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Scientific Journal of Earth Science
June 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, PP.75-84
The Features and Forming Mechanism of
Zhuangnan Fault Zone
J ing Wang
1
, Qinghua Chen
2
1. Department of Petroleum Engineering, Chengde Petroleum College, Chengde 067000, China
2. Faculty of Geo-Resource and Information Collegue, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, China
Corresponding Author Email: jxinwang@sina.com
Abstract
Make full use of 3D seismic interpretation data, method to emphasize the combination of the coherent analysis technique and the
seismic profile interpretation, to study the geometry characteristics of Zhuangnan fault zone. Through comparative and analysis
of the activity of Zhuangnan fault and the boundary faults of Zhanhua Sag, based on the dynamics of geological setting the
evolution of Zhuangnan fault zone in the area has been discussed. The result indicates: Zhuangnan fault zone has its special
regularity and characteristic which has three-piece planar characterization (eastern part, middle part, western part) and has arches
bending in middle part. The study of the formation mechanism explained the special geometry characteristics of Zhuangnan fault
zone reasonably. The activity of the two main boundary faults of Zhanhua Sag (Changdi fault, Chengdong fault) influenced the
faulting evolution of the eastern and western sides of Zhuangnan fault zone. The significant differences between the activity
intensity of the two main boundary faults of Zhanhua Sag also have important impacts on the arches bending in middle part of
Zhuangnan fault zone.
Keywords: Zhuangnan Fault Zone; Three-piece Planar Characterization; Arches Bending; Boundary Faults; Formation
Mechanism
INTRODUCTION
With the popularization and renewal of technique and methods for 3-D seismic data interpretation are applied in
oilfield production in recent years, the research of structure characteristics of complex fault block area have become
increasingly detailed and accurately .However, there are very few exploration and discussion in our country take the
formation mechanism of some special geotectonic phenomena seriously. In fact, the problem of ignoring the study of
formation mechanism, which restricts the solution of the problems of oil distribution and the exploration of favorable
blocks to further, etc. For this reason, take Zhuangnan fault zone for example, this paper discussed and analyzed the
features of Zhuangnan fault zone through geometry, kinematics and dynamics. We has summarized two special
regularity and characteristic of Zhuangnan fault zone which has three-piece planar characterization (eastern part,
middle part, western part) and has arches bending in middle part of mainly faults in Zhuangnan fault zone (CHEN
Qinghua et al,2004. DAI Junsheng et al, 1998). Based on the dynamics of geological setting the evolution of
Zhuangnan fault zone in the area has been discussed .The paper expatiated the controlling role of the evolution of
Zhuangnan fault zone by the activity of boundary faults in Zhanhua sag. Finally, the formation mechanism of the
special geotectonic phenomena of Zhuangnan fault zone has been reasonably explained.
1 REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL OUTLINE
Zhuangnan fault zone is a secondary structural belt of Zhanhua sag in Jiyang depression. Zhuangnan fault zone was
composed of a nearly west-east strike listric normal fault and the sub-faults derived from main fault.Zhuangnan fault
zone bordered by Chengdong faultl on the west, and the Wuhaozhuang fault and Changdi fault in the east (CHEN
Qinghua et al, 2004. DAI Junsheng et al, 1998, TAN Mingyou et al, 2002) (Figure 1).Four Oilfields developed in

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Zhuangnan fault zone, which were Zhuangxi Oilfield; Wuhaozhuang Oilfield; Changdi Oilfield; Laohekou Oilfield.
Those oilfields consist of many oil bearing strata, which distributed in the Archaeozic, Palaeozoic, and Mesozoic and
included some reservoirs buried deeply.Paleozoic buried hill reservoir is the most important oil pool types in
Zhuangxi oilfield. Major exploration target of Wuhaozhuang Oilfield, Changdi Oilfield and Laohekou Oilfield are
reserviors in the Cenozoic (CEHN et al, 2004.LIN et al, 2003.HOU et al, 2005).

