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Case
study 1 Beitbridge, Zimbabwe & Musina,
Acknowledgements

S Teparated

realized
he only
authors
of Beitbridge
and other
publication
by the

that they had


would

would
Limpopo
(Zimbabwe)
many
like toRiver,
organizations
notcommon
thankthe
and Musina
thecommunities
staff from the featured local governments
for their(South
be possible.
issues
generous
Thethat
Africa)
contributions, without them this
following
could be
organizations were integral in
better developing
addressed by this work: cooperatively. The communities
working
share a common culture and problems such as border crime,
enforcement
l Cityand security,
of Växjö, health problems, and water resource
Sweden
management. These issues became the focus of collaboration
l Bohol Province, Philippines
betweenl the
Cityofficials fromU.S.A.
of Duluth, either riverbank.
l City of Petrozavodsk, Russia
In 2005 officials in both municipalities realized the potential
l City ofeconomic
for accelerated Phuket, Thailand
development on both sides of the
l Citygreater
river through of Greater Sudbury,and
cooperation Canada
signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish an official twin-
ning partnership. The twinning arrangementZimbabwe
l Beitbridge Rural District Council, has led to the creation of specialized sub-committees (focused on
tourism Musina
l and Municipality,
conservation; South
women, Africaand health; transport, disaster management, safety and security;
children
education, arts,
l City ofsports,
Melbourne,and culture; administration and economic issues; and environment and engineering)
Australia
that address
l Cityrelated issues
of Tianjin, and
P.R. make recommendations to a Joint Implementation Committee that consists of
China
senior managers. This committee, in turn, considers proposals from the
l Nairobi City Council, Kenya
sub-committees and makes recommen-
l Shenyang Municipal Government, P.R. China
Beitbridge
l eThekwini Municipality, South
dations for policy implementation to the
Africa
Joint Coordination Council, a six-member
Population: 104,000 (2002)
l Municipality of Betim, Brazil group that includes the highest political
Area:l12,697
City km
2
of Bayamo, Cuba representatives of both municipalities.
l Aichi Prefecture, Japan
Contact:
Mr. Albert Mbedzi
l International One of the
Centre for Sustainable areas of focus of the twin-
Cities
ChieflExecutive
ElectricOfficer
Company of Minas Gerais, ning has been the management of water
Brazil
Beitbridge Rural District Council resources. The Limpopo River serves as
l Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
Tel: +263-86/23756 the source of both urban and agricul-
l United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw tural water for both municipalities and a
l United Nations Human Settlements discharge Programme (UN-HABITAT)
area for solid and liquid wastes.

42
South
Introduction
Africa

T
Before

be
he world
the twinning,
for
continues
the first
thetotwo
time
urbanize
municipalities
ever, over
at an unprecedented
half of
were using water
es and managing wastewater from the same basin with little or nowill
year, the world’s
pace resourc-
population
living in cities. While cities consume a major share of the planet’s
coordination.
and this

resources and have often been the locus of the planet’s most serious
environmental
Both municipalities problems, they also
have agreed to symbolize
implementaand hope forana integrated
use sustainable
future. Indeed, environmental sustainability in this urban millennium can only be achieved through cities’
water resources management approach for the river. The signing of the twinning agreement has increased the
leadership, especially on issues such as climate change, biodiversity conservation or water resource use.
level of integration since both local authorities now share information on drinking water abstraction points, pol-
Moreover, this challenge cannot be addressed by cities working in isolation. Partnerships between and among
lution points, as wellutilities,
local governments, as sampling points.businesses,
universities, Integrated supply and demand community-based,
non-governmental, management have or also been strength-
international
ened. Substantial
organizations are efforts
thereforehavean been made
essential to reduce water
mechanism losses,the
for turning pollution
abstractlevels
idea of(both diffuse andinto
collaboration point), as
concrete
well as limit water demand. There is also a focus on attempting to restore the river’s integrity
joint activities. Whether through sister city relationships, twinnings, joint ventures or other cooperative initia- while optimizing
water local
tives, use within the basin.
partnerships have played a pioneering role in enhancing community interaction, finding solutions
to shared problems, using limited resources more efficiently, and generating economies of scale through city
action – thus increasing
Albert Mbedzi, sustainability
Chief Executive Officer ofworldwide.
Beitbridge Rural District Council, explains that the twinning arrangement
has led to a “change of attitude and behavior”
This publication profiles 12 examples of local government between staffachievements
from the two municipalities. Throughand
towards sustainability visits
theand staff
specific
exchange
partnerships programs, staff have
with a variety had a that
of actors chance
have to contributed
better understand
to thathow their counterparts
success. They include:handle various chal-
lenges.
l Five Through
cases of thelocalco-operation
governments between Beitbridge
partnering and Musina,
with other the Limpopo
local governments River
(the Cityand the communities
of Växjö and Bohol that
depend on it will
­Province, the reap
citiesmany benefits.
of Duluth and Petrozavodsk, Phuket and the City of Greater Sudbury, Beitbridge and
­Musina, and Melbourne and Tianjin.
l Four cases of local government partnerships with international organizations (United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) and Nairobi City Council, United Nations Human Settlements Musina Programme
(UN-HABITAT) and the Shenyang Municipal Government, ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability
and six African cities, and the International Centre for Sustainable Cities and Population: eThekwini 40,826 (2001)
Municipality).
l Three cases of local governments linking with a range of academic and business 110 km (the Municipal-
Area:partners 2

ity of Betim and the Electric Company of Minas Gerais, the City of Bayamo and the Katholieke Universiteit
Leuven, and Aichi Prefecture and several local partners). Contact:
Mr. Abram Luruli
No matter where they are located, partners are inevitably confronted with the challenges of securing
Musina Municipality sufficient
Manager
time, human and financial resources, building and retaining capacity, reconciling language or cultural differenc-
Email: luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
es, building trust, and overcoming the geographic divide. The 12 cases contained in this publication show that
Website: www.musina.gov.za
despite the challenges, partnering is indeed a rewarding endeavor.

35
Case
study 1 Beitbridge, Zimbabwe & Musina,

S eparated only by the Limpopo River, the communities


of Beitbridge (Zimbabwe) and Musina (South Africa)
realized that they had many common issues that could be
better addressed by working cooperatively. The communities
share a common culture and problems such as border crime,
enforcement and security, health problems, and water resource
management. These issues became the focus of collaboration
between the officials from either riverbank.

In 2005 officials in both municipalities realized the potential for


for accelerated
accelerated economic
economic development
developmenton both
on bothsides
sides
of the
of the
river
river through
through greater
greater
cooperation
cooperation
and signed
and signed
a Memorandum
a Memorandum of Understanding
of Understanding to establish
to establish
an official
an official
twinning
twin-part-
ning partnership.
nership. The twinning
The twinning
arrangementarrangement
has led tohastheled
creation
to the of
creation
specialized
of specialized
sub-committees
sub-committees
(focused (focused
on tourism on
tourism
and conservation;
and conservation;
women, women,
children children
and health; andtransport,
health; transport,
disaster management,
disaster management,
safety and
safety
security;
and security;
education,
education,
arts, sports,arts,
andsports,
culture;andadministration
culture; administration
and economic andissues;
economic andissues;
environment
and environment
and engineering)
and engineering)
that address
that address
related issuesrelated
and make
issuesrecommendations
and make recommendations
to a Joint Implementation
to a Joint Implementation
Committee that Committee
consists that
of senior
consists
man-of
agers. This committee, in turn, considers senior
proposals
managers.
fromThis
the sub-committees
committee, in turn, andconsiders
makes recommendations
proposals from the for
sub-committees
policy implementationand makes
to therecommen-
Joint Coordi-
Beitbridge dations
nation Council,
for policya six-member
implementation grouptothat
the
Beitbridge
Population: 104,000 (2002)
Joint Coordination
includes the highestCouncil,
politicala representa-
six-member
groupofthat
tives bothincludes
municipalities.
the highest political
Area: 12,697104,000
Population: km2 (2002)
representatives of both municipalities.
Area: 12,697 km 2
One of the focus areas of the twinning
Contact:
Contact:
Mr. Albert Mbedzi One of the
project has areas
been theof focus
management
of the twin-of
Mr.
ChiefAlbert Mbedzi
Executive Officer ­w aterhas
ning resources.
been theThe Limpopo River
management of water
Chief Executive
Beitbridge RuralOfficer
District Council resources.
serves as the
Thesource
Limpopoof both
Riverurban
serves
and as Zimbabwe

Beitbridge Rural District Council


Tel: +263-86/23756 the source ofwater
agricultural bothforurban
bothand
municipalities
agricul-
Beitbridge
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw tural
and a water
discharge
for both
areamunicipalities
for solid and liquid
and a Africa
discharge
wastes. Before
area the
for solid
twinning,
and liquid
the twowastes.

4
South Africa
municipalities
Before the twinning,
were using
the two
water
municipalities
resources and weremanaging
using waterwastewater
resourc-
es andthe
from managing
same basin wastewater
with littlefrom
or nothe
coordination.
same basin with little or no
coordination.
Both municipalities have agreed to implement and use an integrated
Both municipalities
water resources management
have agreed approach
to implement
for theand
river.use
Theansigning
integrated
of
water
the twinning
resourcesagreement
managementhas increased
approachthe forlevel
the river.
of integration
The signing since
of both
the twinning
local authorities
agreementnowhasshare
increased
informa- the
level on
tion of integration
drinking water sinceabstraction
both localpoints,
authorities
pollution
now points,
share information
as well as sampling
on drinking
points.
waterIntegrated
abstractionsupply
points,
andpol-
lution points,
demand management
as well ashavesampling
also been
points.
strengthened.
Integrated supply
Substantial
and demand
efforts have
management
been madehaveto reduce
also been
waterstrength-
losses,
pollution levels, asefforts
ened. Substantial well ashave
limitbeen
water demand.
made Therewater
to reduce is also a focus
losses, on ­attempting
pollution to restore
levels (both diffusethe
andriver’s integrity
point), as
well asoptimizing
while limit waterwaterdemand.
use within
There theis also
basin.
a focus on attempting to restore the river’s integrity while optimizing
water use within the basin.
Albert Mbedzi, Chief Executive Officer of Beitbridge Rural District Council, explains that the twinning arrangement
Albert
has ledMbedzi,
to a “change
Chief ofExecutive
attitudeOfficer
and behavior”
of Beitbridge
between
Ruralstaff
District
from Council,
the two municipalities.
explains that the
Through
twinningvisits
arrangement
and staff
has led to programs,
exchange a “change staff
of attitude
have had andabehavior”
chance tobetween
better understand
staff from thehowtwotheir
municipalities.
counterparts Through
handle various
visits and
chal-staff
exchange
lenges. Through
programs, the cooperation
staff have had between
a chanceBeitbridge
to betterand
understand
Musina, how the Limpopo
their counterparts
River and handle
the communities
various chal-that
lenges. Through
depend on it will the
reapco-operation
many benefits. between Beitbridge and Musina, the Limpopo River and the communities that
depend on it will reap many benefits.

