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Global( world wide): Involving all countries of the globe.
Globalization: Integration economy of a country with the economies of other countries under condition of free flows of
trade, capital and labors.
Cowries: A Hindi world meaning sea shells. These are used in ancient world as form of currency.
Silk Route: Route taken by traders to carry silk cargos from china to the west.
Spaghetti: A type of noodle popular in loyally.
El Dorado; Imaginary land of great wealth fabled land of gold.
Plantation: Estate for cultivation of cash crops like tea coffee, cotton, tobacco, sugarcane etc.
Corn laws: British laws which improvement to one another and to the import of corn.
Ecology: Study of organisms in relation to one another and to their surroundings.
The canal colonies: the iconologies/areas irrigated by new canals, where peasants from parts of Punjab sated.
Rudderpost: Castle plague- A fast spreading among cattle.
Chutney Music(Popular music in Trinidad): Supposed to be the result of cultural fusion.
Entrepreneur: one who unundertakes commercial enterprise with chance of profited or loss. Start enterprise by
himself/herself at his/ her Own risk.
Hose: A riotous carnival in Trinidad when workers of all races and religion join to celebrate.
Coolie : Unskilled native laborers. Indentured Indian laborers were often referred to as coolie in Trinidad.
Indigo: Deep violet blue color.
Allies: Before the first world war, Britain, France and Russia formed an alliance and fought together in the first World
War. Together they were known as Allies.
Central Power: An alliance formed by Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Later Turkey, Fought together in the First
World War.Together they were know as Allies.
Axis-power: Germany, Italy, Austria, Turkey were known as Axis powers during the Second World War.
IMF : International monetary fund.
NIEO: New International Economic order.

All through history human societies have become steadily more interlinked. From ancient times travelers. Traders,
priests and pilgrims traveled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfillment, or to escape
persecution. They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions and even germs and diseases.
(i) Silk Routes Link the World : The name Silk routes points to the importance Chinese Silk cargoes along this route.
Historians have identified several silk Routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking
Asia with Europe and north Africa. Chinese Pottery also traveled the same route, as did textiles and spices from India
and South east Asia. In return precious metals flowed from Europe to Asia. Early Christian missionaries certainly
traveled this route to Asia, as did early Muslim preachers a few centuries later. Buddhism emerged from eastern India
and spread in several directions.
(ii) Food Travels : Spaghetti and Potato: Traders and travelers introduced new crops To the lands they traveled. Even read
food stuff in distant parts of the world Might share common origins. Take spaghetti or noodles. It is believed that
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noodles traveled. West from china to become spaghetti. Or perhaps Arab traders took Pasta to Sicily.Many of our
common foods, such as potatoes, Soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chilies, sweet potatoes, and so on were not known
to our ancestors until about five centuries ago. These foods were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher
Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent that would later become known as the Americas.
(iii) Conquest, Disease and Trade: In the 16
Century after European sailors found a Sea route of Asia and also
successfully crossed the western ocean to America. For centuries before, the Indian Ocean had known a bustling trade,
with goode, People, knowledge, customs etc. Before its discovery America had been cut off from regular contact with
the Rest of the world for millions of years. But from the 16
century, its vast lands And abundant crops and mineral
began to transform trade and lives every where. The Portuguese d Spanish conquest and colonization of America was
decisively Under way by the mid 16
century. In fact, the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a
conventional military weapon, It was the germs such as small pox that they carried on their person. Small pox in
particular proved a deadly killer. It spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any Europeans reaching there, It killed
and decimated whole countries, paving the way for conquest. Until the nineteenth century, poverty and hunger were
common in Europe. Cities were crowded a deadly diseases were widespread. Religious conflicts were common and
religious dissenters were persecuted. Thousand therefore fleed Europe from America. In the 15
century, China and
India were among the worlds richest countries. However, from the 15
century, China is said to have restricted
overseas contacts and retreated in to isolation. The rising importance of the Americas gradually moved the centre of
world trade westwards. Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.

In the 19
(i) A world Economy takes shape: Traditionally, countries liked to be self sufficient in food. But in 19
century, the world changed due to economic, political, social, culture Technological factors to transform
societies and reshape external relation. Economic identity three types of movement or flow with in international
economic exchanges.
(a) The flow of trade (b) The flow of the lab our (c) the movement of capital
All three flows were closely interwoven and affected peoples lives more deeply now than ever before. The
interconnection could some times be broken. For example, lab our migration was often more restricted than goods or
capital flows.
(ii) Role of Technology: Railways, steam shipping and telegraph were important inventions. Technological advance was
often the result of larger social, political and economic factors railways lighter wagons and larger ships helped move
food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to markets. Now animal were slaughtered for food over at the
starting point in America, Australia or New Zealand then transported to Europe as. Frozen meat. This reduced shipping
costs and lowered meant prices in Europe. Better living conditions promoted social peace within the country and
support for imperialism abroad.
century Britain,
self sufficiency in food meant lower standards and social conflict. As urban centers expanded and industry grew, the
demand for agriculture products up, pushing up agriculture prices. Unhappy with high food prices, industrialists and
urban dwellers forced the abolition of the com laws. As food prices fell consumption in Britain rose. Form the mid
nineteenth century, faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes , and therefore more food improves.
Around the world in industrial eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia. The demand for lab our in places where
was in short supply-as in America and Australia led to more migration. By 1890, a global economy had taken shape ,
accompanied by complex changes in labor movement patterns, capital flow, ecologies and technology.
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(iii) Late 19
century colonialism: It is important to realize the darker side this process. In many parts of the world, the
expansion of trade and a closer relationship with the world economy also meant a loss of freedoms and livelihoods. Late
century European conquest produced many painful economic social and ecological changes. Britain and France
made vast additions to their overeats territories in the late 19

Century Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers. The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by
taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.
(iv) Reinterprets or The Cattle Plague: In Africa, in the 1890s fast spreading disease of cattle plague had a terrifying
impact on peoples liveihoods and the local economy. Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. For
centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihood and working for a wage was not a wide spread. In late 19

