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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL

SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE


ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
ANNA UNIVERSITY :: CHENNAI
REGULATION 2008
III ECE (2011-2015)

EC 2307- COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LABORATORY


LAB MANUAL

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

PREPARED BY
ARIVASANTH.M, Assistant Professor.

Preface
This laboratory manual is prepared by the Department of Electronics and communication
engineering for Communication System Laboratory (EC 2307). This lab manual can be used as
instructional book for students, staff and instructors to assist in performing and understanding the
experiments. In this manual, experiments as per syllabus are described This manual will be available
in electronic form from Colleges official website, for the betterment of students.

Acknowledgement
We would like to express our profound gratitude and deep regards to the support offered
by the Chairman Shri. A.Srinivasan. We also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of
gratitude to our Principal Dr.B.Karthikeyan,M.E, Ph.D, for his valuable information and
guidance, which helped us in completing this task through various stages. We extend our hearty
thanks to our head of the department Prof.B.Revathi M.E, (Ph.D), for her constant
encouragement and constructive comments.
Finally the valuable comments from fellow faculty and assistance provided by the
department are highly acknowledged.

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

S.No

TOPIC

1. SYLLABUS

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PAGE NO
4

2. EXPERIMENTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

AM MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

FREQUENCY MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

11

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION

17

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION

21

PULSE POSITION MODULATION

25

GENERATION AND DETECTION OF PCM SIGNAL

29

DELTA MODULATION

34

GENERATION AND DETECTION OF ASK

38

GENERATION AND DETECTION OF FSK

42

GENERATION AND DETECTION OF PSK

46

GENERATION AND DETECTION OF QPSK

50

LINE CODING AND DECODING TECHNIQUES

54

SAMPLING AND TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

62

PHASE LOCKED LOOP

68

PRE-EMPHASIS / DE-EMPHASIS

71

FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

76

ERROR CONTROL CODING USING MATLAB

79

DESIGN OF ASK, PSK, QPSK, FSK USING MATLAB

84
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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

SYLLABUS
EC2307 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMLABORATORY

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Amplitude modulation and Demodulation.


2. Frequency Modulation and Demodulation
3. Pulse Modulation PAM / PWM / PPM
4. Pulse Code Modulation
5. Delta Modulation, Adaptive Delta Modulation.
6. Digital Modulation & Demodulation ASK, PSK, QPSK, FSK (Hardware &
MATLAB)
7. Designing, Assembling and Testing of Pre-Emphasis / De-emphasis Circuits.
8. PLL and Frequency Synthesizer
9. Line Coding
10. Error Control Coding using MATLAB.
11. Sampling & Time Division Multiplexing.
12. Frequency Division Multiplexing

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

Exp-No:1
Date:

AM MODULATION AND DEMODULATION


AIM
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter and
receive the signal back after demodulating using AM receiver.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1.
2.
3.
4.

AM transmitter trainer kit


AM receiver trainer kit
CRO
Patch cards

THEORY:
AMPLITUDE MODULATION:
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is
varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and
phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating and carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sinmt
VC(t) = VC sinCt
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm / VC.
Vm = Vmax Vmin and VC = Vmax + Vmin
The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sinmt) sinCt
Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
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YEAR

Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal


PROCEDURE:

1.
2.
3.
4.

The circuit wiring is done as shown in diagram


A modulating signal input given to the Amplitude modulator
Now increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
The amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal are observed using
CRO.
5. Finally the amplitude modulated output is observed from the output of amplitude
modulator stage and the amplitude and time duration of the AM wave are noted
down.
6. Calculate the modulation index by using the formula and verify them. The final
demodulated signal is viewed using an CRO at the output of audio power amplifier
stage. Also the amplitude and time duration of the demodulated wave are noted down.

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

KIT DIAGRAM
AM TRANSMITTER

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

AM RECEIVER

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SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

TABULATION:
Waveform
Message

Amplitude (V)

Time Period (msec)

Frequency

Carrier
modulated
Demodulated

MODEL GRAPH
Message signal
Vm

time
Vc

Carrier signal

time

AM signal
Vmc

time

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


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III
YEAR

VIVA QUESTION
1.
2.
3.
4.

Define modulation index of an AM signal


Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
As related to AM, what is over modulation, under modulation and 100% modulation?
What are the types of AM signals?
5. What are the different types of AM generation?

RESULT
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit and the AM signal detected
using AM detector kit.
Exp-No: 02
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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


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III
YEAR

Date:

FREQUENCY MODULATION AND DEMODULATION


AIM
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter and
receive the signal back after demodulating using FM receiver.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1.
2.
3.
4.

FM transmitter trainer kit


FM receiver trainer kit
CRO
Patch cards

THEORY:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as
variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. (Contrast this with amplitude
modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant.)
In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct proportion to changes in the
amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete values can
represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at
VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech (see FM broadcasting).
Normal (analog) TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A narrowband form is used for voice
communications in commercial and amateur radio settings. The type of FM used in broadcast is
generally called wide-FM, or W-FM. In two-way radio, narrowband narrow-fm (N-FM) is used
to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into space.
FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS,
to record the luminance (black and white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only
feasible method of recording video to and retrieving video from magnetic tape without
extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of frequency components
from a few hertz to several megahertz, too wide for equalizers to work with due to
electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, and therefore
acts as a form of noise reduction, and a simple limiter can mask variations in the
playback output, and the FM capture effect removes print-through and pre-echo. A
continuous pilot-tone, if added to the signal as was done on V2000 and many Hi-band
formats can keep mechanical jitter under control and assist time base correction.