Musina
“… the partnership has led to  Population: 40,826 (2001)
a change of attitude and  Area: 110 km2
behavior …”
Contact:
Mr. Abram Luruli
Musina Municipality Manager
Musina Email: luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
South Africa Website: www.musina.gov.za

5
Case
study 12 Beitbridge,
Duluth, U.S.A.
Zimbabwe
& Petrozavodsk,
& Musina,

TS eparated
he City ofonly
of
(Russia)
realized that
through Sister
Duluth
Beitbridge
they
by the
established
(U.S.A.)
(Zimbabwe)
Cities
Limpopo
and River,
the City
their partnership
theofcommunities
and Musinain(South
hadInternational,
many common
Petrozavodsk
1987 Africa)
a non-profit
issues that twinning
could be
better addressed
organization. Theby cities
working
sharecooperatively.
several similarities:
The communities
both
share a common
communities are located
culture andon lakes
problems
in northern
such asclimates,
border crime,
are
enforcementbyand
surrounded forests,
security,
andhealth
have economies
problems, and focused
wateronresource
management.
natural resource These
extraction.
issues became the focus of collaboration
between
Since 1987,
thenearly
officialseachfrom
yeareither
a delegation
riverbank.from one of the
cities visits the other city to share and exchange information,
In 2005 officials
knowledge, and local
in both traditions.
municipalities
Themes realized
for thethe exchanges
potential
for accelerated
have ranged from economic
music, culture,
development
and health
on bothto business
sides of the
river through greater
development, sports,cooperation
and water quality.
and signed
Participants
a Memorandum
in of Understanding to establish an official twin-
ningvisits
the partnership.
have included
The twinning
elected arrangement
officials, municipal
has ledstaff,
to the
journalists,
creation of university
specializedprofessors
sub-committees
and students,
(focused
busi-on
tourism and and
nesspeople, conservation;
citizens. Thewomen,
partners
children
are involved
and health;in various
transport,
projects
disaster
suchmanagement,
as annual exchanges,
safety and
fundraising
security;
education, arts, sports, and culture; administration
projects, andand humanitarian
economic assistance
issues; andwork. environment and engineering)
thatDuluth
address related issues and make recommendations
In recent years the to partnership
a Joint Implementation
has integrated Committee
sustainable that
development
consists of
themes
senior managers.
into the exchanges,
This committee,
a new area in turn,
of activity
considers
for both
proposals
partners.from
In 2004
the
Population: 86,913 (2007)
Duluth
sub-committees
invited Petrozavodsk
and makestorecommen-
join the
Area: 226 km2
Beitbridge
Municipal budget:
Cities
dationsfor for
Climate
policy Protection
implementation
Campaign. to theIn Seattle
Olympia
Washington

2006
Joint aCoordination
delegation from Council,
Petrozavodsk
a six-member vis- Duluth Montana North Dakota

Population:
USD 104,000
78,001,700 (2002)
(2007) Salem Helena
Bismarck
Minnesota

ited
group
Duluth
that toincludes
focus onthewater
highest
quality
political
issues.
Mo
Oregon Idaho
Boise St. Paul
South Dakota Michigan A

Area: 12,697 km2


Wisconsin
Pierre
New Yo

Duluth
representatives
is locatedofonboth the western
municipalities.
shore of
Wyoming

Contact:
Madison Lansing
Detroit Pennsylvani
Iowa Chicago Philadelp
Carson City
Cheyenne Nebraska Harrisburg

Lake Superior and Petrozavodsk is located


Sacramento Ohio

Dan Green
Salt Lake City Des Moines

Contact:
Nevada Lincoln Indiana Md.
Illinois Columbus West
San Francisco Utah Indianapolis Virginia W
Denver Springfield
Colorado Topeka Richmond
St. Louis Charleston

2702 Woodland Avenue on


OneOnega
of theLake.
areas The
of visit
focusincluded
of the twin-
tours U.S.A.
Virginia
California
Mr. Albert Mbedzi
Kansas Jefferson City Frankfort
Las Vegas Missouri Kentucky
Raleig
Nashville North Carolina

Duluth, MN 55803 USA of


ning
Duluth’s
has been watertheandmanagement
sewage treatment
of water
Los Angeles Santa Fe Tennessee

Chief Executive Officer


Oklahoma Memphis
Arizona Arkansas Columbia
Oklahoma City
Phoenix New Mexico Atlanta South
Little Rock Carolina
Alabama

plants,
resources.
a tripTheon Limpopo
a marine research
River servesvesselas
Georgia

Beitbridge Rural District Council


Mississippi

Tel. +1-218/348-6693 Texas


Dallas

Louisiana
Jackson
Montgomery

on
theLake
sourceSuperior
of bothand urban
an opportunity
and agricul- to
Tallahassee

Tel: +263-86/23756
Email: dgreen@chartermi.net
Baton
Austin Rouge
New Orleans
Houston
Kauai Florida

www.ci.duluth.mn.us
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw
Website: exchange
tural water knowledge
for both municipalities
with city staff on
andtheir
a Oahu
Honolulu
Maui

Hawaii
Miami

respective
discharge waterarea for
initiatives.
solid and liquid wastes.
Barrow

Prudhoe
Bay

Fairbanks
Nome
Alaska

Anchorage Valdez

64
Bethel
Juneau

Ketc
Russia
South Africa
In October
Before the twinning,
2007 a delegation
the two municipalities
from Petrozavodsk were using
visitedwater
Duluthresourc-
to
es andon
focus managing
energy management
wastewater from issues.theDuluth
same basin
municipal
with little
staff or
shared
no
coordination.
their experience in implementing energy efficiency and greenhouse
gas emission reduction projects in city facilities and suggested ways
BothPetrozavodsk
that municipalitiescan have
implement
agreed tosimilar
implement
energy-saving
and use an projects.
integrated
water
For many
resources
years, the
management
City of Duluth
approach
fundedforitsthe
twinning
river. The
work
signing
through
of the
hotel
twinning
and motel
agreement
taxes collected
has increased
by the the
city’s
level of integration
tourism departmentsince and both
ran the
local
program
authorities
out ofnow a city
share
department.
information Theontwinning
drinkingprogram
water abstraction
has recently
points,
becomepol-
alution
separate,
points,non-profit
as well ascorporation
sampling points.
which will
Integrated
give it more
supply
flexibility
and demand
to pursue
management
other forms haveof fundraising.
also been strength-
ened.
For Duluth,
Substantial
the benefits
efforts have
of thebeen
partnership
made tohavereduce been
water
a better
losses,
under-
pollution levels (both diffuse and point), as
well as limit
standing of another
water demand.
culture,There
greateris also
economic
a focusopportunities,
on attemptingand to restore
new the river’s integrity while optimizing
water usefor
activities within
localthe
youth.
basin.Dan Green, the City of Duluth’s Facilities Op- Petrozavodsk
erations Manager, credits strong community support and involvement
Albert
in the Mbedzi,
partnershipChiefasExecutive
one of theOfficer
secrets
of Beitbridge
of its success.
RuralKeeping the localexplainsPopulation:
District Council, 266,600 (2002)
that the twinning arrangement
has led to a “change
community involvedofthrough
attitudethe
andmedia
behavior”
and between
other publications
staff from the
as well Area: 121.8 km 2
two municipalities. Through visits and staff
exchange
as undertaking
programs,
outreach
staff have
activities
had aischance
crucialtotobetter
ensuringunderstand
wide commu- Municipal
how their counterparts budget:various chal-
handle
lenges.
nity participation.
Through theMr. co-operation
Green encourages
between Beitbridge
other municipalities
and Musina, to the RUB and
get Limpopo River 2,142,000,000 (2006) that
the communities
depend on
involved initpartnerships
will reap many andbenefits.
notes that partnerships are “not just about (USD 83,000,000)
offering something, they’re also about Contact:
learning.” Natalia Lavrushina
Vera Meshko from Petrozavodsk’s Exter- Musina
Head, External Relations Dept.
nal Relations Department explains that Tel: +7-8142/713-375
Population: 40,826 (2001)
involvement in the partnership provides Email: natalya.lavrushina@petro-
Area: 110 km2
“a cultural insight for both parties. Those zavodsk-mo.ru
Petrozavodsk
participating in the twinning projects Contact:
Vera Meshko
Russia find out about the approaches and ways Mr. Abram Luruli
Tel. +7-8142/713-394
of thinking of their counterparts abroad. Musina Municipality Manager
Email: erd@petrozavodsk-mo.ru
Ultimately this brings down barriers Email: luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Website: www.petrozavodsk-
which are sometimes created in the field mo.ru/eng/index.htm
Website: www.musina.gov.za
of public politics.”

75
Case
study 31 Beitbridge,
Melbourne, Zimbabwe
Australia&&Musina,
Tianjin,

TS eparated
he City ofonly
of
realized
in 1998 opened
Melbourne
cityBeitbridge
by the Limpopo
twinning agreement
that theya had
(Australia)
(Zimbabwe)with
representative
many common
River,
established
andTianjin
Musina
the communities
(China)
officeissues
its sister
(SouthinAfrica)
in Tianjin
1980 and
thattocould
further
be
better addressed
facilitate sister citybyprojects
workingandcooperatively.
events. In 2005,
The communities
when
share a common
Melbourne and Tianjin
culturecelebrated
and problems
their 25th
suchanniversary
as border crime,of
enforcement
sister city relations
and security,
Tianjin’s
health
mayor problems,
Dai Xianglong
and watervisited
resource
management.
Melbourne where
Thesehe issues
and Melbourne
became theLord focus
Mayorof collaboration
John So
betweena the
signed “Declaration
officials from
of Commitment”
either riverbank.
to actively collaborate
on a number of
In 2005 officials in both municipalities realized
mutuallythe beneficial
potential
forMelbourne
accelerated economic development environmental
on both sides of activities.
the
river through greater cooperation
Population: 67,193 (2006) and signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish an official twin-
ning partnership.
daytime The twinning arrangement
population : Specifically,
has ledthe to two
the mayors
creationagreed
of specialized
to “undertake
sub-committees
projects that
(focused
promote on
tourism and
732,200 (2004)conservation; women, children
the exchange
and health;
of environmental
transport, disaster
and urban
management,
management
safety strategies
and security;
to
education, arts, sports, and culture; administration
enable Melbourneand economic
and Tianjin
issues;
to take
andleadership
environmentroles
and
in engineering)
dealing with the
Area: 36 km2
that address related issues and make recommendations
complex environmental to a Joint
andImplementation
community challenges
Committee
associated
that consists
with rapid
of
Municipal budget: AUD 208 mil-
senior managers.
technological and This
urbancommittee,
development.”
in turn,
Theconsiders
City of Melbourne’s
proposals from
Inter-the
lion (USD 180, 458, 720) (2005)
sub-committees
national Relationsand Department
makes recommen-
partnered
Contact:
Beitbridge dations
with the for
Tianjin
policy Environment
implementation Protection
to the
Tom Parker Joint Coordination
Bureau (EPB) to meet Council,
the new
a six-member
commit-
Population:
China Projects104,000
Officer,(2002) group that includes the highest political
ment.
Area:of12,697
City km2
Melbourne representatives of both municipalities.
Email:
Contact: tom.parker@melbourne. The City of Melbourne facilitated the
vic.gov.au
Mr. Albert Mbedzi green
One ofbuilding
the areas retrofit of an
of focus of existing ­office
the twin- Australia
Chief+61-3/9658
Tel: Executive 9798
Officer ning has in
building been
Tianjin,
the management
which will deliver
of water
Beitbridge Rural9439
Fax: +61-3/9658 District Council resources. The
significant environmental
Limpopo Riversavings
serves
while
as
Tel: +263-86/23756
Website: www. melbourne.vic. the source
being developed
of bothforurban
less than
and agricul-
the cost of
gov.au
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw tural
constructing
water for
a both
new building.
municipalities
A prelimi-
and a Melbourne

discharge
nary concept areadesign
for solid
wasand
completed
liquid wastes.
by an

4
China
South Africa
­ ustralian
Before
A the green
twinning,
building
the two
team
municipalities
consisting ofwerea consortium
using water of resourc-
Mel-
es and managing
bourne-based companies
wastewaterwhofrom
prepared
the same
10 green
basinbuilding
with littleoptions.
or no
coordination.
The Tianjin EPB selected the greenest option to proceed to the con-
cept design stage. The Australian green building team will be included
Both
in themunicipalities
contract specifications
have agreedof further
to implement
stages inandtheuse
project
an integrated
such as
water resources
review of the detailed
management
design, implementation,
approach for thecommissioning,
river. The signingand of the
monitoring
twinningtoagreement
ensure thehas building
increased
achieves
the
level of integration
maximum performancesinceand
boththat
localAustralian
authoritiestechnologies
now share and information
productson aredrinking
utilizedwaterin theabstraction
demonstrationpoints,
project.
pol-
lution points, as well as sampling points. Integrated supply and demand management have also been strength-
ened. Substantial
Melbourne also worked
effortswith
haveTianjin
been madeto introduce
to reducean water
environmental
losses, pollution
managementlevels (both
accounting
diffusereporting
and point),
system
as
well“Green
(or as limitGross
waterDomestic
demand. There
Product”),
is also
which
a focus
cameonabout
attempting
as thetoChinese
restorecentral
the river’s
government
integrity while
piloted
optimizing
10 cities in
water use
China to track
withinor the
measure
basin.their GDP against 10 environmental principles. Additional activities have included the
hosting of two Tianjin EPB staff for 20 weeks in the ICLEI office in Melbourne where EPB staff were trained on
Albert and
water Mbedzi,
energy Chief
saving
Executive
programs.
OfficerAsofwell,
Beitbridge
exchangeRural
visits
District
of Melbourne
Council, explains
and Tianjinthat thestafftwinning
have taken
arrangement
place.
has led to a “change of attitude and behavior” between staff from the two municipalities. Through visits and staff
exchange
Tom Parker,
programs,
the City staff
of Melbourne’s
have had a chance
China Projects
to betterOfficer,
understand
explains
howthat
theirthe
counterparts
partnershiphandle has beenvarious
effective
chal-in
lenges. Through
“aligning the aspirations
the co-operation
of the sister
between
city governments
Beitbridge andwithMusina,
appropriate
the Limpopo
partners Riverin each
and thecitycommunities
– namely ICLEI that
depend
and Tianjin
on itEPB.”
will reap
Bothmany
partners
benefits.
have gained from the partnership, he
added, since “the City of Melbourne
benefited from being involved through Tianjin
profiling the city’s environmental skills Musina
Population: 9.5 million
internationally and Tianjin benefited from
11,30040,826
Population:
Area: km2 (2001)
Tianjin being exposed to world-class thinking on
Area: 110 km2
energy efficiency.” Contact:
China Ms.
Contact:Yu Shumei
Director,
Mr. AbramTianjinLuruliIndustrial
­PMusina
ollutionMunicipality
Control Fund Manager
Tel:
Email:+86-22/2305-1667
luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Email:
Website: yushumei656@sohu.com
www.musina.gov.za