century Africa there were few consume goods that wages could buy. In the late 19
century, Europeans were attracted
to African by its sources of land minerals. Europeans come to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to
produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. But there was an unexpected problem a shortage of labors willing to
work for wages.
(v) Indentured labors Migration from India: In the 19the century, hundreds of thousands of Indian are Chinese laborers
went to work on plantations, in mines and in road and railway construction projects around the world. Most Indian
indentured workers came from the eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu. I the
mid 19
century these regions experiences many changes cottage industries declined, land rent rose, lands were cleared
ofr mines annotations. All theist affected the lives of poor, they fail to pay their rents, got deep in debt and were fore to
migrate in search of work. 19the century indenture has been described as a new system of slavery. On arrival at the
plantations, laborers found conditions of be different form what they had imagined. Livid and working conditions were
harsh and there were few legal rights. But workers discovered their own ways of surviving. Many of them escaped into
the worlds through if caught they faced severe punishments. From the 1990s, India nationalist leaders oppose the system
of indentured labor migration as abusive and cruel. It was abolished in 1921. Yet for a number of decades afterwards,
descendants of India indentured workers, after thought of a coolest remained an uneasy-minority in the Caribbean
islands some of Nainpauls early novels capture their sense of loss and alienation.
(vi) Indian Entrepreneurs Abroad: Indian trades and money lenders also followed European colonizers into Africa.
Hyderabadi sindhi traders, however, ventured beyond European colonies. From the 1860s they established flourishing
emporia at busy ports world wide, selling local and imported curious to tourists.
(vii) Indian Trade, Colonialism and the Global system: Fine cottons produced in India were exported to Europe. British
cotton manufacture began to expand and industrialists pressurizes the government to restrict cotton imports and protect
local industries. Tariffs were imposed on cloth imports into Britain. Consequently the inflow of me Indian cotton began
to decline. From the early 19the century British manufactures also began to seek overseas markets for there cloth.
Excluded from the British market by tariff barriers ,. Indian textile now faced still competition in other international
markets; While exports if manufactures declined rapidly, export of raw materials increase equally fast .indigo used for
the dyeing cloth was another important export for many secedes Britain grew opium in India and export it to china ,and
with the money earned through this sale, it financed its tea and other imports from china.
During 19
century British manufactures flooded the Indian market. Food grain and raw material export from India to
Britain and the rest of the word increased, but the value of British exports of India was much higher than value of
British imports from Indian. Thus Britain had a trade surplus with India. Britain used this surplus to balance its trade
defects with other countries.
Britains trade surplus in India also helped to pay the so called home charges that included private remittances home by
British official and traders, interested payment on Indias external dept, and pensions of British official in India.
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The first world war (1914-18) was mainly fought in Europe . During this period the world experienced wide spread
economic and political instability and another catastrophic war.
(i) Wartime Transformation: The First World War was fought between two powers blocks. On the one side were the
Allies-Britain, France and Russia (later joined by the) Us ,and on the other side were the central powers- Germany
,Australia, Hungary and ottoman turkey. It was the first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks,
aircraft, chemical etc. to the frontlines on large ships and trains. The scale of death and destruction nine million dead
and 20 million injured was unthinkable before the industrial age. During the war industries were restructure to produce
war related goods entire societies were also reorganized for war as men went to battle, women in to undertake jobs that
earlier only men were expected to do.
(ii) Post War recovery: Britain which the words leading economy in the power period, in particular faced prolonged crisis
while Britain was preoccupied with war, industries had developed in India and J apan. After the war Britain found it
difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market, and to compete with J apan internationally.
Moreover war expenditures Britain had borrowed liberally from the US.The war had led to an economic boom, i.e. to a
large increase in demand and employment. When the war boom ended production contracted and unemployment led to
huge job losses in 1921 one on every five British workers was out of job. Before the war, eastern Europe was major was
supplier of wheat in the world market. When this supply was disrupted during the war. wheat production in Canada,
America and Australia in Canada , America and Australia expanded dramatically. But once the war was over,
production in Eastern Europe revived and create li glut in wheat out put. Grain prices fell, rural incomes declined and
farmers fell deeper in to dept.
(iii) Rise of mass production and consumption: The move towards mass production had begun in the late 19
century, but
in the 1920s it became a characteristic feature of industrial production in the US. A well known pioneer of mass
production was the car manufacturer Henry ford. He realized that the Assembly line method would allow a faster and
cheaper way of producing vehicles. As result, Henry Fords car came of the assembly line at three-minute intervals , a
speed much faster than achieved by previous methods. The TModel ford was the worlds first mass produced car.
Mass production lowered costs and prices of engineered goods such as cars, refrigerate
tars, washing machine, radios, gramophone player, all through a system of hire purchase.
The housing and consumer boom of the 1920s create the basic of prosperity in the US large investment of housing and
hold goods seemed to create a various of higher employment and incomes, rising consummating demand, more
investment and yet more employment and incomes.
In 1923, the US resume exporting capital to the rest of the world and become the largest overseas lender. Us important
and capital export also boosted recovery.
(iv) The Great Depression: The great Deprecation began around 1929 and lasted till mid 1930s. During this period most
parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade, Agriculture regions
and communities were the worst affected.
Causes: Agriculture over production remained a problem. This made worse by falling agriculture prices. Farmers tried
to expand production and bring a larger volume of market to maintain their over income. this worsened the glint in the
market, pushing down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.
In the mid 1920s, many countries financed their investments through loans from the US. In the first half of 1938 US
overseas loans amounted to over $1 billion. A year later it was one quarter of that amount country that depended
crucially on US loans one faced an acute crisis.
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In Europe the withdrawal of us loans led to the failure of some major banks and collapse of currencies such as the
British pound sterling. In Latin America and else where it intensified the slump in agriculture and raw material prices.
US banks also slashed domestic lending and called back loans. Farms could not sell their harvest; house holds were
ruined and business collapsed. Due to falling incomes, many house holds in the US could not repay what they had
borrowed, and were forced to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables. The US banking system itself
collapsed. Unable to recover investment, collect loans and repay depositors, thousands of banks went bankrupt and were
forced to close.
(v) India and great Depression: Indias exports and imports nearly halve between 1928 and 1934. during this period
wheat prices in India fell by 50% though agriculture prices fell sharply, the colonial government refused to reduce
revenue demands.
The price of jute of Bengal Crashed more than 60%. Parents indebtedness increased. They used up their saving,
mortgaged lands, and sold what ever jewellery and metals they had to meet their expense. In these depression years,
India became an exporter of precious metal gold.
The depression proved less him for urban India. Because of felling prices those with fixed incomes say town dwelling
landowners who received rents and middle class salaried employers-now found themselves better off.

The second World War was fought between the Axis powers (Germany, J apan
and Italy) and the Allies( Britain, France; the Soviet Union and the US ). It was fought over land, on sea and in air. In
this war least 60 million people are believed to have been killed, and millions more were injured. Vast parts of Europe
and Asia were devastated and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or artillery attacks. The atomic
bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki alone is estimated to have killed between 1,50,000 and 2,50,000 men, women and
children. The war causes an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption.
The after affects of the war were the USs emergence as the dominated economic, political and military Powel in the
western world. on the other hand the soviet union defeated: Germany and became a world power during the very years
when the capital world was trapped in the great depression.
(I) Post war Settlement and the Britton-Woods Institutions : In brief, the main aim of the post-war international
economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employed in the industrial world. The Britton-Woods
conference established the international Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member
nations. The International Bank (World Bank) for Reconstruction and development was set up to fianc Post War
reconstruction. The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton-Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton
Woods twins.
The US has an effective right of veto over key IMF and World bank decisions. The Bretton-Woods system was based
on fixed exchange rates. In this system. National currencies, such as for example the Indian rupee, were pegged to the
dollar at a fixed exchange rate.
(II) The Early Post War years: The Bretton-Woods System inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and
incomes for the western industrial nations and J apan.
(III) Decolonization and Independence: After the end of second World War most colonies in Asia and Africa emerged as
free independent nations. They were over burdened by poverty and a lack of resources and their economies and societies
were handicapped by long period of colonial rule.
The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the facials needs of the industrial countries. But from the late
1950s the Bretton-Woods institutions began too shift their attention more towards developing countries.
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Now newly independent countries facing urgent pressures to lift their populations out of poverty, it!. Came under the
guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial power. British and French business still controlled
vital resources such as minerals and land in many of their former colonies or in other parts of the world where they had
earlier wielded political influence.
Most of the developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth the western economies experienced in the 1950s
and 1960s. So they organized themselves as a group-the group o0f 77 (G-77) to demand a new international economic
order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more
development, assistance, fairer prices for raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed
countries markets.
(IV) End of Britton-Woods and the Beginnings of Globalization : From the
1960s the rising costs of its overseas involvements weakened the USs finances and competitive strength. The dollar
could not maintain its value in relation to gold.
Earlier, developing countries could turn to international institutions for loans and development assistance. But now they
were forced to borrow from western commercial banks and private leading institutions. This led to periodic debt crises
specially in Africa and Latin America.
The industrial world was also hit by unemployment. From the late 1970s. MNCs also began to shift production
operation to low wage Asian countries.
New Economic policy in China and th4e Collapse of the Soviet Union and Soviet style communism in Eastern Europe
brought many countries back in to the fold if the world economy.
China and other countries, where the wages were low, became attractive destinations for investments by foreign MNCs
competing to capture world market
In the last two decades the worlds economic geography has been transformed as countries such as India, china & Brazil
have under gone taped economic transformation.