PROCEDURE:
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YEAR

1.
2.
3.
4.

The circuit wiring is done as shown in diagram


A modulating signal input given to the Frequency modulator
Now increase the modulated signal to the required level.
The amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal are observed using
CRO.
5. Finally the frequency modulated output is observed from the output of frequency
modulator stage and the amplitude and time duration of the FM wave are noted down.

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

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YEAR

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

KIT DIAGRAM: FM TRANSMITTER

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

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YEAR

FM RECEIVER

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SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

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YEAR

MODEL GRAPH

TABULATION:
Waveform

Amplitude (V)

Time Period (msec)

Frequency

Message
Carrier
modulated
Demodulated

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

VIVA QUESTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Define frequency deviation in FM?


Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
What are the different types of FM generation?
What do you mean by narrowband and wideband FM?
What are the advantages of FM.?

RESULT
Thus the FM signal was transmitted using FM trainer kit and the FM signal detected
using FM detector kit.

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

Exp-No: 3
Date:

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION


AIM
To generate Pulse Amplitude signal using PAM modulator.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. PAM trainer kit
2. CRO
3. Patch cards
THEORY
This type of modulation is used as the first step in converting an analog signal to
a discrete signal or in cases where it may be difficult to change the frequency or phase of the
carrier. In this case the carrier is a pulse train rather than a sine wave and the spectrum of the
carrier consists of several components at 2np/T where T is the time between pulses. The applet
below shows a PAM signal and how it varies with modulating signal amplitude and frequency.
The spectrum of the PAM signal is shown at the top in black. In this case each component of the
carrier's spectrum has become an AM spectrum. Notice that the spectrum contains a component
at the modulating frequency, which makes the PAM signal relatively easy to demodulate. Pulseamplitude modulation, acronym PAM, is a form of signal modulation where the message
information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses. Pulse-amplitude modulation
is now rarely used, having been largely superseded by pulse-code modulation and, more recently,
by pulse-position modulation.

PROCEDURE
1. The circuit wiring is done as shown in diagram
2. A modulating signal input and clock signal is given to the PAM modulator
3. The amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal are observed using
CRO.
4. Finally the PAM output is observed from the output of PAM modulator stage and the
amplitude and time duration of the PAM wave are noted down.
5. PAM signal is applied to the filter circuit for demodulation process.
6. After demodulation the original signal is recovered.
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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

KIT DIAGRAM

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

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YEAR

MODEL GRAPH
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SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

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TABULAR COLUMN
S.No

Name of the signal

Modulating Signal

Carrier Signal

Modulated Signal

Amplitude in V

Time period in Sec

Frequency in Hz

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is PAM?
Differentate with PAM and PCM.
Write the application of PAM.
Draw the PAM signal.
Write the time period equation of PAM

RESULT
Thus the PAM signal was generated using PAM modulator.
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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

Exp-No: 04
Date:

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION


AIM
To generate Pulse Width Modulation signal using PWM modulator.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. PWM trainer kit
2. CRO
3. Patch cards

THEORY
Pulse width modulation is defined as an analog modulation technique in which the
width of each pulse is made proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the signal at the
sampling instant.
Pulse Width modulator circuit shown is basically a monostable multivibrator with a
modulating input signal applied at pin-5. By the application of continuous trigger at pin-2, a
series of output pulses are obtained, the duration of which depends on the modulating input at
pin-5. The modulating signal applied at pin-5 gets superimposed upon the already existing
voltage (2/3) Vcc at the inverting input terminal of UC. This in turn changes the threshold level
of the UC and the output pulse width modulation takes place. The modulating signal and the
output waveform are drawn in fig. It may be noted from the output waveform that the pulse
duration, that is, the duty cycle only varies, keeping the frequency same as that of the continuous
input pulse train trigger.
PROCEDURE
1. The circuit wiring is done as shown in diagram
2. A modulating signal is given to the PWM modulator
3. The amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal are observed using
CRO.
4. Finally the PWM output is observed from the output of PWM modulator stage and
the amplitude and time duration of the PWM wave are noted down.
5. PWM signal is applied to the filter circuit for demodulation process.
6. After demodulation the original signal is recovered.
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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

KIT DIAGRAM

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


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YEAR

MODEL GRAPH

TABULAR COLUMN
S.No

Name of the signal

Modulating Signal

Carrier Signal

Modulated Signal

Amplitude in V

Time period in Sec

Frequency in Hz

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

VIVA QUESTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is PWM?
How is the carrier generated in the above circuit?
What is the mode of operation in the above circuit?
Mention the power flow in PWM circuit.
Differentiate PWM and PPM.

RESULT
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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

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YEAR

Thus the Pulse Width Modulation signal was generated using PWM modulator.

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III
YEAR

Exp-No: 05
Date:

PULSE POSITION MODULATION


AIM
To generate Pulse Position Modulation signal using PPM modulator.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. PPM trainer kit
2. CRO
3. Patch cards
THEORY
Pulse position modulation is defined as an analog modulation technique in which the
signal is sampled at regular intervals such that the shift in position of each sample is proportional
to the instantaneous value of the signal at the sampling instant.
The Pulse-position modulation can be constructed by applying a modulating signal to pin
5 of a 555 timer connected for astable operation as shown in fig. The output pulse position varies
with the modulating signal, since the threshold voltage and hence the time delay is varied. It may
be noted from the output waveform that the frequency is varying leading to pulse position
modulation.
PROCEDURE
1. The circuit wiring is done as shown in diagram
2. A modulating signal is given to the PPM modulator
3. The amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal are observed using
CRO.
4. Finally the PPM output is observed from the output of PPM modulator stage and the
amplitude and time duration of the PPM wave are noted down.
5. PPM signal is applied to the filter circuit for demodulation process.
6. After demodulation the original signal is recovered.