5
Case
study 41 Beitbridge,
Phuket, Thailand
Zimbabwe
& Sudbury,
& Musina,
Can

S
D eparated
espite differences
of(Thailand)
realized
both havethat
only by theinLimpopo
Beitbridgeand
a keen
(Zimbabwe)
they interest
had many
climate, culture,
the City ofand
in moving
River, the
Greater
Musina
commontowards
and
Sudbury
communities
(South
issues that
language, Phuket
(Canada)
Africa)
sustainable
could be
better addressed
development. Phuketby working
and Sudbury
cooperatively.
were matched
The communities
as part of a
share a common
Canadian International
cultureDevelopment
and problems Agency
such as (CIDA)-funded
border crime,
enforcement
twinning program.
and security,
The establishment
health problems,
of theandpartnership
water resource
in
management.
2005 allowed staffThese fromissues
bothbecame
municipalities
the focus to ofshare
collaboration
best
between the
practices in the
officials
areasfromof strategic
either riverbank.
energy planning, recycling,
and disaster response and risk reduction.
In 2005 officials in both municipalities realized the potential
for2005
In accelerated
two Phuket economic
municipal
development
staff travelled
on both to Sudbury
sides of to thelearn
river through greater cooperation and signed about athe Memorandum
city’s initiatives of Understanding
related to sustainable
to establish
development.
an officialSudbury
twin-
ning partnership. The twinning arrangement municipalhas ledstafftoshared
the creation
their experiences
of specializedwithsub-committees
strategic energy(focused
planningon
Phuket
tourism and conservation; women, children and took
and Phuket
health; staff
transport,
on a tour
disaster
of city
management,
facilities thatsafety
had been
and security;
retrofitted
education,
Population: arts, sports,
75,444 (2007)and culture; administration
to save energy and(including
economica issues;
solar wall,
andgeothermal
environment heat
andpumps,
engineering)
and a
that address related issues and make recommendations
co-generation facility to aatJoint
a local
Implementation
hospital). Phuket Committee
was verythat
interested
consistsinof
Land area: 12 km2
senior managers.
Sudbury’s experienceThiswith
committee,
geothermal in turn,
energy
considers
and theproposals
possibilityfrom
for its
the
Municipal budget:
sub-committees
use in Phuket. and makes recommen-
THB 400,471,567
Beitbridge
(USD 12,517,662) (2007)
dations for policy implementation to the
Joint Coordination
Rubber production Council,
is the majora six-member
industry
Contact: 104,000 (2002)
Population:
group
in Phuket,that and
includes
Phuketthestaff
highest
werepolitical
therefore
Area: 12,697 km 2
Dr. Tasanee Aikvanich representatives
particularly interested
of bothinmunicipalities.
tire recycling
Phuket
Contact: City Hall, initiatives that Sudbury has undertaken.
52/1 Narisorn
Mr. Albert Road, Muang
Mbedzi One of the areas
Additionally, bothofSudbury
focus ofand thePhuket
twin-
Phuket, 83000, Thailand
Chief Executive Officer ning has
have had been
similar thehistories
managementwhere of mining
water
Tel: +66-81/8930287
Beitbridge Rural District Council resources.
had been an The important
Limpopopart Riverof serves
their local
as
Email: tasaneetu44@hotmail.com
Tel: +263-86/23756 the source ofSudbury
economies. both urban
explained
and agricul-
how it has
Phuket
Website: www.phuketcity.go.th
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw tural
put its
water
formerfor mines
both municipalities
to use for educa-
and a
discharge
tional and area
economic
for solid
gain,
andand liquid
Phuket
wastes.

10
4
nada
South Africa
representatives
Before the twinning,
expressed
the twointerest
municipalities
in developing
were ausing
similar
water
education
resourc-
es and in
center managing
their former
wastewater
mines. from the same basin with little or no
coordination.
Since the visit occurred several months after the 2004 Indian Ocean
Both municipalities
Tsunami, which directly
haveaffected
agreed the
to implement
City of Phuket,
and use
emergency
an integrated
plan-
waterand
ning resources
disastermanagement
risk reduction approach
initiativesforwere
the river.
of keenTheinterest
signingtoofboth
the twinning agreement has increased the
level ofPhuket
cities. integration
highlighted
since both
the importance
local authorities
of mangrove
now share forests
information
in protect-
on drinking water abstraction points, pol-
lution
ing its points,
shoreline
as from
well as
tsunami
samplingdamage.
points.Since
Integrated
Phuketsupply
only has
andandemand City ofhave
emer- management Greater Sudbury
also been strength-
ened. Substantial
gency response plan efforts
in place
havefor
beenits made
hospital,
to reduce
Sudbury water
offered
losses,
to share
pollution
its levelsPopulation:
(both diffuse and
157,857 point), as
(2006)
well as limitinwater
experience emergency
demand. response
There isplanning
also a focus
with on
Phuket.
attempting to restore the river’s integrity
Area: 3,627 km2 while optimizing
water use within the basin.
Municipal budget:
Although due to funding constraints the partnership did not translate
CAD $ 479,430,745
Albert
into concrete
Mbedzi,activities
Chief Executive
since the
Officer
visit, of
both
Beitbridge
partnersRural
are interested
District Council,
in explains that the twinning arrangement
(USD 467,714,497) (2007)
has led to other
exploring a “change
potential
of attitude
areas of
andcollaboration
behavior” between
such asstaff
public
from health,
the two municipalities. Through visits and staff
exchange programs,
education and ecotourism.
staff have
Both
hadpartners
a chance hope
to better
to find
understand
another way how Contact: handle various chal-
totheir counterparts
lenges. Through
continue their partnership.
the co-operation between Beitbridge and Musina, the Limpopo River Barb and
McDougall-Murdoch
the communities that
depend on it will reap many benefits. Co-ordinator of EarthCare
Based on her experience with the part- ­Sudbury Initiatives
nership, Dr. Tasanee Aikvanich, from the City of Greater Sudbury
City of Phuket, comments that “sharing 200 Brady Street, P.O. Box 5000,
Musina
mutual interests and exchanging best Station A, Sudbury, ON P3A 5P3
Population:
Canada 40,826 (2001)
practices between cities will prolong a
Area: 110 km2
Tel: +1-705/671-2489 ext. 4690
partnership.” Barb McDougall-Murdoch
from the City of Greater Sudbury em- Fax: +1-705/673-2200
Contact:
phasizes that creating an opportunity for Mr. Abram
Email: Luruli
barb.mcdougall@city.
partners to visit each other’s communi- Musina Municipality Manager
greatersudbury.on.ca
Sudbury
ties is an invaluable way to “forge long- Email: luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Website: www.city.greatersudbury.
term partnerships.” on.ca
Website: www.musina.gov.za

11
5
Case
study 51 Beitbridge,
Växjö, Sweden
Zimbabwe
& Bohol,
& the
Musina,
Philip

TS eparated
he Municipality
of
realized
Växjö joined
only byofthe
environmental
thatathey
European
Växjö
Beitbridge (Zimbabwe)
had many
Limpopo
(Sweden)
action dating and
pilotcommon
River,
back
hasthe
Musina
a long
communities
to the(South
project toissues
history of
1970s. In
test and that
Africa)
2001
develop
could bean
better addressed
environmental management
by working system called ecoB
cooperatively. The udget
communities
. Designed
share a common
specifically for localculture
governments, ecoBudget
and problems suchcomplements
as border crime,
enforcement
the traditionalandaccounting
security,system
health by
problems,
planning,and controlling,
water resource
management. These issues became themonitoring, focus of collaboration
reporting
between the officials from either riverbank. on, and evaluating the
Växjö consumption of natural
In 2005 officials in both
Population: 78,473 (2006) municipalities realized
resources the
within
potential
the
forLand
accelerated economic
area: 1,674 km2 development geographical
on both sidesarea of the
of
river through greater cooperation and signed a municipality.
a Memorandum
When theofprojectUnderstanding
came to an toend
establish
in 2003
anseveral
officialoftwin-
the
Municipal budget: SEK 2.9 billion
ning partnership.
(USD 418,066,227) The twinning arrangement
(2006) European has led
participants
to the creation
decidedoftospecialized
undertake sub-committees
a new project to implement
(focused on
tourism and conservation; women, children ecoBudget
and health;
in developing
transport, country
disaster
cities.
management,
Växjö had hadsafety
a positive
and security;
experience
Contact: introducing ecoB
education, arts, sports, and culture; administration and udget
economic into its
issues;
municipal
and environment
administration
andbut
engineering)
since it was
Mr. Anders Franzén
that address related issues and make recommendations
still in the early stages
to a Joint
it wanted
Implementation
to get support Committee
and inspiration
that consists
from of
City of Växjö, Executive Office senior managers.
working in partnership
This with
committee,
other cities.
in turn,
In 2005, the ecoB
considers proposals
udget Asiafrom the
Box 1222, SE-35112. Växjö, Sweden sub-committees
project began with andfour
makes
participating
recommen- cities.
Email: anders.franzen@kommun.
Beitbridge dations
Växjö was for
partnered
policy implementation
with the Provinceto the
vaxjo.se Joint
of Bohol(Philippines),
Coordination Council, whichaplanned
six-memberto
Population: 104,000 (2002)
Tel: +46-470/41591 ecoBudgetthe
group that includes
implement in highest
the Municipality
political Sweden
Area: 12,697 kmUnger, City of
Ms. AnnaKarin
2
representatives
of Tubigon. of both municipalities.
Växjö,
Contact:Planning Department
Box 1222, SE-35112
Mr. Albert Mbedzi Växjö, Sweden One
Despiteof the
vastly
areas
different
of focus geographical,
of the twin-
Tel: +46-470/41571
Chief Executive Officer ning
economichas been
and the
cultural
management
realities, Växjö
of waterand
Email: annakarin.unger@kom-
Beitbridge Rural District Council resources.
Bohol municipal The Limpopo
staff soon River
realized
servesthatas
mun.vaxjo.se
Tel: +263-86/23756 the
theysource
were bothof both
facing
urban
similarand challenges
agricul-
Växjö
Website:
Email: www.vaxjo.se/english
ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw tural
in the water
area of
forsolid
both waste,
municipalities
water, and
and a
discharge
energy, butarea needed
for solid
different
and liquid
solutions.
wastes.