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1. Name one people who did not contribute in making the human societies more interlinked.
(A) Travellers (B) Traders (C) Imperialists (D) Prints
2. Who were the first Europeans to conquer America ?
(A) The French (B) The Portuguese (C) The Spanish (D)The Germans
3. Who worked in the plantations set up in America by the European nations ?
(A) The Indians (B) The Chinese (C) The Slaves from Africa (D) The Arabs
4. What were the Corn Laws?
(A) They were passed by the British Government to restrict the import of corn
(B) They were passed by the British Government to restrict the export of corn
(C) They were passed by the French Government to export corn to Canada
(D) They were passed by the America to import corn from other countries
5. Which one of the following countries did not try to expand food production to meet the British demand?
(A) Eastern Europe (B) Russia (C) America (D) J apan
6. Up to the 18
(A) India (B) Turkey (C) South Africa (D) China
century, which two countries among the following were the countries of the world ?
7. Which new invention made it possible to transport perishable foods over long distances ?
(A) Gun Powder (B) Refrigerated Ships (C) Compass (D) Bombs
8. Where was the Chutney music popular?
(A) China (B) J apan (C) North America (D) South America
9. What is Rudderpost?
(A) A cattle disease in Africa (B) A cattle disease in China
(C) A cattle disease in U.S.A. (D) A cattle disease in Russia
10. Which one of the following countries was a part of the Allies in the First World War (1914-1916) ?
(A) Britain (B) France (C) U.S.A. (D) J apan
11. Which one country was not a part of Central Powers in the First World War ?
(A) Germany (B) Austria- Hungary (C) Turkey (D) U.S.A.
12. When did the Great Depression begin ?
(A) In 1929 (B) In 1930 (C) In 1931 (D) In 1932
13. Which one country was not a part of the Axis Powers in the Second World War (1939 1945) ?
(A) Russia (B) Germany (C) J apan (D) Italy
14. Which one country was not a part of the Allied Powers in the Second World War?
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(A) Great Britain (B) France (C) Germany (D) U.S.A.
15. What was the human loss in the Second World War?
(A) About 30 million people were killed in this War
(B) About 40 million people were killed in this War
(C) About 50 million people were killed in this War
(D) About 60 million people were killed in this War
16. What do you mean by G -77?
(A) It is a group of rich countries
(B) It is a group African countries
(C) It is a group of Asian countries
(D) It was a Group of 77 developing countries which did not benefit from the fast growth which the Western economics
experienced in 1950
Que. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans. C B,C C A D A,D B D A D
Que. 11 12 13 14 15 16
Ans. D A A C A D

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1. Mention any two modes of exchange of ideas and goods in ancient world.
2. What is meant by Cowries? For what purpose were these used?
3. What is silk route ? What role did this play in linking other countries?
4. What is referred to as EI Dorado which attracted traveler?
5. Name two European countries which attracted traveler?
6. Name the explorer who discovered the sea routes to the Americas.
7. Which two countries were the richest prior t9 18
8. What is com law? Why was it abolished?
9. Give the main reason for the migrating of European people to America in 19
10. Name any four important inventions which transformed 20
century ?
11. Why is the year 1885 significant in the history of colonization ?
century world?
12. What is meant by indentured labor?
13. What is hussy carnival of Trinidad?
14. Give two examples which reflect social-cultural fusion between Caribbean people with indentured Indians?
15. What is referred as chutney music?
16. Who is V.S. Nepal ? What is his main achievement?
17. Name the groups in which the world was divided before the first world war?
18. Why was the Britton Woods conference held in New Hampshire in US significant
19. What is referred to as Breton wood twins?
20. Mention any two economic effects of Second World War?
1. How did the silk route help in trade & cultural exchange?
2. How did food habits travel from one place to another in the process of cultural exchange?
3. Identify various types of flows or movements within international economic exchange? How do these affect economy?
4. Which part of India had the first experience of now agricultural economy? How did this happen ? What were the canal
colonies of Punjab?
5. Explain how with new technology people of one part of the world could have import varieties of food from other parts
of the world at a lower cad?
6. How did the Reinterprets reach Africa ? How did this create a havoc for the African people ?
7. What steps did Hennery ford take in 1914 to retain labor ?
8. Examine the condition of the 19
9. Why was the 19
century which compelled the Indians to become indentured lab our and migrate to
other countries inn search of work ?
10. Why did the British impose tariff on the import of cotton textiles after 19
century indenture system referred to as the new system of silvery ?
11. How did the Britains trade surplus from India help her to balance its other trade deflects?
12. How did the First World War transform U.S. economy to make it an international creditor from international lab our?
13. What was the effect of the First World War on the economy of Britain?
14. In the context of industrial production what is meant by assembly line method?
15. What was the major economic effect of Second World War?
1. Explain how travels and trade help in establishing links among various countries.
2. explane the main features of global agriculture economy that emerged around 1890.
3. In many parts of the world the expansion of trade and closer relationship with world economy also meant a loss of
freedom & livelihood. justify the statement by giving examples.
4. What key lesson did the politicians and economist learn from the interwar economy experience?
5. What is the great Depression? Mention some of its causes.
6. What was the effect of the great Deprecation on the Indian economy?
7. How past war economic recovery proved difficult for Britain? Explain.
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Metropolis: chief city of region or the country with the large population.
Urbanization: The process of development of towns & cities.
Brahma: The God of creation in Hindu mythology.
Museum: Building used for exhibition and storage of object of the past or related heritage or any interesting unique
Tenement: Dwelling place, e.g., a set of rooms separated from each usually in the poorer district of the city.
Philanthropist: A person who is concerned about of the mankind.
Suburb: Outlying area of the city, region adjacent to the city.
Greenbelt: Area of open lands with plants and trees for preservation around the city, maintaining natural habitation.
Asphyxiation: suffocation due to lack of oxygen supply in the blood.
Presidency cities: During the British rule the capital of Bombay, Bengal and madras presidencies (provinces) were
known as the presidencies cities.
Depression class: The so-called dallies or untouchable are referred to as the depressed class.
Reclamation: bring wasteland under cultivation. Recovery marshy land from seas water and make it livable and
Chawls: An Indian world refers to mustered structure which is divided into a number of smaller one room tenements or
Individualism: Social theory favouriring freedom of individual- encouraging free action by individuals.
Many decades after the beginning of individual- encouraging free action by individuals.
More than three quarters of the adult living in Manchester were migrants from rural areas till 1851.
One out of every nine people of England and four fold between 1810-80.
The population of London multiplied four fold between 1870.
The factory Actors beginning from 1902.
The responsibility for housing the working class was accepted by the British state in 1919-39.
Charles Dickens wrote about the massive destruction in the process construction in 1848.
The London poor exploded in riot demanding relief in 1886.
A similar riot occurred in late 1887.
One fifth of the streets of Paris were housemans creation by 1870.
Bankim Chandra chattopadhayay wrote short sketches on urban life in Calcutta in 1962.
After the marriage of Britains king Charles all to the Portuguese princess the control of Bombay was transferred to
British Bombay in 1961.
Bombay became the capital of Bombay presidency in 1819.
About 1/4 of Bombays inhabitants were born in Bombay, the rest came from outside between 1881and 1931.
Bombay was built industry employed 520,000 people by 1987.
Calcutta became the first cit to get smoke nuisance legations in 1863.
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The smoke abatement Act of 1847 and 1853.

