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CHEMISTRY
Radioactivity
Spontaneous disintegration of nuclei due to emission of radiations like o, |, is called radioactivity.
Radioactivity is a nuclei phenomenon.
Radioactivity is not depend on external conditions like temperature, pressure etc.
Radioactivity of a substance is independent to its physical state.
x(s), x(l), x(g), (x)
+
(g), (x)

(g) in all form, x is radioactive.


14
CO
2
,
14
6
C(s),
14
6
C(g) is radioactive.
* All radioactive disintegration followI
st
order kinetics.
A B + C
Int. nuclie N
0
At time t. N
Activity : Rate of decay or disintegration of radioactive element.
Specific activity : Activity of unit mass (or 1 g) of radioactive element / sample.
N . A =
Unit of activity :
* curie (C
i
) = 3.7 10
10
dps
millicurie (mC
i
) = 3.7 10
7
dps
microcurie (C
i
) = 3.7 10
4
dps
* Rutherford (1 Rd) = 1 10
6
dps
S.I. unit of activity = Becquerel (Bq)
* 1 Bq = 1 disintegration per second (dps)
N =
M
W
N
A
W = weight of substance
M = Molar mass
N
A
= 6.022 10
23
A
N
M
w
. A =
* = Not dependent on temperature.
dt
dN
= N
}
N
dN
=
}
dt
t
0
e N N

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
N
ln
t
1
0
w
w
n
n
N
N
A
A
0 0 0 0
= = =
n
0
= initial moles
w
0
= initial weight
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CHEMISTRY
=
t
1
ln
|
.
|

\
|
w
w
0
(w = weight of Aremaining after time t)
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
x w
w
ln
t
1
0
0
Half life :
t = t
1/2
; N =
2
N
0
=
2 / 1
t
1
ln
|
|
.
|

\
|
2 / N
N
0
0
=
2 / 1
t
2 ln

=
693 . 0 2 ln
t
2 / 1
Average life :
2 / 1 . avg
t 44 . 1
1
T =

=
T
avg.
=
0
0
N
t . dN
}

=

1
(
dt
dN
= N and N = N
0
e
t
, dN = N
0
e
t
dt)
Application of radioactivity :
1. Carbon dating : (used for wooden object)
In living matter existing in nature :
6
C
14
:
6
C
12
= 1 : 10
12
(radio active) (stable)
In upper atmosphere :
7
N
14
+
0
n
1

6
C
14
+
1
p
1
Ratio of radioactive carbon in dead animals / trees decreases with respect to time.
t =

1
ln
|
.
|

\
|
A
A
0
Half life of
6
C
14
= 5770 yrs.
A = activity of old wood piece.
A
0
= activity of fresh wood piece.
Age of wooden piece should be nearly t
1/2
or (2 to 3 times of t
1/2
).
2. Age of rocks or minerals
92
U
238
x
82
Pb
206
(radioactive) (stable)
Assumption:
Rock did not contain any lead or all lead is formed due to disintegration of uranium.
92
U
238

82
Pb
206
+ x
2
He
4
+ y
1
e
0
z
X
A

z 2
X
A 4
+
2
He
4
z
Y
A

z + 1
Y
A
+
1
e
0
Number of o-particles =
4
. no mass of difference
=
4
206 238
= 8
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CHEMISTRY
238 = 206 + 4x + 0 .....(1)
92 = 82 + 2x y .....(2)
On solving (1) and (2),
x = 8
y = 6
92
U
238

82
Pb
206
+ 8(
2
He
4
) + 6(
1
e
0
)
At time t w g y g
t =

1
ln
|
.
|

\
|
w
w
0
t =

1
ln
|
|
.
|

\
|
x w
w
0
0
w = w
0
x
w
0
= w + x
1 mole or 238 g U provide 206 g of Pb

206
238
g U provide 1 g Pb

206
238
y g U provide y g Pb
x =
206
238
y
w
0
= w +
206
238
y
92
U
238

82
Pb
206
+ 8
2
He
4
+ 6
1
e

V(in mL) collected


n
He
=
RT
PV
........ (1)
t =

1
ln
|
.
|

\
|
n
n
0
n =
238
w
........ (2)
n
0
= n +
8
n
He
Radiations :
o :
2
He
4
(
2
4
He
2+
) (nucleus of He-atom)
| or |

:
1
e
0
(fast moving electron emitted fromnucleus)
:
0

0
(electromagnetic radiation (waves) of high frequency)
speed : > | > o
penetrating power : > | > o
ionisation power : o > | >
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CHEMISTRY
Emission of rays Usual condition Effect Process representation / example
1. o Z > 83
p
n
ratio increases
Z
X
A

Z 2
X
A 4
+
2
He
4
92
U
238

90
Th
234
+
2
He
4
2. | If
p
n
ratio is high.
p
n
ratio decreases
Z
Y
A

Z+ 1
Y
A 4
+
1
e
0
eg.
6
C
12
(stable)
p
n
=
6
6
6
C
14

7
N
14
+
1
e
0
6
C
14
(radioactive)
p
n
=
6
8
(high)
p
n
=
6
8
p
n
=
7
7
eg.
11
Na
24
(radioactive)
p
n
=
11
13
(high)
0
n
1

