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MATHS

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Vector
Vectors and their representation :
Vector quantities are specified by definite magnitude and definite direction. A vector is generally
represented by a directed line segment, say AB . A is called the initial point and B is called the
terminal point. The magnitude of vector AB is expressed by | AB |.
Zero vector:
A vector of zero magnitude i.e. which has the same initial and terminal point, is called a zero vector.
It is denoted by O. The direction of zero vector is indeterminate.
Unit vector:
A vector of unit magnitude in the direction of a vector a

is called unit vector along


a

and is denoted by
a
, symbolically
| a |
a
a

= .
Example # 1 : Find unit vector of k

3 j

2 i

+
Solution :
a

= k

3 j

2 i

+
if
a

= i

a
x
+ j

a
y
+ k

a
z
then | a |

=
2
z
2
y
2
x
a a a + +
| a |

=
14
a
=
| a |
a

=
14
1
i

14
2
j

+
14
3
k

Equal vectors:
Two vectors are said to be equal if they have the same magnitude, direction and represent the same
physical quantity.
Coll i near vectors:
Two vectors are said to be collinear if their directed line segments are parallel irrespective of their
directions. Collinear vectors are also called parallel vectors. If they have the same direction they are
named as like vectors otherwise unlike vectors.
Symbolically, two non-zero vectors

a and

b are collinear if and only if, b a

= , where e R
b a

= ( ) k

a j

a i

a
3 2 1
+ + = ( ) k

b j

b i

b
3 2 1
+ + a
1
= b
1
, a
2
= b
2
, a
3
= b
3
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1
1
b
a
=
2
2
b
a
=
3
3
b
a
( = )
Vectors a

= a
1
i

+ j

a
2
+ k

a
3
and b

= b
1
i

+ j

b
2
+ k

b
3
are collinear if
1
1
b
a
=
2
2
b
a
=
3
3
b
a
Example # 2 : Find values of x & y for which the vectors
a

= (x + 2) i

(x y) j

+ k

= (x 1) i

+ (2x + y) j

+ 2k

are parallel.
Solution : a

and b

are parallel if
1 x
2 x

+
=
y x 2
x y
+

=
2
1
x = 5, y = 20
Coplanar vectors:
A given number of vectors are called coplanar if their line segments are all parallel to the same plane.
Note that two vectors are always coplanar.
Multiplication of a vector by a scalar :
If a

is a vector and m is a scalar, then ma

is a vector parallel to a

whose magnitude is |m| times that


of a

. This multiplication is called scalar multiplication. If a

and b

are vectors and m, n are scalars,


then :
a m m ) a ( ) a ( m

= = , a ) mn ( ) a m ( n ) a n ( m

= =
a n a m a ) n m (

+ = + , b m a m ) b a ( m

+ = +
Self Practice Problems :
(1) Given a regular hexagon ABCDEF with centre O, show that
(i)
OB

OA
=
OC

OD
(ii) OD + OA = 2 OB + OF
(iii) AD + EB + PC = 4 AB
(2) The vector k

+ bisects the angle between the vectors c

and j

4 i

3 + . Determine the unit


vector along c

.
(3) The sum of the two unit vectors is a unit vector. Show that the magnitude of the their difference
is 3 .
Answers : (2)
k

15
14
j

15
2
i

3
1
+
Addition of vectors :
(i) If two vectors a

and b

are represented by OA and OB, then their sum b a


+ is a vector
represented by OC, where OC is the diagonal of the parallelogram OACB.
MATHS
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(ii)



a b b a + = +
(commutative) (iii)
( ) ( )





a b c a b c + + = + +
(associative)
(iv)





a a a + = = + 0 0 (v)



a a a a + = = + ( ) ( ) 0
(vi) | b | | a | | b a |

+ s + (vii) | | b | | a | | | b a |

>
Example # 3 : If k

3 j

2 i

a + + =

and k

5 j

4 i

2 b + =

represent two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, find unit


vectors parallel to the diagonals of the parallelogram.
Solution : Let ABCD be a parallelogram such that AB = a

and BC =
b

.
Then,
AB
+
BC
=
AC

AC
= b a

+ = k

2 j

6 i

3 +
| AC |
=
4 36 9 + +
= 7
AB + BD = AD
BD = AB AD = a b

= k

8 j

2 i

+
| BD | =
64 4 1 + +
=
69
Unit vector along
AC
=
| AC |
AC
=
7
1
( ) k

2 j

6 i

3 +
and Unit vector along
BD
=
| BD |
BD
=
69
1
( ) k

8 j

2 i

+
Example # 4 : ABCDE is a pentagon. Prove that the resultant of the forces
AB
,
AE
, BC, DC , ED and AC
is 3 AC.
Solution : Let R

be the resultant force


R

= AB + AE + BC + DC + ED + AC
R

= ( AB + BC) + ( AE + ED + DC ) + AC
R

= AC + AC + AC
R

= 3 AC. Hence proved.


Position vector of a point:
Let O be a fixed origin, then the position vector of a point P is the vector OP. If a

and b

are position
vectors of two points A and B, then
AB = a b

= position vector (p.v.) of B position vector (p.v.) .) of A.


DI STANCE FORMULA
Distance between the two points A ) a (

and B ) b (

is AB = b a

SECTION FORMULA
If a

and b

are the position vectors of two points A and B, then the p.v. of
MATHS
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a point which divides AB in the ratio m: n is given by
n m
b m a n
r
+
+
=

.
Note : Position vector of mid point of AB =
2
b a

+
.
Example # 5 : ABCD is a parallelogram. If L, M be the middle point of BC and CD, express AL and
AM
in
terms of AB and
AD
. Also show that AL + AM =
2
3
AC.
Solution : Let the position vectors of points B and D be respectively b

and d

referred to A as origin of
reference.
Then AC =
AD
+ DC =
AD
+
AB
[ DC = AB ]
AC = d

+ b

AB = b

, AD = d

i.e. position vector of C referred to A is d

+ b

AL = p.v. of L, the mid point of BC.


=
2
1
[p.v. of B + p.v. of C] =
2
1
( ) b d b

+ + =
AB
+
2
1
AD
Similarly
AM
=
2
1
( ) b d d

+ + = AD +
2
1
AB
AL +
AM
= b

+
2
1
d

+ d

+
2
1
b

=
2
3
b

+
2
3
d

=
2
3
( b

+ d

) =
2
3
AC
.
Example # 6 : If ABCD is a parallelogram and E is the mid point of AB. Show by vector method that DE
trisect AC and is trisected by AC.
Solution : Let AB = a

and AD = b

Then BC =
AD
= b

and AC = AB + AD =
a

+ b

Also let K be a point on AC, such that AK : AC = 1 : 3


AK =
3
1
AC
AK =
3
1
(
a

+ b

) .........(i)
Again E being the mid point of AB, we have AE =
2
1
a

Let M be the point on DE such that DM : ME = 2 : 1


AM =
2 1
AE 2 AD
+
+
=
3
a b

+
..........(ii)
From (i) and (ii) we find that
AK
=
3
1
( a

+ b

) = AM , and so we conclude that K and M coincide. i.e. DE trisect AC and is


trisected by AC. Hence proved.
MATHS
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Self Practice Problems
(4) Express vectors BC, CA and AB in terms of the vectors OA , OB and OC
(5) If b , a

are position vectors of the points (1, 1), (2, m), find the value of m for which
a

and
b

are collinear.
(6) The position vectors of the points A, B, C, D are k

+ + , j

5 i

2 + , k

3 j

2 i

3 + , k

6 i


respectively. Show that the lines AB and CD are parallel and find the ratio of their lengths.
(7) The vertices P, Q and S of a APQS have position vectors q , p

and
s

respectively..
(i) If M is the mid point of PQ, then find position vector of M in terms of q and p