Town and cities that first appeared along river valleys, such as Nippur and Mohenjodaro, were larger in scale than other
human settlement. Amcient cities could develop only when an increase in food supplies made it possible to supper a
wide range of non-food producers. Cities were often the centers of political power, administrative network, trade and
industry, religious institutions, and intellectual activity, and supported various social groups. Such a artisan, merchants
and priests. Cities themselves can vary greatly in size and complexity. They can be densely settled modem-day
metropolises, which combine political and economic functions for a entire region, and support very large populations.
Or they can be smaller urban centers with limited functions.
(i) The industrialization and the rise of the Modem city in England : The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds
and Manchester attracted large number of migrants to the textile mills set up in the late eighteenth century. In 1851,
more than three-quarters of the adults Manchester were migrants from rural areas. Now let us look at London. By 1750,
one out of every nine people of England and Wales lives in London. It was a colossal city with a population of about
675000, Over the nineteenth century. London continued to expand. Lets population multiplied fourfold in the 70 years
between 1880, increasing 1 million to about 4 million.
(ii) The city of London : The city of London was a powerful for migrant populations, even though it did not have large
factories. Nineteenth century London, says the historian Gareth Stedman J ones, was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of
small masters and skilled artisans, of growing number of semi skilled and sweated outworkers, of soldiers and servants,
of casual laborers, street sellers, and beggar. Apart from the London dockyards, five major types of industries employed
large numbers clothing and footwear, wood and furniture, metals engineering, printing and stationary, and precision
products such as surgical instruments, watches and objects of precious metal. During the first world War (1914-18)
London began manufacturing motor cars and electrical goods, and the number of large factories increased until they
accounted for nearly one-third of all jobs in the city.
In the mid-nineteenth century. Henry Mayhew wrote several volumes on the land on labor and compiled long list of
those who made living form crime. Many of whom he listed as criminals were in fact poor people who lived by
stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal, and clothes drying on hedges. There were others who were
more skilled at their trade, expert at their jobs. They were cheats and tricksters, pickpockets and petty thieves crowding
the streets of London. In an attempt to discipline the population, the authorities imposed high penalties for crime and
offered work to those who were considered the deserving poor.
With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs, and were forced to work within
household. The 1861 census recorded a quarter of million domestic servants in London of whom the vast majority were
women, many of them recent migrants. A large number of women used their homes to increase family income by taking
in lodgers or through such activities a tailoring, washing or matchbox making. However, there was a change once again
in the twentieth century. As women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdraw from domestic
Large numbers of children were pushed into low-pad work often by their parents. Andrew Means, a clergyman who
wrote the Bitter Cry of outsets London in the 1880s showed why crime was more profitable than laboring in small
underpaid factories. A child seven years old is easily known to make 10 shillings 6 pence a week from thieving
Before he can gain as such as the young thief (a boy) must make 56 gross of matchboxes a week, or 1,296 a day. It was
only after the passage of the compulsory Elementary Education Act in 1870 and the factory acts beginning from 1902,
that children were kept out of industrial work .
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(iii) Housing: For a while the better off city dwellers continued to demote that slums simply be cleared away. But gradually
a large number of people began to recognize the need for housing for the poor. What were the reasons for this increasing
First, the vast mass of one-room houses occupied by the poor were seen as a serious threat to public health, they were
overcrowded, badly ventilated lacked sanitation.
Second, there were worries about fire hazards created by poor housing.
Third, there was a widespread fear of social disorder, especially after the Russian Revolution in 1917. Workers mass
housing schemes were planned to prevent London poor from turning rebellious.
(iv) Clearing London: The Congestion in the nineteenth-century industrial city also led to a yearning for clean country air.
Many wealthy resident of London were able to afford a holiday home in the countryside. Demands were made for new
lungs for the city, and some attempts were made to bridge the difference between city and countryside through such
ideas as the Green Belt around London.
(v) Transport in the City: The very first section of the Underground in the world opened on 10 J anuary 1863 between
Paddington and Farrington Street in, London. On that day 10,000 passengers were carried, with trains running every ten
minutes. By 1880 the expanded train service was carrying 402 milling passengers a year. At first people were afraid to
travel underground. This is what one newspaper reader warned.
To make approximately two miles of railway, 900 houses had to be destroyed. Thus the London tube railway led to a
massive displacement of the London poor, especially between the two world wars.
Ties between members of households loosened, and among the working class the institution of marriage tended to break
down. Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain, on the other hand, faced increasingly higher levels of
isolation, although their lives were made easier by domestic maids who coked, cleaned and cared for young children on
low wages.
Women who worked for wages had some control over their lives. Particularly among the lower social classes. However,
many social reformers felt that the family as institution had broken down, and needed to be saved or
reconstructed pushing these women back into the home.
(i) Men, women and Family in the city: Men and women did not have equal access to this new urban space, As women
lost their industrial jobs and conservative people railed against their presence in public spaces, women were forced to
withdraw into their homes. The public space became increasingly a male preserve, and the domestic sphere was seen as
the proper place for women. Most political movements of the nineteenth century, such as Chartism (a movement
demanding the vote for all adult males) and the 10-hour movement (limiting hour of work in factories), mobilized large
numbers of men. Only gradually did women come to participate in political movements for suffrage that demanded the
right to vote for women, or for married womens rights to property (from the 1870s).
By the twentieth century, the urban family had been transformed yet again, party by the experience of the valuable
wartime work done by women, who were employed in large numbers to meet war demands. The Family now consisted
of much smaller units.
(ii) Leisure and Consumption: For wealthy Britishers, there had long been an annual London season.
Several cultural events, such as the open the theater and classical music performances were organized for a elite group
of 300-400 families in the late eighteenth century. Meanwhile, working classes met in pubs to have a drink, exchange
news and sometimes also to organize for political action.
Many new types of large-scale entertainment for the common people came into being, some made possible with money
form the state. Libraries, art galleries and museums were established in the nineteenth century to provide people with a
R E O U N D A T I O N B Y P - F

sense of history and pride in the achievements of the British. At first, visitors to the British Museum in London
numbered just about 15,000 every year.