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KIT DIAGRAM

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YEAR

MODEL GRAPH

TABULAR COLUMN
S.No
Name of the signal
1

Modulating Signal

Carrier Signal

Modulated Signal

Amplitude in V

Time period in Sec

Frequency in Hz

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

VIVA QUESTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is PPM?
How is the carrier generated in the above circuit?
What is the mode of operation in the above circuit?
Mention the power flow in PPM circuit.
Differentiate PAM and PPM.

RESULT
Thus the Pulse Position Modulation signal was generated using PPM modulator.

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

Exp-No: 06
Date:

GENERATION AND DETECTION OF PCM SIGNAL


AIM
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator and detect the message signal from
PCM signal by using PCM demodulator.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
PCM kit, CRO and connecting probes
THEORY
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice
or any data input is first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) and then quantized.
Quantization is the process of converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary
number with fixed number of bits. This quantization can be either midtread or mid-raise and it
can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in speech signals, the
higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are given
less step size than the lower amplitudes and thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After
quantization the signal is digital and the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and
then launched into the channel serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames and each
frame is de-quantized to an equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a
sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit this is implemented differently. The analog signal is passed trough a ADC
(Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword is passed through a parallel to serial
converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to Parallel converter and
then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks for
synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms
can be observed on a CRO for DC without problem.
AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.

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PROCEDURE
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
4. Connect the DC input to the ADC and measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing and control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be
observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage and the codeword. Also note the value of the
output voltage. Show the codeword graphically for a DC input.

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KIT DIADRAM

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MODEL GRAPH
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TABULAR COLUMN

S.No

Name of the signal

Modulating Signal

Carrier Signal

Modulated Signal

Demodulated

Amplitude in V

Time period in Sec

Frequency in Hz

Signal

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is the expression for transmission bandwidth in a PCM system?
2. What is the expression for quantization noise /error in PCM system?
3. What are the applications of PCM?
4. What are the advantages of the PCM?
5. What are the disadvantages of PCM?

RESULT

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III
YEAR

Thus the PCM signal was generated using PCM modulator and the message signal was
detected from PCM signal by using PCM demodulator.

Exp-No: 07
Date:

DELTA MODULATION
AIM
To transmit an analog message signal in its digital form and again reconstruct back the
original analog message signal at receiver by using Delta modulator.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
DM kit, CRO and connecting probes
THEORY
Delta modulation is the DPCM technique of converting an analog message signal to a
digital sequence. The difference signal between two successive samples is encoded into a single
bit code. The block and kit diagrams show the circuitry details of the modulation technique. A
present sample of the analog signal m(t) is compared with a previous sample and the difference
output is level shifted, i.e. a positive level (corresponding to bit 1) is given if difference is
positive and negative level (corresponding to bit 0) if it is negative. The comparison of samples
is accomplished by converting the digital to analog form and then comparing with the present
sample. This is done using an Up counter and DAC as shown in block diagram. The delta
modulated signal is given to up counter and then a DAC and the analog input is given to OPAMP
and a LPF to obtain the demodulated output.
PROCEDURE
1. Switch on the kit. Connect the clock signal and the modulating input signal to the
modulator block. Observe the modulated signal in the CRO.
2. Connect the DM output to the demodulator circuit. Observe the demodulator output on
the CRO.
3. Also observe the DAC output on the CRO.
4. Change the amplitude of the modulating signal and observe the DAC output.
Notice the slope overload distortion. Keep the tuning knob so that the distortion is
gone. Note this value of the amplitude. This is the minimum required value of the
amplitude to overcome slope overload distortion.

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5. Calculate the sampling frequency required for no slope overload distortion. Compare
the calculated and measured values of the sampling frequency.

KIT DIAGRAM

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YEAR

MODEL GRAPH

TABULAR COLUMN
S.No
Name of the signal
1

Modulating Signal

Carrier Signal

Modulated Signal

Demodulated

Amplitude in V

Time period in Sec

Frequency in Hz

Signal

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SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What are the advantages of Delta modulator?
2. What are the disadvantages of delta modulator?
3. How to overcome slope overload distortion?
4. How to overcome Granular or ideal noise?
5. What are the differences between PCM & DM?
6. Define about slope over load distortion?
7. What is the other name of Granular noise?
8. What is meant by staircase approximation?
9. What are the disadvantages of Delta modulator?
10. Write the equation for error at present sample?

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YEAR

RESULT
Thus the analog message signal in its digital form was transmitted and again the original
analog message signal was reconstructed at receiver by using Delta modulator and Demodulator.
Exp-No: 8
Date:

GENERATION AND DETECTION OF ASK


AIM
To construct and generate Amplitude Shift Keying signal and detect the message signal.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
ASK kit, CRO and connecting probes

THEORY
ASK or ON-OFF key is the simplest digital modulation technique. In this method there is
only one unit energy carrier it is switched ON/OFF depending upon the input binary sequence to
transmit symbol 0 & 1. No pulse is transmitted output contains some complete no of cycle of
carrier frequency. The disadvantage of ASK is the modulated carrier signal is not continuously
transmitted. The peak power requirement is also high. The bit error probability rate is also not
required in this technique.
PROCEDURE
1. Make connections as shown in the diagram.
2. Set the input signal and carrier signal.
3. Obtain ASK signal
4. Measure the amplitude and frequency
5. Obtain the demodulated output.