(ii) Find t

, the position vector of T on SM such that ST : TM = 2 : 1, in terms of q , p



and s

.
(iii) If the parallelogram PQRS is now completed. Express
r

, the position vector of the


point R in terms of q , p

and
s

(8) D, E, F are the mid-points of the sides BC, CA, AB respectively of a triangle.
Show FE =
2
1
BC and that the sum of the vectors AD , BE , CF is zero.
(9) The median AD of a AABC is bisected at E and BE is produced to meet the side AC
in F. Show that AF =
3
1
AC and EF =
4
1
BF..
(10) Point L, M, N divide the sides BC, CA, AB of AABC in the ratios 1 : 4, 3 : 2, 3 : 7 respectively.
Prove that AL + BM + CN is a vector parallel to CK , when K divides AB in the ratio 1 : 3.
Answers : (4)
OB OC BC =
,
OC OA CA =
,
OA OB AB =
(5) m = 2
(6) 1 : 2 (7) m

=
2
1
) q p (

+
, t

=
2
1
) s q p (

+ +
, r

=
2
1
) s p q (

+
Angle between two vectors :
It is the smaller angle formed when the initial points or the terminal points of the two vectors are
brought together. Note that 0 s u s 180 .
Vector equation of a line :
Parametric vector equation of a line passing through two point ) a ( A

and ) b ( B

is given by r

= ) a b ( t a

+ ,
where 't' is a parameter. If the line passes through the point A a ( )

and is parallel to the vector b

, then
its equation is b t a r


+ = . Note : r

is the p.v. of the point on the line.


MATHS
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A vector in the direction of the bisector of the angle between the two vectors b and a

is
b
b
a
a

+ .
Hence bisector of the angle between the two vectors a

and b

is
( )



a b + , where

e R
+
. Bisector
of the exterior angle between a

and b

is
( )



a b ,

e R
+
.
Note that the equations of the bisectors of the angles between the lines

r =

a +

b and

r =

a +

c
are :

r =

a + t
( )


b c + and

r =

a + p
( )


c b .
Scalar product (Dot Product) of two vectors :
Geometrical interpretation of scalar product :
Let a

and b

be vectors represented by
OA
and
OB
respectively. Let u be the angle between
OA
and
OB
. Draw BL OA and AM OB.
From AOBL and AOAM, we have OL = OB cos u and OM = OA cos u.
u
(b)
(a)
Here OL and OM are known as projections of b

on a

and a

on b

respectively..
Now, b . a

= |
a

| |
b

| cos u = |
a

|(|
b

| cos u )
= |
a

| (OB cos u ) = |
a

| (OL)
= (Magnitude of a

) (Projection of b

on a

) ........(i)
Again b . a

= |
a

| |
b

| cos u = |
b

| (|
a

| cos u )
= |
b

| (OA cos u) = | b

| (OM)
= (magnitude of b

) (Projection of a

on b

) ........(ii)
Thus geometrically interpreted, the scalar product of two vectors is the product of modulus of either
vector and the projection of the other in its direction.
(i) i

. i

= j

. j

= k

. k

= 1; i

. j

= j

. k

= k

. i

= 0
(ii) Projection of
| b |
b . a
b on a

=
(iii) If a

= a
1
i

+ a
2
j

+ a
3
k

and b

= b
1
i

+ b
2
j

+ b
3
k

, then b . a

= a
1
b
1
+ a
2
b
2
+ a
3
b
3
2
3
2
2
2
1
a a a a + + =

,
2
3
2
2
2
1
b b b b + + =

(iv) The angle | between a

and b

is given by
| b | | a |
b . a
cos

= | , 0 s | s t
(v)
) 0 ( , cos b a b . a t s u s u =

note that if u is acute, then b . a


> 0 and if u is obtuse, then b . a


< 0
(vi) b a

= u + cos | b || a | 2 | b | | a |
2 2

, where u is the angle between the vectors


(vii)
2
2
a a a . a

= =
(viii) a . b b . a

= (commutative)
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(ix) c . a b . a ) c b ( . a

+ = + (distributive)
(x) b a 0 b . a

= ) 0 b , 0 a ( = =

(xi) ) a m (

. b

= a

. ) b m (

= m ) b . a (

(associative), where m is a scalar..


Note:
(a) Maximum value of

a .

b is |

a | |

b |
(b) Minimum value of

a .

b is |

a | |

b |
(c) Any vector

a can be written as

a =
( ) ( ) ( )

a i i a j j a k k .

.

.

+ +
.
Example # 7 : Find the value of p for which the vectors k

9 j

2 i

3 a + + =

and k

3 j

p i

b + + =

are
(i) perpendicular (ii) parallel
Solution : (i)
b a

b . a

= 0 ( ) k

9 j

2 i

3 + + . ( ) k

3 j

p i

+ + = 0
3 + 2p + 27 = 0 p = 15
(ii) vectors a

= k

9 j

2 i

3 + + and b

= k

3 j

p i

+ + are parallel iff


1
3
=
p
2
=
3
9
3 =
p
2
p =
3
2
Example # 8 : If a

+ b

+ c

= 0

, | a |

= 3, | b |

= 5 and
| c |

= 7, find the angle between
a

and
b

.
Solution : We have,
0 c b a

= + +

b a

+
=
c

( ) b a

+ . ( ) b a

+ = ( ) c

. ( ) c

2
b a

+ =
2
| c |

2
a

+
2
b

+ b . a 2

=
2
c

2
a

+
2
b

+ 2 a

cos u =
2
c

9 + 25 + 2 (3) (5) cos u = 49 cos u =


2
1
u =
3
t
.
Example # 9 : Find the values of x for which the angle between the vectors
a

= 2x
2
i

+ 4x
j

+ k

and
b

= 7 i

2 j

+ x k

is obtuse.
Solution : The angle u between vectors
a

and
b

is given by cos u =
| b | | a |
b . a

Now, u is obtuse cos u < 0


| b | | a |
b . a

< 0
b . a

< 0 [ 0 | b | |, a | >

]
14x
2
8x + x < 0 7x (2x 1) < 0
x(2x 1) < 0 0 < x <
2
1
Hence, the angle between the given vectors is obtuse if x e (0, 1/2)
MATHS
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Example #10 : D is the mid point of the side BC of a AABC, show that AB
2
+ AC
2
= 2 (AD
2
+ BD
2
)
Solution : We have AB = AD + DB
AB
2
=
2
) DB AD ( +
AB
2
= AD
2
+ DB
2
+ AD 2 . DB .........(i)
Also we have AC = AD + DC
AC
2
=
2
) DC AD ( +
AC
2
= AD
2
+ DC
2
+
AD 2
.
DC
........(ii)
Adding (i) and (ii), we get AB
2
+ AC
2
= 2AD
2
+ 2BD
2
+ 2 AD . ) DC DB ( +
AB
2
+ AC
2
= 2(AD
2
+ BD
2
)
DB
+
DC
= 0