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In the severe winter of 1886, when outdoor work came to standstill, the London poor exploded in a riot, demanding
relief from the terrible conditions of poverty. Alarmed shopkeepers closed down their establishment fearing the
10,000 strong crowd that was matching form Deptford to London. The marchers had to be dispersed by the police. A
similar riot occurred in late 1887, this time it was brutally suppressed by the police in what came to be known as the
Bloody Sunday of November 1887.
Two years later, thousands of Londons dockworkers went on strike and marched though the city. According to one
writer, thousands of the strikers had marched through the city without a pocket being picked or window being
broken.. The 12-day strike was called to gain recognition of the dockworkers union.
The pace of urbanization in India was slow under colonial rule. In the early twentieth century, no more then 11
percent Indians were living in cities. A large proportion of these urban dweller we were residents of the these
presidency cities. These were multi-functional cities, they had major ports, warehouses, homes and offices, army
camps, as well as educations institutions, museum and libraries. Bombay was the premier city of India. It expanded
rapidly from the nineteenth century, its population going up from 644, 405 in 1872 to nearly 1,500,00 in 1941.
(i) Bombay the prime city of India?: Bombay was a group of seven islands under Portuguese control. In 1661, control
of the islands passed into British hands after the marriage of Britains King Charles 11 to the Portuguese princess. The
East India Company quickly shifted its base from surat, its principal western port, to Bombay.
Later in the nineteenth century, the city functioned port through which large quantities of raw materials such as cotton
and opium would pass. Gradually, it also became an important administrative centre in western India, and then, by the
end of the nineteenth century, a major industrial centre.
(ii) Work in the city: The city quickly expanded. With the growth of trade in cotton and opium, large communities of
traders and blinkers as well as artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay. The establishment of textile mills
led to fresh surge in migration.
The first cotton textile mill in Bombay was establish in 1854, By 1921, these were 85 cotton mills with about 146,000
workers. Only about one-fourth of Bombays inhabitants between 1881 and 1931 were born in Bombay the rest same
from outside. Large numbers flowed in from the nearby district of Ratnagiri to work in the Bombay mills.
Women formed as, much as 23 per cent of the mill workforce in the period between 1919 and 1926. After that, their
numbers dropped steadily to less than 10 per cent of the total workforce, By the late 1930s, womens jobs were
increasingly taken over by machines or by men.
(iii) Housing and Neighboring: Bombay was a crowded city. While every Londoner in the 1840s enjoyed an average
space of 155 square yards, Bombay had a mere 9.5 square yards. By 1872, when London has a average of 8 persons
per house, the density in Bombay was a high as 20. Form its earliest days, Bombay did not grow according to any pan
and houses, especially in the Fort area, were interspersed with gardens. The Bombay first area which formed the heart
of the city in the early 1800s was divided between a native to wri where most of the Indians lived, and European or
white section.
Many fimillies could reside at a time in a tenement. The Census of 1901 reported that the mass of the island
population or 80 per cent of the total, resides in tenements of the one room; the average number of occupants lies
between 4 and 5 . High rent forced workers to share homes, either with relatives or caste fellows who were
steaming into the city. People had to keep the windows of their rooms closed even in humid weather due to the closed
proximity of filthy gutted, privies, buffalo stables etc. Yet though water was scarce and people often quarreled every
morning for a turn at the tap observes found that houses were kept quite clean.
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The homes being small, streets and neighborhoods were used for variety of activities such as cooking, washing and
sleeping Liquor shops and akbaras came up in any empty spot. Streets were also used for different types of leisure
activities. Parvathibai Bhor recalled her childhood years in the early twentieth century this way. There was an open
space in the middle of our four charts. There the magicians, monkey players or players or acrobats used to regularly
perform their acts. The Nandi bull used to come. I used to be especially afraid of the kadaklakshmi. To see that they
had to beat themselves on their naked bodies in order to fill their stomachs frightened me. Finally. Chaws were also
the place for the exchange of news about jobs-strikes riots or demonstrations.
Caste and family groups in the mill neighboring were headed by someone who was similar to a village headman.
Sometimes, the jobber in the mills could be the local neighborhood leader. He settled disputes, organized food
supplies or arranged informal credit. He also brought important information on political developments.
(iv) Land Reclamation in Bombay: The need for additional commercial space in the mid-nineteenth century led to the
formulation of several plans, both by government and private companies, for the reclamation of more land from the
sea. Private companies became more interested in taking facials risks. In 1864, the Back Bay Reclamation Company
won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar Hill to the end of private companies closed
down due to the mounting cost, the city had expanded to about 22 square miles. As the population continued to
increase rapidly in the early in the early twentieth century, very bit of the available area was built over and new areas
were reclaimed form the sea.
(v) Bombay as the city of Drams: The world of Cinema and culture; Many Bombay films deals with the arrival in the
city of new migrants, and their encounters with the real pressures of daily life. Some popular songs from the Bombay
film industry speak of the contradictory aspects of the city. In the film in 1956 the heros buddy sings, Ai dil hai
muskil jeena yahan; zara hatke zara bachke ye hai Bombay meri jaan (My heart, it is difficult to live here! More over
a little, take care of yourself this is Bombay my love) A slightly ore disillusioned voice sings in Guest house (1959);
J iska juta usika sar, dil hai choota bada shahar, ye hai tumahari Bombay; (Bombay, you city what a place! Here one
gets beaten with ones own shoes! The city is big but peoples hearts are small).
Most of the people in the film industry were themselves migrant whose came from cities like? Lahore, Calcutta
Madras and contributed to the national character of the industry. Those who came from Lahore then in Punjab, were
especially important for the development of the Hindi film industry. Many famous writers, like iIsmat chughtai and
saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi cinema.
The widespread use of coal in homes and industries in nineteenth century. England raised serious problem. In
industrial cities such Leeds, Manchester, hundred of factory chimneys spend black smoke into the skies. People jokes
that most inhabitants of these cities grew up believing that the skies were grey and all vegetation was black
;shopkeepers, homeowner and other complained about the black fog that descended on their towns, causes bad
tempers, smoke related illnesses, and dirty cloths.
When people first joined complain for cleaner air, the goal was to control the nuisance thought legislation. This was
not at all easy, since factory owners and stead engine owners did not want to spend on technologies that would
improve their machines. By the 1840s, a few town such as Derby, Leeds and Manchester had laws to control smoke in
the city. But smoke was not easy to monitor or measure, and owner, go away with small adjustment to their
machinery that did nothing to stop the smoke. Moreover, the smoke Apartment Act of 1847 and 1885, as they were
called, did not always work to clear the air.
Calcutta had a long history of air population. Its inhabitants inhaled grey particular in the winter. Since the city was
built on marshy land, the resulting fog combined with smoke to generate thick black smoke. High levers of pollution
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were a consequence of the huge population that depended on dung and wood as fuel in their daily life. But the main
polluters were industries and establishment that used steam engines run on coal.
R E O U N D A T I O N B Y P - F


1. Name the novel written by Durgachand Roy about the city of Calcutta.
(a) Durges Nandini (b) Nirmala (c) Godden (d) Dogbane Martye Agaman
2. Name one factor which changed the form of urbanization in the madem world.
(a) Capitalism (b) Secularism (c) industrialization (d) unemployment.
3. Name the two industrial cities of Britain.
(a) Manchester (b) Cambridge (c) oxford (d) Leeds
4. What was the population of London in 1750?
(a) 375,000 (b) 475,000 (c) 575,000 (d) 675,000
5. Why were the migrants attracted towards London and Manchester?
(a) To get better edition facilities for their children
(b) To live a life of leisure for pleasure
(c) To enjoy the city life
6. Which two industries development in London during the First World War?
(a) textile industry (b) Iron industry (c) Motor car industry (d) Electrical goods
7. Who built tenements for the migration workers?
(a) The government (b) the factory owners (c) the industrial (d) invidual landowners
8. Who one of the following architects and the planners developed the principal of Garden City?
(a) Chariest Bonds (b) Ebenezer Howards (c) J oseph Mathews (d) Charles wood
9. What was the expected life of poor workers in London in 1877 according to char lies booths survey?
(a) 29 years (b) 39 years (c) 49 years (d) 59 years
10. Between the two World Wars (1919- 1939), who accepted the responsibility of housing of the poor class in England ?
(a) The industries (b) The British state (c) The private landowners (d) The Social Groups
11. Which one of the following factors solved the problem of housing of the poor
(a) The Paris underground railway (b) The Moscow underground railway
(b) The local buses (d) The London underground railway
12. Why were the people afraid of traveling in the Underground Railway?
(a) They felt that they would be burned alive (b) They felt they would die because if suffocation
(c) They felt that they would die accept (d) None of these
13. What was the chartist Movement?
(a) It was the movement to get equal pay for equal work
(b) It was the movement against the of prices
(c) It was the movement to fix reasonable hours for work
(d) It was the movement to get the right to vote for every adult
14. What do you mean by a chaw?
(a) It was a one room tenement for the poor laborers (b) It was a boarding house for the student
(c) It was a hospital for the poor patients (d) It was a separate colony for the poor patients
15. According to the Census of 1901, how many people of Bombay lived in one-room tenements?
(a) 20% (b) 40% (c) 60% (d) 80%
16. Name two films which deal with the problems of the migrations.
(a) C.I.D. (b) Guide (c) Meal (d) Guest house.
Que. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans. D C A,D D D C,D D B A B
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Que. 11 12 13 14 15 16
Ans. D B D A D A,D
1. Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the 18
2. What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and twentieth
century? Explain the factors which led to this change.
3. How does the existence of a large urban population affect of the following? illustrated with historical examples:
(i) A private landlord.
(ii) A police superintendent in charge of law and order.
(iii) A leader of a political party.
4. Give explanations for the following:
(i) Why well off Londoners supported the need built housing for the poor in the nineteenth century ?
(ii) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrations?
(iii) What led to the major expansion of Bombays population in the midnineteenth century .
5. What forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England to Provide leisure activities for the people
6. Explain the social changes in London which led to the new for the Underground railway. Way was the development
of the underground Criticized ?
7. Explain what is meant by the Haussmanization of Paris. To what extent Would you support or oppose this form of
development? Write letter to the Editor of a newspaper, to either support or oppose this giving reasons for Your view.
8. To what extent does government regulation and laws solve problems of Pollution, Discuss one example each of the
success and failure of Legislation to change the quality of : (i) Public life. (ii) Private life.
9. What was the result of burning rice husk by a mill in 1920 ?
10. What do you know about the long history of Air Pollution in Calcutta ? Explain.
11. How the underground railway construction was a huge success ?
12. Why large numbers of children were pushed into low paid work ?
13. How industrialization changed the form of urbanization in the modern Period ?

