Contents
the concept of causality, philosophical and scientific
the differential causality of Newton
the mental mechanism of differential causality
The determinism of quantum mechanics
The course of determinism , the chaos
The non-linear systems
A model of chaotic behavior, the repeating functions
Determinism and chaos

© All Rights Reserved

287 tayangan

Contents
the concept of causality, philosophical and scientific
the differential causality of Newton
the mental mechanism of differential causality
The determinism of quantum mechanics
The course of determinism , the chaos
The non-linear systems
A model of chaotic behavior, the repeating functions
Determinism and chaos

© All Rights Reserved

- Maxwell's Field as Operational Concept
- A Geometrical Isomorphism and the Relativity of Geometry
- The Problem of Physical Space
- The Zeno's Paradoxes and the Pythagorean Zeitgeist , (by G Mpantes)
- Critique on Boole's Symbolic Logic
- Platonic, Aristotelian Forms and Mathematics
- Euclidean Geometry, Foundations and the Logical Paradoxes
- the quantization of space and time
- Natural Motion in Physics (Aristotle, Newton, Einstein)
- Aristotelian teleology and the principle of least action.doc
- The Mathematical and Philosophical Concept of Vector
- The Mathematical Forms of Nature, The Tensors
- The methodology of Science vs Metaphysics
- The Not So Simple Idea of Galois' Theory
- Covariance and Invariance in Physics, the mathematization of physics
- Time in Physics
- Weber's Electric Force, A Fascinating Electrodynamics (revised)
- Physics, Metaphysics, Duhem and Aristotle
- The Maxwell Field is the Aristotle's potentiality of Electromagnetics
- Maxwell's Ether and Motion,Michelson, Lorentz, Einstein

Anda di halaman 1dari 17

Mpantes

(mechanics, quantum mechanics and chaos)

www.mpantes.gr

Abstract .

In this article, the characterization of a theory as determinist, is defined by the

predictability that produces in the results of theory.

We have distinguished

corresponding

in physics

with

randomness)

a. the measurements in the macrocosm which reveal the causal

(deterministic) class of Newton's cause and result, even believed that governs the

macroscopic world,

b. the measurements in the microcosm where is emerging the class of "not

accurate" , statistical and indeterminate.

c. the iterated

measurements

Predictability is the degree to which a correct prediction or forecast of a

system's state can be made either qualitatively or quantitatively.

Contents

the concept of causality, philosophical and scientific

the differential causality of Newton

the mental mechanism of differential causality

The determinism of quantum mechanics

The course of determinism , the chaos

The non-linear systems

A model of chaotic behavior, the repeating functions

Determinism and chaos

The basic idea of the concept of causality emerged in our minds from the

directly observed regularities of nature. The sun rises every morning and sets every

night, the succession of the seasons, the procession of stars in the night sky, even

the more complex motions of the moon and planets, was the tinder for deeper

observations, that created deeper concepts.

In the 6th century in Ionia developed just this new concept,

according to which the universe is comprehensible, because it has

an internal order, because in nature there are regularities that allow

the disclosure of its secrets and of its function. Nature is not entirely

unpredictable, because there are rules (natural laws) that must obey.

In this order and admirable character of the universe, the ancients

gave the name World, viz beauty ().

N

professor

of

the

Physics

philosophical doctrine of determinism:

The determinism

accepts the existence of causality, the universal and

causal

(Theodoridis)

Nothing occurs at random, but everything for a reason and by

necessity." Democritus

of cause:

... a concept somewhat vague and ambiguous. The

most common use means something which produces a phenomenon

or a change (old anthropomorphic view) or a phenomenon firmly

inseparably bound to another, so when this occurs, (the cause)

..Theodoridis

and does not result from the methodology of science. But philosophical fashions

change at least twice a century.

(article the methodology of science vs. metaphysics)

https://www.scribd.com/doc/260025743

The concept of cause itself is of the same status with the concept of matter

of Aristotle; looking for the cause of the cause we shall end up nowhere, as we

know from the methodology of science that

David Hume challenged this metaphysical

doctrine of causality:

.According to

Hume, there is no contradiction

if one claims that for a cause

does not imply the result that is

attributed.