FIG.1 REGIONAL STRUCTUAL POSITION OF ZHUANGNAN FAULT ZONE
All the four oilfields are the typical complicated fault-block oilfields in east china. They have more styles, more
complex forming causation types. At present, Zhuangxi oilfield relies mainly on structure reservoir, Wuhaozhuang
oilfield is dominated in composite structure-lithology reservoir. Changdi oilfield is complicated by many faults,
belongs to anticline reservoir having multilayer of sands, which is divided into two tectonic types: Paleozoic buried
hill structure and Mesozoic draping structure. The main accumulation model of Laohekou oilfield in upper Guantao
formation is the lithologic oil and gas pools (CHEN, 2004, LIN et al., 2003, HOU et al, 2005).
2 STRUCTURE TYPES
Applying three-dimensional seismic data, geological data and logging data, we analyze and describe the structural
feature and fracture feature of Zhuangnan fault zone. Geoframe 4.3 seismic interpretation software has been applied
to seismic layer labeling, make synthetic seismogram, coherent data analysis and seismic explanation. By making
synthetic seismic record of well data of test wells a fine horizon calibration for the target strata. By the accurately
interpreted with a 3D coherence analysis and seismic section in plain, section and space, the geometry characteristics
of Zhuangnan fault zone have preliminarily been understood. Application of coherent data volume to interpret fault
blocks in complex fault block area is a very effective tool. The time slice of coherent data body can unveil the
direction of the Zhuangnan fault zone generally, the configurations of faults in both areal and vertical directions, and

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guidance-find the secondary fracture. Considering most of the faults in Zhuangnan fault zone are nearly west-east
strike, so the east-west interpretation section should be one that supplements a focus on the south-north interpretation
section.
2.1 Vertical fault assemblage
The closure of intersecting geophysical information has been being an important problem in geophysical data
interpretation. By the closure interpretation of 43 south-north interpretation sections and 24 east-west interpretation
sections, the article summarized faults growth in Zhuangnan fault zone below. Zhuangnan fault zone had developed
on the tectonic background of Zhuangnan buried hill. The fault zone have the characteristic of plastic uplifting by
reason of the spreading function and antithetic drag of the main faults in Zhuangnan fault zone. The study found that
Zhuangnan fault zone had the characteristics of more active faults developed on both sides of the fault zone than
middle part of the fault zone. And the faults were concentrated developed in the north of the area. From that we
divided Zhuangnan fault zone into three-parts: western part, middle part, eastern part.
Western part: The evolution of Zhuangnan fault zone experiences three stages. Four listric faults trending NEE,
dipping S developed of early evolution, those faults arranged in equivalence and parallelism. Faults styles are mainly
step fault. Those faults have long fault displacement, which can cut the overlying formations and basement strata.
In median period of development, four secondary fractures which dipping is north were developed. Those faults
ending on the listric faults dipping S which located on the southernmost part of the four listric faults.
Those secondary fractures arranged in equivalence and parallelism. Faults styles are mainly step fault. The median
period subordinate structure fault and the early mainly faults display y character form fault array in profile, Faults
styles are mainly graben and step fault. Those secondary fractures also have long fault displacement, which mainly
cut the overlying formations.
The late development faults grown on the four secondary fractures of median period development, which displayed
anti-y character form fault array with median development faults in profile. The late development faults have short
fault displacement, which only cut the shallow formation (figure2, table1).
TABLE1 MAJOR FAULTS ELEMENTS OF THE WESTERN PART
Fault Fault strike Dip directions Fault dip Fault displacement(m) Extended length(Km) Section shape
F1 NEE S 35-70 500 >8 Listric
F2 NEE N 45-60 200-300 4 Platelike
F3 EW S 40-50 300-400 >8 Listric
F7 NWW S 40-50 100-200 3 Listric
F8 NEE S 45-60 100-200 2.5 Platelike
F9 NEE N 45-60 100-200 2.5 Platelike
F10 NEE N 40-50 100 2 Platelike
Middle part: Most early development faults gradually cease their activity, only cut the basement strata. The activity
of Zhuangnan fault is always persisted. Zhuangnan fault becomes the most important fault in dipping S which
section shape is listric. The gradient of Zhuangnan fault slackens from the top down. Zhuangnan fault cut the
basement strata. The subsidiary shear fractures complicate the overlying formations. The major y character form
fault array in the studied area was composed of Zhuangnan fault and one secondary fracture in dipping N. Three
stages of secondary fracture evolved between them. The combinations of the faults of different phases are y
character form and anti-y character form. Over all, the middle part of structure possesses the characteristic of faults
in the overlying formations are more complex than in the basement strata.
Eastern part: the activity of early development faults enhancement. Three-fifths of early development faults cut the
overlying formations and basement strata and two-fifths of early development faults cut the basement strata, not cut