12
4
ppines
South Africa
As partthe
Before of their
twinning,
partnership
the twothe municipalities
cities have attended
were using
project
waterwork-
resourc-
es andand
shops managing
undertakenwastewater
field visits
fromtotheboth
same
cities
basin
where
with
they
little
have
or no
been
coordination.
able to share experiences, exchange ideas and meet with citizens.
Technical staff and elected officials from both cities have been most
Both municipalities
directly involved in the havepartnership.
agreed to implement and use an integrated
water resources management approach for the river. The signing of the twinning agreement has increased the
level of integration
Through the partnership
since both
Växjölocal
has shared
authorities
its technical
now share expertise
information
(suchon drinking water abstraction points, pol-
lution
as analyzing
points,the as chemical
well as sampling
compositionpoints.of Integrated
water) withsupply
Bohol.and Växjö
demand
has management have also been strength-
ened.shared
also Substantial
its experiences
efforts have in selecting
been made measures,
to reducesetting
water targets,
losses, pollution
and levels (both diffuse and point), as
well as limit water
implementing measures
demand. as part
Thereofisthe ecoB
also a focus
udget on
cycle.
attempting to restore the river’sTubigonintegrity while optimizing
water use within the basin. Population: 40,385 (2000)
Although Växjö has completed six ecoBudget cycles, city staff have still been
Land area: 82 km2
AlberttoMbedzi,
able learn a great
Chiefdeal
Executive
from theOfficer
partnership
of Beitbridge
with Bohol.
Rural District
According
Council,
to explains that the twinning arrangement
Municipal budget: PHP 71,148,600
has led Franzén
Anders to a “change
of Växjö’s
of attitude
Executive
and Office,
behavior”“Bohol
between
simplifies
staff from
the system
the twoinmunicipalities. Through visits and staff
(USD1,489,47) (2007)
aexchange
good way” programs,
and by looking
staff haveat ecoB
had udget
a chance
through
to better
Bohol’s
understand
eyes, “Växjö
how can
their counterparts handle various chal-
lenges.
see something
Throughnew.”the co-operation
Växjö was impressed
between Beitbridge
at how effectively
and Musina,
Bohol the
involved Contact:
Limpopo River and the communities that
depend
its citizenson in
it will ecoBmany
the reap udgeting benefits.
process. Franzén also noted that the part- Atty Juanito Cambangay
nership provided an excellent opportunity Coordinator. Provincial Planning
for staff to realize that “there are some- and Development
times better ways of doing things.” Musina
Bohol Provincial Government
3rd Floor new Capitol Complex
Population: 40,826 (2001)
Although the great distance between Växjö Building
Area: 110 km2
and Bohol is a challenge, representatives Carlos P. Garcia Avenue
stay in close contact via email. Both cities Tagbilaran
Contact: Bohol 6300
have developed a close working relation- Philippines
Mr. Abram Luruli
Tubigon
ship and would like to continue to share Musina
Tel: Municipality Manager
+63-38/411-4405
Province of Bohol
their knowledge and experience with other luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Email: ppdc_bohol@yahoo.com
cities by participating in another ecoBud- www.musina.gov.za
Website: www.bohol.gov.ph
get implementation project.

5
13
Case
Case
study
study 16 Aichi Prefecture,
Beitbridge, Japan & the
Zimbabwe Aichi Zer
& Musina,

AS eparated
ichi Prefecture
of
in Beitbridge
realized that
industry.
only byisthe
Japan and (Zimbabwe)
Afterthey
intense
oneLimpopo

had many
of the most
is primarily focused
River,
industrialized
and Musina
growthcommon
the communities
on the(South
in the 1970s,
automobile
issuesAichi
regions
Africa)
that Prefecture
could be
better addressed
began facing a variety by working
of environmental
cooperatively.
problems
The communities
and
share a exploring
started common partnerships
culture and problems
with industry
suchandas border
academiacrime,
enforcement
in order to find andsolutions.
security, All
health
partners
problems,
sharedand common
water resource
management.
goals of the effective
These issues
use of materials
became the and focus
zeroofemission
collaboration
of
between
waste in the region.
officialsMore
from recently,
either riverbank.
successful collaboration
during World Expo 2005 in Aichi and the construction
In the
of 2005Central
officialsJapan
in both
International
municipalities
Airport
realized
(wherethe efforts
potential
for accelerated
were made to minimize
economicthe development
environmentalon both
impact sides
during
of the
river through greater cooperation and signed the airport’s
a Memorandum of Understanding to establish an official twin-
ning partnership. The twinning arrangement construction
has led andto theoperation)
creation created
of specialized
momentum
sub-committees
that led to (focused
the on
Aichiand
tourism Prefecture
conservation; women, children establishment
and health; of transport,
the Aichi Zero
disaster
Emission
management,
Promotionsafety
Center
and(AZEPC)
security; in
education,
Population: arts, sports,
7,341,225 and culture; administration
(2007) May 2006. and economic issues; and environment and engineering)
that address related issues and make recommendations to a Joint Implementation Committee that consists of
Area: 5,161 km2
senior
The AZEPC
managers.
is a hub This
forcommittee,
academia, business,
in turn, considers
and localproposals
government fromthat
the
Municipal budget: JPY 2,245,018
sub-committees
aims to achieve zero and emission
makes recommen-
of waste and promote the efficient use of
million (USD 19 billion) (2007)
Beitbridge dations
resources forinpolicy
industrial
implementation
operations. to
The thecenter investigates and develops
Contact: Joint Coordination
opportunities for recycling-oriented
Council, a six-member
business and provides support to
Population: 104,000 (2002)
Tomohiro Aoyama group
new business
that includes
projectstheathighest
each stage
political
of the development process.
Area: 12,697 km
Recycling and Waste
2
representatives of both municipalities.
Management
Contact: Division New businesses in Aichi must meet three criteria: effective reduction
3-1-2 Sannomaru,
Mr. Albert MbedziNaka-ku, One
of environmental
of the areas of impacts,
focus ofbusiness
the twin-sustainability and profitability, and
Nagoya City, 460-8501
Chief Executive Officer Japan ning has beeninnovation.
technological the managementAt the AZEPC,
of water universities provide support to
Tel: +81-52/954-6233
Beitbridge Rural District Council resources.
new businesses
The Limpopo
to help them
Riverreduce
serves their
as environmental burden; es-
Email: junkan@pref.aichi.lg.jp
Tel: +263-86/23756 the sourcebusinesses
tablished of both urban advise
andonagricul-
sustainability and profitability; and Aichi
Website: www.pref.aichi.jp/kankyo
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw tural
Prefecture
water supports
for both municipalities
new business development
and a by facilitating the new
dischargeapproval
business area for solid
and licensing
and liquidprocess.
wastes.

4
14
ro Emission
South Promotion Center
Africa
The keythe
Before partners
twinning,at the
thecenter
two municipalities
include the AichiwerePrefectural
using water Govern-
resourc-
es andEnvironmental
ment, managing wastewaterPartnership
fromOrganization
the same basin Club,
with
thelittle
Nagoya
or noIn-
coordination.
dustrial Science Research Institute, Nagoya University, and Toyohashi
University of Technology. The center was established and is managed
Both municipalities
through an industrialhave wasteagreed
tax levied
to implement
by the prefectural
and use an government.
integrated
wateratresources
Staff the AZEPC management
include fourapproach
prefecturalforgovernment
the river. Thestaff,
signing
threeofbusiness
the twinning
experts,
agreement
and 20 has
researchers.
increased the
level of integration since both local authorities now share information on drinking water abstraction points, pol-
lution points,
Services offered
as by
welltheascenter
sampling
include
points.
consultancy
Integrated and
supply
support andtodemand
new businesses
management to encourage
have alsoresource
been strength-
recy-
ened. the
cling; Substantial
developmenteffortsofhave
an online
been made
information
to reduce
service;
waterthelosses,
preparation
pollution
of material
levels (both
flowdiffuse
analyses;
andapoint),
recycling
as
well as limit
resource database
water demand.
(to link companies
There is alsothata create
focus onwaste
attempting
through to their
restore
industrial
the river’s
processes
integrity
withwhile
companies
optimizing
that
water
can recycle
use within
it); thethe
Environmental
basin. Award of Aichi; and the provision of grant money for feasibility studies and
innovative facility construction projects.
Albert Mbedzi, Chief Executive Officer of Beitbridge Rural District Council, explains that the twinning arrangement
has ledthe
Since to center’s
a “change opening
of attitude
11 industrial
and behavior”
facilities
between
in Aichi
staff
Prefecture
from thehave
two municipalities.
initiated recycling
Through
programs,
visits including
and staff
aexchange
steel plant
programs,
that nowstaffrecycles
have had
morea chance
than 80% to better
of theunderstand
nickel wastehow emitted
their counterparts
in sewage and handle
dust. various chal-
lenges. Through the co-operation between Beitbridge and Musina, the Limpopo River and the communities that
depend on it will reap many benefits. There have also been multiple benefits for the partners involved in the AZEPC:
greater business opportunities have opened up for industry; universities have
been able to put their knowledge into practice; and the prefectural government
has been able to reduce industrial waste, promote Musina
the local economy, and build
its reputation as a high-technology region.
Population: 40,826 (2001)
Area: 110 km2
According to Tomohiro Aoyama of Aichi Prefecture’s Recycling and Waste Man-
agement Division, the key to a successful partnership Contact:is to “understand the
needs of each partner and search for the best method Mr. Abramof Luruli
partnership consider-
Aichi
ing [each partner’s] needs.” Musina Municipality Manager
Email: luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Website: www.musina.gov.za

5
15
Case
Case
study
study 71 Beitbridge,
Bayamo, Cuba
Zimbabwe
& Katholieke
& Musina,
Unive

TS eparated
he Postgraduate
of
Settlements
realized
in
only by Center
the Limpopo
Beitbridgeis(Zimbabwe)
the Department
that they had
on Human
an academicand
of Architecture,
River, the communities
center
Musina (South Africa)
many common issues that could be
better addressed
Urbanism and Planning
by working
of thecooperatively.
Faculty of The communities
share a common
Engineering at theculture
Katholieke
and problems
Universiteitsuch as border crime,
enforcement
Leuven (KUL).andSince
security,
the Center
healthplaces
problems, and water resource
management.
great importanceTheseon linking
issues became
theory andthe focus of collaboration
between the
practice, for over
officials
20 years
from its
either
students
riverbank.
and staff have been conducting research and undertaking project work in various countries around the world.
In 2005 officials in both municipalities realized the potential
for2001
In accelerated
the Center
economic
joined development
several other partners
on both sides
in working
of thewith the Municipality of Bayamo in Cuba to under-
river athrough
take Local Agenda
greater21 cooperation
(LA21) sustainable
and signedurban
a Memorandum
development of process.
Understanding
The goal toof establish
the project
anwas
official
to improve
twin-
ning partnership.
local planning andThe management
twinning arrangement
capacities inhasorder
ledtotobetter
the creation
addressofthespecialized
urban environmental
sub-committees challenges
(focusedfaced
on
tourism
by this provincial
and conservation;
city. The specific
women,role children
of KUL andwithin
health;
thetransport,
broader project
disaster
facilitated
management,
and financed
safety and
by the
security;
Physical
education,Institute
Planning arts, sports,
(Instituto
and culture;
de Planificación
administration
Física) and
and economic
the Unitedissues;
Nationsand Human
environment
Settlements
and engineering)
Programme
that address related issues and make recommendations
(UN-HABITAT) was to to
a Joint
contribute
Implementation
to a betterCommittee
understanding
that of
consists
the physi-
of
senior
cal planning
managers.
implications
This committee,
of environmental
in turn, considers
issues. proposals from the
Bayamo sub-committees and makes recommen-
Beitbridge
Population: 225,126 (2006)
dations
As part of
forthe
policy
project
implementation
a LA21 team to was the
Joint Coordination
formed and an Urban Council,
Environmental
a six-member
Area: 918 km104,000
Population: 2
(2002)
group that includes
Diagnostic was undertaken
the highest
in 2002,
political
Area: 12,697
Contact: km 2
representatives
which identifiedofandboth
described
municipalities.
possible
Ing. Ramón Fernández Guía
Contact: problems that could be addressed during Bayamo
Avenida
Mr. AlbertFrank País # 46, Edificio
Mbedzi OneLA21
the of the
project.
areas of
Four
focus
priority
of the
issues
twin-were
MICONS
Chief Executive Officer ning has and
selected beenapproved
the management
by the municipal
of water
85300 Bayamo,
Beitbridge RuralGranma, Cuba
District Council resources.
council: river
Thedegradation,
Limpopo River wasteserves
manage-
as
the source
ment, urbanofmobility,
both urbanpublic
andspaces
agricul-and Cuba
Tel: +53-23/422-781
+263-86/23756
dppfgr@enet.cu
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw tural water
services. Infor
2003
both
anmunicipalities
“Urban Consulta-and a
discharge
tion” – a workshop
area for solid
involving
and liquid
over 200
wastes.

