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ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

THEORY 1
These lecture slides
have been compiled
by Mohammed
SalahUdDin Ayubi.
LECTURE 1
Electric Circuits Theory
Introduction
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Outline
• Metric prefixes
• SI Units
• Electron
• Voltage
• Current
• Passive Sign Convention

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Metric Prefixes
Prefix Abbreviation Multiple
femto f 10E-15
pico p 10E-12
nano n 10E-9
micro µ 10E-6
milli m 10E-3
kilo K 10E3
mega M 10E6
giga G 10E9
tera T 10E12
peta P 10E15
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SI Units
Quantity Symbol Unit
Power P Watt W
Charge Q Coulomb C
Current I or i Ampere A
Potential V or v Volt V
(voltage)
Resistance R Ohm Ω
Capacitance C Farad F
Inductance L Henry H
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Electron
Electron – basic unit of charge
e- = -1.6 x 10-19 C -

Q1Q2
F =k 2 -
r
F = force between Q1 and Q2 (N)
K = 9 x 109
Q1, Q2 = two separate quantities of charge (C)
r = distance between charges (m)
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Voltage
Also known as “potential difference”
W AB
V AB =
q -

VAB = voltage from A to B (V)


WAB = work to move charge q from A to B (J)
q = charge that is moved (C)

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Voltage
If VAB > 0, then…
…work is expended moving q from A to B
If VAB < 0, then…
…work is gained in moving q from A to B

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Voltage

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Voltage

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Voltage

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Voltage

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Voltage

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Voltage

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Voltage

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Voltage

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Voltage

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Voltage
• Voltage • Height
• Electric field • Gravitational field

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Current
• Rate of movement of charge

Current = Charge / Time = C/s

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Current

Current

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Current

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Current

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Current

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Current

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Current

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Current

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Current

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Current

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Current

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Current
--1 = +1
-1
-1

-1

Current

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Current
Charge = -2 |q|
= -2 (1.6 x 10-19 C)
= -3.2 x 10-19 C

Time = 1 ps

Current = -3.2 x 10-19 C / 1 x 10-12 s


= -3.2 x 10-7 A = 320 nA
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Note
• Electrons move in opposite direction of
current
• Current is measured at one point and has a
direction
• Voltage is measured across two points and
has a polarity

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Power
• Rate of energy absorption or supply
Power = VI
= Volts * Amps = J/C * C/s = J/s = Watts

*
= =
-

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Power
• Power can also be measured in horsepower
or BTU/hr
• 1 hp = 746 watts = 2545 BTU/hr

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Passive Sign Convention
• Power has a magnitude and a sign
• Positive or negative, absorbed (used) or
produced?
• By convention, positive means absorbed

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Passive Sign Convention
i = 1 mA i = -1 mA
v = 10 V v = 5 mV

P = 10 mW P = -5 uW
(absorbed) (absorbed)
( = 5 uW produced)

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Energy
• Energy is work (units of joules)
• Power is rate of work (units of J/s)

w = ∫ p ⋅ dt

∫ dt =

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Energy
• Current rates for electricity (electrical
energy) are around 8¢ per KW-hour

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