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Campus Journalism-I

(Lecture)

Student’ Name: _______________________________

Teacher’s Name: ______________________________

Date: ___________________- _____________________


By: T. Janet Digman
FREFACE

There are numerous types of writing exercises which vary considerably in


complexity and purpose. There are also suggested ways by which these are
presented and discussed. Since there are many currently individual’s variations
and interpretations of each method being used. The choice of teaching approaches
and strategies, all are which seasoned with the teacher’s personal style.

Since this module is planned purely for lecture, it is the teacher’s own technique
to inject the important points that students must keep in mind. It is also suggested
to give samples and/or let them write a sample at their given ample time.

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Day 1

I. OBJECTIVES
1. to define news writing
2. to identify the attribute and sources of news
3. to sustain interest throughout the lesson.

II. LESSON PROPER


A. News: Its definition and attributes
What is news?
News is basically about an event, idea or a reaction that is presented
factually and simply in a written form to give the reader an idea of what is
currently happening around him or her, particularly on matters of interest to the
community.

Examples:
A.1 Event: Independence Celebration
Opening of a new college
A. 2 Idea: Increasing tuition fees
Merger of two academies
A. 3 Reaction: Opinion on increasing tuition fees

B. ATTRIBUTES OF NEWS
1. Timeliness - the event, idea or opinion of a certain issue should be timely
interesting.
2. Factuality – a news story must be based on real events and happenings.
3. Proximity - the nearness of an event or happening to the readers.
4. Prominence – refers to both places and people that are popular to the readers
because of something like public officers, wealthy person, etc.
5. Significance – an event idea or opinion must be important and should be
interesting to a community or campus.
6. Oddity - anything that is unique or unusual is newsworthy.

C. SOURCES OF NEWS
Primary –

Secondary –

D. NEWS GATHERING
1. Actual coverage of an event of happening
2. Interview
3. Writing from documents

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Day 2

I. OBJECTIVES
1. to distinguish a hardness from a soft news
2. to explain the inverted pyramid
3. to participate actively in class

II. LESSON PROPER


How would you identify a hard news from a soft news?
- Hard news is called the straight news. It is objective, direct and factual.
Differences:
• Hard News
A lead paragraph - primary or more important facts.
Succeeding paragraph – facts become less important
Closing paragraph - least important facts that can be deleted ________ the
story
• Soft News
Lead paragraph – least important
Succeeding paragraph – facts become more interesting
Closing paragraph – primary or most important facts

THE INVERTED PYRAMID


- All straight news are written in the inverted pyramid structure.
- A straight news should be able to answer the 5 “WS” (who, what, where,
when, why) and one “H” (how).

FOR COMPONENTS
1. Primary or Main Lead – This is a single paragraph and may contain a
maximum of five lines which usually answers the 4 “WS”.
2. Secondary or Support Lead – This portion explains or compliments the
primary lead. It is twice the length of the lead paragraph.
3. Details or Particulars – to give flesh to the story. It answers the questions why
and how.
4. Background – relevant past events are recounted and incorporated here.

PRIMARY LEAD
SUPPORT LEAD
DETAILS

BACKGROUND

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Day 3

I. OBJECTIVE
1. Analyze the facts
2. Classify the paragraph which should belong.
3. To determine lead paragraph.

II. LESSON PROPER


THE FACTS:
Principle of Andress Bonifacio High School appeals for financial support
form both parents and students for the completion of the annex building because
of lack of funds.

In a symposium yesterday, the principal of the A. Bonifacio High School


appealed for financial support from both parents and teachers for the completion
of a new building in the campus.

WHAT QUESTION ARE ADDRESSED?


The School Principal, Mr. Edilberto Arsenal, made the appeal during a one
hour symposium at the schools gymnasium attended by teachers, senior high
school students and parents.

Mr. Arsenal talked about the need to finish the annex building so that it
can accommodate more students in the next opening of classes.