Example#11: If a

= i

+ j

+ k

and b

= 2 i

+ 3k

, then find
(i) Component of b

along a

. (ii) Component of b

in plane of b & a

but to a

.
Solution : (i) Component of b

along a

is
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
| a |
b . a

Here a

. b

= 2 1 + 3 = 4
2
| a |

= 3
Hence
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
| a |
b . a

=
3
4
a

=
3
4
( i

+ j

+ k

)
(ii) Component of b

in plane of b & a

but to a

is b

|
|
.
|

\
|
2
| a |
b . a

. =
3
1
( ) k

5 j

7 i

2 +
Self Practice Problems :
(11) If a

and b

are unit vectors and u is angle between them, prove that tan
2
u
=
| b a |
| b a |

.
(12) Find the values of x and y if the vectors
a

= k

x i

3 + and
b

= k

y j

2 + + are mutually
perpendicular vectors of equal magnitude.
(13) Let
a

= k

2 j

2 i

x
2
+ , b

= k

+ and c

= k

4 j

5 i

x
2
+ be three vectors. Find the values of x
for which the angle between
a

and
b

is acute and the angle between


b

and
c

is obtuse.
(14) The points O, A, B, C, D are such that a OA

= , b OB

= , b 3 a 2 OC

+ = , b 2 a OD

+ = .
Given that the length of
OA
is three times the length of
OB
. Show that
BD
and
AC
are
perpendicular.
(15) ABCD is a tetrahedron and G is the centroid of the base BCD. Prove that
AB
2
+ AC
2
+ AD
2
= GB
2
+ GC
2
+ GD
2
+ 3GA
2
MATHS
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Answers : (12) x =
12
31
, y =
12
41
(13) ( 3, 2) (2, 3)
Vector product (Cross Product) of two vectors:
(i) If b , a

are two vectors and u is the angle between them, then n

sin b a b x a u =

, where n

is the
unit vector perpendicular to both b and a

such that n

and b , a

forms a right handed screw system.


(ii) Geometrically b x a

= area of the parallelogram whose two adjacent sides are represented by


b and a

.
(iii) 0 k


= = = ; j

, i

, k

= = =
(iv) If a

= a
1
i

+a
2
j

+ a
3
k

and
b

= b
1
i

+ b
2
j

+ b
3
k

, then
3 2 1
3 2 1
b b b
a a a
k

b a =

(v)



a x b b x a =
(not commutative)
(vi) ( ) m a


b =

a ( ) m b

= m( )


a b (associative), where m is a scalar..
(vii)





a x b c a x b a x c ( ) ( ) ( ) + = + (distributive)
(viii) b and a 0 b a

= are parallel (collinear) ( , )


a b = = 0 0 i.e.


a Kb = , where K is a scalar..
(ix) Unit vector perpendicular to the plane of a

and b

is n

=
| b a |
b a

(x) A vector of magnitude r and perpendicular to the plane of a

and b

is
| b a |
) b a ( r

(xi) If u is the angle between


b a
b x a
sin then , b and a

= u
(xii) If c and b , a

are the position vectors of 3 points A, B and C respectively, then the vector area of
AABC =
| |
1
2



a xb bxc cxa + +
. The points A, B and C are collinear if 0 a x c c x b b x a


= + +
(xiii) Area of any quadrilateral whose diagonal vectors are
2 1
d and d

is given by
2 1
d x d
2
1

(xiv) Lagrange's Identity : For any two vectors
b . b b . a
b . a a . a
) b . a ( b a ) b x a ( ; b and a
2
2
2
2

= =
Example #12 : Find a vector of magnitude 9, which is perpendicular to both the vectors k

3 j

4 +
and k

2 j

2 + .
MATHS
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Solution : Let a

= k

3 j

4 + and b

= k

2 j

2 + . Then
b a

=
2 1 2
3 1 4
k



= (2 3) i

(8 + 6) j

+ (4 2)
k
= k

2 j

2 i

+ +
| b a |

=
2 2 2
2 2 ) 1 ( + + = 3
Required vector = 9
|
|
.
|

\
|

| b a |
b a

=
3
9
) k

2 j

2 i

( + + = ( k

6 j

6 i

3 + + )
Example #13 : For any three vectors c , b , a

, show that 0 ) b a ( c ) a c ( b ) c b ( a

= + + + + + .
Solution : We have, a

) c b (

+ + b

) a c (

+ + c

) b a (

+
= b c a c a b c b c a b a

+ + + + + [Using distributive law]


= c b c a b a c b c a b a

+ + = 0

[ b a a b

= etc]
Example #14 : For any vector
a

, prove that
2
| i

a |

+
2
| j

a |

+
2
| k

a |

= 2
2
| a |

Solution : Let
a

= k

a j

a i

a
3 2 1
+ + . Then
i

= ) k

a j

a i

a (
3 2 1
+ +
i

= a
1
) i

( + a
2
) i

( + a
3
) i

( = a
2
j

a k

3
+

2
| i

a |

= a
2
2
+ a
3
2
j

= ) k

a j

a i

a (
3 2 1
+ + j

= i

a k

a
3 1

2
| j

a |

= a
2
1
+ a
3
2
k

= ) k

a j

a i

a (
3 2 i
+ + k

= i

a j

a
2 i
+

2
| k

a |

= a
1
2
+ a
2
2

2
| i

a |

+
2
| j

a |

+
2
| k

a |

= a
2
2
+ a
3
3
+ a
1
2
+ a
3
2
+ a
1
2
+ a
2
2
= 2 (a
1
2
+ a
2
2
+ a
3
2
) = 2
2
| a |

Example #15 : Let OA = a

, OB = 10 a

+ b 2

and
OC
= b

where O is origin. Let p denote the area of the


quadrilateral OABC and q denote the area of the parallelogram with OA and OC as adjacent
sides. Prove that p = 6q.
Solution : We have,
p = Area of the quadrilateral OABC
p =
2
1
| AC OB |
=
2
1
| ) OA OC ( OB |
p =
2
1
| ) a b ( ) b 2 a 10 ( |

+ =
2
1
| ) a b ( 2 ) b b ( 2 ) a a ( 10 ) b a ( 10 |


+
p =
2
1
| ) b a ( 2 0 0 ) b a ( 10 |

+ + = 6 | b a |

.....(i)
and q = Area of the parallelogram with OA and OC as adjacent sides
q =
| OC OA |
= | b a |

........(ii)
From (i) and (ii), we get p = 6q
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
11
Self Practice Problems :
(16) If p

and q

are unit vectors forming an angle of 30. Find the area of the parallelogram having
q 2 p a

+ = and q p 2 b

+ = as its diagonals.
(17) Prove that the normal to the plane containing the three points whose position vectors are
c , b , a

lies in the direction b a a c c b



+ +
(18) ABC is a triangle and EF is any straight line parallel to BC meeting AC, AB in E, F respectively.
If BR and CQ be drawn parallel to AC, AB respectively to meet EF in R and Q respectively,
prove that A ARB = AACQ.
Answers : (16) 3/4 sq. units
Shortest distance between two lines :
If two lines in space intersect at a point, then obviously the shortest
distance between them is zero. Lines which do not intersect and are
also not parallel are called skew line. For Skew lines the direction of
the shortest distance would be perpendicular to both the lines.
Let
LM
be the shortest distance vector between the lines L
1
and L
2
. Then
LM
is perpendicular to both
p

and q

i.e.
LM
is parallel to p

. Therefore the magnitude of the shortest distance vector (i.e.


|
LM
|) would be equal to that of the projection of
AB
along the direction of the line of shortest distance.

