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Pratama Rizqi Ariawan (Sriwijaya University) Environmental Science Assignment

Air Emission in Palembang City: Polluted Smokes Produced by Industrial Activities


Overview
Air emission / air pollution is any substance emitted
into the air from an anthropogenic, biogenic, or
geogenic source, that is either not part of the natural
atmosphere or is present in higher concentrations than
the natural atmosphere, and may cause a short-term or
long-term adverse effect (Daly, A. 2007).
Industrial activities have long been accused in
producing large amount of toxic air. Chemical and
heavy industry including cement, fertilizer, rubber,
plastic and resin, pulp and paper, textile, pesticide, and
steel manufacturer are the largest noxious fumes
generators. Another activity, mining industry, has also
been involved in polluting the fresh air.
The most common source of polluted fumes comes
from its production facilities such as:
Metal smelters (steel refinery process);
Burning fossil fuels for machinery;
Chemical additive during production process.
Air Emission in Palembang
In Palembang, several types of industries that may
produce hazardous fumes are:
Table 1: Types of Industries in Palembang
Type of Industry Number of
Companies
Base chemical and Industrial Gasses 2
Cement (Portland type 1) 1
Fertilizer (urea) 1
Metal and Molding (nail, screw and
bolt)
2
Plastic and Synthetic Resin 4
Rubber Crumb 9
Source: Ministry of Industry
Recently, Centre for Low Carbon Future (CLCF),
England, conducted a research to analyze the air
pollutions in 4 sectors that are industry, local housing,
domestic waste and transportation. (antaranews.com).
In particular, PT. Pupuk Sriwijaya which produces
fertilizers has been observed to measure the fumes.
The result was worrying, although it was still accepted.
In 2007, data taken from the housing area surrounding
PT. Pusri show that Ammoniac reached 529 g/Nm
3
,
Sulphur dioxide 84.33 g/Nm
3
, Carbon monoxide 5900
g/Nm
3
, Nitrogen Oxide 53.33 g/Nm
3
, and Solid Particle
74 g/Nm
3
. It showed that in average, the substances
reached up to a half of maximum save levels.
Standard Requirements of Chemical Substances
Produced by Industrial Activities
Table 2 Chemical Substances
Substances
Type of
Industry
Accepted
level in
24 hours
Health
Impact
Ammoniac Fertilizers 500 g/Nm
3
Bronchitis
Sulphur
Dioxide (SOx)
Melting steel
productions
365 g/Nm
3
Irritation of
respiration
system
Carbon
Monoxide
(CO)
All types that use
fossil fuels as
energy
10.000 g/Nm
3

Narrow
breath
Nitrogen
Oxide (NOx)
All types that use
fossil fuels as
energy
150 g/Nm
3
Faint
Hydrocarbon
(CH)
Plastic, Resin,
Pigment,
Pesticide, and
Rubber
production
235 g/Nm
3

Lung injury,
Cancer
Chlorine (Cl)
Plastic (PVC),
Pulp and Paper,
Drinking water
sterilization, and
Textile
150 g/Nm
3

Eye
problem,
Lung injury
Lead (Pb) Mining 2 g/Nm
3

Headache,
Stroke, Eye
problem
Dust / Solid
(Suspended
Particulate
Matter)
Fertilizer, Mining,
Waste recycle
(incinerator)
150 g/Nm
3
Lung injury
Source: Ministry of Health
Reducing the Amount of Pollutants
The easiest way to reduce the amount of noxious
fumes is applying an electro precipitator or a scrubber
(a filter that uses liquid, reagent, or slurry to wash
unwanted pollutants) in smokestack/funnel before the
fumes out. Other ways that can be done include:
Using low carbon fuels or coals;
Modify the combustion facilities;
Planting more trees to absorb the gases.

References:
1. Anonym, Parameter Pencemar Udara dan Dampaknya Terhadap
Kesehatan, www.depkes.go.id/downloads/udara.pdf, Accessed
on February 28, 2014.
2. Daly, A, et al. 2007. An Introduction to Air Pollution
Definitions, Classifications, and History. Chapter 1.
http://www.envirocomp.org/books/chapters/1aap.pdf. Accessed
on February 28, 2014.
3. http://btklplm.wordpress.com/category/kajian-lingkungan/
4. http://www.antaranews.com/berita/394813/lima-universitas-
inggris-kaji-polusi-udara-palembang