodica% 1 research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures.
%nductive Method 1 simple to comple#
)eductive Method 1 comple# to simple
,. Re"%ica(i%it& 1 the research design and procedure are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid
and conclusive results. 5imilarities and differences of replicated researches can be compared. The more replications of
researches+ the more valid and conclusive results would be. 6eplicablity of the study means using the same instrument+
method+ and procedure but to different sub3ects and venue. This does not encourage plagiarism.
Researc !rocess
4 research can be underta!en for two different purposes2
. To solve a currently e#isting problem (applied research)
". To contribute to the general body of !nowledge in a particular area of interest (basic7fundamental research)
)a&s to Se%ect a To"ic
Personal e#perience
8uriosity based on something in the media
The state of !nowledge in a field
5ocial premiums
Personal values
Ma*or Limitations in Conducting a Researc
Time
8osts
4ccess to resources
4pproval by authorities
9thical concerns
9#pertise
+ua%ities of a ,ood Researcer
-
Research-oriented
Efficient
Scientific
Effective
1
:ose ;. 8aldeon+ 9d.). and 9#pectacion 8. <on'ales+ Methods of Research and Thesis Writing (=ational >oo! 5tore+ %nc.+ 00$)+ pp &-(.
2
?aurentina Paler-8almorin and Melchor 4. 8almorin+ Research Methods and Thesis Writing Second Edition (6e# >oo! 5tore+ %nc.+ "@@,)+ pp. -$.
3
Ibid.+ p. &.
# . ! a g e
Active
Resourceful
Creative
Honest
Economical
Religious
This is what the government needs because he can respond to the socioeconomic development of the country and can
compete globally.
Caracteristics of te Researcer
/
. Inte%%ectua% curiosit& 1 a researcher underta!es deep thin!ing and inquiry of the things+ problems+ and situations around
him. Ae raises questions to answer+ continues to read related literature and studies+ ma!es use of his e#periences+ and
e#ercises his creativeness and inventiveness.
". !rudence 1 the researcher is careful to conduct his research study at the right time and at the right place wisely+
efficiently+ and economically. Ae uses , Ms2
a. Manpower
b. Money
c. Materials
d. Method
e. Machinery
f. Moment of time
g. Mar!eting
$. Hea%t& criticism 1 the researcher is doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results. (relate it with Skepticism).
&. Inte%%ectua% onest& 1 an intelligent researcher is honest to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest
results. =o to plagiarism.
(. Inte%%ectua% creativit& 1 in order to arrive at a unique and new research+ one must be productive and resourceful
researcher. 4 creative researcher is innovative.
Man0s Ma*or Needs and !ro(%ems Demand Researc
1
The material factors are the bases which affect man/s life because men are more materialistic than idealistic.
6esearch can be smoothly conducted if man/s spiritual and material gifts are balanced.
Aow to reduce his burden of wor!
Aow to relieve suffering
Aow to increase satisfaction in fulfilling his needs+ cravings+ and aspirations
9#. Man suffers in communicating with his friends and relatives here and abroad.
5olution2 4 researcher conducts research on modern communication such as
8ellular phones
%nternet
;a# machines
Telephones
Many others
2a%ues of Researc to Man
3
. 6esearch improves quality of life.
". 6esearch improves instruction.
$. 6esearch improves students/ achievement.
&. 6esearch improves teacher/s competence.
(. 6esearch satisfies man/s needs.
*. 6esearch reduces the burden of wor!.
,. 6esearch has deep-seated psychological aspects.
.. 6esearch has improved the e#portation of food products.
0. 6esearch responds to the economic recovery and austerity measure of the country.
@. 6esearch trains graduates to become responsive to the economic development of the country and compete globally.
T&"es of Researc
4
. 5asic researc 1 also called as fundamental research or pure research. %t see!s to discover basic truths and
principles. %t is intended to add to the body of scientific !nowledge by e#ploring the un!nown to e#tend the boundaries of
!nowledge as well as to discover new facts+ and learn more accurately the characteristics of !nown without any particular
thought as to immediate practical utility. %n other words+ the result of basic research in theoretical !nowledge has no
immediate usefulness or value to man.
9#amples2
>oyle/s ?aw 1 %f the temperature remains constant+ the volume of a confined gas is inversely
proportional to the pressure.
8harles/ ?aw 1 the volume of a dry gas is directly proportional to the Belvin temperature+ provided the
pressure remains constant.