LM on AB of ojection Pr | LM | =
= q x p on AB of ojection Pr

=
q x p
) q x p ( . ) a b (
q x p
) q x p ( . AB

=
(i) The two lines directed along q and p

will intersect only if shortest distance = 0
i.e. 0 ) q x p ( . ) a b ( =

i.e. ( ) a b

lies in the plane containing q and p



. ( ) 0 q p a b =

.
(ii) If two parallel lines are given by b K a r and b K a r
2 2 1 1


+ = + = , then distance (d) between them is
given by
b
) a a ( x b
d
1 2

=
Scalar triple product (Box Product) (S.T.P.) :
(i) The scalar triple product of three vectors c and b , a

is defined as: c b a c . b x a

= | u cos . sin ,
where u is the angle between b , a

(i.e. b a =
.

) and | is the angle between c and b x a


(i.e. c ) b a (

.
= |) . It is (i.e. c . b a

) also written as | | c b a

and spelled as box product.


(ii) Scalar triple product geometrically represents the volume
of the parallelopiped whose three coterminous edges are
represented by . e . i c and b , a

V = ] c b a [

MATHS
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12
(iii) In a scalar triple product the position of dot and cross can be interchanged i.e.
] b a c [ ] a c b [ ] c b a [ c . ) b x a ( ) c x b ( . a

= = =
(iv) ] b c a [ ] c b a [ . e . i ) b x c ( . a ) c x b ( . a

= =
(v) If a

= a
1
i

+ a
2
j

+ a
3
k

; b

= b
1
i

+b
2
j

+b
3
k

and c

= c
1
i

+ c
2
j

+ c
3
k

, then
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
c c c
b b b
a a a
] c b a [ =

.
In general, if n a m a a a
3 2 1

+ + = ; n b m b b b
3 2 1


+ + = and n c m c c c
3 2 1

+ + =
then
| | | | n m
c c c
b b b
a a a
c b a
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1

=
, where n and m ,

are non-coplanar vectors.


(vi) If c and b , a

are coplanar 0 ] c b a [ =

.
(vii) Scalar product of three vectors, two of which are equal or parallel is 0 0 ] c b a [ =

,
(viii) If



a b c , , are non-coplanar, then 0 ] c b a [ >

for right handed system and 0 ] c b a [ <

for left handed


system.
(ix) ] k

[ = 1 (x) ] c b a [ K ] c b a K [

= (xi) ] d c b [ ] d c a [ ] d c ) b a ( [

+ = +
(xii)
| |



a b b c c a = 0 and
| |



a b b c c a + + + = 2 | | c b a

.
(xiii)
| |
2
c b a

=
c . c b . c a . c
c . b b . b a . b
c . a b . a a . a


Tetrahedron and its properties :
(a) The volume of the tetrahedron OABC with O as origin and the position vectors of A, B and C being
c and b , a

respectively is given by
6
1
V =
| | c b a

(b) If the position vectors of the vertices of tetrahedron are d and c , b , a


, then the position vector of its


centroid is given by ) d c b a (
4
1

+ + + .
note that this is also the point of concurrency of the lines joining the vertices to the centroids of the
opposite faces and is also called the centre of the tetrahedron. In case the tetrahedron is regular it is
equidistant from the vertices and the four faces of the tetrahedron.
Example #16 : Find the volume of a parallelopiped whose sides are given by k

5 j

7 i

3 + + , k

3 j

7 i

5 +
and k

3 j

5 i

7
Solution : Let k

5 j

7 i

3 a + + =

, k

3 j

7 i

5 b + =

and k

3 j

5 i

7 c =

.
We know that the volume of a parallelopiped whose three adjacent edges are c , b , a

is
] c b a [

.
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
13
Now ] c b a [

=
3 5 7
3 7 5
5 7 3

= 3 (21 15) 7 (15 + 21) + 5 (25 49)


= 108 252 120 = 264
So required volume of the parallelopiped =
] c b a [

= | 264 | = 264 cubic units


Example #17 : Simplify ] a c c b b a [


Solution : We have :
] a c c b b a [

= )} c b ( ) b a {(

. ) a c (

[By definition]
= ) c b b b c a b a (


+ . ) a c (

[By distribution law]
= ) c b a c b a (

+ + . ) a c (

[ 0 b b

= ]
= ) b a (

.
c

) b a (

.
a

+ ) a c (

.
c

) a c (

.
a

+ ) c b (

.
c

) c b (

.
a

[By distribution law]


= ] c b a [

] a b a [

+ ] c a c [

] a a c [

+ ] c c b [

] a c b [

= ] c b a [

] a c b [

[ When any two vectors are equal, scalar triple product is zero ]
= ] c b a [

] c b a [

= 0 [ ] a c b [

= ] c b a [

]
Example #18 : Find the volume of the tetrahedron whose four vertices have position vectors a

, b

, c

and d

.
Solution : Let four vertices be A, B, C, D with position vectors a

, b

, c

and d

respectively..

DA
= ( a

)
DB
= ( b

)
DC
= ( c

)
Hence volume V =
6
1
[ a

]
=
6
1
( a

) . [( b

) ( c

)]
=
6
1
( a

) . [ b

+ c

]
=
6
1
{[ a

] [ a

] + [ a

] [ d

]}
=
6
1
{[ a

] [ a

] + [ a

] [ b

]}
Example #19 : Show that the vectors k

2 j

2 i

4 b , k

2 j

4 i

2 a = + =

and k

4 j

2 i

2 c + =

are coplanar..
Solution : ] c b a [

=
4 2 2
2 2 4
2 4 2



= 2(8 4) 4(16 4) 2(8 4)
= 24 48 + 24 = 0
So vectors a

, b

, c

are coplanar
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
14
Self Practice Problems :
(19) Show that {( a

+ b

+ c

) ( c

)} . a

= 2 | | c b a

.
(20) Show that 0 ) c b a ( ) c b ( . a = + + +

(21) One vertex of a parallelopiped is at the point A(1, 1, 2) in the rectangular cartesian co-ordinate. If
three adjacent vertices are at B(1, 0, 2), C(2, 2, 3) and D(4, 2, 1), then find the volume of the
parallelopiped.
(22) Find the value of m such that the vectors k

2 + , k

3 j

2 i

+ and k

5 j

m i

3 + + are coplanar..
(23) Show that the vector c , b , a

are coplanar if and only if c b


+ , a c

+ , b a

+ are coplanar. .
Answers : (21) 72 (22) 4
Vector triple product :
Let c and b , a

be any three vectors, then the expression ) c x b ( x a


is a vector & is called a vector


triple product.
Geometrical interpretation of ) c x b ( x a

Consider the expression





a x b x c ( ) which itself is a vector, since it is a cross product of two vectors
) c x b ( and a