1. What is metropolis ? Give an examples of metropolis in India.
2. Name two industrial cities in England in 19
3. Mention two steps taken by the London authorities to discipline its population
4. Why were the slums considered to be threat to public health ?
5. Why were the slums considered to be threat to public health ?
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6. Name two Acts passed in England to keep the children out of industrial world.
7. When by whom was the first movie made in Bombay ? What did the movie depict ?
8. Name the first proper Hindi movie. By whom & when was this movies made?
9. Mention the problems raised in England in 19
10. Which two stations of London were connected by the first underground railways ?
century due to widespread use of coal in industrial cities.
11. When was the Rent Act passed in Bombay ?What was its out come ?
12. Under what circumstances were the ancient cities developed ?
13. Name four industries which employed largest member of people is London in early 20
14. What is meant by temperance movement? What was its main aim ?
century ?
15. When was the Bombay Improvement Trust established ? What was its immediate achievement ?

1. Examine the historical processes involved in the development of cities.
2. Mention the steps taken to clean up London.
3. Explain the evolution of Bombay as one of the major cities of India.
4. Describe the Bombay fort area.
5. What is referred to as Chawls in Bombay ? With which kind of London housing can these be compared ? How are
these similar ?
6. Examine the effects of air pollution on Calcutta.
7. By whom was the concept of a Garden city first developed ? What were the main features of the proposed Garden city
8. Examine the difficulties faced by people due to construction of underground railways.
9. How was the family life transformed in an industrial city of London ?
10. What were the mode of entertainment in the 18
11. Examine the new types of large entertainment for the common people introduced in 19
century England ?
12. Why was the expansion of the city of Bombay difficult ? Mention anyone way adopted to develop the city .
century .
13. How does urbanization pose a threat to environment ?
14. When did Bombay film industry make its first appearance ?
15. Why police was worried for the law and order of London ?

1. London was powerful magnet for largest population Explain .
2. How were women employed in London beyond 19
century ? How did the situation change after 20
3. What were the reasons for concern behind providing housing for poor in London ?
century .
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4. What were chartist movement and Ten Hour Movement ?
5. How do we distinguish between cities on the one hand and towns and villages on the other ?


The great European scholar Goethe died in 1832 A.D.
The community manifesto was published in 1848 A.D.
Dostoevskys novel Brothers Karamazov published in 1879 A.D.
Anand Math by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was published in 1882 A.D.
The great Soviet fiction writer and a critic of modem European culture
Dostoevsky died on 1881 A.D.
Germinal the novel of French novelist Zola published in 1885 A.D.
British novelist of realism William Morris died in 1896 A.D.
French representative poet Arthur Rimband died in 1891 A.D.
The prominent French representative poet Stephan Mallarme died in 1898A.D.
Tolstoys Fiction Resurrection was published in 1899 A.D.
J ohn Ruskin, British novelist of realism died in 1900 A.D.
French Communist novelist Zola died in 1902 A.D.
Maxim Gorkhi an inspiring Soviet writer published his famous
Novel Mother in 1907 A.D.
Italian poet Marinette published new manifesto of poetry in 1909 A.D.
The novel first took film root in England and France. Novels were written from the seventeenth century, but they
really flowed from the eighteenth century . new groups of lower-middle-class people such as shopkeeper and clerks,
along with tradition aristocrat and gentlemanly classes in England and France the new readership for novels.
(i) The Publishing Market: Technological improvement in printing brought down of books and innovates in
marketing led to expanded sales. In France, publishers found that they could that they make super profits by hiring out
novels by the hour .The novel. Was one of the first mass produced items to be sold. There were several reasons for its
popularity. The words create by novels was absorbing and absorbing and believable, they were seemingly real. While
reading novels, the reader was transported to another persons world, and began looking at life as it was experienced
by the characters of the novel. Besides, novel allowed Inviduals the pleasure of reading in private, as wall as the joy of
publicly reading or discussing stories or relatives.
(ii) Community and society: The nineteenth-century British novelist Thomas Hardy, for instant wrote about rural
farming communities at a time the English countryside was rapidly changing. Peasants who toilet with their hands
were disappearing, as large farmers enclosed lands, bought machines and employed laborers to produce for the
market. Rural communities broke up and moved to the cities where a new urban culture came into being. Many of
Harpys novels describe a way of life that was fast vanishing in the countryside. In far form the Madding Crowd for
instance, the setting is a village, a place where mechanization and industrialization have not yet taken over. The novel
opens with the appearance of Gabriel Okay, whose name suggest a link with the eternal rich soil beneath his I
R E O U N D A T I O N B Y P - F