1
p
1
+
1
e
0
(from nucleus)
11
Na
23
(stable)
p
n
=
11
12
11
Na
22
p
n
=
11
11
(
p
n
ratio low)
3. If nucleus energy nucleus energy
43
Tc
99

43
Tc
99
+
level is high level decreases high low
nucleus nucleus
energy energy
(metastable)
4. (a) Positron emission If
p
n
ratio is low
p
n
ratio increases
Z
Y
A

Z 1
Y
A
+
+1
e
0
(
+1
e
0
)
11
Na
22

10
Ne
22
+
+1
e
0
1
p
1

0
n
1
+
+1
e
0
(from nucleus)
(b) Electron capture If
p
n
ratio is low
p
n
ratio increases
Z
X
A
+
shell K
0
1
e


Z 1
X
A
(EC) or K-shell
80
Hg
197
+
1
e
0

79
Au
197
electron capture
) shell K (
1
0
0
1
1
1
x e p

+

Nuclear stability belt :
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CHEMISTRY
-emission
0
n
1

1
p
1
+
1
e
0
* Z upto 20 : nuclei stable with n/p ratio nearly 1 : 1
* Z > 20 : n/p ratio increases will Z in stable nuclie region.
* More number of neutrons are required to reduce repulsion between protons.
*
83
Bi
209
: Stable with largest n/p ratio
p
n
=
1
52 . 1
Even - odd rule : (Out of syllabus)
no. of n no. of p no. of stablenuclic
even even 155 (max)
even odd 55
odd even 50
odd odd 5 (min)
* Expected pairing of nucleus
Magic Numbers :
Nuclei in which nucleons have magic no. (2, 8, 20, 28, 50 ....) are more stable.
e.g.
2
He
4
,
8
O
16
* Expected closing of nucleus energy shell.
Group displacement law : (Given by Soddy and Fajan)
* When 1o emission takes place from a nuclie, new formed nuclie occupy two position left in periodic table.
* When 1| emission takes place from a nuclie, newformed nuclie occupy one position right in periodic table.
Due to emission of 1| particle; isobars are formed.
Due to emission of 1oparticle; isodiaphers are formed.
Due to emission of 1o and 2| ; isotopes are formed.
Isotopes: same number of proton eg.
6
C
14
and
6
C
12
Isobars : same mass number eg.
6
C
14
and
7
N
14
Isotones: same number of neutron eg.
2
He
4
and
1
H
3
Isodiaphers : Same (n p) difference
e.g.
9
F
19
and
19
K
39
; (n p) = 10
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CHEMISTRY
Isosters : Same number of atoms and electrons
e.g. N
2
and CO
N
2
O and CO
2
Artifical nuclear reaction :
* specific nuclei + stricking particle New nuclei + emitted particle
eg. 1. (o, p type)
7
N
14
+
2
He
4

8
O
17
+
1
p
1
(or
1
H
1
)
(s.p.) (e.p.)
2. (n, type)
11
N
23
+
1
n
0

11
Na
24
+
3. (D, p type)
13
Al
27
+
1
H
2

13
Al
28
+
1
H
1
4. (p, o type)
3
Li
7
+
1
H
1

2
He
4
+
2
He
4
Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion :
In both processes, large amount of heat evolved due to conversion of some mass into energy.
Nuclear fission : Is a process where heavy nuclei splits into large nuclei.
92
U
235
+
0
n
1

92
U*
236
eg. atom bomb is based on fission.
Nuclear fusion :
Is a process where light nuclei fused together to form heavy nuclei.
1
H
2
+
1
H
3

2
He
4
+
0
n
1
1
H
2
+
1
H
2

2
He
4
Hydrogen bomb is based on fusion. Very high temperature is required in this process.
For objective questions :
Total time (T) = no. of halves (n) Half life (t
1/2
)
2 / 1
t n T =
No. of half life Int. wt. Final weight
1 w w/2
2 w/2 w/4 = w/2
2
3 w/4 w/8 = w/2
3
Amount of substance left in n halves (wt / mole) =
n
2
) mole / wt ( amount Initial
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CHEMISTRY
Radioactive Disintegration Series :
Aseries of continued disintegrations starting from an unstable nucleus (radioactive elements) and ending at
a stable nucleus, is known as radioactive disintegration series.
Mainly radioactive disintegration series are four type -
(1) Thoriumseries (4n series) :
Th
2 23
90
(Starting element)

| o 4 , 6
Pb
8 20
82
(last element)
(2) Neptunium series (4n + 1 series):
Np
237
93
(Starting element)

| o 4 , 7
Bi
209
3 8
(last element)
(3) Uranium Series (4n + 2 series) :
U
8 23
92
(Starting element)

| o 6 , 8
Pb
206
82
(last element)
(4) Actinium Series (4n + 3 series) :
U
5 23
2 9
(Starting element)

| o 4 , 7
Pb
7 20
82
(last element)
* Thorium series (4n series), Uranium Series (4n + 2 series), Actinium Series (4n + 3 series) are naturally
series. But Neptunium series (4n + 1 series) is artificial series because Neptunium237 is perpared artificial
and the only member of this series found in nature is the stable end product Bi209.