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KIT DIAGRAM

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MODEL GRAPHH
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TABULAR COLUMN
S.No
Name of the signal
1

Modulating Signal

Carrier Signal

Modulated Signal

Demodulated

Amplitude in V

Time period in Sec

III
YEAR

Frequency in Hz

Signal

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VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is the difference between PSK&ASK?
2. What is the band width requirement of a ASK?
3. Explain the operation of ASK detection?
4. What are the advantages of APSK?
5. What is meant by ASK?

RESULT
Thus the Amplitude Shift Keying signal was generated and the message signal was reconstructed
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III
YEAR

Exp-No: 9
Date:

GENERATION AND DETECTION OF FSK


AIM
To generate a Frequency Shift Keying signal using FSK modulator and detect the
message signal from FSK signal using FSK detector.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
FSK kit, CRO and connecting probes
THEORY
Frequency Shift Keying is the process generating a modulated signal from a digital data
input. If the incoming bit is 1, a signal with frequency f1 is sent for the duration of the bit. If the
bit is 0, a signal with frequency f2 is sent for the duration of this bit. This is the basic principle
behind FSK modulation.
Basically a 555 timer is used as an Astable multivibrator, which generates a clock pulse
of frequency determined by the values of R and C in this circuit. This is divided by 2, 4, 8 and 16
using 74163 IC, and two of these outputs are used in a NAND logic gates circuit, to generate a
FSK modulated wave. To this NAND gates circuit a binary data sequence is also supplied. The
circuit operation causes a frequency f1 for bit 1, and f2 for bit 0.
In the demodulator circuit, the FSK modulated signal is applied to a high Q tuned filter.
This filter is tuned to the frequency of either 0 or 1. This filter passes the selected frequency and
rejects the other. The output is then passed through a FWR (Full Wave Rectifier) circuit and the
output is now above zero volts only. It is then passed through a comparator; if the input to the
comparator is greater than threshold value, the output is 1, else it is 0. This digital output of the
comparator is the demodulated FSK output.
PROCEDURE:
1. Make connections as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input signal and carrier signal.
3. Obtain FSK signal
4. Tabulate the output data and draw the graph.
5. Justify the obtained output with theoretical calculation.
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KIT DIAGRAM

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MODEL GRAPH

TABULAR COLUMN
S.No
Name of the signal
1

Modulating Signal

Carrier Signal 1

Carrier Signal 2

Modulated Signal

Demodulated

Amplitude in V

Time period in Sec

Frequency in Hz

Signal

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VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Define Binary FSK signal?
2. What is meant by carrier swing?
3. Define Frequency deviation of FSK signal?
4. What are the advantages of this FSK signal?
5. Give the differences between FSK & FM?

RESULT

Thus the Frequency Shift Keying signal wag generated using FSK modulator and the
message signal was detected from FSK signal using FSK detector.
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Exp-No: 10
Date:

GENERATION AND DETECTION OF PSK


AIM
To generate a Phase Shift Keying signal using PSK modulator and detect the message
signal from PSK signal using PSK detector.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
PSK kit, CRO and connecting probes
THEORY
PSK is a digital modulation scheme which is analogues to phase modulation. In binary
phase shift keying two output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency one out of phase
represent logic 1 and logic 0. As the input digital binary signal change state the phase of output
carrier shift two angles that are 180o out of phase.
In a PSK modulator the carrier input signal is multiplied by the digital data. The input
carrier is multiplied by either a positives or negatives consequently the output signal is either
+1sinwct or - 1sinwct. The first represent a signal that is phase with the reference oscillator the
latter a signal that is 180o out of phase with the reference oscillator. Each time a change in input
logic condition will change the output phase consequently for PSK the output rate of change
equal to the input rate range and widest output bandwidth occurs when the input binary data are
alternating 1/0 sequence. The fundamental frequency of an alternate 1/0 bit sequence is equal to
one half of the bit rate.

PROCEDURE
1. Make connections as shown in the diagram.
2. Set the input signal and carrier signal.
3. Obtain PSK signal
4. Measure the output data and draw the graph.
5. Obtain the demodulated output.

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KIT DIAGRAM

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MODEL GRAPH

TABULAR COLUMN
S.No

Name of the signal

Modulating Signal

Carrier Signal

Modulated Signal

Demodulated

Amplitude in V

Time period in Sec

Frequency in Hz

Signal
VIVA QUESTIONS:
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1. What is the bandwidth requirement of BPSK?


2. What is the expression for error probability of BPSK reception using coherent
matched filter detection?
3. What are the draw backs of BPSK?
4. Draw the Power spectral density of BPSK?
5. What are the major differences between DPSK&BPSK?
6. What are the advantages of BPSK over a PSK signal?

RESULT
Thus the Phase Shift Keying signal wag generated using PSK modulator and the message
signal was detected from PSK signal using PSK detector.

