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# MATHS

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1
First pri ncipl e of differentiation
1. The derivative of a given function f at a point x = a in its domain represent the slope of the tangent at
that point, and it is defined as:
0 h
Limit

h
) a ( f ) h a ( f +
, provided the limit exists & is denoted by f '(a).
i.e. f '(a) =
a x
Limit

a x
) a ( f ) x ( f

## , provided the limit exists.

2. If x and x + h belong to the domain of a function f defined by y = f(x), then
0 h
Limit

h
) x ( f ) h x ( f +
if it exists, is called the Derivative of f at x & is denoted by f '(x) or
dx
dy
.
i.e., f '(x) =
0 h
Limit

h
) x ( f ) h x ( f +
This method of differentiation is also called ab-initio method or first principle method.
Example # 1 : Find derivative of following functions by first principle with respect to x.
(i) f(x) = x
2
(ii) f(x) = tan x (iii) f(x) = e
sinx
Solution : (i) f'(x) =
0 h
lim

h
x ) h x (
2 2
+
=
0 h
lim

h
h xh 2
2
+
= 2x.
(ii) f'(x) =
0 h
lim

h
x tan ) h x tan( +
=
0 h
lim

h
x cos
x sin
) h x cos(
) h x sin(

+
+
=
0 h
lim

) h x cos( . x cos h
) x h x sin(
+
+
= sec
2
x.
(iii) f'(x) =
0 h
lim

h
e e
x sin ) h x ( sin

+
=
0 h
lim

e
sin x
| |
x sin ) h x sin(
1 e
x sin ) h x ( sin
+

+
|
.
|

\
| +
h
x sin ) h x sin(
= e
sin x
0 h
lim

h
x sin ) h x sin( +
= e
sin x
0 h
lim

h
2
x h x
sin
2
x h x
cos 2 |
.
|

\
| +
|
.
|

\
| + +
= e
sin x
0 h
lim

)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+
2 / h
) 2 / h sin(
2
h
x cos
= e
sin x
cos x
Method of differentiation
MATHS
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2
Derivative of some elementary functions :
f(x) f'(x)
1. x
n
nx
n 1
, (x e R, n e R)
2. a
x
a
x
n a , a > 0
3. n |x|
x
1
4. log
a
x
a n x
1

5. sin x cos x
6. cos x sin x
7. sec x sec x tan x
8. cosec x cosec x cot x
9. tan x sec
2
x
10. cot x cosec
2
x
Basic theorems :
Sum of two differentiable functions is always differentiable.
Sum of two non-differentiable functions may be differentiable.
There are certain basic theorems in differentiation:
1.
dx
d
(f g) = f'(x) g'(x)
2.
dx
d
(k f(x)) = k
dx
d
f(x)
3.
dx
d
(f(x) . g(x)) = f(x) g'(x) + g(x) f'(x)
4.
dx
d
|
|
.
|

\
|
) x ( g
) x ( f
=
) x ( g
) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( f ) x ( g
2
' '
5.
dx
d
(f(g(x))) = f'(g(x)) g'(x)
This rule is also called the chain rule of differentiation and can be written as
dx
dy
=
dz
dy
.
dx
dz
Note that an important inference obtained from the chain rule is that
dy
dy
= 1 =
dx
dy
.
dy
dx

dx
dy
=
dy / dx
1
another way of expressing the same concept is by considering y = f(x) and x = g(y) as inverse functions
of each other.
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
3
dx
dy
= f'(x) and
dy
dx
= g'(y)
g'(y) =
) x ( f
1
'
Example # 2 : Find the derivative of the following functions with respect to x.
(i) f(x) = ) 3 x 2 sin( +
(ii) f(x) =
2
x 1
x
+
(iii) f(x) = x . sin x
Solution : (i) f(x) = ) 3 x 2 ( sin +
f'(x) =
dx
d
( ) 3 x 2 ( sin + ) =
) 3 x 2 ( sin 2
1
+
.
dx
d
(sin (2x + 3)) (chain rule)
=
) 3 x 2 ( sin
) 3 x 2 cos(
+
+
(ii) f(x) =
2
x 1
x
+
f'(x) =
2 2
2
) x 1 (
) x 2 ( x ) x 1 (
+
+
(Quotiant rule)
=
2 2
2
) x 1 (
x 1
+