4rchimedes/ Principle 1 also !nown as Archimedes aw of !"o#anc#. 4n ob3ect in a liquid will
e#perience a buoyant force 3ust equal to the weight of the liquid displaced.
Aoo!e/s ?aw 1 within the limit of perfect elasticity+ strain is directly proportional to stress.
4
Ibid.+ pp. &-(.
5
Ibid.+ pp. (-*.
6
Ibid.+ pp. ,-.
7
Ibid.+ pp. -".
$ . ! a g e
=ewton/s ?aw 1 also !nown as =ewton/s ?aw of Motion. 4 body at rest remains at rest and a body in
motion will continue to move with the same velocity in a straight line unless acted upon by an e#ternal
force.
". A""%ied researc 1 this type of research involves see!ing new applications of scientific !nowledge to the solution of a
problem+ such as the development of a new system or procedure+ new device+ or new method in order to solve the
problem. %n this type of research+ a problem is identified and a new system or new method is applied in order to solve the
problem. %n other words+ applied research produces !nowledge of practical use to man.
$. Deve%o"menta% researc 1 this is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific
method in response to an immediate need to improve e#isting practices. This involves researchers who study a particular
problem and from their e#perience draw their decisions and development as well as evaluation. %n other words+ if a
researcher continues to find practical applications from theoretical !nowledge and use this e#isting !nowledge to produce
useful products+ it is called de$elopmental research.
C%assification of Researc
6
#7 Li(rar& researc
". Fie%d researc 1 research is conducted in a natural setting. =o changes in the environment are made.
-7 La(orator& researc
Te Researc !ro(%em
Definition8
. 4ny significant+ perple#ing and challenging situation+ real or artificial+ the solution of which requires reflective thin!ing
". 4 perple#ing situation after it has been translated into a question or series of questions that help determine the direction of
subsequent inquiry.
Five factors to consider 9eter a "ro(%em is researca(%e or not8
. The problem e#ists in the locality or country but no !nown solution to the problem.
". The solution can be answered using statistical methods and techniques.
$. There are probable solutions but they are not yet tested.
&. The occurrence of phenomena requires scientific investigation to arrive at precise solution
(. 5erious needs or problems of the people where it demands research.
The research problem must be stated vividly and e#plicitly e#pressed in interrogative form for questions have the virtue of
posing a problem directly. (Berlinger+ 0.*).
6esearch should focus on %=C95T-A46C95T principle. %f a researcher invests or spends money in research+ he7she
gains or harvests money.
Caracteristics of a Researc !ro(%em
:
4cronym 1 SMART
S"ecific 1 the problem should be specifically stated.
Measura(%e 1 it is easy to measure using research instruments+ apparatus+ or equipment.
Acieva(%e 1 the data are achievable using correct statistical tools to arrive at precise results.
Rea%istic 1 real results are attained because they are gathered scientifically and not manipulated or maneuvered.
Time (ound 1 time frame is required in every activity because the shorter completion of the activity+ the better.
E%ements of a Researc !ro(%em
#;
. 4im+ ob3ectives+ targets+ or purposes of investigation. This answers the question <)H=> or why is there an investigation+
inquiry or studyD
". The sub3ect matter or topic to be investigated. This answers the question <)HAT> or what is to be investigated or
studiesD
$. The place or locate where the research is to be conducted. This answers the question <)HERE> or where is to be
investigatedD
&. The period of time the study during which the data are to be gathered. This answers the question <)HEN> or when is the
study to be carried outD
(. Population or universe from whom the data are to be collected. This answers the question <)HO> or <FROM )HOM?>
?i!e who are the respondents.
Sources of a Researc !ro(%em
. 5peciali'ation of the researcher
". 8urrent and past researches
3. 6ecommendations from theses+ dissertations+ and research 3ournals 1 the researchers of the said theses+ dissertations+
and research 3ournals recommend for future researches to be conducted as sources also of a research problem.
&. Eriginal and creative ideas from the researcher based on the problems met in the locality and country
Criteria of a ,ood Researc !ro(%em
. Interesting 1 an interesting research problem attracts the attention of the researcher and other people to conduct the
research pro3ect even without incentive or research grant at all.
". Innovative 1 a research problem is something novel+ original+ and unique to attract the attention of the people and
contribute to the economic development of the country.
8
Ibid.+ p.$.
9
Ibid.+ pp. "(-"*.
10
8aldeon and <on'ales+ p. ".
- . ! a g e
$. Cost@effective 1 a good research problem should be economical and effective in solving the needs and problems of the
societyF it should also augment socioeconomic and health conditions of the people and many others.