According to Mr. Arsenal

THE LEAD PARAGRAPH


The most important thing to remember is writing the lead is that it should
attract the reader’s attention and sustain his interest to read on.

TIPS IN WRITING A GOOD LEAD


1. Use short, simple declarative sentences
2. Don’t try to say everything in one sentence. Break up long sentences.
3. Never use an important or unusual word twice in the same sentence.
4. Avoid repetition of phrases and similar grammatical constructions.
5. Be able to answer at least the four “WS”.

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Day 4

I. OBJECTIVE
1. to define the interview
2. to differentiate a formal from informal interview
3. to discuss the 12 valuable tips in conducting a formal interview
II. LESSON PROPER
THE INTERVIEW
- An encounter between the reporter and his source where questions are
asked and answers are given. This is the common method of getting
information or gathering materials for the news.

 2 TYPES
1. FORMAL - conducted prior to an appointment. It can be a face to face or
through a prepared questionnaire and likewise the interviewee has the chance
to prepare for his answers.
2. INFORMAL – This is a chance interview knows as ambush interview. ON
THE SPOT INTERVIEW including telephone interview.

13 TIPS IN CONDUCTING A FORMAL INTERVIEW


1. Dress properly
2. Be polite and courteous use “Sir” or “Ma’am” or the title.
3. Introduce yourself properly. Show your office ID.
4. Be sure you come on the time agreed for the interview.
5. Let the interviewee talk and you listen.
6. Ask the most important questions first.
7. Be sure you have the tools needed, such as recorder, notebook
8. When the interviewee says that his answer is off-the-record, put off the tape
recorder.
9. Suffer the interviewee, even the interviewee is boring, don’t show his
comfitive.
10. If the interview is held in the interviewee’s office and he offers a drink or
snack, partake of it.
11. But if the interview is done in a restaurant or coffee shop, and you requested
for the interview, insist in paying the bill.
12. Don’t accept any bribe or hush money.

Evaluation: Sample Role Play

Day 5

I. OBJECTIVE
1. identify the stories that can be written from interviews

II. LESSON PROPER


STORIES THAT CAN BE WRITTEN FROM INTERVIEWS
1. REACTION STORY: This can be written from an interview with a news
source. Reaction of the news source about:
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a. an earlier event b. a media report c. a proposal

Examples:
a. stories about the tsunami that hit Southeast Asia
b. stories about the latest survey of the Social Weather Stations
c. stories about the plan to increase taxes

2. FOLLOW-UP STORY: This is a story that continues to be relevant because of


sustained public interest.
Example: On the continuing rehabilitation of the ongoing efforts of the
Scientist regarding the global warming.

Day 6

I. OBJECTIVE
1. Take note on the rules of clear and effective writing.
2. Cite examples for each
3. Participate well

II. LESSON PROPER


RULES ON CLEAR AND EFFECTIVE WRITING
1. Think first before you write
- clear writing is the result of clear writing
- expect clarity, conciseness and accuracy
- apply the inverted pyramid
2. Go straight to the point
- your main job as a reporter is to inform
- tell the readers immediately what is it that you are going to tell them
3. Use familiar or Simple words
- in writing news stories, you will have to be simple and direct. Your main
purpose is to communicate and to communicate properly is to use the
words that can be easily understood.

Some examples of clear and ____ words are:


SIMPLE/COMMON COMPLEX/HIGHBROW
ill indisposed
big monumental
end terminate
see witness
buy purchase
use utilize
most majority
live reside
get procure
call summon, etc.

4. Omit Verbal Deadwords


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-effective writing is concise and precise
-drop the unnecessary words, phrases, mostly adjectives and adverbs, every
word should tell.
Examples:
WORDS PREFERABLE
despite the fact although
for the reason that because
at this moment in time now
at the present time now/today
tendered his resignation resigned
affixed his signature signed
united in holy matrimony married
held a conference met
make good his escape escaped
is short supply scarce
in the event off if/when
take action on the issue act
5. Keep your sentence short
- Sentence in the English language are getting shorter and shorter. Today,
the average number of words in a sentence is less than 20.
- The logic of writing short sentences is obvious. The reader absorbs the
idea faster.