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the overlying formations. Four secondary fractures dipping north were developed in Cenozoic strata. There is a
strong symbiotic relationship between mainly faults of F1, F3, F5 and secondary fault of F2. F2 fault was cut by F1
fault, displayed y character form fault array in profile with F1 and F3 faults.F4 fault was the late development fault,
displayed y character form with mainly faults.
TABLE 2 MAJOR FAULTS ELEMENTS OF THE MIDDLE PART
Fault Fault strike Dip directions Fault dip Fault displacement(m) Extended length(Km) Section shape
F1 EW S 35-70 500 >8 Listric
F2 EW N 45-60 200-300 4 Platelike
F3 EW S 40-50 300-400 5 Platelike
F4 NWW N 40-50 100-200 3 Platelike
F6 EW N 45-60 100-200 5 Platelike
TABLE 3 MAJOR FAULTS ELEMENTS OF THE EASTERN PART
Fault Fault strike Dip directions Fault dip Fault displacement(m) Extended length(Km) Section shape
F1 NEE S 35-70 500 >8 Listric
F2 NWW N 45-60 200-300 4 Platelike
F3 NWW S 40-50 100-200 >8 Platelike
F5 NEE S 45-60 100-200 >8 Listric
2.2 Planar fault assemblage
Three breaking with near E-W strike through the Zhuangnan fault zone have horizontally stretching distance. They
are arranged parallel to each other, and have arches bending in middle part.
Zhuangnan fault (F1) is the most important fault as the southern boundary fault of Zhuangxi buried hill, and is also
an important oil-controlling fault. From the collection and processing of data, the cause of Zhuangnan fault throw
increased from bottom to top was identified. it is because the dip directions of Zhuangnan fault steeper above
Zhuangxi buried hill.
Four synthetic faults are associated with Zhuangnan fault. There are (F2, F3, F9, F10). They are arranged parallel to
each other and evenly spaced. In those four faults, F2 and F3 faults have longer horizontally stretching distance than
F9 and F10 faults. F9 and F10 faults mainly distribute in the west area of the Zhuangnan fault zone.
Except to the associated faults many secondary fractures derived from F1 fault and F2 fault were developed. The
secondary fractures derived from F1 fault extended along the tangent to the bend deformation occurs on the middle
part of Zhuangnan fault zone(F5 tangent to main fault along the east and F7 tangent to main fault along the west).
And shaped the Chinese character form fault array with Zhuangnan fault. Three secondary fractures derived
from F2 fault developed between F2 and F3, They are arranged in echelon to each other and evenly spaced. The
secondary fractures join with the F2 fault in bipenniform. The order of these secondary fractures is F6 to F4 and then
F8 from east to west (figure 2).
Two sets of faults provide the condition of shelter for hydrocarbon accumulation .The Chinese character form
fault array promoted formation of faults screened structure types of favorable traps from hydrocarbon accumulation
perspective. A large structural trap from the southern of F2 fault is made up of buried-hill draping structural belt and
a sealing fault cutting the draping anticline.
The analysis of the geometrical characteristics of Zhuangnan fault zone leads out the following rule: the structural
pattern of Zhuangnan fault zone is normal fault assemblage. Zhuangnan fault zone has two main section structure
patterns, stair-step shape structure pattern and composite y character form structure pattern. Parallel is the main

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plane structure pattern, bipenniform structure pattern characterized by strike slip is the important supplement plane
structure pattern. The evolution of Zhuangnan fault zone is under the extensional and shear stress field environment.
We need for an in-depth study of geological evolution and dynamics of Zhuangnan fault zone on the basis of
geometrical characteristics study.