All

events

seem

event follows another; but we

never

can

between

observe

them.

any

They

tie

seem

And as we can have no idea of anything, which never appears to our

outward sense or inward sentiment, the necessary conclusion seems

to be, that we have no idea of connexion or power at all, and that

these words are absolutely without any meaning, when employed

either in philosophical reasoning, or in private life. Neither the

relation of cause and effect nor the idea of necessary connection is

given in our sensory perceptions; both, in an important sense, are

contributed by our mind. The causal relationship and dependence is

therefore

In nature we see regularities and the method to study these regularities, is

which we install on things, doing science. Causality is man-made.

The scientific causality

In this article we define scientific causality

physical theory,

as

the predictability of a

Now it becomes an operational concept which refers on the experimental

confirmation of the mathematical apparatus of the relevant scientific theory.

Confirmation is to verify the predictions with experimental measurements.

The core thus of the scientific causality is mental (our mind produces

determinism), but causality emerges from the experiment. The mental mechanism

of causality is the axiomatic basis and deductive reasoning of Aristotle, through

the shape

Premises, Aristotelian logic conlusion

Article: The axiomatic method: Euclid, Hilbert

https://www.scribd.com/doc/161365902

and one saying that the world is deterministic imply that is

predictable at least in principle.

So, It seems that scientific causality

The evolution of living beings would not happen if they could not watch the

causality in nature. In lower organisms this may be simple photochemical reactions,

but in human evolution the secret is hidden in the "Analytica posterioria" of Aristotle.

For Aristotle, logic is the instrument (the "organon")

by means of which we come to know anything. He proposed as

formal rules for correct reasoning the basic principles of the

categorical logic that was universally accepted by Western

philosophers until the nineteenth century.

Aristotle further supposed that this logical scheme accurately represents the

true nature of reality. . It seems that logic, confirms phenomena and phenomena logic ... on

1

Many philosophers have recently inclined toward what a recent collection of papers

calls causal republicanism the view that although the notion of causality is useful, perhaps

indispensable , in our dealings with the world, it is a category provided neither by God nor by

physics , but rather constructed by us(A.Eagle, pragmatic causation)

Sky 270v4.

on logic which can help us to understand the way things really are. This phrase

expresses one of the underlying regularities in nature (the hidden regularities are

superior than the obvious, Heraclitus) and this discussion has never end.

The

Newtonian

laws

of

been regarded, and theoretically are ,

infinitely accurate in their predictions,

ie approach the infinite number of

decimal digits (in practice they are as

accurate

as

the

experimental

a strict causality in this system: the

same causes corresponding same

results.

Generalizing from mechanics

to all physical systems , we may formulate this doctrine of causality as follows:

.The evolution of every physical system is

controlled by rigorous laws. These taken in conjunction with the initial

state of the system (assumed to be isolated)) determine without

ambiguity all future states and also al past ones. .So the entire

history of the system throughout time, is thus determined by the laws

and by the initial states ..(A. D 'Abro)

(these are the premises and the axioms of Aristotles scheme of science )

In Newtonian system the cause of the mechanical universe is the force, and

the result is the change of motion. This scheme does not include the inertial motion,

which is without cause. The strict laws are the laws of mechanics and of gravitation.

One of the greatest Newtons achievements is the discovery of the method

of representation of a natural law, and thus of a causal chain, through mathematics.

We talk about instantaneous description of the phenomenon of motion, how

cause and effect operate at an instant , in an infinitesimal interval (in calculus), for

instantaneous velocity, for instantaneous acceleration, and this is because in nature

is variable, the speed of the planets around the sun is so variable, however,

in a

infinitesimal time or spatial interval all changes "freeze" the curve is straight, the

forces are stable, motion

composition of stable forces with the rule of the parallelogram and composition of

motion of Galileo.