## (iii) f(x) = x sin x

f'(x) = x. cos x + sin x (Product rule)
Example # 3 : If f(x) = sin (x + tanx), then find value of f'(0).
Solution : f(x) = sin (x + tanx)
f'(x) = cos (x + tanx) (1 + sec
2
x) (chain rule)
Hence, f'(0) = 2
Self Practice Problems :
(1) Find the derivative of following functions using first principle with respect to x.
(i) f(x) = x sin x (ii) f(x) = sin
2
x
(2) If f'(5) = 7, then find the value of
0 t
lim

t 2
) t 5 ( f ) t 5 ( f +
(3) Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.
(i) (1 + 3x
2
) (2x
3
1) (ii)
) 3 x )( 2 x (
) 1 x (

(iii)
2
x 1+
(iv)
x 1
x 1

+
(v) cos
3
x sin x (vi) x e
x
sin x
(vii)
x cos 1
x sin
+
(viii) n (sin x cos x)
MATHS
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4
Answers : (1) (i) x cosx + sinx (ii) 2sin x cos x
(2) 7
(3) (i) 6x (5x
3
+ x 1) (ii)
2 2
2
) 3 x ( ) 2 x (
1 x 2 x

+ +
(iii)
2
x 1
x
+
(iv) 2 / 3 2 / 1
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
1
+
(v) cos
4
x 3 cos
2
x sin
2
x (vi) e
x
((sin x + cos x) x + sin x)
(vii)
2
1
sec
2
2
x
(viii)
x cos x sin
x sin x cos

+
Derivative of inverse trigonometric functions :
1. y = sin
1
x
2
t
s y s
2
t
and x = sin y
dy
dx
= cos y
dx
dy
=
y cos
1
=
y sin 1
1
2

, siny = 1
dx
dy
=
2
x 1
1

, 1 < x < 1.
In general |cos y| = y sin 1
2
. But here since
2
t
s y s
2
t
|cos y| = cosy
2. y = tan
1
x x = tan y and
2
t
< y <
2
t
dy
dx
= sec
2
y = 1 + tan
2
y

dy
dx
= 1 + x
2

dx
dy
=
2
x 1
1
+
(x e R)
3. y = sec
1
x y e [0, t]
)
`

t
2
and x = secy
dy
dx
= sec y tan y
dx
dy
=
y tan . y sec
1
, tan y = 0
=
| y tan . y sec |
1
, y e
|
.
|

\
| t
2
, 0

|
.
|

\
|
t
t
,
2
=
| y tan || y sec |
1
=
1 x | x |
1
2

dx
dy
=
1 x | x |
1
2

x e ( , 1) (1, )
MATHS
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5
Results for the derivative of inverse trigonometric functions can be summarized as :
f(x) f'(x)
sin
1
x
2
x 1
1

; |x| < 1
cos
1
x
2
x 1
1

; |x| < 1
tan
1
x
2
x 1
1
+
; x e R
cot
1
x
2
x 1
1
+

; x e R
sec
1
x
1 x | x |
1
2

; |x| > 1
cosec
-1
x
1 x | x |
1
2

; |x| > 1
Example # 4 : If f(x) = n (sin
1
x
2
), then find f'(x).
Solution : f'(x) =
) x (sin
1
2 1
.
2 2
) x ( 1
1

. 2x =
4 2 1
x 1 ) x (sin
x 2

## Example # 5 : If f(x) = 2x sec

1
x cosec
1
(x) , then find f'(2).
Solution : f'(x) = 2 sec
1
(x) +
1 x | x |
x 2
2

+
1 x | x |
1
2

## Hence, f'(2) = 2.sec

1
( 2)
3
2
+
3 2
1
f'(2) =
3
4t

2
3
Logari thmic differentiati on :
The process of taking logarithm of the function first and then differentiate is called Logarithmic
differentiation. It is often useful in situations when
(i) a function is the product or quotient of a number of functions OR
(ii) a function is of the form [f(x)]
g(x)
where f & g are both derivable,
Example # 6 : If y = (sin x)
n x
, find
dx
dy
Solution : n y = n x . n (sin x)
y
1
dx
dy
=
x
1
n (sin x) + n x.
x sin
x cos

dx
dy
= (sin x)
n x
( )
(

+ x n x cot
x
x sin n

MATHS
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Example # 7 : If y =
5 / 4 4 / 3
3 / 2 2 / 1
) x 4 3 ( ) x 3 2 (
) x 2 1 ( x