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Exp-No: 11
Date:

GENERATION AND DETECTION OF QPSK


AIM
To generate a Quadrature Phase Shift Keying signal using QPSK modulator and detect
the message signal from QPSK signal using QPSK detector.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
QPSK kit, CRO and connecting probes
THEORY
QPSK is another form of angle-modulated, constant-amplitude digital modulation. It is an
M-ary encoding technique where M=4. with QPSK four output phases are possible for a single
carrier frequency. Two bits (a dibit) are clocked into the bit splitter. After both bits have been
serially inputted, they are simultaneously parallel outputted. One bit is directed to the I channel
and the other to the Q channel. The I bit modulates a carrier that is in phase with the reference
oscillator and the Q bit modulates a carrier that is 900 out of phase with the reference carrier.
QPSK modulator is two BPSK modulators combined in parallel. The input QPSK signal
is given to the I and Q product detectors and the carrier recovery circuit. The carrier recovery
circuit produces the original transmit carrier oscillator signal. The recovered carrier must be
frequency and phase coherent with the transmit reference carrier. The QPSK signal is
demodulated in the I and Q product detectors, which generate the original I and Q data bits. The
output of the product detectors are fed to the bit combining circuit, where they are converted
from parallel I and Q data channels to a single binary output data stream.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the binary input data to I-channel.
2. Connect the binary input data to Q-channel.
3. Connect the sine wave input to balanced modulator (I channel) as a carrier signal and
to sine wave input to balanced modulator (Q channel) as a carroer signal.
4. Switch on the power supply.
5. Display binary input data on CRO. Adjust pot1 and pot3 to get bipolar data.
6. Adjust gain control pot to set equal amplitude in I and Q channel.
7. Obtain QPSK signal.
8. Connect the QPSK to input of QPSK demodulator.

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9. Obtain the demodulated QPSK signal.


KIT DIAGRAM

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MODEL GRAPH

TABULAR COLUMN
S.No

Name of the signal

Modulating Signal

Carrier Signal

Modulated Signal

Demodulated

Amplitude in V

Time period in Sec

Frequency in Hz

Signal

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VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is the difference between PSK&QPSK?
2. What is the band width requirement of a QPSK?
3. Explain the operation of QPSK detection?
4. What are the advantages of QPSK?
5. What is meant by differential encoding?

RESULT
Thus the Quadrature Phase Shift Keying signal wag generated using QPSK modulator
and the message signal was detected from QPSK signal using QPSK detector.

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Exp-No: 12
Date:

LINE CODING AND DECODING TECHNIQUES


AIM :
To study different line coding techniques.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Communication trainer kit
2. Multi Output Power Supply.
3. Patch cords.
4. DSO/CRO
THEORY:
We need to represent PCM binary digits by electrical pulses in order to transmit them
through a base band channel.
The most commonly used PCM popular data formats are being realized here.
Line coding refers to the process of representing the bit stream (1s and 0s) in the form of
voltage or current variations optimally tuned for the specific properties of the physical channel
being used. The selection of a proper line code can help in so many ways: One possibility is to
aid in clock recovery at the receiver. A clock signal is recovered by observing transitions in the
received bit sequence, and if enough transitions exist, a good recovery of the clock is guaranteed,
and the signal is said to be self-clocking.
Another advantage is to get rid of DC shifts. The DC component in a line code is called the
bias or the DC coefficient. Unfortunately, most long-distance communication channels cannot
transport a DC component. This is why most line codes try to eliminate the DC component
before being transmitted on the channel.Such codes are called DC balanced, zero-DC, zero-bias,
or DC equalized.Some common types of line encoding in common-use nowadays are unipolar,
polar, bipolar, Manchester, MLT-3 and Duobinary encoding. These codes are explained here:
1. Unipolar (Unipolar NRZ and Unipolar RZ):
Unipolar is the simplest line coding scheme possible. It has the advantage of being compatible
with TTL logic. Unipolar coding uses a positive rectangular pulse p(t) to represent binary 1, and
the absence of a pulse (i.e., zero voltage) to represent a binary 0. Two possibilities for the pulse
p(t) exist3: Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ) rectangular pulse and Return-to-Zero (RZ) rectangular
pulse. The difference between Unipolar NRZ and Unipolar RZ codes is that the rectangular pulse
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in NRZ stays at a positive value (e.g., +5V) for the full duration of the logic 1 bit, while the pule
in RZ drops from +5V to 0V in the middle of the bit time.
A drawback of unipolar (RZ and NRZ) is that its average value is not zero, which means
it creates a significant DC-component at the receiver (see the impulse at zero frequency in the
corresponding power spectral density (PSD) of this line code

UNIPOLAR NRZ CODE

The disadvantage of unipolar RZ compared to unipolar NRZ is that each rectangular


pulse in RZ is only half the length of NRZ pulse. This means that unipolar RZ requires twice the
bandwidth of the NRZ code.
Polar (Polar NRZ and Polar RZ):
In Polar NRZ line coding binary 1s are represented by a pulse p(t) and binary 0s are
represented by the negative of this pulse -p(t) (e.g., -5V). Polar (NRZ and RZ) signals .Using the
assumption that in a regular bit stream a logic 0 is just as likely as a logic 1,polar signals
(whether RZ or NRZ) have the advantage that the resulting Dccomponent is very close to zero.

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The rms value of polar signals is bigger than unipolar signals, which means that polar
signals have more power than unipolar signals, and hence have better SNR at the receiver.
Actually, polar NRZ signals have more power compared to polar RZ signals. The drawback of
polar NRZ, however, is that it lacks clock information especially when a long sequence of 0s or
1s is transmitted. Non-Return-to-Zero, Inverted (NRZI): NRZI is a variant of Polar NRZ. In
NRZI there are two possible pulses, p(t) and p(t). A transition from one pulse to the other
happens if the bit being transmitted is a logic 1, and no transition happens if the bit being
transmitted is a logic 0.