4
16
ersiteit
South Africa
Leuven, Belgium
stakeholders
Before the twinning,
– was held the to
twodiscuss
municipalities
technicalwere
and using
institutional
water resourc-
issues
es and managing
related to the fourwastewater
priority areas.fromParticipants
the same basin
signedwith
an Urban
little orPact
no
coordination.themselves to developing concrete measures to address
committing
the four priority problems identified in the Urban Environmental Di-
Both municipalities
agnostic. Working groups have agreed
were then
to implement
set up to develop
and usemeasures
an integratedand
water resources
suggestions for pilot
management
projects. approach for the river. The signing of the twinning agreement has increased the
level of integration since both local authorities now share information on drinking water abstraction points, pol-
lutionstaff
KUL points,
and asstudents
well ascontributed
sampling points.
to theIntegrated
project by supply
conductingand demand
fieldwork,management
undertaking have
research,
also and
beenproviding
strength-
ened. Substantial
selective inputs toefforts
the UrbanhaveConsultations
been made toand reduce
the water
workinglosses,
groups.
pollution
Through levels
an agreement
(both diffusewithandthe
point),
Physical
as
well as limit
Planning Institute,
water demand.
ten studentsThereundertook
is also a field
focusinternships
on attempting and to
wrote
restore
graduate
the river’s
thesesintegrity
focusedwhile
on the
optimizing
city’s ma-
water
jor planning
use within and the
environmental
basin. issues. The urban development scenarios they proposed were later presented
to municipal officials as a source of inspiration. The presence of the students also served to open the minds of
Albert Mbedzi,
municipal officials
ChiefasExecutive
the students
Officer
putofBayamo
Beitbridge
in touch
Rural District
with other
Council,
cities explains
around thethatworld
the twinning
to sharearrangement
experiences
has led
with LA21to aprocesses
“change of andattitude
other and
waysbehavior”
of conducting
betweenprojects.
staff from the two municipalities. Through visits and staff
exchange programs, staff have had a chance to better understand how their counterparts handle various chal-
lenges. Through
According to Luisthe V. co-operation
Canut Cedeño between
of the Province
BeitbridgeofandGranma’s
Musina,Physical
the Limpopo River and the communities that
depend onOffice,
Planning it will one
reapof many
the benefits
benefits.of the partnership was “obtaining Katholieke Universiteit
new proposals for solutions to problems Leuven
through the graduate theses undertaken Contact:
[by the students] as well as getting access Musina
Professor Han Verschure
to up-to-date information about urban Post Graduate Centre Human
Population: 40,826 (2001)
processes and management.” Settlements-KULeuven Kasteel
Area: 110 km2
Arenberg
Leuven
KUL Professor Han Verschure explains Contact: University of Leuven
Catholic
that an essential requirement of any part- Mr. Abram
B-3001 Luruli
Heverlee
nership is “100% openness” among the Musina
Tel: +32-16/321-371 Manager
Municipality
BELGIUM
partners and preparedness to communi- Email: luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Email: han.verschure@asro.
cate, exchange ideas, and “co-learn.” Website: www.musina.gov.za
kuleuven.ac.be

175
Case
Case
study
study 18 Beitbridge,
Betim, Brazil
Zimbabwe
and CEMIG
& Musina,

S ince
eparated

(Companhia
2003only
electrical
the Municipality
energy
by the Limpopo
utility
Energética
realized that they had many
of
de Minas
of Betim
the
common
River, (Brazil)
state of
Gerais
the communities
Minas
of Beitbridge (Zimbabwe) and Musina (South Africa)
and the
Gerais
or CEMIG)
issues that could havebe
partnered on a project to install solar water heaters
better addressed by working cooperatively. The communities in low-
income housing built
share a common by the
culture andmunicipality.
problems such Bothaspartners had
border crime,
enforcement and security, health problems, numerous
and waterreasons to
resource
work together:
management. These issues became the focus of collaboration
Betim
between the officials from either riverbank. l The Municipality of
Population: 410,000 (2006) Betim, through its
Area: 358
In 2005 km in both municipalities realized
2
officials municipal housing
the potential
forMunicipal
accelerated economic development on department,
budget: both sides ofbuildsthe
BRL
river 794,900,000
through (2007)
greater low-income
cooperation and signed a Memorandum housingofforUnderstanding
residents; to establish an official twin-
(USD 485,857,000)
ning partnership. The twinning arrangement l CEMIG has ledseeks to increase
to the creation ofenergy efficiency
specialized and also reduce
sub-committees peak on
(focused
tourism
Contact:and conservation; women, childrenelectricity
and demand
health; in
transport,order to
disasterpostpone investments
management, safety in its
and overloaded
security;
education, arts, sports, electrical grid and is also required by Brazilian law to spend 0.5% of
Bitiá de Almeida Sousa and culture; administration and economic issues; and environment and engineering)
thatManager
address its revenues ontoenergy a Jointefficiency projects;Committee
and
of related issues and make recommendations
Project Development Implementation that consists of
Leonardo Gomes Lara senior
l Both managers.
partners This
are committee,
committed to in turn,
reducing considers proposals
greenhouse from the
gas emissions
Manager of Project Education and sub-committees
and undertaking andprojects
makes recommen-
related to
Beitbridge
Outreach sustainable
dations for development.
policy implementation to the
Reference Joint Coordination Council, aand six-member
Population:Center on Renewable
104,000 (2002) As a result, the municipality the utility
Energies, Municipality of Betim group
company that includes
developed the
a highest
partnershippolitical
where
Area: 12,697 km2 representatives of both municipalities.
Municipal Infrastructure Secretar- CEMIG provides and installs solar wa-
iat, Adjunct Municipal Secretariat
Contact: ter heaters in municipal housing units.
of
Mr.the Environment
Albert Mbedzi One of the
CEMIG paidareas of focus
for the of the of
installation twin-
the
Chief+55
Tel: -31/3593-9606,
Executive Officer 9652 solar water heaters and the
ning has been the management of water Municipality
Beitbridge Rural District
E-mail: crer@betim.mg.gov.brCouncil is responsible
resources. Thefor providing
Limpopo support
River servestoasthe Betim
Tel: +263-86/23756
Website: www.betim.mg.gov.br residents on any issues they
the source of both urban and agricul- have with the
www.crer.betim.mg.gov.br equipment
tural water for after its installation.
both municipalities and a
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw
discharge area for solid and liquid wastes.

4
18
South Africa
The goals
Before theoftwinning,
the partnership
the two are
municipalities
to increase were
energy
using
efficiency
water and
resourc-
reduce peak demand; create conditions that lead to a multiplier
es and managing wastewater from the same basin with little or no effect
in other municipal housing units, provide an opportunity for CEMIG
coordination.
to undertake social responsibility actions, disseminate new forms of
renewable energy, and
Both municipalities stimulate
have theimplement
agreed to market forand
solaruse
water heating in
an integrated
the state
water of Minas
resources Gerais.
management approach for the river. The signing of the twinning agreement has increased the
So
levelfarofthe partnership
integration hasboth
since resulted
local in the installation
authorities of 1026
now share solar water
information onheaters.
drinkingInwater
theseabstraction
households electric-
points, pol-
ity consumption
lution has declined
points, as well as samplingby approximately 52 kWh
points. Integrated per month,
supply whichmanagement
and demand represents anhave average
also saving of 40%
been strength-
of clients’ total energy consumption. Other benefits include increased awareness of renewable
ened. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce water losses, pollution levels (both diffuse and point), as energy sources
among citizens
well as limit anddemand.
water the stimulation
There is of theasolar
also focuswater heating market
on attempting in Minas
to restore Gerais.
the river’s integrity while optimizing
waterstate
The use of
within
Minas theGerais
basin.is today one of the largest users of solar water heating systems in Brazil and Betim is
currently the city with the greatest number of such installations.
Albert Mbedzi,have
The partners Chief Executive
found Officer
solutions to of Beitbridge
several Rural District
challenges Council, explains that the twinning arrangement
in the project:
has led to a “change of attitude and behavior” between staff from CEMIG
the two municipalities. Through visits and staff
when some residents initially sold their solar water heaters for financial
exchange programs,
gain, municipal staff
social have had
workers a chance
undertook to better understand
awareness how their
raising activities to counterparts
Contact:handle various chal-
lenges. Through
explain the co-operation
the economic between
benefits of the Beitbridge
heaters and beganandrequiring
Musina, the Limpopo River
residents and the
Davidson communities
Andreoni Rocha that
depend
to makeon it will reap
a signed many benefits.
commitment to participating in the program and not CEMIG – Companhia Energética
selling their equipment. de Minas Gerais
According to Nelson Fonseca Leite, Regional Superintendent of Central Superintendência de Relacio-
Distribution at CEMIG, the partnership has worked well because “both Musina
namento Comercial/ Gerência
partners have the same way of thinking.” de Coordenação da Proteção da
Population: 40,826 (2001)
Receita e Utilização de Energia
Bitiá Almeida, Manager of Betim’s Reference Center on Renewable Ener- Area: 110 km2
Av. Barbacena 1200 – Belo Hori-
gies, explains that “a good result from a partnership is possible when the
zonte – MG – 30190-131
Contact:
partners have similar interests and the political will of a municipality is
Brazil
Mr. Abram Luruli
directed towards investments that bring a good return for citizens and the
environment.” The partners plan to continue collaborating on additional Musina
Tel: Municipality Manager
+55-31/3506-3322
energy efficiency projects. Email:luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Email: andreoni@cemig.com.br
Website:www.musina.gov.za
Website: www.cemig.com.br

5
19
Case
Case
study
study 19 Durban
Beitbridge,
(eThekwini),
Zimbabwe South
& Musina,
Africa

S
D eparated
urban (South
only by
Sustainable
Africa)
the Limpopo
Cities
and the International
(ICSC) in
River, the communities
Vancouver
of Beitbridge (Zimbabwe) and Musina (South Africa)
their sights
realized thatfixed
theyon
hadthe future.
many As a member
common
Centre for
(Canada)
of ICSC’s
issues that
both have
could PLUS
be
Network, Durban and ICSC are collaborating to develop
better addressed by working cooperatively. The communities a long-
term urban sustainability plan for the community.
share a common culture and problems such as border crime, In contrast
to traditional and
enforcement municipal plans
security, thatproblems,
health focus on aand10-water
or 20-year
resource
planning horizon, members of the PLUS Network look at the
management. These issues became the focus of collaboration
long-term by developing 50- to 100-year visions with 30-year
between the officials from either riverbank.
strategies and five-year implementation plans.
With
In 2005its officials
established localmunicipalities
in both government system,
realizedwell-trained
the potentialad-
ministration, solid infrastructure, and keen
for accelerated economic development on both sides interest in of
long-term
the
planning for sustainability,
river through Durbanand
greater cooperation wassigned
a natural choice to be one
a Memorandum of three Africantocities
of Understanding to participate
establish an officialintwin-
ICSC’s
three-year project, which began in 2006. While ICSC provides technical and methodological
ning partnership. The twinning arrangement has led to the creation of specialized sub-committees (focused on assistance along
tourism and conservation; women, children with aand
peer support
health; network,disaster
transport, Durbanmanagement,
contributes financial andsecurity;
safety and human
resources and
education, arts, sports, and culture; administration andshares its experiences
economic issues; and with its peers inand
environment Africa and around
engineering)
the world.
thatDurban (eThekwini)
address related issues and make recommendations to a Joint Implementation Committee that consists of
Population: 3.2 million (2007) seniorismanagers.
ICSC a “do-tank” This
thatcommittee, in turn, considers
shares its knowledge throughproposals from the
demonstration
sub-committees
projects, and makes
peer exchanges, recommen-
conferences,
Area: 2,292km2
Beitbridge and by
dations providing
for policy consultants
implementation fromto one
the
Municipal budget: ZAR 17.14 bil-
city to another as an avenue to
Joint Coordination Council, a six-member share
lion (USD 2.4104,000
Population: billion)(2002)
(2007) expertise
group thatinincludes
planningthe forhighest
long-term urban
political
Area: 12,697
Contact: km 2
sustainability.
representatives of both municipalities.
Sogen
Contact:Moodley Inspired by a consultation process
Senior CityMbedzi
Mr. Albert Planner One of the areas
undertaken by PLUSof focus of the
Network twin-
member
eThekwini Municipality
Chief Executive Officer ning has(Canada),
Calgary been the Durban
management of water
consulted
Beitbridge
Tel: Rural District Council
+27-31/311-3440 resources.
with Calgary municipal staff in order toas
The Limpopo River serves
Tel: +263-86/23756
E-mail: moodleyso@durban.gov.za the source
adapt of both urban
the consultative and agricul-
process for use
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw
Website: www.durban.gov.za in Durban. ­Imagine
tural water for both Durban is
municipalities described
and a South Africa Durban
by the municipality
discharge as a and
area for solid “council-led,
liquid wastes.