So the motion of every moment is the cause of the motion of the next, since

the phenomenon now is repeated with new initial conditions, but with the same law.

The moon because of inertia, would move in tangential trajectory towards infinity.

The gravity pulls it to the earth, but inertia does not leave it to fall on earth. The

composition of the two forces each time. gives the part of the track in next moment,

an endless tiny zig-zag.

A more precise presentation would require us that the relation which

constitutes the law is arrived at by a limiting process.

If we set x and the measure of position and velocity at any instant t the

consecutive states of a mechanical system are defined by (0,0) ,(1, 1).(n, n)

..

The permanent relation to which we have referred in the text is of the form

our known m

d 2x

F (t )

dt 2

where F is a function which defines the force, is the same for all values of n ,

and hence is the same at all instants of time. in the beginning of every time interval ,

so the phenomenon will be repeated. The relation (1) I a differential equation.

If we wish to obtain a knowledge of the states that this system will assume

after some finite interval of time, we shall have to repeat the foregoing procedure an

infinite number of times in succession. The difficulty is overcome by Newtons

discovery of the method of integration. Thanks to this powerful method it s always

possible, at theory at least, to follow the causal chain over finite intervals.

In order to give his system mathematical form ,

Newton had frst to discover the concept of the differential coefficient,

and to enunciate

Later we will understand that everything in nature is nonlinear (chaos theory), the Newtonian

linearity is the exception.

granted to any man to make.Einstein

When the law governing the evolution of the system is known and its

mathematical transcription, the corresponding differential equation is obtained we are

in position to to derive a knowledge of the evolution of a system from any given initial

state. Thus if A represents the initial state, the differential equation , by expressing

the relationship between A and the next state B , enables us to obtain the Knowledge

of B. Since we know the state B , a second implication of the different equation yields

the state C and so on. We must remember however that , that these states occur at

instants of time that are separated only by infinitesimal intervals. All these are

contained in the functioning of the differential equation, which is the organon

of

rigorous causality

To understand this process as a mechanism, we would yield some pages of

Newton's Principia, which describes the differential causality and the use of his laws,

to derive an actual effect. It is the equivalent of the method of exhaustion in

geometry, a thought experiment in motion3.

The proposal demonstrated is the known law of the areas in the central motion.

Now the applied force can be the force of gravity, and the motion, the motion of a

planet around the sun:

The areas swept by the line joining the mobile with the center of force, lie in

the

same

plane

and

are

commensurate

with

the

times

of

removal.

This is a law of Kepler, who (Kepler) observed macroscopically from Earth. Newton,

however, interpreted it. What is this interpretation? It is that he imagined rational

mental processes in motion, the infinitesimally intervals of time, which determines the

macroscopic phenomenon, an invisible mechanism of causality. The physical

causality, causality is reduced to the logic of deductive reasoning underlying

mathematics. The roots then of

Leibniz's infinitesimals, the limits of Cauchy."

The basis of reasoning (calculus) is to consider motion in infinitesimally

intervals which intersect the orbit infinitesimally segments in which we study the area

The thought experiments were introduced by Galileo, abandoned by science in the 18th

and 19th century, and reverted with Einstein.

3

to

be

swept,

regardless

of

the

others!

Suppose the first infinitesimal period of time the body removes the segment AB.

Whatever kind of motion it performs as a whole, however, in this infinitesimal (very

small) time, the motion can be seen as inertial by the Newtonian sense. The smaller

dt (hence the piece of track), the more justified this identification.

This is reminiscent of the fact in the calculus that the infinitesimal parts of a

curve are linear and the exerted force will appear in the end of this dt.

The inertial motion of infinitesimal portion is the cell of arbitrary motion in direction

and measure. This motion is "indelibly entered" in the body, which can perform

two motions (Galileo) and hence is entered in the differential equation of motion (as

we saw before), in the form of the initial conditions. Position A and the inertial motion

at A (speed) are the initial conditions of the system for AB.