This is the code used on compact discs (CD), USB ports, and on fiber-based Fast Ethernet
at 100-Mbit/s .

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MANCHESTER ENCODING:
In Manchester code each bit of data is signified by at least one transition. Manchester
encoding is therefore considered to be self-clocking, which means that accurate clock recovery
from a data stream is possible. In addition, the DC component of the encoded signal is zero.
Although transitions allow the signal to be self-clocking, it carries significant overhead as there
is a need for essentially twice the bandwidth of a simple NRZ or NRZI encoding

POWER SPECTRA OF LINE CODES:

Unipolar most of signal power is centered around origin and there is waste of power due to
DC component that is present.
Polar format most of signal power is centered around origin and they are simple to
implement.
Bipolar format does not have DC component and does not demand more bandwidth, but
power requirement is double than other formats.
Manchester format does not have DC component but provides proper clocking.

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PROCEDURE
1. Connect the PRBS (test point P5) to various line coding formats. Obtain the coded output
as per the requirement.
2. Connect coded signal test point to corresponding decoding test point as inputs.
3. Set the SW1 as per the requirement.
4. Set the potentiometer P1 in minimum position.
5. Switch ON the power supply. Press the switch SW2 once.
6. Display the encoded signal on one channel of CRO and decoded signal on second channel
of CRO.

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KIT DIAGRAM

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MODEL GRAPH

TABULAR COLUMN
S.No

Name of the signal

Modulating Signal

Carrier Signal

Modulated Signal

Demodulated

Amplitude in V

Time period in Sec

Frequency in Hz

Signal

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VIVA QUESTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

State NRZ unipolar format


State NRZ polar format.
State NRZ bipolar format.
Define data Signalling Rate.
Define modulation rate.

RESULT
Thus the different line coding techniques was studied.

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Exp-No:13
Date:
SAMPLING AND TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
AIM:
To study the process of sampling and time division multiplexing of four signals using
pulse amplitude modulation and De-modulation and to reconstruct the signals at the receiver
using filters.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Sampling and TDM Communication trainer kit:
2. Multi Output Power Supply.
3. Patch cords.
4. CRO (60MHz)
THEORY
The Sample and Hold circuit uses two buffers to keep a voltage level stored in a
capacitor. Sample will charge the capacitor to the present signal level, while the input buffer
ensures the signal won't be changed by the charging process. From there, the output buffer will
make sure that the voltage level across the storage cap won't decrease over time. Sclear will short
out the storage cap, discharging it and setting the output to 0V.In actual practice, the switches
used are various forms of transistor switch, which provides cleaner switching and also allows
another circuit to control the sample and clearing operations. Excellent Sample and Hold circuits
like the LF398 are available on a single chip for cheap and easy use.
Sample and Hold circuits are used internally in Analog to Digital conversion. We might
also use them to hold a given signal value from any particular sensor on a robot, for analysis and
later use.
In TDM, by interleaving samples of several source waveforms in time, it is possible to
transmit enough information to a receiver, via only one channel to recover all message
waveforms.
The conceptual implementation of the time multiplexing of N similar messages f n(t)
where n= 1,2,3,..N is illustrated in fig 1. the time allocated to one sample of one message is
called time slot. The time intervals over which all message signals are sampled atleast once is
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called a Frame. The portion of the time slot not used by the system may be allocated to other
functions like signaling, monitoring, synchronization, etc.
The four channels CH0, CH1, CH2, and CH3 are multiplexed on a single line TXD with the aid
of a electronic switch CD 4016. The CD 4016 latches one of the four inputs I0-I3 depending on
the control inputs C0, C1, C2, C3 which are generated by a 2: 4 line decoder.
The decoder, depending on the A0 and A1, which start from 00 to 11, generates 0000 to
0011 on the output lines Y0, Y1, Y2 and Y3. On receiving the control signals, the CD4016
latches the first information signal I0 on the first count 0000. In the next clock, the control inputs
change their state to 0001 and the input II is latched to the output on the same line. Similarly, all
the information signals are multiplexed without any interference on the line
PROCEDURE:
The sample and hold circuit is assembled with the desired components. The input signal
is given to the circuit from the function generator. The amplitude of the input signal should not
exceed 10 volts. The frequency of the input signal is set to 600 Hz. The frequency of the sample
signal is set to 5600 Hz. The next sample available is zero order holding device, integrate the
signal between consequence sampling inputs.

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KIT DIAGRAM
SAMPLING

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TDM

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MODEL GRAPH FOR SAMPLING

MODEL GRAPH FOR TDM

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VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is meant by multiplexing technique and what are the different types of
Multiplexers?
2. Briefly explain about TDM&FDM?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. Define crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. What are major differences between TDM&FDM?
7. Give the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system and give some example?
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?

RESULT

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Thus the sampling process was studied and the different types of signals are multiplexed
using TDM Technique.

