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APA References 6

th
edition
APA recommends that you cite the DOI (Document Object Identifier) for print and electronic sources if available.

Books
One author
Drucker, P. F. (1998). Peter Drucker on the profession of management. Boston:
Harvard Business School.
Two authors
McGuire, M. T., & Anderson, W. H. (1999). The US healthcare dilemma: Mirrors
and chains. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Three authors
Marquart, J. W., Olson, S. E., & Sorensen, J. R. (1994). The rope, the chair, and the
needle: Capital punishment in Texas, 1923-1990. Austin: University of Texas
Press.
More than three
authors
Sakakibara, S., Hidetoshi, Y., Hisakatsu, S., Kengo, S., & Shimon, F. (1988). The
Japanese stock market: Pricing systems and accounting information. New
York, NY: Praeger. (Note: up to 7 names should be spelled out. If 8 or more, include the
first 6, after the sixth, insert an ellipsis, and then add the last authors name.)
No author
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1998). Springfield, MA:
Merriam-Webster.
Corporate author
American Health Association. (2000). American Hospital Association guide to the
health care field. Chicago: Author.
Edited book
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological
interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Edition
Philips, M., & Rasberry, S. (1997). Marketing without advertising (2
nd
ed.). Berkley,
CA: Nolo Press.
Book in several
volumes
Magill, F. N. (1993). Survey of social science: Psychology series (Vol. 2). Pasadena,
CA: Salem Press.
Article or
chapter in an
edited book
Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of
perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition:
Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84). Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association.
Reference book
American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American
Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological
Association.

Periodical Articles
Journal article
(print)
Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican
immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement.
Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.
Journal article
with DOI
Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and
the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229.
doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225
Article from an
online-only
journal
Frederickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize
health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3. Retrieved from
http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
Article with
more than seven
authors
Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S.
T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user.
Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.
Electronic copy
of a journal
article from a
database
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A.
(1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 78 (3), 443-449.
Note: When providing a citation for an article retrieved from an online database,
provide the appropriate print citation. If the item was difficult to retrieve, you can
provide a more thorough citation by providing the item number, accession number
or the text Retrieved from psycARTICLES database. Do not include retrieval dates.
For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages 187-
192 of the APA Publication Manual.

Newspaper
(print)
(author listed)
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The
Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Newspaper
(print)
(no author listed)
Obesity affects economic, social status. (1993, September 30). The Washington
Post, pp. A1, A4.
Online
newspaper article
Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. New York
Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com
Magazine article
(print)
(author listed)
Chamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packard, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing
worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their
research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5), 26-29.



Periodical Articles Continued
Magazine article
(print)
(no author listed)

Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share
their research on work, stress, and health. (2008, May). Monitor on Psychology,
39(5), 26-29.
Online magazine
article
Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the
misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from
http://apa.org/monitor/
Electronic copy
of a magazine
article retrieved
from a database
Frank, M. (1993, June). The wild, wild, West. Architectural Digest, 50, 180-185,
193.
Note: When providing a citation for an article retrieved from an online database,
provide the appropriate print citation. If the item was difficult to retrieve, you can
provide a more thorough citation by providing the item number, accession number
or the text Retrieved from psycARTICLES database. Do not include retrieval dates.
For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages 187-
192 of the APA Publication Manual.

Editorial/ Letter
to the Editor
Marshall-Pescini, S., & Whiten, A. (2006). What is a disaster and why does this
question matter? [Editorial]. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management,
14, 1-2.
Review of a
book
Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the
book The social life of information, by J. S. Brown & P. Duguid]. Science, 290,
1304. doi: 10.1126/science.290.5495.1304
Online book
review
Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us].
The New York Times. Retrieved from
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/27/books/review/Zachareck-
t.html?pagewanted=2
Review of a
DVD
Axelman, A., & Shapiro, J. L. (2007). Does the solution warrant the problem?
[Review of the DVD Brief therapy with adolescents, produced by the American
Psychological Association, 2007]. PsycCRITIQUES, 52(51). doi:
10.1037/a0009036

Encyclopedia Articles
Print
encyclopedia
(author listed)
White, P.D. (1998). Heart. In The Encyclopedia Americana (International edition,
Vol. 14, pp. 1-5). Danbury, CT: Grolier.


Encyclopedia Articles Continued
Print
encyclopedia
(no author listed)
Heart. (1998). In The Encyclopedia Americana (International edition, Vol. 14, pp. 1-
5). Danbury, CT: Grolier.
Online
encyclopedia
(from the
internet)
Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of
philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/
Online
encyclopedia
(from a database)
Ehrensal, P. (2008). Bullying. In C.J. Russo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Education Law
(Vol. 1, pp. 130-132). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.

Electronic Resources
An entire
website (but
not a specific
document on
the site)
Do not include in reference list; cite in text only.
Example: The Michigan Online Resources for Educators (MORE) database is an
excellent resource for lesson plans (http://more.mel.org/).
Document on
an
organizations
website
Canarie, Inc. (1997, September 27). Towards a Canadian health IWAY: Vision,
opportunities and future steps. Retrieved from
http:www//canarie.ca/press/publications/pdf/health/healthvision.doc
Website ( no
author, no
year, no page
number)
Social workers come out in support of marriage for same-sex couples. (n.d.).
Retrieved from: https://www.socialworkers.org/pressroom/2004/081704.asp
E-book
Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX
Reader Version]. Retrieved from
http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/htm/index.asp
E-book with
DOI
Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to
healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:
10.10.36/0071393722
E-book from a
database
Munroe, M. (2009). Echoes of the Haitian Revolution, 1804-2004 [Monograph].
Retrieved from ebrary.
E-book only
(no print
version, no
DOI)
OKeefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from
http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135