. Now



a x b x c ( ) is a vector perpendicular to the plane containing ) c x b ( and a

but


b x c
is a vector perpendicular to the plane containing c and b

, therefore



a x b x c ( ) is a vector which lies
in the plane of c and b

and perpendicular to

a . Hence we can express ) c x b ( x a

in terms of c and b

i.e. ) c x b ( x a

= c y b x

+ , where x , y are scalars.




a x b x c ( ) = ( . ) ( . )





a c b a b c
( )



a x b x c =
( . ) ( . )



a c b b c a
In general
( ) ( )





a x b x c a x b x c =
Example #20 : For any vector
a

, prove that ) k a ( k

) j

a ( j

) i

a ( i



+ + =
a 2

Solution : Let k

a j

a i

a a
3 2 1
+ + =

.
Then ) k

a ( k

) j

( j

) i

a ( i

+ +

= } i

) a . i

( a ) i

. i

( {

+ } j

) a . j

( a ) j

. j

{(

+ } k

) a . k

( a ) k

. k

{(

= } j

) a . j

( a { } i

) a . i

( a {(

+ + } k

) a . k

( a {

= k

) a . k

( j

) a . j

( i

) a . i

{( a 3

+ + = ) k

a j

a i

a ( a 3
3 2 1
+ +

= a 2 a a 3

=
Example #21 :
Prove that )} d c ( b { a

= ) c a )( d . b (


) c . b (

) d a (

Solution : We have, )} d c ( b { a

= } d ) c . b ( c ) d . b {( a


= } d ) c . b {( a } c ) d . b {( a

[by dist. law]


= ) d a ( ) c . b ( ) c a ( ) d . b (




MATHS
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15
Example #22 : Let
a

= i

o + j

2 k

3 , b

= i

+ j

2o
k

2
and c

= i

2 j

o + k

. Find the value(s) of o, if any,,


such that ( ) ( ) { } c b b a

( ) a c

= 0

.
Solution : ( ) ( ) { } c b b a

( ) a c

= | | c b a

( ) a c

= | | c b a

( ) ( ) { } a c . b c b . a

which vanishes if (i) ( ) b . a


= ( ) c . b

(ii) | | c b a

= 0
(i) ( ) b . a

= ( ) c . b

leads to the equation 2 o


3
+ 10 o + 12 = 0, o
2
+ 6o = 0 and 6o 6 = 0,
which do not have a common solution.
(ii) | | c b a

= 0

1 2
2 2 1
3 2
o
o
o
= 0 3o = 2 o =
3
2
Example #23 : If B A

+ = a

, A

. a

= 1 and B A

= b

, then prove that A

=
2
| a |
a b a

+
and
B

=
( )
2
2
| a |
1 | a | a a b

+
.
Solution : Given a B A


= + .....(i)
( ) B A . a

+ = a . a

a A . a

+ . B

= a . a

1 + B . a

=
2
| a |

B . a

=
2
| a |

1 ...........(ii)
Given b B A

=
( ) B A a

= a

( ) B . a

( ) A . a

b a B

=
( ) 1 | a |
2

B A

= b a

...........(iii) [Using equation (ii)]


solving equation (i) and (iii) simultaneously, we get
A

=
2
| a |
a b a

+
and B

=
( )
2
2
| a |
1 | a | a a b

+
Example #24 : Solve for r

satisfying the simultaneous equations b c b r


= , 0 a . r =

provided a

is not
perpendicular to b

.
Solution :
) c r (

= 0

c r

and b

are collinear

b k c r


=
r

= b k c

+ ........(i)
a . r

= 0
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
16
) b k c (

+ . a

= 0
k =
b . a
c . a


putting in (i) we get
b . a
c . a
c r



= b

Example #25 : If b x k a x


= + , where k is a scalar and b , a

are any two vectors, then determine x

in terms
of b , a

and k.
Solution :
b x k a x


= +
..........(i)
Premultiply the given equation vectorially by
a

) a x ( a

+ k ) x a (

=
b a

b a ) x a ( k a ) x . a ( x ) a . a (


= + ..........(ii)
Premultiply (i) scalarly by
a

] a x a [

+ ) x . a ( k

= b . a

b . a ) x . a ( k


= .......(iii)
Substituting a x

from (i) and x . a

from (iii) in (ii) we get
x

=
2 2
k a
1
+
(
(

+ + a
k
) b . a (
) b a ( b k

Self Practice Problems :


(24) Prove that 0 ) b a ( c ) a c ( b ) c b ( a = + +

.
(25) Find the unit vector coplanar with i

+ j

+ 2k

and i

+ 2 j

+ k

and perpendicular to i

+ j

+ k

.
(26) Prove that ) a b ( ) a . a ( )} b a ( a { a


= .
(27) Given that
2
p
1
x

+ ) x . p (

q p

= , show that q . p
2
1
x . p

= and find
x

in terms of p

and q

.
(28) If a . x

= 0, b . x

= 0 and c . x

= 0 for some non-zero vector
x

, then show that ] c b a [


= 0
(29) Prove that
r

=
] c b a [
) c b ( ) a . r (

+
] c b a [
) a c ( ) b . r (

+
] c b a [
) b a ( ) c . r (

where c , b , a

are three non-coplanar vectors


Answers : (25)
2
1
( j

+ k

) and x

= q

p
| p | 2
q . p
2


|
|
.
|

\
|
Linear combinations :
Given a finite set of vectors



a b c , , ,...... , then the vector



r xa yb zc = + + +........ is called a linear
combination of



a b c , , ,...... for any x, y, z..... e R. We have the following results:
(a) If


a b , are non zero, noncollinear vectors, then ' y y , ' x x b ' y a ' x b y a x = = + = +

MATHS
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17
(b) Fundamental Theorem in plane : Let


a b , be non zero, non collinear vectors, then any vector

r
coplanar
with


a b , can be expressed uniquely as a linear combination of b and a

i.e. there exist some unique x, y e R such that xa yb r



+ = .
(c) If



a b c , , are nonzero, noncoplanar vectors, then
xa yb zc x a y b z c x x y y z z





+ + = + + = = = ' ' ' ' , ' , '
(d) Fundamental theorem in space: Let



a b c , , be nonzero, noncoplanar vectors in space.
Then any vector

r can be uniquely expressed as a linear combination of



a b c , , i.e. there exist
some unique x,y, z e R such that xa yb zc r



+ + = .
(e) If
n 2 1
x ......, , x , x

are n non zero vect ors and k
1
, k
2
, . . . . . , k
n
are n scal ars and i f t he l i near
combi nat i on 0 k ....., , 0 k , 0 k 0 x k ....... x k x k
n 2 1 n n 2 2 1 1
= = = = + + +


, t hen we say t hat vect ors
n 2 1
x ......, , x , x

are linearly independent vectors.
(f) If
n 2 1
x ......, , x , x

are not linearly independent then they are said to be linearly dependent vectors.
i.e. if 0 x k ...... x k ...... x k x k x k
n n r r 3 3 2 2 1 1


= + + + + + and if there exists at least one k
r
= 0, then
n 2 1
x ......, , x , x

are said to be linearly dependent vectors.
Note 1: If k
r
= 0; 0 x k ...... x k ...... x k x k x k
n n r r 3 3 2 2 1 1


= + + + + +
= + + + + + +
+ +
k x k x k x k x k x k x
r r r r r r n n

1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1
....... . . ......
= + + + + +

k
k
x k
k
x k
k
x k
k
x k
k
x
r
r
r
r r
r
r
r n
r
n
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1

..... . .....