FIG.2 FAULTS COMBINATION STYLES IN PLAIN AND SECTION OF T0 REFLECTION HORIZON
3 TECTONIC EVOLUTION AND REGIONAL DYNAMICS
Zhuangnan fault zone is an important west-east strike structural belt of Zhanhua sag. The geological evolution and
dynamics of it is closely related to the evolution and dynamics of Zhanhua sag. The activities of Tan-Lu fault zone
have a significant impact on east of Zhanhua sag.
The extending direction of faults in Zhuangnan fault zone is consistent with the strike of major faults of the western

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branches of Tan-Lu fault zone and Lai-xi fault. The strike slip structural style occurs vertically as echelon faults in
the east of Zhuanghua sag like Changdi fault, Gudong fault and Kendong fault and faults in the west like Chengdong
fault, Yidong fault and Yinan fault. Fault strike is NNE or nearly NE. Those faults controlled the distribution of
Meso-Cenozoic strata and the development of the tectonic (QIU et al, 2006, MA, 2005).Zhuangnan fault zone is
located between Changdi fault and Chongdong fault. Fault strike is EW. Zhuangnan fault zone is the accommodation
zone with other faults which strike is EW, nearly NE and NW in Zhuanghua sag. Zhuangnan fault zone has the
characteristics of longer horizontally stretching distance, large fault throw and long active time whose active lives
covered the period from Mesozoic to Neogene, which controls the sedimentation, tectonic evolution and oil-gas
accumulation in Zhuanhua sag. Geological evolution and dynamics of Zhuangnan fault zone is closely related to the
activity of the three boundary faults (Chengdong fault, Changdi fault and Wuhaozhuang fault).
Zhuangnan fault zone reached to Chengdong fault in western Zhanhua sag, and joined Changdi fault in eastern
Zhanhua sag. Wuhaozhuang fault developed on the southeast part of Zhuangnan fault zone (figure 3).
In the structural pattern of Zhanhua sag, Wuhaozhuang fault ,Guxi fault and Luoxi fault which fault strike is NW are
arranged in echelon to the left row from north to south. These features clearly reflect the left-lateral strike-slip
character of Tan-Lu fault zone in Early Mesozoic. Kendong fault, Changdi fault and Gudong fault which fault strike
is NNE are arranged in echelon to the right row from north to south, reflect the right-lateral strike-slip character of
Tan-Lu fault zone in Late Mesozoic.(WU et al,2004.XIANG ,2001) The stress system converted from left-lateral
strike-slip to right-lateral strike-slip during the Mesozoic. The changes of stress in different geologic periods created
complex superimposed structures and forming the present fracture systems in Zhuangnan fault zone (ZHANG et al,
2005. ZHANG et al, 2003. PENG, 2009)

FIG.3 TECTONIC STRESS FIELD OF ZHUANGNAN FAULT ZONE
4 GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND DYNAMICS OF ZHUANGNAN FAULT ZONE
Based on the analysis on the tectonic evolution and regional dynamics background, the Geological evolution and