&. Re%evant to te needs and "ro(%ems of te "eo"%e 1 researchers must !eep in mind that they conduct research not for
their own gain or convenience but solve the problems of the people+ help the needs and demands of the people+ and
improve the quality of human life.
(. Re%evant to te government0s trusts 1 a research problem must respond to the government/s thrust. (9#. Matuwid na
daan)
*. Measura(%e and time@(ound 1 a good research problem is measurable by using research instruments+ apparatus or
equipment+ as well as statistical tools to arrive at scientific and meaningful results. 4 good research pro3ect can be
completed with a time frame stated. The shorter the completion+ the better.
,uide%ines in te Se%ection of a Researc !ro(%em or To"ic

. The research problem or topic must be chosen by the researcher himself.


". %t must be within the interest of the researcher.
$. %t must be within the speciali'ation of the researcher.
&. %t must be within the competence of the researcher to tac!le.
(. %t must be within the ability of the researcher to finance+ otherwise he must be able to find funding for his research.
*. %t is researchable and manageable+ that is2
a. )ata are available and accessible.
b. The data must meet the standards of accuracy+ ob3ectivity+ and verifiability.
c. 4nswers to the specific questions (subproblems) can be found.
d. The hypotheses formulated are testable+ that is+ they can be accepted or re3ected.
e. 9quipment and instruments for research are available and can give valid reliable results.
,. %t can be completed within a reasonable period of time unless it is a longitudinal research which ta!es a long time for its
completion.
.. %t is significant+ important+ and relevant to the present time and situation+ timely+ and of current interest.
0. The results are practical and implementable.
@. %t requires original+ critical+ and reflective thin!ing to solve it.
. %t can be delimited to suit the resources of the researcher but big or large enough to be able to give significant+ valid+ and
reliable results and generali'ations.
". %t must contribute to the national development goals for the improvement of the quality of human life.
$. %t must contribute to the fund of human !nowledge.
&. %t must show or pave the way for the solution of the problem or problems intended to be solved.
(. %t must not undermine the moral and spiritual values of the people.
*. %t must not advocate any change in the present order of things by means of violence but by peaceful means.
,. There must be a return of some !ind to the researcher+ either one or all of the following+ if the research report is
completed2
a. Monetary (financial)+ either increase in salary or publication of the results in which there is some !ind of royalty.
b. 4dvancement of position or promotion.
c. %mproved speciali'ation+ competence+ and s!ill in professional wor! especially if the research sub3ect is related
with the profession.
d. 9nhanced prestige (stat"s) and reputation.
e. 5atisfaction of intellectual curiosity and interest+ and being able to discover the truth.
.. There must be a consideration of the ha'ards involved+ either physical+ social+ or legal.
,uide%ines in )riting te Tit%e
#$
. <enerally+ the title is formulated before the start of the research wor!. %t may be revised and refined later if there is a need.
". The title must contain the sub3ect matter of the study+ the locale of the study+ the population involved+ and the period when
the data were gathered or will be gathered.
$. %t must be broad enough to include all aspects of the sub3ect matter studied or to be studied. Aence+ the title indicates
what is e#pected to be found inside the thesis report.
&. %t must be as brief and concise as possible.
(. 4void using the terms 4n 4nalysis of+ 4 5tudy of+ 4n %nvestigation of+ and the li!e. 4ll these things are understood to
have been done or to be done when a research is conducted.
*. %f the title contains more than one line+ it must be written li!e an inverted pyramid+ all words in capital letters.
Te Researc O(*ectives
#-
6esearch ob3ectives are different from instructional ob3ectives. Though+ research and instructional ob3ectives have the
same characteristics 1 5M46T 1 but instructional ob3ectives are e#pressed in three domains of behavior+ namely2 cognitive
(!nowledge)+ psychomotor (s!ills)+ and affective (values). The time frame of instructional ob3ective is at the end of the period. %f the
class is one-hour period+ hence+ the instructional ob3ectives must be completed within a one-hour period.
6esearch ob3ective is defined as statement of purpose for which the investigation is to be conducted (4rdales+ 00").
GhyD This is the guide to be accomplished by the researcher in conducting his research pro3ect. 6esearch ob3ectives have the
same characteristics+ 5M46T+ with research problem.
Statement of Researc !ro(%emAO(*ectives
#/
6esearch problem and research ob3ectives have the same characteristics (5M46T) but they differ in form because the
former is stated in interrogative form and the latter+ in declarative form.