1 r 1 r 2 2 1 1 r
x c ...... x c x c x

+ + + = +
n n 1 r 1 r
x c ....... x c

+ +
+ +
i.e.

x
r
is expressed as a linear combination of vectors
n 1 r 1 r 2 1
x , .......... , x , x ,........, x , x

+
Hence
n 1 r 1 r 2 1 r
x ......., , x , x ........, , x , x with x

+
forms a linearly dependent set of vectors.
Note 2:
If

a = 3 i

+ 2
j

+ 5k

then

a is expressed as a Linear Combination of vectors i

,
j

, k

. Also Also

a , i

,
j

,
k

form a linearly dependent set of vectors. In general, in 3 dimensional space every set of four vectors
is a linearly dependent system.
i

,
j

, k

are Linearly Independent set of vectors. For


K
1
i

+ K
2
j

+ K
3
k

= 0

K
1
= K
2
= K
3
= 0
Two vectors a

and b

are linearly dependent

a is parallel to

b i.e. 0 b a

= linear dependence of a

and b

. Conversely if 0 b a

= then a

and b

are linearly independent.


If three vectors



a b c , , are linearly dependent, then they are coplanar i.e. ] c b a [

= 0. Conversely if
] c b a [

= 0 then the vectors are linearly independent.


MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
18
Example #26 : Given that position vectors of points A, B, C are respectively
a

2b

+ 3 c

, 2 a

+ 3b

4 c

, 7b

+ 10 c

then prove that vectors


AB
and
AC
are linearly
dependent.
Solution : Let A, B, C be the given points and O be the point of reference then
OA = a

2b

+ 3 c

, OB = 2 a

+ 3b

4 c

and OC= 7b

+ 10 c

Now AB = p.v. of B p.v. of AA


= OB OA = ( a

+ 5b

7 c

)
and AC = p.v. of C p.v of AA
= OA OC = ) c 7 b 5 a (

+ = AB
AC = AB where = 1. Hence
AB
and
AC
are linearly dependent
Example #27: Prove that the vectors 5 a

+ 6b

+ 7 c

, 7 a

8b

+ 9 c

and 3 a

+ 20b

+ 5 c

are linearly
dependent, where a

, b

, c

being linearly independent vectors.


Solution : We know that if these vectors are linearly dependent , then we can express one of them as a
linear combination of the other two.
Now let us assume that the given vector are coplanar, then we can write
5 a

+ 6b

+ 7 c

= ( 7 a

8b

+ 9 c

) + m (3 a

+ 20b

+ 5 c

)
where , m are scalars
Comparing the coefficients of a

, b

and c

on both sides of the equation


5 = 7 + 3m ..........(i)
6 = 8 + 20 m ..........(ii)
7 = 9 + 5m ..........(iii)
From (i) and (iii) we get
4 = 8 =
2
1
= m which evidently satisfies (ii) equation too.
Hence the given vectors are linearly dependent .
Self Practice Problems :
(30) Does there exist scalars u, v, w such that i

e w e v e u
3 2 1
= + +

where k

e
1
=

, k

e
2
+ =

,
k

2 j

e
3
+ =

?
(31) Consider a base c , b , a

and a vector c b 3 a 2

+ . Compute the co-ordinates of this vector


relatively to the base r , q , p

where b 3 a 2 p


= , c b 2 a q


+ = ,
c 2 b a 3 r


+ + =
.
(32) If a

and b

are non-collinear vectors and A

=(x + 4y) a

+ (2x + y + 1) b

and B

= (y 2x + 2)
a

+ (2x 3y 1) b

, find x and y such that B 2 A 3



= .
(33) If vectors c , b , a

be linearly independent, then show that


(i) c 3 b 2 a

+ , c 4 b 3 a 2

+ , c 2 b

+ are linearly dependent


(ii) c 2 b 3 a

+ , c b 4 a 2

, c b 2 a 3

+ are linearly independent.


MATHS
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(34) Given that j

, j

2 i

are two vectors. Find a unit vector coplanar with these vectors and
perpendicular to the first vector j

. Find also the unit vector which is perpendicular to the


plane of the two given vectors.
(35) If with reference to a right handed system of mutually perpendicular unit vectors k

, j

, i

,
j

3 = o

, k

3 j

2 + = |

. Express |

in the form
2 1
| + | = |

where
1
|

is parallel to
o

and
2
|

is perpendicular to
o

.
(36) Prove that a vector
r

in space can be expressed linearly in terms of three non-coplanar,,


non-zero vectors c , b , a

in the form
] c b a [
c ] b a r [ b ] a c r [ a ] c b r [
r

+ +
=
Answers : (30) No (31) (0, 7/5, 1/5) (32) x = 2, y = 1
(34)
2
1
) j

( + ; k

(35) j

2
1
i

2
3
1
= |

, k

3 j

2
3
i

2
1
2
+ = |

Reciprocal system of vectors :


If



a b c , , &



a' , b' , c' are two sets of non-coplanar vectors such that



a. a' =b. b' =c. c' = 1
, then the
two systems are called Reciprocal System of vectors.
Note :
]
c b a
[
b x a
c and
]
c b a
[
a x c
b ,
]
c b a
[
c x b
= a

= ' = ' '


Example #28: If c , b , a

and c , b , a ' ' '


be the reciprocal system of vectors, prove that


(i) 3 c . c b . b a . a = ' + ' + '



(ii) 0 c c b b a a




= ' + ' + '
Solution : (i) We have : a . a '

= b . b '

= c . c '

= 1
a . a '

+ b . b '

+ c . c '

= 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
(ii) We have : a'

= ) c b (

, b'

= ) a c (

and c'

= ) b a (

, where =
] c b a [
1

} c ) b . a ( b ) c . a {( )} c b ( a { ) c b ( a a a


= = = '
} a ) c . b ( c ) a . b {( )} a c ( b { ) a c ( b b b



= = = '
and } b ) a . c ( a ) b . c {( )} b a ( c { ) b a ( c c c


= = = '
c c b b a a ' + ' + '



= } b ) a . c ( a ) b . c {( } a ) c . b ( c ) a . b {( } c ) b . a ( b ) c . a {(


+ +
= ] b ) a . c ( a ) b . c ( a ) c . b ( c ) a . b ( c ) b . a ( b ) c . a [(


+ +
=
] b ) c . a ( a ) c . b ( a ) c . b ( c ) b . a ( c ) b . a ( b ) c . a [(


+ +
= 0 0

=
Equation of a plane :
(i) The equation 0 n . ) r r (
0
=

represents a plane containing the point with position vector
n where , r
0

is a vector normal to the plane.
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20
The above equation can also be written as d n . r =