Average sentence length should be as follows:


Very easy – 8 words or less
Easy – 11 words
Fairly easy – 14 words or less
Standard – 17 words
Fairly difficult – 21 words
Difficult – 25 words
Very difficult – 30 or more words
Example:
Should the supply of gasoline sent to your establishment prove
insufficient to meet the demand, application should be made to office for
additional quantity.

This 25 word sentence can be revised to read:


“ If you need gasoline, ask us”

6. Shorten your paragraph


- short paragraph are better because:
a. they are easy to the eye
b. act as a brake on the writer
c. new idea or a transition can be easily gathered

7. Use specific, concrete language


- be concrete, be concrete, be concrete

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- use specific words that stand for things you and your reader can see, taste,
and smell.
Some examples of vague words:
Tragedy – fire, explosion, flood, tsunami?
Accident – collision, slip, a trap in a lift?
Organization – YMCA, Boy Scout?
Ceremony – wedding, mass?
Legal action – suit for damages, criminal case?
Document – deed of sale, record, certificate?
Community – town, barrio, city?

Day 7 Continuation

I. OBJECTIVE
1. To sustain interest on the topics discussed.

8. Prefer the simple to the complex


- if you want to write to be understood prefer simple words, sentence,
paragraph to complex words, sentence, paragraph.
Remember you write to express, not to impress:
9. Be positive
- avoid hesitating or using sound about language
Subject-verb-object
Example:
“ With respect to the question of pets, Mary exercised the right of
ownership over a certain Juvenile member of the sheep family”

It simple ways: “Mary had a little lamb”

10. Always use the active voice


- Natural of thought is subject-verb-object
Example:
a. “Some senators demanded the resignation of a Cabinet official”
b. “The resignation of a cabinet official was demanded by some senators”

The first example has the S-V-O, it is simple and clear


Use verbs rather than nouns n your sentences.

11. Write the way you talk


- use words that are daily used and not the pretentious words.
12. Use adjectives sparingly
- properly used adjective can help you write good reports.
13. Revise and sharpen
- revising is a good part in writing
- Don’t feel slighted if the editor revises your copy. Everybody needs
revising.
- The rule therefore, is revise, revise and revise.
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Day 8

I. OBJECTIVE
. take note the importance of editing

II. LESSON PROPER


EDITING AND HEADLINE WRITING
THE NEWSROOM:
- The newsroom of the editorial department, is the nerve center of any
newspaper organization. “It called the Desk”.
- The news materials are gathered here.
THE COPY EDITOR
- The copy editor is the man who “cleans” a reporter’s story, which is called
a copy. COPY FIXING
- He makes the story much better or better organized when it is submitted to
him.
- He is a member of the editorial team.
THE MANAGING EDITOR
- The managing editor is the third highest ranking official of the Desk after
the publisher and the editor in chief under the managing editor are:
1. News editor – who handles the news pages of the paper
2. City editor – who handles the city desk and gives out
assignments to reporters and photographs.
3. Metro editor – who handles the metro section
4. Provincial editor – in-charge of domestic news.
5. Foreign News Editor – in charge of foreign news.
6. Sports editor – who handles the sports section
7. Business editor – in charge of the business section
8. Lifestyle or Entertainment editor – who handles stories about
culture, the arts, movies, or the lighter stuff.

EDITING WITH GRAMMAR AND SPELL CHECKS


Most computers now have grammar and spelling check. But don’t rely too much
on the spell check because it won’t catch errors such as “that” when you to type “than”.

Day 9

I. OBJECTIVE
1. determine headlines
2. explain some pointer in headline writing
3. show interest in the discussion

II. LESSON PROPER


THE HEADLINES
Headlines are the display windows of newspaper. They serve as quick source of
information for busy newspaper readers.

