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Lab 1

1. Define antenna
An antenna (or aerial) is an electrical device which converts electric power into radio waves, and vice-
versa. It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver. In transmission, a radio transmitter
supplies an electric current oscillating at radio frequency (i.e. a high frequency alternating current (AC))
to the antenna's terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic
waves (radio waves). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of the power of an electromagnetic wave
in order to produce a tiny voltage at its terminals that is applied to a receiver to be amplified.
2. What does dB means?
The decibel (dB) is used to measure sound level, but it is also widely used in electronics, signals and
communication. The dB is a logarithmic way of describing a ratio. The ratio may be power, sound
pressure, voltage or intensity or several other things.
3. What is the difference between beamwidth and bandwidth?
Beamwidth
In a radio antenna pattern, the half power beam width is the angle between the half-power (-3 dB)
points of the main lobe, when referenced to the peak effective radiated power of the main lobe.
Beamwidth is usually but not always expressed in degrees and for the horizontal plane.
Bandwidth
Bandwidth describes the range of frequencies over which the antenna can properly radiate or receive
energy. Often, the desired bandwidth is one of the determining parameters used to decide upon an
antenna. For instance, many antenna types have very narrow bandwidths and cannot be used for
wideband operation.
4. What is electric field?
An electric field is generated by electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields. The
electric field describes the electric force experienced by a motionless positively charged test particle at
any point in space relative to the source(s) of the field. The concept of an electric field was introduced
by Michael Faraday.
5. What is magnetic field?
A magnetic field is the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic
field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a
vector field. The term is used for two distinct but closely related fields denoted by the symbols B and H,
which are measured in units of tesla and amp per meter respectively in the SI. B is most commonly
defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.
6. What are electromagnetic waves?
Electromagnetic waves are formed when an electric field couples with a magnetic field. The magnetic
and electric fields of an electromagnetic wave are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of
the wave.
7. What is antenna pattern?
Dependence of the strength of the radio waves from the antenna or other source.
8. dBi stands for decibels relative to isotropic radiator.
9. LOS stands for Loss Of Selectivity
10. RSE stands for radiated Spurious Emission
11. Rx stands for Receiver
12. Tx stands for Transmitter
13. S11 stands for reflection co-efficient
14. TIS stands for Total Isotropic Sensivity
15. VSWR stands for Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
16. Antenna Comparison
Antenna Radiation pattern
(Broadside/Endfire
Power gain
(Low/Medium/High)
Directivity
(Low/Medium/High)
Polarization
(Linear/Circular)
Dipole Broadside High High Linear
Parabolic Broadside High Medium Circular
Yagi Uda Endfire Low Medium Linear
Microstrip
patch
Broadside High Low Circular