, where d = n . r
0

(ii) Angle between two planes is the angle between two normals drawn to the planes and the angle
between a line and a plane is the compliment of the angle between the line and the normal to
the plane.
(iii) The length of perpendicular (p) from a point having position vector a

to the plane d n . r =

is
given by p =
| n |
| d n . a |

(iv) If ) a r (

. 0 n
1
=

and ) a r (

. 0 n
2
=

are the equations of two planes, then the equation of line


of intersection of these planes is given by ) n n ( a r
2 1

+ = .
Test of collinearity :
Three points A,B,C with position vectors



a b c , , respectively are collinear, if & only if there exist
scalars x, y, z not all zero simultaneously such that xa yb zc



+ + = 0

, where x + y + z = 0.
Test of coplanarity :
Four points A, B, C, D with position vectors




a b c d , , , respectively are coplanar if and only if there
exist scalars x, y, z, w not all zero simultaneously such that xa + yb+zc +wd




= 0

, where
x + y + z + w = 0.
Example #29 : Show that the vectors c 3 b a 2

+ , c 2 b a

+ and c 3 b a

+ are non-coplanar vectors.


Solution : Let, the given vectors be coplanar.
Then one of the given vectors is expressible in terms of the other two.
Let c 3 b a 2

+ = x ( ) c 2 b a

+ + y ( ) c 3 b a

+ , for some scalars x and y..


c 3 b a 2

+ = (x + y) a

+ (x + y) b

+ (2x 3y) c

2 = x + y, 1 = x + y and 3 = 2x 3y.
Solving first and third of these equations, we get x = 9 and y = 7.
Clearly these values do not satisfy the second equation.
Hence the given vectors are not coplanar.
Example #30: Prove that four points c b 3 a 2

+ , c 3 b 2 a

+ , c 2 b 4 a 3

+ and c 6 b 6 a

+ are coplanar..
Solution : Let the given four points be P, Q, R and S respectively. These points are coplanar if the vectors
PQ ,
PR
and PS are coplanar. These vectors are coplanar iff one of them can be expressed
as a linear combination of other two. So let PQ = x
PR
+ y PS

c 4 b 5 a

+
= x ( ) c b a

+ + y ( ) c 7 b 9 a

c 4 b 5 a

+
= (x y)
a

+ (x 9y)
b

+ (x + 7y)
c

x y = 1, x 9y = 5, x + 7y = 4 [Equating coeff. of c , b , a

on both sides]
Solving the first two equations of these three equations, we get x =
2
1
, y =
2
1
.
These values also satisfy the third equation. Hence the given four points are coplanar.
Self Practice Problems :
(37) If d , c , b , a

are any four vectors in 3-dimensional space with the same initial point and such
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21
that 0 d 2 c b 2 a 3

= + , show that the terminal A, B, C, D of these vectors are coplanar. Find


the point (P) at which AC and BD meet. Also find the ratio in which P divides AC and BD.
(38) Show that the vector
c b a

+
,
a c b


and
c 4 b 3 a 2


are non-coplanar, where c , b , a

are
any non-coplanar vectors.
(39) Find the value of for which the four points with position vectors k

, k

5 i

4 + + , k

4 j

9 i

3 + +
and k

4 j

4 i

4 + + are coplanar..
Answers : (37)
4
c a 3
p

+
= P divides AC in 1 : 3 and BD in 1 : 1 ratio (39) = 1
Application of vectors :
(a) Work done against a constant force

F
over a displacement

s is defined as s . F W

=
(b) The tangential velocity

Vof a body moving in a circle is given by r x V

e = , where

r is the position
vector of the point P.
(c) The moment of

F about O is defined as r where , F x r M

= is the position vector of P w.r.t. O. The


direction of

M is along the normal to the plane OPN such that


r F M , & form a right handed system.
(d) Moment of the couple =( )


r r x F
1 2
, where
2 1
r and r

are position vectors of the point of the application
of the forces . F and F

Example # 31 : Forces of magnitudes 5 and 3 units acting in the directions k

3 j

2 i

6 + + and k

6 j

2 i

3 +
respectively act on a particle which is displaced from the point (2, 2, 1) to (4, 3, 1). Find the
work done by the forces.
Solution : Let F

be the resultant force and d

be the displacement vector. Then,


F

=
9 4 36
) k

3 j

2 i

6 (
5
+ +
+ +
+ 3
36 4 9
) k

6 j

2 i

3 (
+ +
+
=
7
1
) k

33 j

4 i

39 ( + +
and d

= ) k

3 i

4 ( + +
) k

2 i

2 ( +
= k

2 j

2 + +
Total work done = F

. d

=
7
1
) k

33 j

4 i

39 ( + + . ) k

2 j

2 ( + +
=
7
1
(78 + 4 + 66) =
7
148
units.
Self Practice Problems :
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(40) A point describes a circle uniformly in the i

, j

plane taking 12 seconds to complete one


revolution. If its initial position vector relative to the centre is i

and the rotation is from i

to j

,
find the position vector at the end of 7 seconds. Also find the velocity vector.
(41) The force represented by k

2 i

3 + is acting through the point k

3 j

4 i

5 + . Find its moment


about the point k

3 i

+ + .
(42) Find the moment of the couple formed by the forces k

5 + and k

5 acting at the points


(9, 1, 2) and (3, 2, 1) respectively
Answers : (40)
2
1
( ) j

3 + ,
12
t
( ) j

3 i

(41) k

3 j

20 i

2 (42) k

5 j


Miscellaneous solved examples
Example #32 : Show that the points A, B, C with position vectors k

2 + , k

5 j

3 i

and k

4 j

4 i

3
respectively are the vertices of a right angled triangle. Also find the remaining angles of the
triangle.
Solution : We have,
AB = Position vector of B Position vector of A
= ) k

5 j

3 i

( ) k

2 ( + = k

6 j

2 i


BC = Position vector of C Position vector of B
= ) k

4 j

4 i

3 ( ) k

5 j

3 i

( = k

2 +
and, CA = Position vector of A Position vector of C
= ) k

2 ( + ) k

4 j

4 i

3 ( = k

5 j

3 i

+ +
Since
AB
+
BC
+ CA =
) k

6 j

2 i

(
+ ) k

2 ( + + ) k

5 j

3 i

( + + = 0

So A, B and C are the vertices of a triangle.