,uide%ines in Formu%ating te ,enera% !ro(%em and te S"ecific Su("ro(%ems or S"ecific +uestions
(
. The general statement of the problem and the specific subproblems or questions should be formulated first before
conducting the research.
". %t is customary to state specific problems in the interrogative form. Aence+ subproblems are called specific questions.
11
Ibid.% pp. ""-"*.
12
Ibid.% p. ",.
13
Paler-8almorin and 8almorin+ pp. "0-$@.
14
Ibid.+ p. $@.
15
8aldeon and <on'ales+ pp. ".-"0.
/ . ! a g e
$. 9ach specific question must be clear and unequivocal+ that is+ it has only one meaning. %t must not have dual meanings.
&. 9ach specific question is researchable apart from the other questions+ that is+ answers to each specific question can be
found even without considering the other questions.
(. 9ach specific question must be based upon !nown facts and phenomena. >esides+ data from such !nown facts and
phenomena must be accessible to ma!e the specific question researchable.
*. 4nswers to each specific question can be interpreted apart from the answers to other specific questions.
,. 4nswers to each specific question must contribute to the development of the whole research problem or topic.
.. 5umming up the answers to all the specific questions will give a complete development of the entire study.
0. The number of specific questions should be enough to cover the development of the whole research problem or study.
@. <enerally+ there should be a general statement of the problem and then this should be bro!en up into as many
subproblems or specific questions as necessary.
H&"otesis
Hypothesis is a con3ectural statement of the relation between two or more variables. %t is a tentative answer to the
research question or an educated guess of the research outcome. %t indicates the e#pectations of the researcher regarding certain
variables. %t is the most specific way in which an answer to a problem can be stated.
T&"es of H&"otesis
#3
Nu%% H&"otesis 1 %t is a denial of an e#istence of a trait+ characteristic+ quality+ value+ correlation or difference of the result. %t is
always stated in the negative form.
9#ample2
Specific &roblem' %s there a significant difference on the yield of peanuts planted in pots using night soil and chic!en dung as
fertili'ersD
("ll )#pothesis ())' There is no significant difference on the yield of peanuts planted in pots using night soil and chic!en dung as
fertili'ers.
A%ternative H&"otesis 1 %t is an affirmation of the e#istence of phenomena. %t is always stated in affirmative form and is the
opposite of null hypothesis.
9#ample2
Specific &roblem' %s there a significant mean difference on the general acceptability of luncheon meat from bone meal of mil!fish
and goatfishD
("ll )#pothesis ())' There is a significant mean difference on the general acceptability of luncheon meat from bone meal of
mil!fish and goatfish.
!ur"osesB FunctionsB and Im"ortance of H&"oteses or S"ecific +uestions
#4
%t ma!es observation and e#periment possible. %t gives points to inquiry and helps in deciding the direction in which to
proceed. %t offers e#planations for the relationships between those variables that can be empirically tested. %t furnishes (pro$ide)
proof that the researcher has sufficient bac!ground !nowledge to enable him7her to ma!e suggestions in order to e#tend e#isting
!nowledge. %t structures the ne#t phase in the investigation and therefore furnishes continuity to the e#amination of the problem.
. They help the researcher in designing his study2 what methods+ research instruments+ sampling design+ and statistical
treatments to use+ what data to gather+ etc.
". They serve as bases for determining assumptions.
$. They serve as bases for determining the relevance of data.
&. They serve as bases for the e#planation or discussion about the data gathered.
Significance of te Stud&
#6
The significance of the study in a research paper+ thesis+ dissertation+ or a research pro3ect is a must. The presentation of
the significance of the study is presented either in the inductive or deductive perspective.
Inductive Perspective 1 the investigator states the importance of the study from particular to general. Ae starts presenting the
importance of the study from the target beneficiaries+ to the researcher himself+ to the people in the community+ province+ region+
and nation.
Deductive Perspective 1 general to particularF presentation of the importance of the study starts from the national level+ regional+
provincial+ local+ to the researcher+ and target beneficiaries.
The researcher should prove that the study has important contributions in relation to2
a. 5olving the problem and need
b. >ridging a !nowledge gap
c. %mproving social+ economic and health conditions
d. 9nriching research instruments+ methods and strategies+ and
e. 5upporting government thrusts
9#ample2
Effects of Mass Media on te Lives of Students of Universit& of te 2isa&as C Ming%ani%%a Cam"us
#:
16
Paler-8almorin and 8almorin+ pp. $$-$&.
17
8aldeon and <on'ales+ p. $".