In the second infinitesimal portion would occur the same, but WITH NEW

INITIAL CONDITIONS . Because as

body reaches B we assume

that a

causes it to continue to move the portion

BC, instead of Bc.

Incise

the cC

At the end of the second infinitesimal

portion of time, the body will be in C, in

the

same

plane

with

the

ASB.

(Euclidean stereometry)

The same will happen to every

infinitesimal portion of the track resulting mobile keeps track line ABCDEF.

Readily apparent that the geometric area SAB = SBC = SCD = SDE = SEF

and adding e.g the SADS and SAFS have one to another, the same relation are as

times elapsing.

Now, if the number of these triangles increase, with dt and hence the AB,

BC, etc. tend to zero (the word tend to have special meaning in the differential

calculus) the final perimeter ABCDEF will be a curve and also the centripetal force

with which the body is drawn sequentially from the tangent of this curve, will act

continuously.

And any volatile surfaces are coplanar and analogous of the time elapsed.

This entire process is shortened by the differential formalism (differential equations)

which produces the result: The angular momentum of the mobile in the central

motion is constant.

Today , less than three centuries after Newton made his momentous

discovery , doupts are being cast on the validity of the rigorous causal connections of

classical science. The attack is due not to the impossibility of testing the doctrine in

practice, but to totally new discoveries in the subatomic world , where the mysterious

quantum phenomena become noticeable.

The novelty resulting from the discoveries of the quantum theory is that we

now have reasons to suspect a definite theoretical impossibility, which would render

illusory any attempt to test rigorous causal connections . The quantum theorists

under the lead of Born, Heisenberg , Bohr and Dirac , agree with classical scientists

in recognizing that the practical difficulties of testing causal connections may be

disregarded. Indeed it is very difficult on operating on perfectly isolated systems ;

first of all , because no such systems exist; and secondly , if we grant the existence

of such systems , we cannot observe their internal workings with out disturbing them

and thereby destroying their isolation. In addition , human measurements are

necessarily imprecise. These difficulties were not regarded as fatal to the doctrine ,

because approximately isolated systems could be found , and our measurements

could be so refined that they would not perceptibly disturb the magnitudes to be

measured (DAbro, the rise of the new physics).

But the quantum theorists are adamant in their claim that the recently

discovered theoretical impossibility , cannot be dismissed so lightly.

The developments of the quantum theory indicate that the uncertainty

relations

from

effecting

general rule applies in particular to position and momentum, or velocity, to time and

energy, to the electric and the magnetic intensities at the same point in a

electromagnetic field. Thus if the position of the centre of a particle is measured with

accuracy , the unpredictable disturbance , entailed by the measurement itself, causes

the particles momentum to be vague. The classical contention that by, exercising

sufficient care , we may reduce the disturbance indefinitely is here no longer valid, for

the essence of the uncertainty relations is that the limit we might hope to attain is not

vanishing but is finite. Obviously , if this principle is accepted , the state of a

10

and momenta of the various masses, cannot be known with accuracy. Consequently ,

a test of rigorous causality is impossible in quantum mechanics the same conclusion

may be extended to all departments of physics. The source of this theoretical

impossibility unsuspected by classical science , must be sought in the very nature of

things. It is intimately connected with Plancks constant h. the theoretical impossibility

would vanish if this constant , the value of which is finite, were to be infinitesimal , as

classical science had implicitly assumed.

So the "hard" deterministic model is not applicable but only if we consider the

probabilistic uncertainty a part of the deterministic image of the Universe. Moreover ,

probabilities are a priori, produced by theories. In this case, however, the idea that

the universe acts "as would act anyway" is not applicable. In the hypothetical case

that the history - or part of history - was repeated, quantum uncertainty would create

a different version of the story.