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Exp-No:14
Date:

PHASE LOCKED LOOP


AIM:
To study the characteristics of Phase Locked Loop .
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
IC 565
Capacitors
Resistors
CRO
THEORY:
If an input signal Vs of frequency fs is applied to the PLL, the phase detector compares
the phase and frequency of the incoming signal to that of the output Vo of the VCO. It the two
signals differ in frequency and /or phase, an error voltage Ve is generated. The phase detector is
basically a multiplier and produces the sum (fs+fo) and difference (fs-fo) components at its
output. The high frequency component (fs+fo) is removed by the low pass filter and the
difference frequency component is amplified and then applied as control voltage Vc to VCO. The
signal Vc shifts the VCO frequency in a direction to reduce the frequency difference between fs
and fo. The VCO continues to change frequency till its output frequency is exactly the same as
the input signal frequency. The circuit is then said to be locked.
PROCEDURE:
1. Make the circuit connection as shown in Fig
2. Measure the practical free running frequency of VCO for zero input.
3. Set the input square wave of 1Vp-p at 1KHz.
4. Increase the input frequency till PLL is locked. This frequency f1 gives the lower end
of the capture range. Go on increasing the input frequency to f2 (upper end of the lock
range), till PLL tracks the input signal.
5. Now gradually decrease the input frequency till f3 when the PLL is again locked. This
is the upper end of the capture range. Keep on decreasing the input frequency till f4
when the loop is unlocked. This is the lower end of the lock range.
6. Compare theoretical and practical values of lock range and capture range.
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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VIVA QUESTIONS:
1.What is VCO?
2.Define Lock range,Capture range.
3.What are the applications of PLL?
4.Define PLL.
5.What is frequency synthesizer?

RESULT:
Thus the PLL characteristics are studied
Theoretical Lock range fL=

Theoretical Capture range fC=

Practical Lock range fL=

Practical Capture range fC=

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Exp-No:15
Date:

PRE-EMPHASIS / DE-EMPHASIS
AIM:
Design and conduct an experiment to test a pre-emphasis and de-emphasis circuit for
75Ps between 2.1KHz to 15KHz and record the results.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
IC 741, Capacitors,
Resistors,
CRO,
Bread Board,
Power supply
Connecting Wires
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Apply a sine wave of 5Vpp amplitude, vary the frequency and note down the gain of
the circuit.
3. Plot a graph of normalized gain Vs frequency.
DESIGN
1. Pre-emphasis circuit.
Given f1 = 2.1 KHz, f2 = 15KHz.
f1 = 1/2SrC, f2 = 1/2SRC
Choose C = 0.1Pf then r = 820 and R = 100.
Also r/R = Rf/R1, then R1 = 2.2K and Rf = 15K.
2. De-emphasis circuit.
fC = 1/2SRdCd.
Choose Cd = 0.1Pf and fC = f1 = 2.1KHz
Then Rd = 820.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
PRE-EMPHASIS

DE-EMPHASIS

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MODEL GRAPH

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TABULATION:
PRE-EMPHASIS:
Vi=
Frequency(Hz)

VO

Gain= VO/ Vi

Gain in dB

VO

Gain= VO/ Vi

Gain in dB

DE-EMPHASIS:
Vi=
Frequency(Hz)

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VIVA QUESTIONS:
1.What is advantage of FM over Am?
2.Define Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis.
3.Define capture effect.
4.What are the types of FM?
5.Define transmission efficiency.

RESULT:
Thus the Pre-Emphasis and De-Emphasis circuit was designed and analysed using IC741.

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Exp-No:16
Date:

FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING


AIM:
To study the concept of frequency division multiplexing.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
FDM Trainer kit, Patch Chords, CRO

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Exp-No:17
Date:

ERROR CONTROL CODING USING MATLAB


AIM:
To write a program in MATLAB for error control coding techniques.
ALGORITHM:
1.Get the input binary sequcence.
2.Calculate the reundancy bits for the corrosponding code.
3.Transmit the signal that contains message bits+redundancy bits added at the end.
4.Calculate the redundancy bits once again for the received bits.
5.If the redundancy bits=0 then no error in the transmission otherwise some error in
the transmission.

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PROGRAM:
clc;
clear all;
close all;
k=input('Number of message bits');
n=input('Number of coded bits');
P=[1 1 1;0 1 1;1 0 1;1 1 0]
G=[eye(k) P]
for i=1:2^k
str=dec2base(i-1,2,4);
for j=1:k
m(i,j)=str(j);
end
end
for i=1:(2^k)
for r=1:n
o=0;
for j=1:k
o=o+(m(i,j)*G(j,r));
end
c(i,r)=mod(o,2);
end
end
e=zeros(n,n)
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for i=1:n
e(i,i)=1;
end
% Syndrome Table
H=[P' eye(n-k)];
H1=H';
for i=1:n
for r=1:n-k
o=0;
for j=1:n
o=o+(e(i,j)*H1(j,r));
end
er(i,r)=mod(o,2);
end
end
for i=1:n
rec1=c(2^k,i)+e(1,i);
rec(1,i)=mod(rec1,2);
end
for i=1:1
for r=1:n-k
o=0;
for j=1:n
o=o+(rec(i,j)*H1(j,r));

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end
sy(i,r)=mod(o,2);
end
end
i=1;
j=1;
while sy(1,j)==er(i,j)&&sy(1,j+1)==er(i,j+1)&&sy(1,j+2)==er(i,j+2)
rec_er=e(i,:);
i=i+1;
end
rec_er
%Error Corrected Message
for i=1:n
Det=rec(1,i)+rec_er(1,i);
det_rec(1,i)=mod(Det,2);
end
det_rec

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RESULT:
Thus the error control coding techniques are executed using MATLAB programs.

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Exp-No:18
Date:

DESIGN OF ASK, PSK, QPSK, FSK USING MATLAB


AIM:
To write a program in MATLAB for design of ASK,PSK,QPSK and FSK.