SOME POINTERS IN HEADLINE WRITING


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1. Make it skeletonized, articles and other unnecessary words should be omitted.
Example:
2. Use the present tense. This will emphasize the immediately of the event and
will give action or movement to the story.
Example:
3. Use the active voice
Example:
4. Avoid “to be” verbs
Example:
5. Be specific, use precise words
Example:
6. Be accurate and direct. Don’t beat around the bush.
Example: “Inflation rate to slow down, says official” not
Inflation rate may slow down, says official
7. Avoid exclamation points or other punctuations

RULES IN HEADLINE WRITING


1. The head should tell the gist of the story simply and clearly.
Example: Board of regents suspends principal
2. The first letter of the first word and proper nouns are generally capitalized.
Example:
3. The first line of a two-line or a three line head should not end with a
preposition, conjunction, article or any form of the verb to be unless the
preposition goes with the verb like fill in or trade off.
4. Never use the word “may” because it would show the uncertainty of your
assertion.
5. Assertion in a headline should have a source or attribution
Example: Classes suspended today, says Principal or
Principal orders suspension of classes
6. Don’t convert verb into nouns
7. Use the shorter word whenever possible
Example: School hike tuition fees

OTHER SHORTER WORD EQUIVALENTS FOR HEADLINE PURPOSES


accord – agreement quiz – question
nab – arrest cop – policeman
bare – expose, reveal balk – impede, thwart
cite – enumerate, mention link – connect
body – committee junk – to discard, throw away
dip – decrease, go down lull – calm
feud – quarrel, dispute nix – reject
curb – restrain, control, stop rift – disagreement, quarrel
bid, ask – invite, request sang – without
probe / grill – investigate bit – attack, assail
quit – resign hail – welcome

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Day 10

I. OBJECTIVE
1. identify the common headline faults
2. analyze the common headline faults
3. criticize the errors constructively

II. LESSON PROPER


COMMON HEADLINE FAULTS
1. The gap: This is the practice of leaving wide empty space in the head
Example: Dean suspends students for misbehavior
Better: Dean suspends erring students
2. Padding: This is the reverse of gap, you fill the gap with unnecessary words.
Example: Student council composition to be knows later this month
Better: Student council member known soon
3. Split phrases and hanging preposition
Never split words that go together
Example: Gov’t to hike import duties this month
Better: Government to hike import duties this month
4. Editorializing: Just report the facts; don’t editorialize
Example: School dean gives very inspiring talk
The word “inspiring” is your opinion and may not describe the dean’s
actual speech.
5. Lack of attribution: all declaration statements must have a source of attribution
Example: Tuition fees hiked soon, says Dean
6. Question form: Don’t ask your reader for the answer.
Example: Will the Council be disbanded?
Better: The council disbanded
7. Don’t use the same word twice in the headline and the kicker.
Example: SCHOOL FEES
School fees to be hiked soon
8. Be careful in the use of words with double meanings
Example:
The teacher can provide faulty headlines and the students will fix.

Day 11

I. OBJECTIVE
1. listen attentively in the discussions
2. illustrate the common headline patterns
3. describe the common headline patterns

II. LESSON PROPER


MORE COMMON HEADLINE PATTERNS
1. Crossline: This is a single line running over two or more columns. If there are two
lines, it is called two-part crossline.

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2. Dropline: This type of headline patterns involves two or three lines of types
arranged diagonally. They are equal in length.

3. Flush Left: Two or more lines of type each starting flush to the left.

4. Hanging Indention: There are usually three or more lines of type. The first is
flush left.

5. Inverted Pyramid: This pattern involve two or more lines of type.

6. Flush Right: This pattern involves two or more lines ending flush right.

The teacher may give exercises. Give headline and students will pattern in different
types.