harmony with nature and lives by its natural laws. His steadfastness is symbolize value. Hardy mourn the loss of this
world, although he recognizes the advantages of the new world that was margining at the time. His novels created a
sense understanding of the rural world and the communities who lived within it.
(iii) The New women: The eighteenth century saw the middle classes become prosperous. Neither women got nor leisure
to reds as well as write novels. And novels began exploring the world of women-their emotions and identities their
experiences and problems.
Many novels were about domestic life- a theme women were allowed to speak with authority. They drew upon their
experience, wrote about family life and earned public recognition.
But women novelist did not simply popularize the domestic role of women who broke established norms of society
before adjusting to them. Such stories allowed women readers to sympathies with rebellious actions. In Charlotte
Brontes J ane Eater, published in 1874. Young J ane is shown as independent and assertive. While girl of her time
were expected to be quite and well behaved, J ane at the age of ten protests against the hypocrisy of her elder with
starting bluntness.
(iv) Novels for the young: Novels for young boys idleness a new type of man Some one who was powerful, assertive,
independent and daring. Most of these novels were full of adventure set in places remote from Europe.
The colonizer paper heroic and honorable-comforting native peoples and strange surroundings, R.L. Stevensons
Treasure island (1883) of Rudyard Kiplings jungle book (1894) became great hits. Love stories written for adolescent
girls also first became popular in this period, especially in the USA, notably Ramona (1884) by Helen Hunt J ackson
and series entitled Katy did (1872) by Sarah Chauncey Woolsey, who wrote under the name Susan Coolidge.
(vi) Colonialism and after: The novel originated in Europe at time when was colonizing the rest of the world. The early
novel contributed to colonialism by making the readers feel they were part of a superior community of fellow
colonialist. The hero of Daniel Defoes Robinson Crusoe (1719) is an adventurer and slave trader shipwrecked on
island, Crusoe treats colored not as human beings equal to him, but as inferior creatures. He rescues a native and
makes him his slave. He does not ask for his name but arrogantly gives him the name Friday. But at the time, Cruses
behavior was not seen as primitive and barbaric, lass than human ; and colonial rule was considered necessary to
civilize them, them to them fully human. It was only later, in the twentieth century that writers like joseph Conrad
(1857-1924) wrote novels that showed the darker side of colonial occupation.

The modem novel form developed in India in the nineteenth century, as Indians become familiar with the western
novel. The development of the Vernaculars print and a reading public helped in this process. Some of the
Earliest Indian novels were written in Bengali and Marathi. The earliest novel In Marathi was babe padmajis yamuna
paryatan (1857), which used a simple style of storytelling to speak about the plight of widows. This was followed by
lakshman mores war Halbs mukymala (1861). This was not a reastic novel it presented an imaginary narrative with a
moral purpose. Leading novelists of the nineteenth century wrote for a cause. Colonial rural regard the contemporary
culture of India as interior. On the other hand, Indian novekidtists wrote to develop a modem literature of the country
that could produce a sense of national belonging and cultural and equal with their colonial masters.
(i) The novel in south India: novels began appearing in south Indian languages during the period if colonial rule, quite a
few early novels came out of attempted to translate English novels into Indian languages. For example, chandu
menon, a subjudje from Malabar, tried to translate an English novel called Henrita temple written by banjamin
Disraeli into Malayalam. But he quickly released that would find a direct translation of an English novel dreadfully
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boring. So he gave up this idea and manners of English novel books. This delightful novel called induleka, published
in 1859, was the modem novel in Malayan.
(ii) The Novel in Hindi: Bhantedu harishchandra, the pioneer of modem Hindi literature encourage many members of his
circle of poet and writes to create and translate novel other languages . many novels were actual translate and adopted
from English and Bengali under his influence, but the proper modem novel was written by shrinivas das of Delhi. In
the novel we see the characters attempted to bridge two different words thought their actions they take to new
agricultural technology, modernize trading practices, change use of Indian languages, making them capable of
transmitting both western sciences and Indian wisdom. This young are urged to cultivate the healthy habit of reading
the newspaper. But the novel emphasizes that must be achieved without sacrificing. The traditional values of the
middle class household. With all its good intentions, parish a-Guru could not win many readers, as it was perhaps too
moralizing in its style.
It was with the written of premchand that the novel matured into greatness. He began writing in Urdu and then shifted
to Hindi, remaining an immensely influential writer in both languages. He drew on traditional art of kissa0goi (story
telling). Many critics thing that his novel sewasadan (The Abode of service) published in 1916, lifted the Hindi novel
from the realm of fantasy, moralizing and simple entertainment to a serous reflected on the lived of ordinary people
and social issue. Swasadam deals mainly with the poor condition of women in society. Issue like child marriage or
dowry are woven into story of the also tells us about the ways in which the Indian upper classes used the space create
by partial self-governance allowed under colonial rule.
(III) Novels in Bengal: In the nineteenth century, the early Bengali novels lived in two world. Many of these novels were
location in the past, their characters, events and love stories based on historical events. Domestic novels frequently
deal with the social problems and romantic relationships men and women. Besiders the ingenious twists and turns of
the plot and the suspense, the novel was also relished for its language. The prose style became a new object of
enjoyment. Initially the Bengali novel used a colloquial style associated with urban life. It also used meyalii, the
language associated with womens speech. This style was quickly replaced by Bakims prose which was Sanakritised
barred. The novel rapidly acquired popularity in Bengal. By the twenteenth century, the power of telling stories in
simple languages made sarat Chandra chatopadhya (1876-1938) the most popular novelty in bangle and properly in
the rest of India.

Uses of the Novel colonial administer found vernacular novels a valuable source of information on native life and
customs. Such information was useful for them in governing Indian society, with its large variety of communities and
castes. As outsiders, the British knew little about life inside Indian household. The new novels in Indian languages
often had description of domestic life. They showed how people dressed, their forms of religious worship, their beliefs
and practiced and so on. Some of these books were translate into English, often by British administers or missionaries.
Indians used the novel as a powerful medium to cities what they consider in their society and to suggest remedies,
writers like Viresalingam used the novel to portaged their ideas about society among a wider readership.
The problems of being Modern: Although they were about imaginary stories, novels often spoke to their readers
about imaginary stories, novels often spoke to their readers about the real world. But novels did not always show
things exactly as they were in reality. Sometimes, they presented a vision of how things ought to be. Social novelists
often created heroes and heroines with ideal qualities, who their readers could admire and imitate. How were those
ideal qualities defined. In many novels written during the colonial period the ideal person successfully deals with one
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of the central dilemmas faced by colonial subjects: how to be modern without rejecting tradition, how to accept ideas
coming from the west without losing ones identify?
The heroes and heroines in most of the novels were people who lived in the modern world. Thus they were different
from the ideal or mythological characters of the earlier poetic literature of India. Under colonial rule, many of the
English-educated class found new Western way of living and thinking attractive. But they also feared that a wholesale
adoption of Western values would destroy their traditional ways of living. Characters like indulekha and Madhvan
showed readers how Indian and foreign lifestyles could be brought together in an ideal combination.
(III) Pleasure of Reading: As elsewhere the world, in India too, the novel became a popular medium of entertainment
among the middle class. The circulation of printed books allowed people to amuse themselves in new ways. Picture
books translations from other language, popular songs sometimes composed on contemporary event, stories in news
papers and magazines-all these of offered new forms of entertainment with this new culture of print, novel soon
became immensely popular.
The novel also assisted in the spread of silent reading. We are so used to reading on a silence that it is difficult of rues
to think that this practice was not very common in the past. As late as the nineteenth century and perhaps even in the
early twentieth century, written texts were often read aloud for several people o hear. Sometimes novels were also
read in this way, but in general novels encouraged reading along and in silence. Individual; sitting at home or
traveling in trains enjoyed them. Even in a crowed room, the novel offered a special world of imagination into which
the reader could slip, and be all alone. In this reading a novel was like day dreaming.
Some parents kept novel in the lofts in their houses, out of their childrens reach. Young people often read them in
secret. This passion was not limited only to the youth. Older women-some of whom could no listened in fascinated
attention to population Tamil novels read out to them by their grandchildren-a nice reversal to the familiar grandmas

It is not surprising that many men were suspicious of women writing novels or reading them. This suspicion cut
across communities. Hannah Mullens a Christian missionary and the author of Karuna pulmonary Bibaran (1852),
reputedly the first novel in Bengal, tells her readers that she wrote in secret. In the twenty century, saibala Gosh J aya,
a popular novelist, could not write cause her husband protect her. As we have seen in the case of the south, women
and girls were often discouraged form reading novels.
Novel and Caste Practices: Novels like Indirabai and Indukha were written by members of the upper castes, and
were primarily about upper-caste characters. But not all novels were of this kind.
Potheri Kunjambu, a lower caste writer from north Kerala, wrote a novel called saraswatijayam in 1892, mounting a
strong attack on caste oppression. This novel shows a young man from a untouchable caste, leaving his village to
escape the cruelty of his Brahmin Landlord. He converts to Christianity, obtains modern education, and return as the
judge in the local court. Meanwhile, the villagers, thinking that the landlords men had killed him, file a case At the
conclusion of the trial, the judge reveals his true identity, and the Nambuthiri represents and reforms his ways.
Saraswativijayam stresses the importance of education of the upliftment of the lower casters.
From the 1920s in Bengal too a new kind of novel emerged that depicted the lives of peasant and low castes. Advaita
Malla Barmans (1914-1915) Titash Ekti Nadir Naam (1956) I s an epic about the Mallas, a community of fisherfolk
who live off fishing in the river Titash.