It is important to understand that the limitations imposed by the uncertainty

relations are theoretical , and not practical . Thus the uncertainty relations do not

interfere with our measuring , as accurately as we choose, the position alone or the

momentum alone of a particle. They only prevent us from executing simultaneous

measurements with accuracy. According to the quantum theorists , however, practical

difficulties in measurement may be waived aside exactly as they were in the classical

critique of the causal doctrine. We are called to decide whether a concept which

cannot be tested or a magnitude which cannot be measured , in principle (in contradistinction to in practice) should forthwith be classed as meaningless and cease to

play any part in a theoretical discussion. The dilemma is not entirely new , for it arose

in the theory of relativity. There , for reasons which have nothing in common with

practical experimental difficulties , a velocity through the stagnant ether cannot be

detected. Absolute velocity is thereby dismissed because it cannot be observed in

principle.

In view of Einsteins attitude towards absolute velocity , we might expect him

to adopt a similar one with respect to vigorous causality. But he does not do. Einstein

and Planck both retain a belief in rigorous causality , extending it even to living

matter. But those who have contributed most to the development of quantum

mechanics resist Einsteins views and insist that rigorous causality is a myth .

We have now an entirely new reality in nature around us. It is a word far

removed from our every day experience. And what about logical causality? It still

exists and instead the differential formalism gave us the mathematical treatment of

11

the possibilities, to manipulate the new reality. We dont forget that the mathematical

truth is an hypothetical truth, we can create mathematical models for every situation

in nature. We had created mathematical models for the ether! The differential

calculus was the model of classical causality.

With indeterminacy corrupting the experiment

and dissolving causality , all seems lost. We must wonder how there

can be a rational science. We must wonder how there can be

anything at all but chaos. The detailed determinacy claimed by

classical science, is replaced by the exactitude of probabilities, even

though it seems paradox. But quantum mechanics has discovered

precise and wonderful laws governing the probabilities, so science

overcomes its handicap of basic indeterminacy. Banesh

Hoffmann

his book Chance and chaos in free translation

If you want to say that quantum mechanics is

deterministic, so it is: the Schrdinger equation clearly provides the

time evolution of the amplitudes of probabilities. If you want to say

that quantum mechanics is probabilistic, you can say: the only

provisions that gives, concern possibilities

Determinism quite recently, has undergone the biggest challenge. There are

phenomena that are unpredictable, viz their evolution does not show any regularity.

These phenomena are called chaotic. Such phenomena are fluid flows, the motion

of billiard balls or the evolution of the weather, even our solar system. Chaos theory,

is regarded as

made

phenomenon for a long time. In particular, in the solar system we can not predict what

will be the position of the planets after one hundred million years. (Hadjidimitriou) Yet

all these phenomena are governed by the same deterministic laws of Newton. So

why the motion is not, in this case, regular and therefore predictable?

The story of chaos is a mathematical story and is a property of some

solutions of a system of non-linear equations. It has the origins on the three-body

problem, studied by

12

understood that very small effects can be magnified through iteration. Postulated "A

minimal cause that escapes attention can cause a significant effect".

Who can doubt that the motion of the pair of Earth-Moon is not affected by

the pull of the Sun or Jupiter etc.? The problem is (and it just raised by Poincar) that

making the simple step from two to three bodies (for example by trying to include the

effects of the Sun on the Earth-Moon system) equations of Newton, because of

formal mathematical reasons, can not be solved: a set of approximations is needed

to "get closer" an answer (the series describing the orbits of three interacting celestial

bodies, not only converge in some preset solutions, but instead diverge!). . Each

approach is less than the previous and Poincar hoped that after a potentially infinite

number of such corrections to get the correct answer. But the result was shocking!

There were a few orbits, for which a small gravitational pull from a third body, after

iterations, could be disorientated the motion of the planet, even to expel it, out of the

planetary system.

.. Poincare disclosed that chaos , or the possibility

of generating chaos is the substance of a non-linear system, and

that even a fully determinate system, as rotating planets, could have

unspecified evolution. In one aspect he understood how micro

effects could be magnified through iteration. He distinguished that a

simple system, can end in an uncontrolled and remarkably complex

behavior ...... .Turbulent mirror

variable at some initial time produces a change in the same or some

other variable , twice as large a change at the same initial time will

produce twice as large a change at the same latter time. You can

substitute half or five times or a hundred times for twice and

the description remains valid. Edward Lorenz in the Essence of

chaos

All systems that are not li near are called non-linear systems. In these

systems , the change in a variable at a initial time can lead to a change in the same

or a different variable at a later time that is no proportional to the change at the initial

time.