18
Paler-8almorin and 8almorin+ loc. cit.+ pp. $*-$,.
19
9ffects of Mass Media on the ?ives of 5tudents of Hniversity of the Cisayas 1 Minglanilla 8ampus+ retrieved "* :uly "@$ from the Gorld Gide Geb2
http277voices.yahoo.com7sample-significance-study-effects-mass-media-.0(@&..htmlDcatI&.
1 . ! a g e
Significance of te Stud&
The primordial (prehistoric% ancient) purpose of this study is to provide the students with a complete and balanced
education and to develop their mass media performance s!ills. Thus+ the results of this study will benefit the students+ the teachers
not only in 9nglish sub3ect but also in another sub3ects+ and the school administrators. This study is significant because it will
provide the indispensable (essesntial% $ital) facts about the e#isting behaviors of students of the Hniversity of the Cisayas 1
Minglanilla 8ampus+ including the faculty and school administrators as a result in a pervasive e#posure of the aforementioned
sub3ects+ particularly the students with the unbounded barriers of mass media.
This study will serve as the basis for future plans of action by the school administrators with regard to the necessary
actions for the recovery of the deteriorating moral values of the students. 4mong the persons who will be directly or indirectly
involved are the following2
This study will not only benefit the school administrators but also the entire student body as it will create a milieu (setting%
en$ironment) of awareness about the corruption of mass media to our culture and traditions.
The teacher and students of the Hniversity of the Cisayas 1 Minglanilla 8ampus+ including the out-of-school youth will
have a better understanding of the limitationF !nowledge of the mass media achievement will enable them to !now the area of
difficulty and strength thereby guiding them in reconstructing their programs to suit their needs.
;urthermore+ this study will serve as a theoretical model for future studies of the same nature if ever the e#isting problem
has penetrated in this case will e#ist in the future. ;uture researchers will benefit from this study+ and it will provide them the facts
needed to compare their study during their respective time and usability.
Sco"eB Limitation and De%imitation of te Stud&
5cope and ?imitations of the study is an important section of a thesis+ dissertation+ and research paper. This includes the
coverage of the study area+ the sub3ects+ the research apparatus+ equipment or instrument+ the research issues and concerns+ the
duration of the study+ and the constraints (restriction% limitation) that have direct bearing on the result of the study.
"@
Sco"e
The scope of the study refers to the parameters (limits) under which the study will be operated or conducted. The problem
you see! to resolve will fit within certain parameters. Thin! of the scope as the domain of your research 1 what/s in the domain and
what is not. Jou need to ma!e it as clear as possible what you will be studying and what factors are within the accepted range of
your study.
9#ample2

%f you are studying the ill effects of bullying on middle school children+ the scope could include both face-to-face bullying and cyber-
bullying in grades * to ..
Aere is an e#planation from another source2
The scope of research is the areas covered in the research. This part of the research paper you will tell e#actly what was
done and where the information that was used specifically came from. The type of information that would be included in the scope of
a research pro3ect would include facts and theories about the sub3ect of the pro3ect. )epending on the sub3ect+ the scope can be
large or small+ as there are different materials available for different pro3ects.
"
Limitations
?imitations are matters and occurrences that arise in a study which are out of the researcher/s control. They limit the
e#tensity to which a study can go+ and sometimes affect the end result and conclusions that can be drawn. 9very study+ no matter
how well it is conducted and constructed+ has limitations.
This is one of the reasons why we do not use the words prove and disapprove with respect to research findings. %t is
always possible that future research may cast doubt on the validity of any hypothesis or conclusion from a study. Jour study might
have access to only certain people in an organi'ation+ certain documents+ and certain data. These are limitations. 5ubsequent
(s"ccessi$e) studies may overcome these limitations.
Limitations of +ua%itative Studies 1 a limitation associated with qualitative study is related to validity and reliability.
>ecause qualitative research occurs in the natural setting+ it is e#tremely difficult to replicate studies.
""
Ghen you
select certain methodologies and designs+ for e#ample phenomenology
"$
+ they come with limitations over which you
may have little control.
Limitations of Case Studies 1 we cannot ma!e casual inferences (concl"sions% pres"mptions) from case studies
because we cannot rule out (e*cl"de) alternative e#planations. %t is always unclear about the generality of the
findings of a case study. 4 case study involves the behavior of one person+ group+ or organi'ation. The behavior of
this one unit of analysis may or may not reflect the behavior of similar entities. 8ase studies may be suggestive of
what may be found in similar organi'ations+ but additional research would be needed to verify whether findings from
one study would generali'e elsewhere.