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With the coming of novels, such variations entered the world of print for the first time. The way characters spok in a
novel began to indicate their region, class or caste. Thus novels made their readers familiar with the ways in which
people in other pars of their land spoke their langue.
Over time, the medium of the novel made room for the experiences of communities that had not received much space
in the literary scene earlier. Vaikkiom Mohammad Basheer (1908-96), for example, was one of the early Muslim
writers to gain wide renown as a novelist in Malayalam.
Basheers short novels and stories were written in the ordinary language of conversation. With wonderful humour,
Basheers novel spoke about ordinary details from the everyday life of Muslim house hold. He also brought into
Malayalam writing, themes which were considered very unusual at that time-poverty, insanity and life in prisons.
i. Imaging History and the Nation: The history written by colonial historian tended to depict Indian as weak, divided
and depended on the British. These histories could not satisfy and tastes of new indium administrators and
intellectuals. The imagined nation of the nods was so powerful that it could inspire actual political movement.
Bakims Anadamath (1882) is a novel about a secret Hindu militia that fights Muslims to establish a Hindu kingdom.
It was novel that inspired many kinds of freedom fighters.
Many of these novels also reveal the problems of thinking about that nation. Was India to be a nation of only one
single religious community ? Who had natural claims to belong to the nation ?
ii. The Autobiography of the Nation: In the north, Premchand actually transformed the novel in Hindi-Urdu into an
autobiography of the nation. His novels are filled with all kinds of powerful characters drawn from all levels of
society. In his novels you meet aristocrats and landlords, middle-level peasants and landless laborers, middle-calls
professionals and people from the margins of society. The women characters are strong individuals, especially those
who come from the lower classes and are not modemised.

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1. Which invention made the novel popular ?
(A) The invention of ink (B) Increase in the number of readers
(C) Invention of the print (D) The discovery of metals.
2. Give the name of the novel written by Henry Fielding
(A) Return of the Native (B) Mayor of Caster bridge
(C) Tom J ones (D) Oliver Twist
3. Who was the author of the noval named pamela ?
(A) Henry Fielding (B) Samuel Richardson
(C) Charles Dickens (D) Thomas Hardy
4. Name two important novels of Charies Dickens.
(A) Pamela (B) Far from the Madding Crowd
(C) Hard Times (D) Oliver Twist
5. Name two important novels of Thomas Hardy.
(A) The Return of the Native (B) Pamela
(C) Pride of Prejudice (D) The Mayor of Caster bridge
6. What is the theme of J ane Austens novel Pride and Prejudice ?
(A) It gives us a glimpse of life of rural women in England in the early 19
(B) It gives us a glimpse of life of urban women is England in the early 19
7. Name the two novels which were written for the younger generation
(C) It gives us a glimpse of French women living in Paris
(D) None of these
(A) Treasure islands (B) Pariksha Gurus
(C) Yamuna (D) The J ungle Book
8. Who is the author of the novel Robinson Crusoe ?
(A) Charles Dickens (B) Thomas Hardy
(C) J oseph Conrad (D) Daniel Defoe
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9. Name the author who in his novels shows the darker side of colonial occupation.
(A) J oseph Conrad (B) Daniel Defoe
(C) Helen Hunt J ackson (D) Sarah Chauncay Woolsey
10. The earliest Indian novels were in which two languages ?
(A) Punjabi (B) Telugu (C) Bengali (D) Marathi
11. Which was the first earliest novel in Marathi ?
(A) Kadambari (B) Panchatantra
(C) Yamuna (D) Ganga
12. Which was the first modern novel in Malyalam ?
(A) Rajasekhara (B) Indulekha
(C) Pariksha Gurus (D) Sevasadan
13. Who was the author to Telugu novel Rajasekhara Caritamu Written in 1878 ?
(A) Srinivas Das (B) Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
(C) Viresalingam (D) O. Chandu Menon
14. Who is regarded as the best novelist in the Hindi literature?
(A) Advaita Malla Barman (B) Poltheri Kunjambu
(C) Srinivas Das (C) Munshi Prem Chand
15. Which two of the following are the novels written by Munshi Prem Chand ?
(A) Godan (B) Saraswativijayam
(C) Pariksha Gurus (D) Shatranj ke Khiladi
16. Who is the author of Anandmath ?
(A) Bankim Chandra
(B) Munshi Prem Chand
(C) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(D) Sarathchandra Chattopadhyay

Que. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans. C C B C,D A,D A A, D D A B,C
Que. 11 12 13 14 15 16
Ans. C B C D A,D A

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1. What is a novel ? In which two countries of Europe were the novels first published ?
2. Why did novels become popular ?
3. In 17
4. Why did Samuel Richardsons Pamela thrill the villagers ? What did they do ?
Century which sections of the society were generally attracted to novels ?
5. Examine the theme of Charles Dickens novel Hard Times.
6. Mention the significance of using vernacular in novels.
7. In what way was women depicted in Charlotte Brontes novel J ane Eyre.
8. Who is referred to as the pioneer of Hindi literature ? What did he encourage ?
9. What is meant by Kabirlarai in Bengal ? Why were these organized ?
10. Who was Munshi Premchand ? Mention two of his great works.
11. Name any two 19
12. When was the modern form of novels written in India ? In which two langue were earliest Indian novels written ?
century English novels which focus on the terrible condition of the Urban life under industrial
13. Name the first Bengali Historical novel. By whom was it written ?
14. By whom was Priksha Guru written ? What message did he convey in his novel ?
15. What is the emergence of the novel ?

1. How did industrialism affect the writings of novels? Explain with examples.
2. What is meant by Epistolary novel ? Give the example of Epistolary novel.
3. By whom was pride and Prejudice written ? How does this novel depict the accepted ideas of 19
4. Examine the contributions of Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in the field of literature.
century Britain ?
5. Examine the role and involvement of women in the readership and authorship of novels in India.
6. Why is Tilash Ekti Nadir considered a special novel ?
7. Who was Vaikkom Muhammad Basheer ? Explain his achievements.
8. By whom was Godan written. What does the novel narrate ?
9. What were the reasons for popularity of novels?
10. What were the advantages of serialized novel ?
11. Examine those factors that enabled the people to have easier and greater access to book in the 18
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12. Mention the names of out standing Russian writers of the 20

1. Examine the contributions of Munshi Premchand in achieving excellence in Hindi Literature.
2. What role did modern Indian novels play in day to day life?
3. How did the trauma of the first world war affect the literature in Europe ? Illustrate your answer with example.
4. Describe the ways in which the novel in India attempted to crate a sense of pan Indian belonging.
5. Discuss some of the social changes in the 19

century Britain which Thomas hardy and Charles Dickens wrote about.
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