, then find
dx
dy
.
Solution : y =
5 / 4 4 / 3
3 / 2 2 / 1
) x 4 3 ( ) x 3 2 (
) x 2 1 ( x

taking log
e
on both side
n y =
2
1
n x +
3
2
n (1 2x)
4
3
n (2 3x)
5
4
n (3 4x)

y
1
dx
dy
=
x 2
1

) x 2 1 ( 3
4

+
) x 3 2 ( 4
9

+
) x 4 3 ( 5
16

dx
dy
= y |
|
.
|

\
|

) x 4 3 ( 5
16
) x 3 2 ( 4
9
) x 2 1 ( 3
4
x 2
1
Impl icit differentiati on :
If f(x, y) = 0, is an implicit function i.e. y can't be expressed explicitly as a function of x then in order to
find dy/dx, we differentiate each term w.r.t. x regarding y as a function of x and then collect terms in
dy/dx.
Example # 8 : If x
3
+ y
3
= 3xy, then find
dx
dy
.
Solution : Differentiating both sides w.r.t.x, we get
3x
2
+ 3y
2
dx
dy
= 3x
dx
dy
+ 3y
dx
dy
=
x y
x y
2
2

## Note that above result holds only for points where y

2
x = 0
Example # 9 : If x
y
+ y
x
= 2 then find
dx
dy
Solution : u + v = 2

dx
du
+
dx
dv
= 0 ........(i)
where u = x
y
& v = y
x
n u = y n x & n v = x n y

u
1
dx
du
=
x
y
+ n x
dx
dy
&
v
1
dx
dv
= n y +
y
x
dx
dy

dx
du
= x
y |
.
|

\
|
+
dx
dy
x n
x
y

&
dx
dv
= y
x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
dx
dy
y
x
y n
Now, equation (i) becomes
x
y |
.
|

\
|
+
dx
dy
x n
x
y

+ y
x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
dx
dy
y
x
y n
= 0.

dx
dy
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
y
x
. y x n x
x
y
. x y n y
x y
y x

MATHS
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7
Self Practice Problems
(4) Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.
(i) y = sec
1
(x
2
) (ii) y = tan
1 |
.
|

\
|

+
x 1
x 1
(iii) y =
x
x
1
1 |
.
|

\
|
+
(iv) y =
x
x
e
(v) y = (ln x)
x
+ (x)
sin x
(5) Find
dx
dy
if
(i) y = cos (x + y) (ii) x
2/3
+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
(iii) x = y n (x y)
(6) If x
y
= e
x y
, then prove that
dx
dy
=
2
) x n 1 (
x n

+
.
(7) If
y x
x

= log
y x
a

## , then prove that

dx
dy
= 2
y
x
.
Answers : (4) (i)
1 x x
2
4

(ii)
2
x 1
1
+
(iii)
x
x
1
1 |
.
|

\
|
+
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
+
x 1
1
x
1
1 n (iv) x
x
.
x
x
e
(nx + 1)
(v)
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
nx
1
) nx ( n

(n x)
x
+ x
sinx |
.
|

\
|
+ nx x cos
x
x sin

(5) (i)
) y x sin( 1
) y x sin(
+ +
+
(ii)
3 / 1
x
y
|
.
|

\
|
(iii)
2
y ) y x ( x
) y 2 x ( y

Di fferentiation using substi tution :
In certain situations as mentioned below, substitution simplifies differentiation. For each of the following
expression, appropriate substitution is as follows
(i)
2 2
a x +
: x = a tan u , where
2
t
< u <
2
t
or x = a cot u , where 0 < u < t
(ii)
2 2
x a
: x = a sin u , where
2
t
s u s
2
t
or x = a cos u , where 0 s u s t
(iii)
2 2
a x
: x = a sec u , where u e [0, t|
)
`

t
2
or x = a cosec u , where u e (

t t

2
,
2
{0}
(iv)
x a
a x

+
: x = a cos u , where 0 < u s t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
8
Example # 10 : Differentiate y = tan
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
x
1 x 1
2
with respect to x.
Solution : Let x = tan u , where u e
|
.
|