PROGRAM:
ASK:
clc
clear all;
close all;
N=10;
x=randint(1,N);
k=1;
for t=0.01:0.01:10
c(k)=sin(2*pi*t);
k=k+1;
end
for j=1:1:N
if x(j)==0
for i=(j-1)*100+1:1:j*100
y(i)=0;
tr(i)=0;
end
end
if x(j)==1
for i=(j-1)*100+1:1:j*100
y(i)=1;
tr(i)=c(i);
end
end
end
for i=1:1:1000
re(i)=tr(i)*c(i);
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end
for j=1:1:N
d=0;
for i=(j-1)*100+1:1:j*100
d=d+re(i)
end
if d>0.5
det(j)=1;
else
det(j)=0;
end
end
for j=1:1:N
if det(j)==0
for i=(j-1)*100+1:1:j*100
det(i)=0;
end
end
if x(j)==1
for i=(j-1)*100+1:1:j*100
det(i)=1;
end
end
end
subplot(5,1,1);
plot(y);
title('message Signal');
subplot(5,1,2);
plot(c);
title('Carrier Signal');
subplot(5,1,3);
plot(tr);
title('Transmitted Signal');
subplot(5,1,4);
plot(re);
title('Received Signal');
subplot(5,1,5);
plot(det);
title('Detected Signal');
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SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

FSK
clc
clear all
close all
N=10;
x=randint(1,N);
k=1;
for t=0.01:0.01:10
c1(k)=sin(2*pi*t);
c2(k)=sin(4*pi*t);
k=k+1;
end
for j=1:1:N;
if x(j)==0
for i=(j-1)*100+1:1:j*100
y(i)=0;
tr(i)=c2(i);
end
end
if x(j)==1
for i=(j-1)*100+1:1:j*100
y(i)=1;
tr(i)=c1(i);
end
end
end
for i=1:1:1000
re(i)=tr(i)*c1(i)*c2(i);
end
for j=1:1:N
d=0;
for i=(j-1)*100+1:1:j*100
d=d+re(i);
end
if d>0.5
det(j)=1;
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else
det(j)=0;
end
end
for j=1:1:N
if det(j)==0
for i=(j-1)*100+1:1:j*100
det(i)=0;
end
end
if x(j)==1
for i=(j-1)*100+1:1:j*100
det(i)=1;
end
end
end
subplot(6,1,1);
plot(y);
title('message signal');
subplot(6,1,2);
plot(c1);
title('Carrier Signal-1');
subplot(6,1,3);
plot(c2);
title('Carrier Signal-2');
subplot(6,1,4);
plot(tr);
title('Transmitted Signal');
subplot(6,1,5);
plot(re);
title('Received Signal');
subplot(6,1,6);
plot(det);
title('Detected Signal');

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

PSK
clc
clear all;
close all;
N=10;%No.of Data
x=randint(1,N);
k=1;
for t=0.01:0.01:10
c(k)=2*sin(2*pi*t);
k=k+1;
end
for j=1:1:N
if x(j)==0
for i=(((j-1)*100)+1):1:(j*100)
y(i)=0;
tr(i)=-c(i);
end
else
for i=(((j-1)*100)+1):1:(j*100)
y(i)=1;
tr(i)=c(i);
end
end
end
for i=1:1:1000
re(i)=tr(i)*c(i);
end
for j=1:1:N
d=0;
for i=(((j-1)*100)+1):1:(j*100)
d=d+re(i)
end
if d>=0
det(j)=1;
else
det(j)=0;
end
end
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for j=1:1:N
if det(j)==0
for i=(((j-1)*100)+1):1:(j*100)
det(i)=0;
end
end
if x(j)==1
for i=(((j-1)*100)+1):1:(j*100)
det(i)=1;
end
end
end
subplot(5,1,1);
plot(y);
title('Message Signal');
subplot(5,1,2);
plot(c);
title('Carrier Signal');
subplot(5,1,3);
plot(tr);
title('Transmitted Signal');
subplot(5,1,4);
plot(re);
title('Received Signal');
subplot(5,1,5);
plot(det);
title('Detected Signal');

99

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB MANUAL


SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR

III
YEAR

QPSK
clc
clear all;
close all;
N=20;
X=randint(1,N);
L=100;
l=(N/2*L*0.01)-0.01
i=1;
for t=0:0.01:1
I(i)=cos(2*pi*t);
i=i+1;
end
i=1;
for t=0:0.01:1
Q(i)=sin(2*pi*t);
i=i+1;
end
for i=1:N/2
if X((i-1)*2+1)==1
for j=((i-1)*L+1):(i*L)
y(j)=1;
QMI(j)=y(j)*I(j);
end
else
for j=((i-1)*L+1):(i*L)
y(j)=-1;
QMI(j)=y(j)*I(j);
end
end
k=((i-1)*2)+2;
if X(k)==1
for j=((i-1)*L+1):(i*L)
y(j)=1;
QMQ(j)=y(j)*Q(j);
end
else
for j=((i-1)*L+1):(i*L)
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y(j)=-1;
QMQ(j)=y(j)*Q(j);
end
end
end
for i=1:(N/2*L)
QP(i)=QMI(i)+QMQ(i);
end
for i=1:(N/2*L)
re1(i)=QP(i)*I(i);
reQ(i)=QP(i)*Q(i);
end
k=1;
for i=1:N/2
rI=0;
rQ=0;
for j=((i-1)*L+1):(i*L)
rI=rI+re(j);
rQ=rQ+reQ(j);
end
if rI>=0
real(i)=1;
else
real(i)=0;
end
if rQ>=0
imag(i)=1;
else
imag(i)=0;
end
det(k)=real(i);
det(k+1)=imag(i);
k=k+2;
end

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RESULT:
Thus the ASK,PSK,QPSK and FSK was designed using MATLAB.

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