4
20
&
South
ICSCAfrica
community-driven
Before the twinning, project
the two
to municipalities
unlock the imagination
were using of water
the people,
resourc-
take an integrated long-term look at the city, agree
es and managing wastewater from the same basin with little or noon where we want
to be and create a path to take us there.” The project includes several
coordination.
phases: public consultation in order to create a broadly-accepted,
long-term common have
Both municipalities understanding for a future and
agreed to implement Durban;
use anfiltering and
integrated
analysis of responses;
water resources setting goals
management and targets;
approach identifying
for the river. strategies
The signing of theand programs;
twinning developing
agreement a clear andthe
has increased
­effective long-term action plan; and implementing the plan. Through the Imagine Durban project it is hoped
level of integration since both local authorities now share information on drinking water abstraction points, pol-
that citizens, organizations, institutions, and businesses will become engaged, educated and empowered to
lution points, as well as sampling points. Integrated supply and demand management have also been strength-
think and act more sustainably to ensure a more sustainable Durban for the future.
ened. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce water losses, pollution levels (both diffuse and point), as
Thewell project
as limitiswater
driven by a project
demand. Thereteam of a12focus
is also municipal staff that to
on attempting works withthe
restore a multi-stakeholder
river’s integrity while steering
optimizing
­cwater
ommittee composed of
use within the basin. elected officials, academics, businesspeople, community members, and represen-
tatives from non-governmental organizations and faith-based groups. ICSC hired a Local Project Officer to
run the ­project
Albert and act
Mbedzi, Chief as a liaison
Executive between
Officer ICSC and
of Beitbridge RuraltheDistrict
municipality.
Council,Sogen Moodley,
explains that theSenior Cityarrangement
twinning Planner
with ­eThekwini Municipality, highly values having a liaison in place as part of the partnership.
has led to a “change of attitude and behavior” between staff from the two municipalities. Through visits and He notes that
staff
“the ­Local Project Officer is fully integrated in the project, without the bureaucratic constraints
exchange programs, staff have had a chance to better understand how their counterparts handle various chal- of being in the
­municipal employ on the one hand and without any conditions imposed
lenges. Through the co-operation between Beitbridge and Musina, the Limpopo River and the communities that
from the ICSC side.”
depend on it will reap many benefits.
ICSC
Lama Mugabo, a Senior Associate at ICSC, explains that ICSC places
great importance on peer learning. He emphasizes that “you don’t need Contact:
to reinvent the wheel – it is very useful to look at other cities’ experiences Musina
Jane McRae
as long as you adjust them for the local context. It is not enough to say Director of Programs –
‘this worked in city x, so it will work in city y.’ ” Moodley adds that “the Population: 40,826 (2001)
PLUS Network
greatest benefit [of the partnership] is having the neutrality of an external Area: 110 km2 Centre for
International
international NGO working in partnership with the City. Our Imagine ­SContact:
ustainable Cities (ICSC)
­Durban initiative gains great credibility and legitimacy as it is not just
Tel: +1-604/666-2614
Mr. Abram Luruli
another city-driven project.”
Musina
Fax: Municipality Manager
+1-60/666-0009
luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Email: jcmcrae@icsc.ca
www.musina.gov.za
Website: www.icsc.ca

5
21
Case
Case
study
study 10
1 ICLEI Africa Secretariat
Beitbridge, Zimbabwe & Entebbe, Ugand
& Musina,

PS roviding
eparatedaffordable
challenge
particularly
only by theaccess

realized thatintheyAfrica.
hadThe
Limpopo
local
focus
many
to water
River,and
governments
thesanitation
communities
of Beitbridge (Zimbabwe) and Musina (South Africa) world,
facing many
of the partnership
common
around
issues that could
is a
the
between be
ICLEI’s
better addressed by working cooperatively. The communitiesthe
Africa Secretariat and six African cities is to increase
capacity of the local
share a common governments
culture and problems in integrated
such asgovernance
border crime, and
management
enforcement and of water andhealth
security, sanitation.
problems, and water resource
Since the partnership
management. beganbecame
These issues in 2005,the ICLEI’s
focusAfrica Secretariat
of collaboration
has beenthe
between working closely
officials fromwith
eitherelected officials and municipal
riverbank.
staff in four Zambian
In 2005 officials in both municipalities realized and two the Ugandan
potential cities
Entebbe
for accelerated economic development providing on both sides training and
of the
Population: 55,086 (2002) technical
river through greater cooperation and signed a Memorandum assistance, andof sharing its experience
Understanding in water
to establish an management.
official twin-
Area: 53.6 km 2 The ICLEI Water Campaign, active in several world regions, involves lo-
ning partnership. The twinning arrangement has led to the creation of specialized sub-committees (focused on
Municipal UGX 4.3 billion cal governments’ working through a performance-based five-milestone
tourism andbudget:
conservation; women, children and health; transport, disaster management, safety and security;
(USD 2.5 million) process. During this process, cities form Water Management Commit-
(2007)and culture; administration
education, arts, sports, and economic issues; and environment and engineering)
tees (consisting of elected officials and municipal staff) and undertake
Contact:
that address related issues and make recommendations inventories of theirtowater a Jointconsumption,
Implementation Committeeand
conservation, thatquality.
consists of
Semakula Samson, Municipal senior managers. This committee,
Workshops are held so that stakeholders in turn, considers proposals from the
Environment Officer sub-committees
in the communityand canmakes
openlyrecommen-
discuss the
P.O.Box
Beitbridge169, Entebbe, Uganda dations
findings and share case studies ontohow
for policy implementation the
Tel: +256-772/505-652 Joint have
they Coordination Council,
tackled certain a six-member
issues on water
Population: 104,000 (2002)
Email: semakula@lvrlac.net and
group sanitation
that includes management
the highestincluding
political
Area: 12,697 km2 those cases where
representatives communities
of both have
municipalities.
Lusaka taken a lead in the implementation of
Contact:
Population: 1,391,329 (2000) such
One of the areas of focus of the twin- the
initiatives. After the workshops, Uganda Jinja
Mr. Albert Mbedzi Entebbe
Chief 360
Area: km Officer
Executive
2
Water
ning hasManagement Committee sets
been the management of watergoals
Municipal budget: ZMK 62 billion for water conservation and
resources. The Limpopo River serves asquality, devel-
Beitbridge Rural District Council Zambia
(USD 15.8 million) (2007) ops and implements a local action plan, Lusaka
Tel: +263-86/23756 the source of both urban and agricul-
and monitors progress.
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw
(continued next page) tural water for both municipalities and a
discharge area for solid and liquid wastes.

4
22
da;South
Lusaka, Zambia; Jinja, Uganda
Africa
The participating
Before the twinning, cities
thebring
two municipalities
their unique water wereandusingsanitation
water resourc-
challenges and varying experience with integrated
es and managing wastewater from the same basin with little water resources
or no
management
coordination. to the partnership. By working closely with ICLEI, the
cities help ICLEI to broaden its knowledge and fine-tune its technical
assistance to other African
Both municipalities cities.toAsimplement
have agreed well, the partnership
and use anprovides
integrated an
excellent opportunity
water resources for the sixapproach
management cities to for
share
thetheir
river.experiences
The signingand good
of the twinningContact:
agreement has increased the
practices.
level of integration since both local authorities now share information on drinkingBornwell water abstraction points,
L. Luanga, Director of pol-
lution points,
Bornwell as well
Luanga, as sampling
Director points. Integrated
of Engineering Services insupply
Lusaka,and
onedemand Engineering
of the management haveServices
also been strength-
ened. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce water losses, pollution levels (both diffuse Lusaka,
participating cities, explains how the partnership has benefited Lusaka City P.O. Box 30251, Zambia
and point), as
Council: “thewater
well as limit knowledge
demand. gained
Therehas is helped us reduce
also a focus water bills,tomaking
on attempting Tel: +260-1 / 253-759, +260-966
restore the river’s integrity while optimizing /
it possible
water for us the
use within to channel
basin. resources to other needy service areas. It has 759-258
also made us take water resource management seriously. We have also Email: luangalb@yahoo.com
increased the capacity of our community to manage water in a sustainable Website: www.lcc.gov.zm
Albert Mbedzi, Chief Executive Officer of Beitbridge Rural District Council, explains that the twinning arrangement
manner.”
has led to a “change of attitude and behavior” between staff from the two municipalities. Through visits and staff
exchange programs,
Semakula staff have Municipal
Samson, Entebbe’s had a chance to better understand
Environment how out
Officer, points
Jinja
their counterparts handle various chal-
that “there
lenges. are always
Through ideas that can
the co-operation be exchanged
between Beitbridgeamong partnering
and Musina, the Limpopo RiverContact:
and the communities that
groups
depend even
on it when youmany
will reap are operating
benefits. at varying scales.” Gibson Gidudu
Jinja Municipal Council
According to Gibson Gidudu from Jinja’s Municipal Council, participating P.O. Box 720, Jinja, Uganda
in the partnership “... has helped us to bring together key stakeholders by Tel: +256-43/123-004
working in harmony and owning the project collectively.” He adds that his Musina
Email: jmc@source.co.ug
Council has learned “that without other partners, the problems of water-
related infections including diseases pertaining to poor sanitation cannot Rapule Pule40,826 (2001)
Population:
Water110
Area: Programme
km2 Manager
be eradicated.”
ICLEI Africa Secretariat
The Water Programme Manager at ICLEI’s Africa Secretariat, Rapule Contact:
P.O. Box 32563, Braamfontein,
Pule, notes that the stakeholders’ workshops have served as a unique Mr. Abram
2070, SouthLuruli
Africa
opportunity for cities to establish formal to semi-formal partnerships Musina
Tel: +27-11/894-361 Manager
Municipality
between councils and water utilities, and engage in developing targets Email:luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Email: rapule.pule@iclei.org
and action plans to address the gaps in the way they have been govern- Website: www.iclei.org/africa
Website:www.musina.gov.za
ing water and sanitation issues.

235
Case
Case
study
study 11
1 Beitbridge,
Nairobi, Kenya
Zimbabwe
& UNEP& Musina,

IS neparated
recent years,
polluted
only Nairobi’s
of Beitbridge
with solid
realized that garbage,
Uncollected
by the Limpopo
(Zimbabwe)
they had human
rivers have
and liquid and
many common
River,become
waste
Musina
the communities
from(South
waste from
issues
increasingly
a variety
informal
Africa)
that could
of sources.
settlements,
be
better addressed
industrial waste, agricultural
by working cooperatively.
run-off and overflowing
The communities
sewers
shareresulted
have a common in the
culture
spreadandofproblems
water-bornesuchdiseases,
as border reduced
crime,
enforcement
availability and andaccess
security,
to safe
health
potable
problems,
water, and
losswater
of biodiversity
resource
management.
and sustainableThese livelihoods,
issues became
and contamination
the focus offrom collaboration
toxic
between the With
substances. officials
manyfrom
sources
either contributing
riverbank. to the problem, a
multi-stakeholder partnership approach was necessary to find a
In 2005 officials in both municipalities realized the potential
solution.
for accelerated economic development on both sides of the
riverNairobi
The throughRivergreaterBasin
cooperation
Programme andwas
signed
launched
a Memorandum
in 1999 by the of Understanding
United NationstoEnvironment
establish an Programme
official twin-
ning partnership.
(UNEP) in conjunction
The twinning
with several
arrangement
other partners:
has ledthe to Government
the creation of ofspecialized
Kenya, UN-HABITAT,
sub-committees
the United
(focused
Nations
on
tourism and conservation; women, children Development
and health; Programme,
transport, Nairobi
disaster City
management,
Council, the
safety
private
andsector,
security;
and
education, arts, sports, and culture; administration
civil society. and
The aim
economic
of the issues;
programme and environment
was to “rehabilitate,
and engineering)
restore, and
Nairobi City Council
that address related issues and make recommendations
manage the Nairobi to aRiver
Jointecosystem
Implementation
in orderCommittee
to providethat
improved
consists
liveli-
of
Population: 3 million senior
hoods managers.
especially for
This
the committee,
poor, enhanced
in turn,
biodiversity,
considers and
proposals
a sustainable
from the
Area: 150 km2 sub-committees
supply of water for anddomestic,
makes recommen-
industrial,
Beitbridge dations
recreational,
for policy
and emergency
implementation uses.”toThe
the
Contact: Joint Coordination
programme consistedCouncil,
of three
a six-member
phases: an
Population: 104,000
Benjamin Njenga, (2002)
Engineer group that includes
assessment phase, athe pilot
highest
project political
phase,
Area: 12,697
Deputy km2 Environment
Director, representatives
and an implementation
of both municipalities.
phase.
Department
Contact:
Nairobi City Council Kenya
Mr. Albert Mbedzi Oneproject
Key of the areas
activities
of focus
included
of the assessing
twin-
Nairobi
Chief+254-20/344-193,
Tel: Executive Officer+254- ning has
water quality,
beenestablishing
the management an environ-
of water
20/201-4862
Beitbridge Rural District Council resources.
mental management
The Limpopo information
River servessys-as
Email: faimacon@yahoo.com
Tel: +263-86/23756 the source
tem, pilotingof aboth
pollution
urbanmonitoring
and agricul-and
Website: www.nairobicity.org
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw tural
assessment
water for
project
both municipalities
in a tributary ofand
thea
discharge
Nairobi River,
arearehabilitating
for solid and and liquid
restor-
wastes.