\
| t t

2
,
2
{0}
y = tan
1 |
.
|

\
|
u
u
tan
1 | sec |
)
`

|
.
|

\
| t t
e u u = u
2
,
2
sec | sec |
y = tan
1 |
.
|

\
|
u
u
sin
cos 1
y = tan
1 |
.
|

\
| u
2
tan
y =
2
u
)
`

|
.
|

\
| t t
e =

2
,
2
x for x ) x (tan tan
1
y =
2
1
tan
1
x
dx
dy
=
) x 1 ( 2
1
2
+
Example # 11 : Find
dx
dy
, where y = tan
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
x 1 x 1
x 1 x 1
.
Solution : Let x = cos u , where u e [0, t]
y = tan
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
u + u +
u u +
cos 1 cos 1
cos 1 cos 1
y = tan
1
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
u
+
u
u

u
2
sin 2
2
cos 2
2
sin 2
2
cos 2
(

u
=
u
|
.
|

\
| t
e
u u
= u +
2
cos 2
2
cos 2 ,
2
, 0
2
for but
2
cos 2 cos 1
y = tan
1
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
u
+
u

2
tan 1
2
tan 1
y =
4
t

2
u
as
4
t
s
4
t

2
u
s
4
t
y =
4
t

2
1
cos
1
x
dx
dy
=
2
x 1 2
1

## Example # 12 : If f(x) = sin

1
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
x 1
x 2
, then find
(i) f' (2) (ii) f' |
.
|

\
|
2
1
(iii) f' (1)
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
9
Solution : x = tan u , where
2
t
< u <
2
t
y = sin
1
(sin 2u)
y =

t
< u < t u + t
t
s u s
t
u
t < u <
t
u t
2
2 , ) 2 (
2
2
2
, 2
2
2
, 2
f(x) =

< + t
s s
> t

1 x ) x tan 2 (
1 x 1 x tan 2
1 x x tan 2
1
1
1
f' (x) =

<
+

< <
+
>
+

1 x
x 1
2
1 x 1
x 1
2
1 x
x 1
2
2
2
2
(i) f'(2) =
5
2
(ii) f'
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
=
5
8
(iii) f'(1
+
) = 1 and f'(1

) = + 1
f'(1) does not exist.
Aliter
Above problem can also be solved without any substution also, but in a little tedious way.
f(x) = sin
1 |
.
|

\
|
+
2
x 1
x 2
f'(x) =
2 2
2
) x 1 (
x 4
1
1
+

.
2 2
2 2
) x 1 (
} x 2 ) x 1 {( 2
+
+
=
2 2
2
) x 1 (
) x 1 (

+
.
2 2
2
) x 1 (
) x 1 ( 2
+

f'(x) =
) x 1 (
2
2
+
.
| x 1 |
) x 1 (
2
2

thus f'(x) =

>
+

<
+
1 | x | ,
x 1
2
1 | x | ,
x 1
2
2
2
Example # 13 : If
2
x 1 +
2
y 1
= a(x y), then prove that
dx
dy
=
2
2
x 1
y 1

.
Solution : Put x = sin o, where
2
t
s o s
2
t
and
y = sin |, where
2
t
s | s
2
t
.
coso + cos | = a (sino sin|)
2cos
|
.
|

\
| | + o
2
cos
|
.
|

\
| | o
2
= 2a cos
|
.
|

\
| | + o
2
sin
|
.
|

\
| | o
2
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
10
cot
|
.
|

\
| | o
2
= a
o | = 2 cot
1
(a) or t + 2 cot
1
a
sin
1
x sin
1
y = 2 cot
1
a or t + 2 cot
1
a
differentiating w.r.t to x.
2
x 1
1

2
y 1
1

dx
dy
= 0

dx
dy
=
2
2
x 1
y 1

Aliter
Using implicit differentiation
2
x 1
x

2
y 1
y
dx
dy
= a
|
.
|

\
|

dx
dy
1

|
|
|
.
|

\
|

2
y 1
y
a
dx
dy
= a +
2
x 1
x

dx
dy
=
2
2
y 1
y
a
x 1
x
a

dx
dy
=
2
2 2
2
2 2
y 1
y
y x
y 1 x 1
x 1
x
y x
y 1 x 1

+

+

+
dx
dy
=
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
y xy ) y 1 ( ) y 1 )( x 1 (
xy x ) y 1 )( x 1 ( ) x 1 (
+ +
+ +
.
2
2
x 1
y 1