Electronic Resources Continued


Chapter in an
e-book

Strong, E. K. Jr., & Uhrbrock, R. S. (1923). Bibliography on job analysis. In L.
Outhwaite (Series Ed.), Personnel Research Series: Vol. 1. Job analysis and the
curriculum (pp. 140-146). doi: 10.1037/10762-000
Online
reference book
(author listed)
Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of
philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/
Online
reference book
(no author
listed)
Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Websters online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from
http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic
Online product
review (such as
epinions.com)
Pixeltech. (2010, December 10). Sony VAIO L Series Just Touch it [Review of Sony
VAIO notebook]. Retrieved from:
http://www.epinions.com/reviews/Sony_VAIO_L_VPCL137FX_R_24_All
in_One_Touchscreen_Computer_Red_PC_Notebook
Email
Do not include in reference list; cite in text only.
Example: According to S. D. Cathcart (personal communication, September 20, 2001),
management is refusing to agree to the proposal.
Message
posted to a
newsgroup,
online forum,
or discussion
group
Ramperdas, T. (2005, June 8). Re: Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural
expressions [Online forum content]. Retrieved from
http://www.wipo.int/roller/comments/Weblog/theme_eight_how_can_cultural#co
mments
Electronic
mailing list
(Listserv)
Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list
message]. Retrieved from
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/Group/ForensicNetwork/message/670
Blog post
MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences
of partitioning your mind [Web log message]. Retrieved from
http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01the_unfortunate_prerequisites.php

Miscellaneous/Unpublished
Annual report
Home Depot. (2001). Home Depot 2000 annual report. Atlanta, GA: Author.
Online annual
report
Proctor & Gample Company. (2010). P & G 2010 annual report. Retrieved from
http://www.pg.com/annualreport2010/index.shtml
Miscellaneous/Unpublished Continued
Interview or
personal
communication
Do not include in reference list; cite in text only.
Example: P. Drucker (personal communication, September 20, 2001) believes
that there are several different types of managers.
Doctoral
dissertation or
masters thesis
retrieved from
ProQuest
Dissertations and
Theses database
McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing
growing up with an alcoholic mother (Masters thesis). Available from
ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1434728)
IMPORTANT: The Publication Number is located in the field titled Publication
Number in the Indexing Document Details area of the record in the ProQuest
Dissertations and Theses Database. The number is prefaced with AAT, which
should not be included in the Publication Number. The Publication Number is
equivalent to the UMI number that appears in the example for the APA
citation for the dissertation or theses on page 208, APA Publication Manual,
6th Edition.
ERIC document
Greenberg, J. & Walsh, K. (2010). Ed school essentials: A review of Illinois
teacher preparation. Washington, DC: National Council on Teacher Quality.
(ED512668)
Lecture notes
According to formal APA guidelines, course lecture notes taken by the student are
considered a form of personal communications. As such, they would only be listed
in an in-text citation and not in the reference list.
In Text: In a lecture on January 15, 2008, to a COMM 1000 class, Professor Smith
said(A. B. Smith, COMM 1000 lecture, January 15, 2008).
However, some professors may require a reference entry. If that is the case, you
could use an entry similar to the one below. Use your own judgement, but
remember: when in doubt, ask for your professors opinion. There are NO formal
APA guidelines for this type of material.
Reference (if used): Smith, A. B. (2008, January 15). COMM 1000 Course
Lecture.
Conference
proceedings
(unpublished paper
or speech)
Smith, S. (2009, August). Putting the grrrr! Back in progressive. Paper presented
at the meeting of the Progressive Librarians Guild, Detroit, MI.
Conference
proceedings
(unpublished
poster)
Ruby, J., & Fulton, C. (1993, June). Beyond reading: Editing software that works.
Poster session at the annual meeting of the Society for Scholarly Publishing,
Washington, DC.
Brochure/pamphlet
National Cancer Institute. (2000, June). Cancer research-because lives depend on
it [Brochure]. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute.
Miscellaneous/Unpublished Continued
Court case
Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Legal statute
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4331 (1970).
Code of Federal
Regulations
FDA Prescription Drug Advertising Rule, 21 C.F.R. 202.1 (2006).
Government report
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2002). Statistical abstract of the United States.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Online
government report
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health,
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide
for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf
House or Senate
Committee report
Iraq: Meeting the challenge, sharing the burden, staying the course, a trip report
to members of the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, 108th Cong.,
1st sess. (S. Prt. 108-31). (2003).

Audiovisual Media
Online video
blog post
TEDtalksDirector. (2009, February 16). Barry Schwartz: The real crisis? We
stopped being wise [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/lA-zdh_bQBo
Image found in a
free online
resource
Comas, J. S. (Photographer). (2007). Jordi Comas Teaching. [Digital Image].
Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/24567742@N03/4475421910/
Image found in a
library database
Cusic-McClatchy, C. C. (Photographer). (2009). Middle School Sex Education
Class. [Digital Image]. Retrieved from GALE Opposing Viewpoints in Context.
Music recording
Coldplay. (2000). Trouble. On Parachutes [iTunes]. EMI Records Ltd. Retrieved
from http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/parachutes/id23533494
Podcast
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast].
Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/
Television show
episode
Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate
[Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. New
York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.
Live television
broadcast
Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news
hour [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public
Broadcasting Service.
Motion
picture/video
Grey, B., King, G., & Pitt, B. (Producers), & Scorsese, M. (Director). (2006). The
Departed [Motion Picture]. United States: Plan B Entertainment.