4
24
South Africa
ing the the
Before Nairobi
twinning,
Dam,thedeveloping
two municipalities
and operationalizing
were using water
water quality
resourc-
es and
and quantity
managing
measuring
wastewater
protocols,
from and
the same
undertaking
basin with
publiclittle
awareness
or no
coordination.
and community education campaigns to build capacity among local
stakeholders.
Both municipalities have agreed to implement and use an integrated
water resources
Nairobi City Council
management
has had an approach
importantforrole
the as
river.
a partner
The signing
in theofNairobi
the twinning
River Basin
agreement
Programme.
has increased
In manythe
level of integration
instances the Council
since
hasboth
played
local
anauthorities
enabling role
nowbyshare
formulating
information
and implementing
on drinking water
by-laws
abstraction
that assist
points,
with pol-
the
lution points, as of
implementation well
theasgoals
sampling
of thepoints.
NairobiIntegrated
River Basin supply
Programme,
and demand providing
management
information
have(such
also been
as statistical
strength-
ened.and
data Substantial
historicalefforts
information),
have been andmade
undertaking
to reduce remedial
water losses,
actionspollution
such as levels
tree planting
(both diffuse
programs.
and point),
The Direc-
as
well as
tors of the
limitDepartments
water demand. of Environment
There is also and
a focus
City on
Planning,
attemptingalongtowith
restore
the the
Mayor
river’s
andintegrity
Town Clerk
whilehave
optimizing
worked
water use
closely withwithin
UNEP thethrough
basin. the various stages of the programme.

Henry Mbedzi,
Albert Ndede, UNEP’s
Chief Executive
Coordinator
Officerofofthe
Beitbridge
Nairobi River
Rural Basin
District
Pro-
Council, explains that the twinning arrangement
has led to notes
gramme, a “change
that with
of attitude
many and
issues
behavior”
competingbetween
for the
staff
Council’s
from theatten-
two municipalities. Through visits and staff
exchange
tion, it is aprograms,
challengestaffto convince
have hadthe
a chance
Counciltotobetter
prioritize
understand
environmental Unitedhandle
how their counterparts Nations
various chal-
lenges. Through
issues. He emphasizes
the co-operation
that trust between
is a key element
Beitbridge
of and
any partnership
Musina, the and Environment
Limpopo River and the communities that
depend
feels thaton“the
it will
intervention
reap manyof benefits.
UN agencies promotes cooperation among
Programme (UNEP)
different stakeholders.” Ndede acknowledges that since the Nairobi River Contact:
has been continually polluted for 40 years, the situation can’t be fixed Henry Ndede
overnight. But, he adds, “I think we’re moving in the right direction.” Musina
Programme Officer, Water
Coordinator, Nairobi River Basin
Population: 40,826 (2001)
Programme 2
Area: 110 Office
Regional km for Africa, UNEP
“With many sources contributing to the problem,  UN Gigiri Complex, Block A-124
Contact:
a multi-stakeholder partnership is necessary  P.O. Box 47074,
Mr. Abram LuruliNairobi, Kenya
to find a solution” Musina
Tel: Municipality Manager
+254-20/762-4276
luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Email: henry.ndede@unep.org
www.musina.gov.za
Website: www.unep.org

5
25
Case
Case
study
study12
1 Beitbridge, China
Shenyang, Zimbabwe
& UN-HABITAT
& Musina,

S
by
henyang
eparated isonly
transportation
thebyeconomic,
the Limpopo
center of
cultural,
River,commercial,
northeastern
the communities
China
of Beitbridge (Zimbabwe) and Musina (South Africa)
the World
realized Health
that they hadOrganization
many common (WHO)issues to that
but
industrial, and
it was once considered
havecould
one of bethe most polluted
airsheds
better addressed by working cooperatively. The communities Nations Human
in the world. Through a partnership with the United
Settlements
share a common Programme
culture (UN-HABITAT),
and problems such Shenyang
as border wascrime,
able to make significant
steps in improving its environment and the quality
enforcement and security, health problems, and water resource of life of its citizens.
In 1997 Shenyang
management. TheseMunicipal Government
issues became the focusbegan the Sustainable Shenyang Pro­
of collaboration
ject, making it one of 15 global demonstration
between the officials from either riverbank. cities working with UN-HABITAT,
UNEP, the United Nations Development Programme, and other partners to in-
crease
In 2005the sustainability
officials of cities worldwide.
in both municipalities With
realized thetechnical
potentialsupport and advice
from
for accelerated economic development on both sides of municipal
UN-HABITAT, Shenyang’s political administration, the organiza-
tions, and citizens undertook a step-by-step sustainability process.
river through greater cooperation and signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish an official twin-
Beginning with the Shenyang Environmental Profile where the current state
ning partnership. The twinning arrangement has led to the creation of specialized sub-committees (focused on
of the environment was assessed, three priority issues – air pollution, water
tourism and conservation; women, children and health; transport, disaster management, safety and security;
pollution, and solid waste management – were identified. A multi-­stakeholder,
education, arts, sports, and culture; administration and economic issues; and environment and engineering)
participatory city consultation was held
that address related issues and make recommendations to a Joint Implementation Committee that consists of
where participants agreed on the three
Shenyang senior managers. This committee, in turn, considers proposals from the
priorities and strategies to address them
sub-committees and makes
as well as the allocation recommen-
of responsibil-
Population: 7,200,000 (2006)
Beitbridge
Area: 12,980 km2
dations for policy implementation
ity to implement the strategies. Working to the
Joint
groups Coordination
developed action Council, a six-member
plans and pilot Shenyang
Population: 104,000 (2002)
Contact: group
projects that includes
were carried the
outhighest
to political
address the
Area: 12,697 km2 representatives of both
Shenyang Environmental priority areas. Over time,municipalities.
Shenyang suc-
Protection
Contact: Bureau ceeded in significantly reducing its air
No. 246, Zhengyang
Mr. Albert Mbedzi Street, One of thepollution,
and water areas of focus of thewaste,
and solid twin- as China
Shenhe District,Officer
Chief Executive Shenyang ningas
well has been the citizens’
increasing management of water
environmental
(110011),
BeitbridgeChina
Rural District Council resources. The Limpopo River serves as
awareness.
Tel: +86-24/2485-1895
+263-86/23756 the the
Via source of both urban
partnership and agricul-
UN-HABITAT
Email: epa_shenyang@yahoo.com
ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw r
­ esponded
tural water to
for the
both needs of Shenyang
municipalities and a
­M unicipal area
discharge Government
for solid byandproviding tech-
liquid wastes.

4
26
T South Africa
nical support
Before the twinning,
in areasthe
such
twoasmunicipalities
cross-sectoralwerecoordination,
using water
decentral-
resourc-
ized
es and managing wastewater from the same basin with little or tools,
decision-making, participatory planning and management no
the development of sustainable development strategies and action
coordination.
plans, and the use of the media to raise public awareness. As well,
UN-HABITAT
Both municipalitieswas able to agreed
have providetoShenyang
implement with greater
and use anexposure
integratedto
international good practices through city-to-city exchanges
water resources management approach for the river. The signing of the with other demonstration cities and
twinning agreement hasstudy tours the
increased to
learn about
level of innovative
integration approaches
since both local and sustainable
authorities now development thinking.
share information on drinking water abstraction points, pol-
Chris Radford of UN-HABITAT explains that local government
lution points, as well as sampling points. Integrated supply and demand officials in management
Shenyang werehave “genuinely
also been concerned
strength-
that
ened. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce water losses, pollution levels (both diffuse and point), asThis
the city was in the top 10 WHO worst polluted airsheds in the world, and wanted to make a difference.
political support
well as limit waterwas a key driver
demand. Therefor the success
is also a focus of
onthe project.” to restore the river’s integrity while optimizing
attempting
Zhang Fan of Shenyang’s
water use within the basin. Environmental Protection Bureau underlines that in a successful partnership “part-
ners should … implement all kinds of co-operation by using a flexible, pragmatic, and responsive approach.”
Zhang adds that “the achievement of a single project is not enough to
Albert Mbedzi, Chief Executive Officer of Beitbridge Rural District Council, explains that the twinning arrangement
further the development of cities. It must be regarded as a long-term job.
has led to a “change of attitude and behavior” between staff from the two municipalities. UN-HABITATThrough visits and staff
Partners need to make … unremitting efforts.”
exchange programs, staff have had a chance to better understand how their counterparts handle various chal-
Radford notes that as a result of UN support, Shenyang Municipal Gov- Contact:
lenges. Through the co-operation between Beitbridge and Musina, the Limpopo River and the communities that
ernment “gave more respect, resources, and enforcement capacity to its Chris Radford
depend on it will reap many benefits.
Environmental Protection Bureau, empowering and enabling it to imple-
UN-HABITAT Fukuoka Office
ment the strategies and action plans prepared through the participatory
United Nations Human Settle-
process.” The bureau gradually moved from an enforcement role to that
ments
Musina Programme
of a negotiating agency, facilitating up-pipe industrial investment and re-
Regional Office for Asia &
capitalization programs, providing access to cleaner production technolo-
the Pacific 40,826 (2001)
Population:
gies, and creating linkages to foreign direct investment. He adds that
Area: 1108F,km1-1-1
ACROS 2
Tenjin, Chuo-ku
“overall, Shenyang Municipal Government has been a very responsive
Fukuoka
Contact: 810-0001 Japan
partner, and is currently playing an important role sharing its experiences
with other cities in China. Shenyang is a keen change agent.” Tel: +81-92/724-7121
Mr. Abram Luruli
Email: chris.radford@fukuoka.
Musina Municipality Manager
unhabitat.org
Email: luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Website:www.fukuoka.unhabitat.org
Website: www.musina.gov.za