Limitations of Surve& Instruments 1 surveys that are distributed with time constraints were noted by )elva+ Birby+
Bnapper+ and >irtwhistle ("@@") as problematic in a way that people who struggle with real or perceived time
constraints (restraint% restriction% limitation) are less li!ely to respond to surveys because these possible respondents
feel overwor!edF they 3ust do not have time to complete the survey. 5urveys often suffer the limitation of forcing
respondents into particular response categories+ thereby limiting the range of responses. Hnli!e an interview+ where
20
Paler-8almorin and 8almorin+ p. $,.
21
5cope and ?imitation+ retrieved "0 :uly "@$ from the Gorld Gide Geb2 http277www.reference.com7motif7education7what-is-scope-and-limitations-of-research.
22
Giersma+ "@@@+ p. ".
23
?iterally+ phenomenology is the study of phenomena2 appearances of things+ or things as they appear in our e#perience+ or the ways we e#perience things+
thus the meanings things have in our e#perience. Phenomenology studies conscious e#perience as e#perienced from the sub3ective or first person point of view. retrieved "0
:uly "@$ from the Gorld Gide Geb2 http277plato.stanford.edu7entries7phenomenology7.
3 . ! a g e
respondents can as! questions to clarify something+ respondents are usually limited to the te#t in the survey itself for
direction about how to complete it and where to respond.
9#planation from another source2
The limitations+ also !nown as the bounds+ are the cease of the scope of studies. Ghen enough information has been
gathered from a scope of a study+ the individual who is doing the pro3ect may Kwrap upK the information once a conclusion can be
formed. Pro3ects with too much information may bore or overwhelm the audience and cause the pro3ect to be ineffective due to the
lac! of information retained. ;or e#ample+ the sco"e would be something li!e a specific researcher gathering information from
children between five years of age to . years of age. The information could be used for several purposes+ such as for school
record !eeping. The %imitations of this study would include the decision to not gather information from students from college and
up. The information for school record !eeping would not include those who have already graduated high schoolF therefore+
information collected from college students and beyond would be irrelevant.
"&
De%imitations
The delimitations are those characteristics that limit the scope and define the boundaries of your study. The delimitations
are in your control. )elimiting factors include the choice of ob3ectives+ the research questions+ variables of interest+ theoretical
perspectives that you adopted (as opposed to what could have been adopted)+ and the population you choose to investigate. Jour
first delimitation was the choice of problem itselfF implying there are other related problems that could have been chosen but were
re3ected or screened off from view.
9#ample2
9#ample of delimitation is2 Participation in this study is delimited to teachers who teach third grade in a private school+ in
the state of 8alifornia and have taught more than five years.
"(
Aere are some guidelines in writing the scope and delimitation from another source. The scope and delimitation should include the
following2
"*
. 4 brief statement of the general purpose of the study.
". The sub3ect matter and topics studied and discussed.
$. The locale of the study+ where the data were gathered or the entity to which the data belong.
&. The population or universe from which the respondents were selected. This must be large enough to ma!e
generali'ations significant.
(. The period of the study. This is the time+ either months or years+ during which the data were gathered.
5ample phrases that help e#press the scope of the study2
The coverage of this studyL
The study consists ofL
The study covers theL
This study is focus onL
5ample phrases that e#pressed the delimitations of the study2
The study does not cover theL
The researcher limited this research toL
This study is limited toL
Sam"%es of Sco"eB LimitationB and De%imitation
E*ample +'
Comfort Rooms of Ce(u Tecno%ogica% Universit&8 A !ro"osed Deve%o"ment !%an
Sco"e and Limitation
This study is intended to be competed for two semesters. The respondents of the survey questionnaires for this study are
to be given only to 8TH administrators+ employees and students.
E*ample ,'
",
Sco"e and De%imitation
The scope of our study is for the computer laboratory of the said campus. The study will include Mabini 4cademy/s
networ! connections and how they wor!. %t is focused on the networ! management used by the %T staff as a sub3ect for our thesis.
The study does not cover any other classrooms or facilities that do not use computer connections.
E*ample -'
,.
Eut of .0 second year accounting students of 5aint Mary/s Hniversity+ @@ students were used as samples in conducting
the survey.
This study limits its coverage on the second year accounting students only. %ts main purpose is to identify the common
problems that they encounter and to propose possible solutions on these problems.