Day 12

I. OBJECTIVE
1. take note the significance of new journalism
2. discuss the editorial
3. name the functions of an editorial

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II. LESSON PROPER
New Journalism THE EDITORIAL

I. NEW JOURNALISM
A Journalism movement allows the use of literary devices (though still debatable
in the U.S.) such as dialogue, imagery, monologue, extensive description or
dramatic episodes in writing a factual story.

II. THE EDITORIAL


An editorial is the stand or viewpoint of a newspaper on certain issues.

FUNCTION OF AN EDITORIAL
1. Criticize or attack. If you criticize, be sure that you have suggestions for change
or a solution to a problem.
2. Defend: Stand up for the underprivileged group under attack by society or media.
3. Endorse: If you support a candidate or a proposal, be sure that the proposal is
workable and beneficial to the majority.
4. Compliment: Praise when warranted.
5. Instigate, advocate or appeal: Contains convincing arguments
6. Entertain: This kind of editorial is good for the soul. It is something worth the
readers’ time.
7. Predict: Be sure to support your prediction or forecast with facts.

Components of an editorial
1. Introduction: To get the readers attention, include the issue at hand.
2. Body: Persuade the reader by giving your arguments pro or con on the issue.
3. Conclusion: To prompt the reader into action, make a stand on the issue.

HOW TO WRITE THE EDITORIAL


Specs Formula:
S – State the problem
P – Position on the problem and how
E-Evidence to support your position
S – Solution to the problem, give at least two

Example:

Late
Requirements

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The knowledge Found in Silence

“You will stay under the sun for one period if you will not keep quiet,” warned
Mr. .Mabiasen to the noisy students.

Yes,we students do not know how to control our mouths even if the teacher is
delivering his or her lesson,even in forming our lines,and worst even inside the
church.most of the time,we act as if we are in crowded market.our voices compete
with one another,which reates an irritating noise.Then,some of our teachers
shouted angrily at us,some just keep quiet,and some would walk-out from the
room.

Schoolmates aren’t you aware that every time you are noisy the teacher is
destructed and will not continue his or her lesson anymore.Instead he or she will
just give an activity or worst he or she ill just wait for the bell to be rang.Likewise
in a noisy class we can’t be able to grasp our lessons that results to failing grades.

Thus,on this vacation,let us learn to discipline ourselves!It does not mean we


should not talk nor recite but we should know when to open and when to close our
mouths!
It’s difficult to change a habit but we can overcome if we are only willing to do
so.Let’s just think that when we use our mouths wisely – we can learn better
things!

Day 13

I. OBJECTIVE
4. define what is a column
5. describe the content of a column
6. analyze the sample given

II. LESSON PROPER


A: Columns
What is a column?

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Columns are news writing that are personal and biased. These are
personal views or opinion on some specific targets like government.’
Example:
Lesson B: News Analysis
A news analysis is another form of interpretative writing. It analyzes current
issues emphasizing on the effect to the readers or the citizenry in general. Though it
is subjective it should, however, be balanced.

Example:
Faculty VS Students

Friends, teachers, and students read me for a cause, I am not here to hurt or
declare a fight, but I am here to let my thoughts be understood!

Faculty and students should be at peace!

If there are no teachers, there would be not students and if there would be no
students there would be no teachers. Thus the two groups play vital role in
composing the school.

The school has a vision and a mission which the students ad the teachers
should attain. Thus, the two are partners!

But how can they achieve one goal if they don’t have a good relationship?
What will happen to the school? Who should suffer the consequences? The
answer is both of them!

I am a student, thus let me share what we feel as a student feel.

I respect my teachers, but how can I respect a teacher who does not know how
to respect the feelings of a student? And why should I respect a teacher who
does not have a good relationship with his or her co-teachers?

I am but a student but I still know the people who deserve respect. I am a
believer for the virtue” Do unto others what you want others do unto you.”

As a student, I know what our teachers always think what is best for us but
sometimes I feel they are overdoing it .I don’t like to suffer the consequences of
the actions done by n=my classmates.

But then I salute our teachers who discipline us and mold us in a way our
dignity won’t be stepped on! I love our teachers who could understand our
weaknesses and would be fair in giving punishments.