Now, BC . CA = ) k

2 ( + . ) k

5 j

3 i

( + + = 2 3 + 5 = 0
BC
CA
ZBCA =
2
t
Hence ABC is a right angled triangle.
Since A is the angle between the vectors AB and
AC
. Therefore
cos A =
| AC | | AB |
AC . AB
=
2 2 2 2 2 2
) 5 ( ) 3 ( 1 ) 6 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
) k

5 j

3 i

( . ) k

6 j

2 i

(
+ + + +

=
25 9 1 36 4 1
30 6 1
+ + + +
+ +
=
35 41
35
=
41
35
A = cos
1
41
35
cos B =
| BC | | BA |
BC . BA
=
2 2 2 2 2 2
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 2 6 2 1
) k

2 ( . ) k

6 j

2 i

(
+ + + +
+ + +
cos B =
6 41
6 2 2 +
=
41
6
B = cos
1
41
6
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Example #33 : If c , b , a

are three mutually perpendicular vectors of equal magnitude, prove that


c b a

+ +
is
equally inclined with vectors b , a

and
c

.
Solution : Let | a |

= | b |

= | c |

= (say). Since c , b , a

are mutually
perpendicular vectors, therefore b . a

= c . b

= a . c

= 0 ..............(i)
Now,
2
c b a

+ + = a . a

+ b . b

+ c . c

+ b . a 2

+ c . b 2

+ a . c 2

=
2
| a |

| +
2
| b |

+
2
| c |

[Using (i) ]
= 3
2
[ | a |

= | b |

= | c |

= ]
| c b a |

+ + =
3
..............(ii)
Suppose c b a

+ + makes angles u
1
, u
2
, u
3
with b , a

and
c

respectively. Then,
cosu
1
=
| c b a | | a |
) c b a ( . a


+ +
+ +
=
| c b a | | a |
c . a b . a a . a


+ +
+ +
=
| c b a | | a |
| a |
2

+ +
=
| c b a |
| a |

+ +
=

3
=
3
1
[Using (ii)]
u
1
= cos
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
1
Similarly, u
2
= cos
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
1
and u
3
= cos
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
1
u
1
= u
2
= u
3
.
Hence, c b a

+ + is equally inclineded with b , a


and c

Example #34 : Prove using vectors : If two medians of a triangle are equal, then it is isosceles.
Solution : Let ABC be a triangle and let BE and CF be two equal medians. Taking A as the origin, let the
position vectors of B and C be
b

and
c

respectively. Then,
P.V. of E =
2
1
c

and P.V. of F =
2
1
b

BE
=
2
1
) b 2 c (

CF
=
2
1
) c 2 b (

Now, BE = CF
| BE |
=
| CF |

2
| BE |
=
2
| CF |

2
) b 2 c (
2
1

=
2
) c 2 b (
2
1

4
1
2
| b 2 c |

=
4
1
2
| c 2 b |


2
| b 2 c |

=
2
| c 2 b |

) b 2 c (

. ) b 2 c (

= ) c 2 b (

. ) c 2 b (

c . c

c . b 4

+ b . b 4

= b . b

c . b 4

+ c . c 4

2
| c |

c . b 4

+ 4
2
| b |

=
2
| b |

c . b 4

+
2
| c | 4

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24
3
2
| b |

= 3
2
| c |

2
| b |

=
2
| c |

AB = AC Hence triangle ABC is an isosceles triangle.
Example #35 : Using vectors : Prove that cos (A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
Solution : Let OX and OY be the coordinate axes and let i

and j

be unit vectors along OX and OY


respectively. Let ZXOP = A and ZXOQ = B. Drawn PL OX and QM OX.
Clearly angle between OP and OQ is A + B
In AOLP, OL = OP cos A and LP = OP sin A. Therefore OL = (OP cos A) i

and
LP = (OP sin A) ( ) j

Now, OL + LP = OP
OP = OP [(cos A ) i

(sin A) A) j

] ......(i)
In AOMQ, OM = OQ cos B and MQ = OQ sin B.
Therefore, OM = (OQ cos B) i

, MQ = (OQ sin B) j

Now, OM + MQ= OQ
OQ = ] j

) B (sin i

) B [(cos OQ + ......(ii)
From (i) and (ii), we get
OP
.
OQ
= OP [(cos A)
i

(sin A) A) j

] . OQ [(cos B) i

+ (sin B) j

]
= OP . OQ [cos A cos B sin A sin B]
But,
OP
.
OQ
=
| OP | | OQ |
cos (A + B) = OP . OQ cos (A + B)
OP . OQ cos (A + B) = OP . OQ [cos A cos B sin A sin B]
cos (A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
Example #36 : Prove that in any triangle ABC
(i) c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos C (ii) c = bcosA + acosB.
Solution : (i) In AABC,
AB
+ BC +
CA
= 0

BC
+
CA
=
AB
......(i)
Squaring both sides
( BC)
2
+ (
CA
)
2
+ 2 ( BC). CA = ( AB )
2
a
2
+ b
2
+ 2 (
BC
.
CA
) = c
2
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
+ 2 ab cos (t C)
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cosC
(ii) ( BC+ CA ). AB = AB . AB
BC . AB + CA . AB = c
2
ac cosB bc cos A = c
2
acosB + bcosA = c.
Example #37 : If D, E, F are the mid-points of the sides of a triangle ABC, prove by vector method that area of
ADEF =
4
1
(area of AABC)
Solution : Taking A as the origin, let the position vectors of B and C be b

and
c

respectively. Then the


position vectors of D, E and F are
2
1
) c b (

+ ,
2
1
c

and
2
1
b

respectively..
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Now, DE =
2
1
c

2
1
) c b (

+ =
2
b

and
DF
=
2
1
b

2
1
( ) c b (

+ =
2
c

Vector area of ADEF = =


= = = (vector area of AABC)
Hence area of ADEF = area of AABC.
Example #38: P, Q are the mid-points of the non-parallel sides BC and AD of a trapezium ABCD. Show that
AAPD = ACQB.
Solution : Let = and =
Now DC is parallel to AB there exists a scalar t such that = t = t
= + =
The position vectors of P and Q are and respectively..
Now 2A =
= = (1 + t)
Also 2A = =
= =
= = =
Hence Prove.
Example #39 : Let and are unit vectors and is a vector such that = and then find
the value of .
Solution : Given = and

= (as )
(using . = 1 and = 0, since unit vector)

= 0 (as = 0) .............(i)
Now
= (given + u)
= =
= (as from (i))
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26
= .
= 0 (as = 0)
= 1 (as = = 1)
= 1
Example #40 : In any triangle, show that the perpendicular bisectors of the sides are concurrent.
Solution : Let ABC be the triangle and D, E and F are respectively middle points of sides BC, CA and
AB. Let the perpendicular bisectors of BC and CA meet at O. Join OF. We are required to
prove that OF is to AB. Let the position vectors of A, B, C with O as origin of reference
be , and respectively..
= ( + ), = ( + ) and = ( + )
Also = , = and =
Since OD BC
( + ) . ( ) = 0
b
2
= c
2
............(i)
Similarly OE CA
( + ) . ( ) = 0
a
2
= c
2
............(ii)
from (i) and (ii) we have a
2
b
2
= 0
( + ) . ( ) = 0 ( + ) . ( ) = 0
Example #41: A, B, C, D are four points in space. using vector methods, prove that
AC
2
+ BD
2
+ AD
2
+ BC
2
> AB
2
+ CD
2
what is the implication of the sign of equality.
Solution : Let the position vector of A, B, C, D be and respectively then
AC
2
+ BD
2
+ AD
2
+ BC
2
= . + . + . + .
= + 2 + + 2 + + 2 + +
= + 2 + + 2 + + + +
+ 2 +
= . + . +
= AB
2
+ CD
2
+ .
> AB
2
+ CD
2
AC
2
+ BD
2
+ AD
2
+ BC
2
> AB
2
+ CD
2
for the sign of equality to hold, = 0
and are collinear, the four points A, B, C, D are collinear