24
5cope and ?imitation+ retrieved "0 :uly "@$ from the Gorld Gide Geb2 http277www.reference.com7motif7education7what-is-scope-and-limitations-of-research.
25
5cope and )elimitation+ retrieved "0 :uly "@$ from the Gorld Gide Geb2 http277www.as!.com7question7delimitation-e#amples.
26
5cope and ?imitations of the 5tudy+ retrieved "* :uly "@$ from the Gorld Gide Geb2 http277thesisadviser.blogspot.com7"@$7@"7thesis-writing-scope-and-
limitation-of.html.
27
5ample 5cope and )elimitation+ retrieved "0 :uly "@$ from the Gorld Gide Geb2 http277thesissamp.blogspot.com7p7sample-scope-and-delimitation.html.
28
5ample 5cope and )elimitation+ retrieved "0 :uly "@$ from the Gorld Gide Geb2 http277www.scribd.com7doc7",*@."@75cope-and-)elimitation.
4 . ! a g e
This study considers every aspect of students/ personal information that has an impact on their academic performances
such as their parents/ educational bac!ground+ their parents/ income+ their gender+ age and home location. 9ach of the respondents
is given the same questionnaires to answer. This study focuses on the current second year students of the school year "@@.-"@@0.
Teoretica% and Conce"tua% Frame9orD
5ome thesis7dissertation writers use both the theoretical and the conceptual framewor!. Aowever+ it is advisable to use
only one+ either the theoretical or concept"al framework.
"0
Teoretica% Frame9orD
The theoretical framework shapes the 3ustification of the research problem7research ob3ectives in order to provide the
legal basis for defining its parameters. %t is desirable for an investigator to identify !ey concepts that are used in the study for better
understanding of the role of theory in research.
$@
Theoretical framework is a symbolic construction which uses abstract concepts+ facts or laws+ variables and their relations
that e#plain and predict how an observed phenomenon e#ists or operates. 4 researcher is required to formulate e#isting theories
which lin! the study because theories are useful devise for interpreting+ critici'ing+ and unifying established scientific laws or facts
that serve as guide in discovering new generali'ations.
$
>ased on your 4rea of ;ocus+
5earch for Theories of other people that relate to your area of focus.
Ma!e a 8luster )iagram with the area of focus in the center e#tending out to theories and their details
Grite the Theoretical ;ramewor! paper which connects the theories with your study.
5earch for Theories
?i!e buying a new car+
. ;ind information on theories7theorists related to your topic from2
;riends+ teachers+ e#perts
The internet
>oo!s+ 3ournal articles+ te#tboo!s
". ;ill out a matri# for the theories you find.
Area of Focus
Researc +uestions
.
".
$.
&.
8hec! which question the theory connects to2
Autor E&earF Teor& Researc
+uestion G#
Researc
+uestion G$
Researc
+uestion G-
Researc
+uestion G/
$. Ta!e notes on your sources.
&. Put them into a 8luster )iagram+ with your area of focus in the center+ and the theories and details e#tending out.
(. Turn your 8luster )iagram into a Theoretical ;ramewor!
Hint: Write the bod# first% then the introd"ction and concl"sion
29
Paler-8almorin and 8almorin+ p. $(.
30
Ibid.
31
Ibid.
6 . ! a g e
Introduction8 Tell the readers what you are going to tell them.
<ives the paper a conte#t
5tates the area of focus.
9#plains the structure of the paper (how theories will be discussed)
%ntroduces the theories that will be discussed
>riefly e#plains the connection between the theories and the area of focus
%ntroduces ne#t paragraph
5od&8 Tell them.
9ach paragraph+
)iscusses a different theory
(4lthough+ " theories can be in paragraph or " paragraphs can be about theory)
5tates the theory+ author of the theory+ and year of publication.
)escribes7e#plains the theory
8onnects the theory and the area of focus
<ives e#amples
Conc%usion8 Tell the readers what you already told them.
5tates the area of focus.
5ummari'es the theories that were discussed
>riefly e#plains the connection between the theories and the area of focus
E*ample +'
9nhancing meaningful learning by integrating technology into instructional design is central to this pro3ect. The most
influential theory associated with this process is the cognitive theory of multimedia learning proposed by Mayer (00,). %t is based
on the theory that humans have two ways or channels of processing informationF auditory and visual+ otherwise !nown as the dual-
channel assumption. >y leveraging both of these means+ and by building connections between multiple representations of the same
information+ meaningful learning is more li!ely to occur (Mayer+ 00,F Moreno M Mayer+ "@@$).