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I don’t mean to offend our teachers but my intention is good- I just want to
voice out what I feel and what I believe in!

The Editorial Cartoon


An editorial cartoon is another tool to convey a paper’s stand on certain issues. It
provides visual on the message that its paper wants to convey to readers. Cartoons
could be: a) humorous
b) serious
c) sophisticated
d) sad
* Not all are revealed, something is left to the reader’s imagination.

TIPS ON WRITING OPINION PIECES:


1. If you make a stand, defend it like in debate
2. Your opinion piece should be readable with graphic and expressive.
3. Try to coin new phrases
4. Balance your writing not only negative criticism
5. Rewrite and revise organize and polish

Day 14

I. OBJECTIVE
1. define feature in journalism
2. note the things included features
3. explain the tips and types of feature writing

II. LESSON PROPER


Features
The feature story is a soft news. This news appeals to the soul or the emotion of the
readers. It focuses on human interest, mood, atmosphere, emotion, irony or humor.
To give pleasure and entertainment in addition to information.

10 TIPS ON FEATURE WRITING


1. Choose the topic or subject carefully.
2. Be sure that it is credible.
3. Catch the reader’s interest through relevant anecdote or dialogue.
4. Use “I” for personal experience and “you” for the reader to relate.
5. Use quotation of famous persons.
6. Make your ideas concrete by rising figures of speech.
7. Use communication language.
8. Keep your paragraph short and snappy
9. Include some human interest aspects.
10. Link the opening and closing paragraphs dramatically.

TYPES OF FEATURES
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1. Personality Profile – insight on a person’s character and traits.
2. Human interest stories – show the subjects uniqueness or value.
3. Trend stories – about the latest facts.
4. In-depth stories – detailed accounts of basic news stories.
5. Backgrounders – up-to-date explanation/analysis of a current issue
6. News feature – recent event written in a more relaxed style.
7. Humorous feature – entertaining story with wit and humor
8. Personal experience – unusual experience by the first person
9. How to feature article – explanation of a process or a method usually with photos.
10. Analytical Essay – an essay in a distinct genre in literature.

Example:

Day 15

I. OBJECTIVE
1. describe a newspaper
2. enumerate the elements of a newspaper
3. give emphasis on the lay-out of a newspaper

II. LESSON PROPER


Designing the newspaper page
Make-up
Layout

Display elements on a page


1. body text
2. headlines, kickers, subheads
3. photos
4. illustrations and graphics
5. white spaces
6. rule or column lines

Illustrate this thru example. Bring a newspaper to explain this.

Makeup and Layout


Makeup – the arrangement of the display elements on a newspaper page.
Layout – arrangement of these elements in an advertising copy or a magazine
page.

3 Functions of the Newspaper Makeup


1. to provide attractive appearance
2. to show the relative importance of news
3. to facilitate reading

4 Qualities of Good Makeup


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1. Contrast – bold headline and gray body text
2. Balance – arranging heavy and dark elements to offset one another
3. Symmetry – each page should have a focus of attention
4. Unity – the page be attractive harmoniously together

A sample of a newspaper is a good illustration of the subject matter.

NEWSPAPER DESIGN
1. Horizontal design – multi-columned heads
2. Vertical design – single or two column heads with only one banner story
placed across the page.
3. Tabloid magazine design – only the headline of the paper’s main story is
displayed on the cover page, usually in bold types.

Day 16-20

I.OBJECTIVE
1. To identify the proper places of news item.
2. To arrange them accordingly.

II. LESSON PROPER


Preparing the Dummy
Dummy – a piece of paper usually the same size of the actual newspaper page.
It has empty space with vertical lines representing the columns.
It is used for preliminary designing of the page.
Miniature – smaller than the actual dummy but have equal number of columns in
the newspaper.
It serves as a guide for the paste up section in preparing the page proof.

There would be elaborated lecture on this with the actual sampling.

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