13

Nature is intrinsically non-linear and nonlinearity is rather the rule than the

exception.

.it does not say in the Bible that all laws of nature

are expressible linearly .Enrico Fermi

.Using a term like non-linear science is like

referring to the bulk

For a linear system , we can combine two solutions , and the result is a

solution for the system. Here is based

perception that the world is an aggregation of parties). The above property is called

linearity and it makes the linear systems mathematically tractable. We can break up

a linear problem into little pieces , solve each piece separately and put them back

together to make the complete solution.

Nonlinear systems in the other hand cannot be broken up into little pieces

and solved separately. They have to be dealt with in their fully complexity. They are

ubiquitous and their behavior differ qualitatively from the behavior of linear systems,

they can display a variety of behaviors including chaos.

The linear systems were studied for a long time although they are an

exception, because all linear problems are solvable and nonlinear problems are

seldom exactly solvable. Before the advent of computers , almost nothing could be

said about the behavior of nonlinear systems. Also nonlinear systems of interest, are

approximately linear for small perturbations about a point of equilibrium. The

nonlinear equations concern specifically discontinuous phenomena such as

explosions, sudden breaks In materials, or tornados. Although they share some

universal characteristics, nonlinear solutions tend to be individual and peculiar. In

contrast to regular curves from linear equations, the graphic representation of

nonlinear equations shows breaks, loops, recursions all kinds of turbulences. Using

nonlinear models, on can identify critical points in the system at which a minute

modification can have a disproportionate effect (a sufficient condition for chaos).

.Chaos is not related

simple systems and thereby study the indeterminate, in its most

basic form. Even in the most simple quadratic equations we have

chaos, if simply we handle them as iterative functions, ie. if we have

every so

a feedback of its

14

This will give us all the mathematical properties of chaos, when translated into

a demographic model published by biologist Robert May, on the standards of the

work of Velhulst4.

It is called logistic map, and in the reproducibility of manipulation takes the

form

+1 =p (1-) (1)

It seems to be generally acknowledged now that this logistic function is the

basis of modern chaos theory , although Verhulst himself had absolutely no idea that

something like that lay hidden in his formula.

This is a prototype of a nonlinear iterative process where we calculate the

evolution of a population , by starting with some initial population x 0 (between 0 and

1) and applying the formula again and again thus obtaining the sequence of the

values

of

the

population,

x1

,x2

x3

,and

so

on.

where x is the number of the population between v and v + 1 period (year, decade,

etc.).

In the formula , p is the growth coefficient, i.e this period the number of births

is p times bigger of the previous period and x0 the initial population. These are the

initial conditions, and as we shall see, tiny difference in initial parameters will result in

a completely different behavior of a complex system . Even the smallest deviation

say in the hundredth or thousandth decimals- from the initial value of x 0, may have a

significant effect in the end result , in a totally different evolution. It is important to

notice that also our computers which work with a fixed number of decimals , are

subject to this type of unpredictability , however powerfull they may be. (Marcel

Ausloos, Michel Dirickx))

At the moment when the system becomes chaotic the size of the population

at each step in the iteration will be different from its value at any of the previous

steps. There is no stability or regularity any more.

Let us follow this evolution of a system.

When carrying out this iteration scheme, one finds that the resulting evolution.

When p<1 the population sequence tends to 0 independently of the exact

value of p (the births are less than deaths).

For 1<p<3 the population sequence tends to the limit value 1, for p<2 this

happens in a monotone way, but for 2<p<3 in an oscillatory way.

4

Verhulst principle was even applied to economics and sociology. The work of

Verhulst received so much attention all of a sudden :its application in chaos theory.