4nother important contribution to theory about learning with technology is the modality principle+ closely related to the
cognitive theory of multimedia learning. %t postulates that using multiple modalities when presenting information leads to more
learning transfer. %mportantly+ it also focuses on cognitive load+ or the amount of information that can be processed and held in the
wor!ing memory before loss of information occurs. 8ognitive overload is often an impediment to retaining information and according
to Moreno M Mayer ("@@$). %t can be managed by using specific instructional design principles. These theories and principles are the
theoretical basis for bringing video+ audio and other multimedia presentations and technology into the classroom.
E*ample ,'
This pro3ect is based on the framewor! of comparative education. 8omparative education is the study of different
countries/ education systems. Michael 5adler was one of the first and most influential comparativists in education. 5adler found
comparative education valuable for a number of reasons. 5adler/s research allows researchers to describe education systems+
processes+ and outcomes. Moreover+ comparative education can be used to support the development of education institutions and
practices. ;rom a humanistic perspective+ comparative education can be used to emphasi'e relationships between education and
society. ?astly+ comparative education creates global truths about education that are valid in more than one country. Though+ in
studying other education systems+ 5adler emphasi'ed that one must not forget the effect of culture on an education system
(>ereday+ 0*&).
5tudies (>u+ 00,F 8rossley+ "@@@F )emerath+ 000) of comparative education have found that comparative education is a
helpful tool for various reasons. 8ountries can use comparative education to aid in reforming education policies. %t is beneficial to
evaluate why and how one country has had success in education as to produce a possible solution for a failing system.
6esearchers+ also highlight the influence of culture on an education system. The 8omparative and %nternational 9ducation 5ociety+
continues research in hopes of producing cross-cultural understanding and to further students achievement and development
across the world+ through international comparative studies (>u+ 00,F 8rossley+ "@@@F )emerath+ 000).
8omparative education is reflected in this pro3ect by my purpose and the method in which % am using to loo! at
5ingaporeNs math education system. Gith the Hnited 5tates trying to improve math performance+ analysis of 5ingapore/s successful
math education system can provide the Hnited 5tates with possible solutions. Ghile these two countries are culturally different+
among other differences as well+ comparative education creates a space to compare the two countries/ math education systems+ in
hopes of improving the math education system in the Hnited 5tates.
Conce"tua% Frame9orD
The concept"al framework presents specific and well-defined concepts which are called constr"cts. %ts function is similar
to theoretical framewor! because the constructs used are derived from abstract concepts of the theoretical framewor!.
$"
Ergani'ers
The !ey ideas that organi'e and shape your thin!ing.
8onceptual framewor!s attempt to connect to all aspects of inquiry (e.g.+ problem definition+ purpose+ literature review+
methodology+ data collection and analysis).
8onceptual framewor!s should act li!e maps that give coherence (consistenc#% "nit#% rationalit#% logic) to your inquiry.
4 8onceptual ;ramewor!L
5hould grow logically out of your literature review.
5hould lead to your methodology and provide a rationale for why you are proceeding in a particular way.
To put it in another way+ a 8onceptual ;ramewor!L
32
Paler-8almorin and 8almorin+ p. $(.
: . ! a g e
9#plains !ey constructs and terms+ introduces or clarifies any theoretical models
5ituates your wor! within prior (pre$io"s% preceding) theory and research on the question.
%dentifies the phenomena you propose to analy'e and the 3ustification for studying them.
Sam"%es Conce"tua% Frame9orD
E*ample +'
E*ample ,'
Griting a 8onceptual ;ramewor!
>egin with an introductory paragraph introducing the elements of the conceptual framewor!.
8onclude with a summation that helps review the need for your study and transitions to the methodology you will use.
Definition of Terms
--
This is the last section of a thesis+ dissertation+ and research paper in 8hapter . Thesis and dissertation do not include
this section of the study if there are more than fifteen terms defined because this part is for glossary. %n this section of 8hapter + the
!ey terms are defined clearly.
There are two ways of defining the !ey terms used in the study. These are2
. Conce"tua% definition 1 the definition of terms are based on concepts or hypothetic ones which are usually ta!en from
dictionary+ encyclopedia+ and published 3ournals.
". O"erationa% definition 1 the definition of terms are based on observable characteristics and how it is used in the study.
%t is advisable that the researcher should use two ways in defining the terms to ma!e the meaning clear. The operational
definition is preferable when defining technical terms.
33
Paler-8almorin and 8almorin+ p. $,.
#; . ! a g e