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Defnition : "A unit of biological activity delimited by a diferentially permeable

membrane and capable of self reproduction in a medium free of other living
systems" (Loewy and Sieevit!" #$%&'
"A systematically organi!ed community of molecular populations in dynamic
interactions* +t has a morphological" chemical and physical organi!ation which
enables it to assimilate" grow and reproduce*,
-he three dogma of the cell theory are as described below:
All living organisms are composed of one or more cells
-he cell is the most basic unit of life*
All cells arise from pre.e/isting" living cells*
Prokaryotic Cell
(0* pro 1 primitive" aryon 1 nucleus' 2 -he proaryotic cell has no membrane
bound organelles and no nucleus*
3ell 4all . made of polysaccharides such as peptidoglycans* -he role of the cell
wall is to provide a strong wall to prevent the cell from bursting under osmotic
5lasma 6embrane . a partially permeable membrane which determines which
substances are allowed to leave and enter the cell* -his membrane has a large
surface area with many en!ymes attached too it allowing it to be a surface for
respiration and other reactions*
Slime capsule . a layer of a slime lie substance which protects the proaryote
7lagella . outward pro8ections from the proaryote which enable the bacteria to
be mobile*
9acterial 3hromosome . D:A for the bacteria is found . one long double heli/
which forms a circle . no nucleus . present in the cytoplasm*
5lasmids . small D:A molecules which are found in the cytoplasm separately
from the 9acterial 3hromosome* -he genes which form antibiotic resistance are
often found in the plasmids* 5lasmids can be transmitted from one bacterium to
another which is one of the mechanisms which has aided the growth in bacterial
resistance to antibiotics*
0lycogen ; storage carbohydrate within the proaryotic cell ; in the form of
granules which are found in the cytoplasm*
Lipids . form of energy store which is found in the cytoplasm of proaryotic cells*
)ibosomes ; site for protein synthesis . smaller than those found in the
euaryotic cell*
Eukaryotic Cells
(0* <u 1 good or well2 aryon 1 nucleus'2 -he main diference between
<uaryotic and 5roaryotic cells is the e/istence in <uaryotic cells of a =nuclear
envelope surrounding the D:A* -here are also a number of membrane bound
:ucleus . membrane.bound region which contains the D:A . D:A is found in
chromosomes which are linear molecules 8oined together by histones . -he
nucleolus is a dar area in the nucleus which is where ribosomal ):A is being
:uclear <nvelope . double membrane which surrounds the D:A . pores in the
nuclear envelope which allows m):A to leave the nucleus and enter the
)ough <ndoplasmic )eticulum . made up of a large number of connected
compartments nown as cisternae . ribosomes are attached to the outside of the
membrane . role of the )ough <) is to mae and then transported to other parts
of the cell*
Smooth <ndoplasmic )eticulum . similar structure to the )ough <) but doesn=t
have the ribosomes* ; involved in synthesis of steroid hormones and cholesterol*
0olgi Apparatus . involved in the modifcation of proteins . proteins from vesicles
of the rough <) and have carbohydrates or other molecules added to them to
mae them more comple/ and suited for their role* -he modifed proteins are
then pacaged into vesicles and transported out of the cell by the process of
6itochodria . power house of the cell" it is here where aerobic respiration is used
to release energy from organic molecules such as glucose and mae A-5 . double
membrane" the inner of which is folded to provide a large surface area*
Lysosomes . vesicles which contain hydrolytic en!ymes . can be e/ported out of
the cell for the process of phagocytosis or used in the cytoplasm to brea down
organelles or proteins which are no longer needed*
)ibosomes . read ribosomal ):A and mae it into the proteins needed*
6icrotubules . found in both proaryotic and euaryotic cells . found throughout
the cytoplasm and are made out of a protein called tubulin . role of microtubules
is to assist in the transports of the cellular organelles and assist with cell division*
3hloroplasts . found in plant cells where they contain chlorophyll ;
photosynthesis . may contain starch granules*
3ell 4all . prevents the cell rupturing due to osmotic pressures . made out of
cellulose which is a very strong fbre but is fully permeable the role of controlling*
5roaryotic >S <uaryotic 3ell
Parameters Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell
:ucleus 5resent Absent
:umber of
6ore than one (ne2 but not true chromosome:
6ultiple linear
chromosomes with
Single circular chromosome2
lacs histones
3ell -ype @sually multicellular @sually unicellular (some
cyanobacteria may be
-rue 6embrane
bound :ucleus
5resent Absent
</ample Animals and 5lants 9acteria and Archaea
+nvolves meiosis and
fusion of gametes
:o meiosis2 transfer of D:A
fragments only (con8ugation'
3ell division 6itosis 9inary fssion
Lysosomes and
5resent Absent
6icrotubules 5resent Absent or rare
5resent Absent
6itochondria 5resent Absent
3ytoseleton 5resent 6ay be absent
D:A wrapping on
<uaryotes wrap their
D:A around proteins
called histones*
6ultiple proteins act together to
fold and condense proaryotic
D:A* 7olded D:A is then
organi!ed into a variety of
conformations that are
supercoiled and wound around
tetramers of the A@ protein*
>esicles 5resent 5resent
0olgi apparatus 5resent Absent
3hloroplasts 5resent (in plants' Absent2 chlorophyll scattered in
the cytoplasm
7lagella 6icroscopic in si!e2
membrane bound2
usually arranged as nine
doublets surrounding two
Submicroscopic in si!e"
composed of only one fber
5ermeability of
:uclear 6embrane
Selective not present
5lasma membrane
with steroid
Bes @sually no
3ell wall (nly in plant cells and
fungi (chemically
@sually chemically comple/
>acuoles 5resent 5resent
3ell si!e #C.#CCum #.#Cum
3ytoplasm :o cytoseteton or
cytoplasmic streaming
3ytoseleton2 cytoplasmic
)ibosomes Larger si!e (DCS'2 smaller
si!e (ECS' in organelles
Smaller si!e (ECS'