15

For 3<r<3,5699 the sequence is periodic 5 and its period depends on p. first

we have an oscillation with period 2 (maximum and minimum) , then an oscillation

between 4 different local extremes (period 4) and subsequently

with period 8,

perio16 and so on. Now the system can go from orderly to chaotic behavior. For

most values or 3,5699<p<4 the sequence shows no regularity any more , it is chaotic.

We see that the main characteristic of a chaotic system is this extreme

sensibility to a change of the initial conditions. Two sequences with almost identical

values for x0 , will at first behave in a virtually identical manner , but they suddenly

diverge so that from then on there is no correlation between the two oscillations. A

similar sensitivity is also observed with respect to a change in the growth parameter

p.

system

reaches

in

critical

value

This

but

is

the

route

to

chaos.

As we have

unpredictable

and

... in fact,

therefore

non-deterministic.

we were able to just know the initial state with immense precision,

and further if we were able to perform numerical calculations with

absolute accuracy (for example in the 20th decimal place, without

approximation), then we would not have problem in the predictability

of a phenomenon, and so between regular and chaotic motions. But

it never is possible to do measurements with absolute precision, e.g

the position and velocity of a body with absolute precision. ... ..

(Hatzidimitriou)

an axiom, where the principle of causality is non refutable, i.e, not confirmed by

experience, since it is an axiom that precedes experiences. For example, this

principle is accepted a priori in physics in a simple form, it reads: Every effect has a

cause. That is that chaotic systems are deterministic but not predictable

But this is metaphysics, as there is nothing accepted a priori in methodology

of physics. In practice, we can never specify (or know) the initial conditions exactly

(Heinenberg). So there will always be some uncertainty in the initial conditions in

5

16

dynamical systems , as two kettles of soup heat under the same conditions, they

will behave differently. But it makes sense to characterize the behavior of a system in

terms of its response to this uncertainty . Basically, a chaotic system is one in which

in the state as time goes on, and a non-chaotic system is one in which any initial

uncertainty in the state decays away or at least stays steady with time.

In the former (chaotic) case, given that we can't know the initial conditions to

infinite precision, there will always be some time, after which, the predictions of the

behavior of the system become essentially meaningless - the uncertainty becomes

so large that it fills up most of the state space. This is effectively similar to the

behavior of a truly non-deterministic (e.g. quantum) system, in that our ability to make

predictions about it, is limited, chaotic systems are non-deterministic, but random .

In this connection the scientific determinism is illustrated in the diagram:

Newtonian

Newtonian

differential

determinism

causality

+

uncertainty

rigorous

principles

determinism

uncertainty

Sources .

www mpantes. gr

Mathematics and the physical world, Morris Klein, Dover

, ,

H , Frank Wilczek ()

he rise of the new physics A.D Abro (Dover)

..

(, mpantes on scribd)

Gohn Briggs , F. David Peat KATO

. ()

Logistic map and the route to chaos: Marcel Ausloos, Michel Dirickx

primer on Determinism Door John Earman (klwver the language of science)

Great Physicists from Galileo to Einstein George Gamow (Dover)

David Ruelle ()

QED R.Feynman T

Non linear systems for beginners, Lui Lam

www.mpantes.gr

17

- Maxwell's Field as Operational ConceptDiunggah olehGeorge Mpantes mathematics teacher
- A Geometrical Isomorphism and the Relativity of GeometryDiunggah olehGeorge Mpantes mathematics teacher
- The Problem of Physical SpaceDiunggah olehGeorge Mpantes mathematics teacher
- The Zeno's Paradoxes and the Pythagorean Zeitgeist , (by G Mpantes)Diunggah olehGeorge Mpantes mathematics teacher
- Critique on Boole's Symbolic LogicDiunggah olehGeorge Mpantes mathematics teacher
- Platonic, Aristotelian Forms and MathematicsDiunggah olehGeorge Mpantes mathematics teacher
- Euclidean Geometry, Foundations and the Logical ParadoxesDiunggah olehGeorge Mpantes mathematics teacher
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