=
xy ) y 1 )( x 1 ( 1
xy ) y 1 )( x 1 ( 1
2 2
2 2
+
+
.
2
2
x 1
y 1

dx
dy
=
2
2
x 1
y 1

Hence proved
Parametric di fferentiation :
If y = f(u) & x = g(u) where u is a parameter, then
u
u
=
d / x d
d / y d
dx
dy
.
Example # 14 : If x= a cos
3
t and y = a sin
3
t, then find the value of
dx
dy
.
Solution :
dx
dy
=
dt / dx
dt / dy
=
t sin t cos a 3
t cos t sin a 3
2
2

= tan t
Example # 15 : If y = a cos t and x = a (t sint), then find the value of
dx
dy
at t =
2
t
.
Solution :
dx
dy
=
) t cos 1 ( a
t sin a

2
t
dx
dy
t
=
= 1.
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
11
Derivative of one function with respect to another function :
Let y = f(x); z = g(x) then
dy
d z
dy dx
d z dx
f x
g x
= =
/
/
' ( )
' ( )
.
Example # 16 : Find derivative of y = n x with respect to z = e
x
.
Solution :
dz
dy
=
dx / dz
dx / dy
=
x
xe
1
Self Practice Problems :
(8) Find
dx
dy
when
(i) x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t t cos t)
(ii) x = a
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

2
2
t 1
t 1
and y = b
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
t 1
t 2
(9) If y = sin
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
4 4
2
a x
x
, then prove that
dx
dy
=
4 4
2
a x
xa 2
+
.
(10) If y = tan
1 |
.
|

\
|

2
x 1
x 2
, then prove that
dx
dy
=
2
x 1
2
+
(| x | = 1)
(11) If u = sin (m cos
1
x) and v = cos (m sin
1
x), then prove that
dv
du
=
2
2
v 1
u 1

.
Answer : (8) (i) tan t (ii)
at 2
b ) 1 t (
2

## Higher order derivatives :

Let a function y = f(x) be defined on an open interval (a, b). Its derivative, if it exists in (a, b) is a certain
function f '(x) [or (dy/dx) or y' ] & is called the first derivative of y w. r. t. x.
If it happens that the first derivative has a derivative in (a, b) then this derivative is called the second
derivative of y w. r. t. x & is denoted by f ''(x) or (d
2
y/dx
2
) or y ''. While the first derivative denotes slope
of the graph, the second derivative denotes it's concavity.
Similarly, the 3
rd
order derivative of y w. r. t. x, if it exists, is defined by
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
3
3
x d
y d
dx
d
x d
y d
, it is also
denoted by f '''(x) or y '''.
It must be carefully noted that in case of parametric functions
although
dx
dy
=
dt / dx
dt / dy
but
2
2
dx
y d
=
2 2
2 2
dt / dx
dt / y d
rather
2
2
dx
y d
=
dx
d
|
.
|

\
|
dt / dx
dt / dy
which on applying chain rule can be resolved as
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
12
2
2
dx
y d
=
dt
d
)
`

dt / dx
dt / dy
.
dx
dt

2
2
dx
y d
=
2
2
2
2
2
dt
dx
dt
x d
.
dt
dy
dt
y d
.
dt
dx
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

.
dx
dt
2
2
dx
y d
=
3
2
2
2
2
dt
dx
dt
x d
.
dt
dy
dt
y d
.
dt
dx
|
.
|

\
|
(
(

Example # 17 : If y = x
3
n x, then find y''and y'''
Solution : y' = 3x
2
n x + x
3
x
1
= 3x
2
n x + x
2
y'' = 6x n x + 3x
2
.
x
1
+ 2x = 6x n x + 5x
y''' = 6 n x + 11
Example # 18 : If y =
x
x
1
|
.
|