5
27
Case
study 1 Beitbridge, Zimbabwe & Musina,
Conclusion

S
C eparated
ities are home
of
of Beitbridge
realized that they
opportunities.
only bytothe
the environmental
These
over
(Zimbabwe)
Limpopo
half of the
puzzle,
hadopportunities
River,
andboth
many common
world’s
Musina
the communities
as a(South
cannot
issues
population and are a fundamental piece
source Africa)
bethat
of challenges and increasingly
adequately
could beseized by individual cities,
better
but rather
addressed
throughbypartnerships
working cooperatively.
of one or more The communities
cities working together to increase
share a common
awareness and come culture
to effective
and problems
solutions such forassustainability.
border crime,
enforcement and security, health problems, and water resource
management.
While it is clearThese
that noissues
predefined
becameformula
the focus exists
of collaboration
for a successful partnership, the
between
case studies
the officials
outlinedfromin this
either
publication
riverbank. illustrate the variety of possible approaches to
establishing partnerships. As in the case of the cities of Phuket and Greater Sudbury,
­fIn
requently partnerships
2005 officials in both are established realized
municipalities as part of thea potential
specific project with a goal of achiev-
for accelerated
ing mutual benefits. economic
Anotherdevelopment
impetus, as onwith
bothPetrozavodsk
sides of the and Duluth, is a sister city
river
or twinning
throughrelationship,
greater cooperation
where two andlocal
signed
governments
a Memorandum establish of an
Understanding
official cooperative
to establish an official twin-
ning partnership.
relationship to promote
The twinning
culturalarrangement
understanding hasandledtotostimulate
the creation economic
of specialized
develop-sub-committees (focused on
tourism
ment. Inand
other conservation;
cases, as with women,
Beitbridge
childrenand and
Musina,
health;partnerships
transport, disaster
are established
management,
based safety and security;
education,
on practicalarts,
reasons,
sports,such
andasculture;
geographical
administration
proximity. andIn economic
addition, as issues;
the Växjö
and and
environment
Bohol and engineering)
that address
example shows,related
partnerships
issues and aremake
oftenrecommendations
created to advance tocommon
a Joint Implementation
economic, social, Committee that consists of
or environmental goals. senior managers. This committee, in turn, considers proposals from the
sub-committees and makes recommen-
Beitbridge
North-South partnerships offer potential dations
advantages
for policy
overimplementation
other modes of to development
the
cooperation as they enhance possibilities Joint
forCoordination
organizational Council,
learning a six-member
and capacity build-
Population: 104,000 (2002)
ing. Similarly, South-South partnershipsgroup provide thatvaluable
includes opportunities
the highest political
for knowledge
Area: 12,697 km 2
exchange and identifying practical solutions representatives
to similar problems
of both municipalities.
faced by local govern-
ments in
Contact: developing countries.
Mr. Albert Mbedzi One of the areas of focus of the twin-
NoChief
matter whereOfficer
Executive they are located, partners ningare hasinevitably
been the confronted
management with
of the
water
challenges
of securing
Beitbridgesufficient
Rural Districttime, human and resources.
Council financial resources,
The Limpopobuilding
Riverand serves
retaining
as
capacity, reconciling language or cultural
Tel: +263-86/23756 thedifferences,
source of both building
urbantrust,
andand agricul-
overcoming the
geographic divide. The
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw 12 cases contained turalin water
this publication
for both municipalities
show that despite
and a the chal-
lenges, partnering is indeed a rewardingdischarge endeavor.area for solid and liquid wastes.

4
28
South Africa
There isthe
Before notwinning,
single recipe
the two
for amunicipalities
successful partnership;
were usingitwater
is clear,
resourc-
how-
es and
ever, that
managing
successful
wastewater
partnershipsfromdo thenotsame
occurbasin
by chance,
with little
butorrather
no
coordination.
through the sharing of a common vision, a willingness to engage in a
meaningful way, and an unwavering commitment to work together.
Both municipalities have agreed to implement and use an integrated
water
A partnership
resources can
management
only be effective
approach
if there
foristhe
a genuine
river. Thedesire
signing
among
of the twinning agreement has increased the
level
all stakeholders
of integration
to establish
since both this
local
typeauthorities
of cooperation
now share
and there
information
is agreement
on drinking
between
watertheabstraction
partners onpoints,
its pur-pol-
lutionand
pose points,
scope.
as well
Other askey
sampling
ingredients
points.of success
Integratedaresupply
the political
and demand
will at the
management
highest levelhave
of the
alsomunicipal
been strength-
ad-
ened. Substantial
ministration, support
efforts
fromhave
thebeen
localmade
community,
to reduceopenness
water losses,
of partners
pollution
to working
levels (both
and learning
diffuse and
frompoint),
each other,
as
well as limit
frequent andwater
open demand.
communication
There isbetween
also a focus
partners,
on attempting
and meaningful
to restore
involvement
the river’sofintegrity
stakeholders.
while optimizing
Once this is
water use withinpartners
accomplished, the basin.can apply innovative approaches appropriate to their local circumstances.

The partnerships
Albert Mbedzi, Chief
profiled
Executive
in this
Officer
publication
of Beitbridge
have resulted
Rural District
in a variety
Council,
of outcomes:
explains thatgreater
the twinning
understanding
arrangement
of
has led tocultures
different a “changeandofglobal
attitude
issues;
and behavior”
access andbetween
exposurestafftofrom
up-to-date
the twoinformation
municipalities.
andThrough
experiences;
visitsbudgetary
and staff
exchange
and financial
programs,
benefits;
staff
stronger
have hadconnections
a chance to
andbetter
peerunderstand
support networks;
how theirgreater
counterparts
legitimacy
handle
andvarious
credibility
chal-
for the
lenges. Through
partners’ work; and
the increased
co-operation knowledge
between of
Beitbridge
new tools,andapproaches,
Musina, theideas
Limpopo
and solutions
River and totheadvance
communities
sustainable
that
depend on it will
development worldwide.
reap many benefits.

The very definition of a partnership suggests that partners are committed to sharing both the benefits and risks
Musina
of their undertaking. It is our hope that this publication will assist local governments around the globe in pursu-
ing partnerships that will avoid pitfalls and deliver real positive change for the planet and its citizens.
Population: 40,826 (2001)
Area: 110 km2

“Coming together is a beginning.


Contact:
Mr. Abram Luruli
Staying together is progress.Musina
 Municipality Manager
Email: luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
Working together is success.”Website: www.musina.gov.za

5
29
Case
study 1 Beitbridge, Zimbabwe & Musina,
Contributors

S
United Nations
eparated Environment
only by the Limpopo River,Programme
the communities
of Beitbridge (Zimbabwe) and Musina (South Africa)
UNEP is the voice of the environment within the United Na-
realized that they had many common issues that could be
tions system.
better addressed by working cooperatively. The communities
share a common culture and problems such as border crime,
In the field of the urban environment, UNEP supports national
enforcement and security, health problems, and water resource
and local governments to address key urban environmental
management. These issues became the focus of collaboration
issues with a focus on issues that have both a local and an
between the officials from either riverbank.
international dimension. These include air pollution, coastal
areas, waste, biodiversity, and climate change. In cooperation
In 2005 officials in both municipalities realized the potential
with partners, UNEP assists national and local governments by
for accelerated economic development on both sides of the
providing awareness raising materials, organizing workshops
river through greater cooperation and signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish an official twin-
and trainings, developing tools and involving cities in international
ning partnership. The twinning arrangement has led to the creation of specialized sub-committees (focused on
meetings.
United
tourism and Nations
conservation; women, children and health; transport, disaster management, safety and security;
­Environment
education, arts, sports, and culture; administration and economic issues; and environment and engineering)
Through the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles, UNEP has been
that­Paddress
rogramme related issues and make recommendations to a Joint Implementation Committee that consists of
coordinating programmes that aim at reducing vehicular emissions
senior managers. This committee, in turn, considers proposals from the
Urban Environment Unit in developing countries to improve urban air quality. UNEP has also
sub-committees and makes recommen-
P. O. Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya launched a Campaign on Cities and Biodiversity to engage local gov-
Beitbridge
Tel: +254 (0) 20 7624184
dations for policy implementation to the
ernments in managing and protecting biodiversity and involve them in
Joint Coordination Council, a six-member
Population:
E-mail: 104,000 (2002)
urban.environment@unep.org the global biodiversity debate. Under its new Campaign on Cities and
group that includes the highest political
Area: 12,697 km 2
www.unep.org/urban_environment Climate Change, UNEP seeks to engage cities in the global climate
representatives of both municipalities.
debate and assist them in ­reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Contact:
Mr. Albert Mbedzi One of the areas of focus of the twin-
Chief Executive Officer ning has been the management of water
UN-HABITAT – Shelter for all resources. The Limpopo River serves as
Beitbridge Rural District Council
TheTel:
United Nations Human Settlements
+263-86/23756 theProgramme, UN-HABITAT,
source of both urban and is the United Nations agency for human
agricul-
settlements. It is mandated
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw by the UN General
tural Assembly
water for bothto promote socially
municipalities andand
a environmentally sustain-
able towns and cities with the goal of providing
dischargeadequate
area for shelter forliquid
solid and all. Inwastes.
the field of the urban environment,

4
30
South Africa
Before the twinning, the two municipalities
UN-HABITAT
were using supports
water resourc-
local
UN-HABITAT
es and managing wastewater from the and samenational
basin with
governments
little or no
coordination.
Urban Environment through the Sustainable Cities
Section Programme and Localising
Both municipalities have agreed
P.O. Box 30030, Nairobi, Kenya to implement
Agenda 21 andProgramme
use an integrated
to ad-
water resources management approach dress
for the
keyriver.
urbanTheenvironmental
signing of theissues.
twinning
As agreement
part of the hasUN-HABITAT-led
increased the
Tel: +254-20/762-3225
level of integration since both local authorities
initiativenow
“Local
share
Capacities
information
for Global
on drinking
Agendas”,
water established
abstraction points,
as one pol-
of
Fax: +254-20/762-3715
lution points, as well as sampling points.
theIntegrated
partnership supply
implementation
and demandcommitments
management of have
thealso
Worldbeen
Summit
strength-
E-mail: scp@unhabitat.org
ened. Substantial efforts have been made on Sustainable
to reduce water Development
losses, pollution
(WSSD),levels
UN-HABITAT
(both diffuse works
and point),
to integrate
as
www.unhabitat.org/scp
well as limit water demand. There is alsolocal
a focus
level perspectives
on attemptinginto to restore
global policies
the river’s
such
integrity
as those
whileonoptimizing
biodiversity
water use within the basin. and climate change. On the latter, UN-HABITAT is providing multisec-
toral support to local authorities to mitigate and adapt to climate change, with a particular focus on urban
Albert Mbedzi, Chief Executive Officer of Beitbridge Rural District Council, explains that the twinning arrangement
planning.
has led to a “change of attitude and behavior” between staff from the two municipalities. Through visits and staff
exchange programs, staff have had a chance to better understand how their counterparts handle various chal-
lenges. Through the co-operation between Beitbridge and Musina, the Limpopo River and the communities that
ICLEI
depend on it will reap many benefits. ICLEI
ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability is an international associa-
Contacts:
tion of local governments and national and regional local government or-
ICLEI World Secretariat
ganizations that have made a commitment to sustainable development. Musina
City Hall, West Tower, 16th Floor
More than 700 cities, towns, counties, and their associations worldwide
Population:
100 Queen St. 40,826
West (2001)
comprise ICLEI’s growing membership. ICLEI works with these and
hundreds of other local governments through international performance- Area: 110Ontario
Toronto, km 2

based, results-oriented campaigns and programs. M5H 2N2, Canada


Contact:
Tel: +1-416/392-1462
Mr. Abram Luruli
Using participatory sustainable development planning approaches, ICLEI Fax: +1-416/392-1478
Musina Municipality Manager
aims to assist local authorities to move beyond general sustainable devel- Email: iclei@iclei.org
luruli@mail.ncdnet.co.za
opment planning and to apply this approach in tackling areas of priority www.iclei.org
Website: www.musina.gov.za
concern.

5
31
Case
study 1 Beitbridge, Zimbabwe & Musina,

S eparated only by the Limpopo River, the communities


of Beitbridge (Zimbabwe) and Musina (South Africa)
realized that they had many common issues that could be

Tales
better addressed by working cooperatively. The communities
share a common culture and problems such as border crime,

of
enforcement and security, health problems, and water resource
management. These issues became the focus of collaboration

Two
between the officials from either riverbank.

Citie
In 2005 officials in both municipalities realized the potential
for accelerated economic development on both sides of the

s
river through greater cooperation and signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish an official twin-

Partner
ning partnership. The twinning arrangement has led to the creation of specialized sub-committees (focused on

ships
tourism and conservation; women, children and health; transport, disaster management, safety and security;

Urban Sus for


education, arts, sports, and culture; administration and economic issues; and environment and engineering)
that address related issues and make recommendations to a Joint Implementation Committee that consists of

taina
senior managers. This committee, in turn, considers proposals from the
sub-committees and makes recommen-
Beitbridge
bilit
dations for policy implementation to the

Population: 104,000 (2002)


Area: 12,697 km2
y
Joint Coordination Council, a six-member
group that includes the highest political
representatives of both municipalities.
Contact:
Mr. Albert Mbedzi One of the areas of focus of the twin-
Chief Executive Officer ning has been the management of water
Beitbridge Rural District Council resources. The Limpopo River serves as
Tel: +263-86/23756 the source of both urban and agricul-
Email: ambedzi@bbrdc.co.zw tural water for both municipalities and a
discharge area for solid and liquid wastes.
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