\
|
, then find y''(1)
Solution : Now taking log
e
both sides, we get
n y = x n x when x = 1, then y = 1
n y = x n x

y
y'
= (1 + n x) y' = y (1 + n x) ......(i)
again diff. w.r.t. to x,
y'' = y'(1 + n x) y .
x
1
y'' = y (1 + n x)
2

x
y
(using (i))
y''(1) = 0
Example # 19 : If x = t + 1 and y = t
2
+ t
3
, then find
2
2
dx
y d
.
Solution :
dt
dy
= 2t + 3t
2
;
dt
dx
= 1

dx
dy
= 2t + 3t
2

2
2
dx
y d
=
dt
d
(2t + 3t
2
) .
dx
dt
2
2
dx
y d
= 2 + 6t.
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
13
Example # 20 : Find second order derivative of y= sin x with respect to z = e
x
.
Solution :
dz
dy
=
dx / dz
dx / dy
=
x
e
x cos

2
2
dz
y d
=
dz
d
|
.
|

\
|
x
e
x cos

2
2
dx
y d
=
dx
d
|
.
|

\
|
x
e
x cos
.
dz
dx
=
2 x
x x
) e (
e x cos x sin e
.
x
e
1
2
2
dz
y d
=
x 2
e
) x cos x (sin +
Example # 21 : y = f(x) and x =g(y) are inverse functions of each other, then express g'(y) and g''(y) in terms
of derivative of f(x).
Solution :
dx
dy
= f'(x) and
dy
dx
= g'(y)
g'(y) =
) x ( f
1
'
...........(i)
again differentiating w.r.t. to y
g''(y) =
dy
d
|
|
.
|

\
|
' ) x ( f
1
=
dx
d
|
|
.
|

\
|
' ) x ( f
1
.
dy
dx
=
2
) x ( f
) x ( f
'
''
. g'(y)
g''(y) =
3
) x ( f
) x ( f
'
''
.........(ii)
which can also be remembered as
2
2
dy
x d
=
3
2
2
dx
dy
dx
y d
|
.
|

\
|
.
Example # 22 : y = sin (sinx) then prove that y'' + (tanx) y' + y cos
2
x = 0
Solution : Such expression can be easily proved using implicit differentiation
y' = cos (sin x) cos x
sec x.y' = cos (sin x)
again differentiating w.r.t x, we get
secx y'' + y' sec x tan x = sin (sin x) cos x
y'' + y' tan x = y cos
2
x
y'' +(tanx) y' + y cos
2
x = 0
Self Practice Problems :
(12) If y =
x
x n
, then find the value of
2
2
dx
y d
.
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
14
(13) Prove that y = x + tan x satisfies the differential equation cos
2
x
2
2
dx
y d
2y + 2x = 0.
(14) If x = a (cosu + u sin u) and y = a(sin u u cosu), then find the value of
2
2
dx
y d
.
(15) Find the second order derivative of nx with respect to sin x.
(16) If y = e
x
(A cos x + B sin x), then prove that
2
2
dx
y d
+ 2 .
dx
dy
+ 2y = 0.
3
x
3 x n 2
(14)
u
u
a
sec
3
(15)
x cos x
x cos x sin x
3 2

Derivative of a determinant :
If F(x) =
) x ( w ) x ( v ) x ( u
) x ( n ) x ( m ) x ( l
) x ( h ) x ( g ) x ( f
, where f, g, h, l, m, n, u, v, w are differentiable functions of x, then
F '(x) =
) x ( w ) x ( v ) x ( u
) x ( n ) x ( m ) x ( l
) x ( ' h ) x ( ' g ) x ( ' f
+
) x ( w ) x ( v ) x ( u
) x ( ' n ) x ( ' m ) x ( ' l
) x ( h ) x ( g ) x ( f
+
) x ( ' w ) x ( ' v ) x ( ' u
) x ( n ) x ( m ) x ( l
) x ( h ) x ( g ) x ( f
L hospitals rule :
If f(x) & g(x) are functions of x such that:
(i)
a x
Limit

f(x) = =
a x
Limit

g(x)
OR
(ii)
a x
Limit

f(x) = 0 =
a x
Limit

g(x), both f(x) and g(x) are continuous at x = a, both f(x) and
g(x) are differentiable at x = a and both f '(x) and g '(x) are continuous at x = a,
then
a x
Limit
) x ( g
) x ( f
=
a x
Limit
) x ( ' g
) x ( ' f