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dynamics of Zhuangnan fault zone in Zhanhua sag need further discussion and clarification
The geometry characteristics of Zhuangnan fault zone was systematic investigated and the results indicated that
Zhuangnan fault zone has three-piece planar characterization (eastern part, middle part, western part). The structural
feature of eastern part and western part is more complex than the middle part.
First, it aims to definitude inheritance relationship of faults in Zhuangnan fault zone by analyzing and calculating the
activity of main faults developed in the eastern part and the western part.
West Zhuangnan fault zone reached to Chengdong fault which fault strike is NNE (fig 3). Data from moving velocity
of both faults show that the activity of Zhuangnan fault was consistent with Chengdong fault (fig 4). There were two
peak-activity periods of the two faults. They were the sedimentary period of third member of Shahejie Formation
and the sedimentary period of the first member of Shahejie Formation (ZHAO, 2007.ZHANG et al, 2005.ZAHNG
Xi, 2006). The first peak-activity period of Zhuangnan fault zone was a bit later than Chengdong fault. The second
peak-activity period of the two faults is quite satisfactory (ZHONG, 2010. FENG, 2009).
The active time of Chengdong fault is longer than Zhuangnan fault since the Late Cretaceous Period to the
sedimentary period of Minghuazhen Formation. The active time of Zhuangnan fault is since the middle sedimentary
period of the fourth member of Shahejie Formation to the sedimentary period of Minghuazhen Formation (QU,
CHEN, 2009. LIU, 2005).When the active time of Chengdong fault reach the first peak Zhuangnan fault have started
to develop.
From the sedimentary period of the third member of Shahejie Formation on the moving velocity of both faults is
quite satisfactory. These indicate that the activity of Chengdong fault is the most important direct factor in the
activity of West Zhuangnan fault zone. Meanwhile, Zhuangnan fault play a great role in the reconstruction of
Chengdong fault.

FIG.4 ACTIVITY OF ZHUANGNAN FAULT,CHENGNAN FAULT AND WUHAOZHUANG FAULT
East Zhuangnan fault zone reached to two faults, Changdi fault which fault strike is NNE and Wuhaozhuang fault
which fault strike is NW respectively (figure1, figure3). The activity characteristic of Wuhaozhuang fault that has
long-term activity controls the development of the tectonic framework of Zhuangnan fault zone (QU, CHEN, 2009).
From the fourth member of Shahejie Formation to the third member of Shahejie Formation, The activity of
Zhuangnan fault was really just started and gradually increasing. However, activities of Wuhaozhuang fault has
come to the last stage and large scale fault activities stop. The structure activity of East Zhuangnan fault zone has
been less affected by Wuhaozhuang fault (figure4).

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Our knowledge for the fault properties of Changdi fault has some disagreements among the experts (QU, CHEN,
2009. LIU, 2005). At present, the unified understanding of Changdi faults have reached is primarily the regional
structure evolution. Changdi fault is located in the west Tanlu strike-slip fault zone. Affected and controlled by the
strike-slip fault zone, faults are developed. The formation of Changdi fault experienced a complex evolutionary
process. Changdi fault still prominently featured in the characters of strike-slip and extrusion structure despite being
reconstructed by NS extension in Cenozoic. The eastern segment of Changdi fault exhibits a complex structure
composed of several branches, shapes the Chinese character form fault array with Changdi fault (LIU,
2005).Structures differ greatly in features between the two sides of Changdi fault. The western segment of Changdi
fault was cut into a series of complex fault noses and fault blocks which fractures are faulted steps on the section by
faults of EW fault strike. The differences in trend and margin condition are the main reasons for the different actions
in structural belts. Zhuangnan fault zone play a vital role in balancing the differences of margin condition as main E-
W strike-slip accommodation structure. In turn, Changdi fault make important effects on the fault evolution of East
Zhuangnan fault zone.
5 CONCLUSIONS
Zhuangnan fault zone has two functions as the main E-W strike-slip accommodation structure. That is, on the one
hand, Zhuangnan fault zone inherited the rules of development of regional tectonic. On the other hand, the present
structures framework of Zhanhua sag was reconstructed by Zhuangnan fault zone. Zhuangnan fault zone plays an
important role on hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in oil geology research field. Systematic research is
made on the internal structure of Zhuangnan fault zone has great significance for finding out the law of oil and gas
migration and guiding exploration in the future.
In conclusion, below is a summary of what we learned through this study.
First, Zhuangnan fault zone has its special regularity and characteristic which has three-piece planar characterization
(eastern part, middle part, western part) and has arches bending in middle part. The structure characteristic of the east
and west parts of Zhuangnan fault zone is more complex than the structure characteristic of the middle part of
Zhuangnan fault zone.
Second, the activity of the two main boundary faults of Zhanhua Sag (Changdi fault, Chengdong fault respectively)
influenced the faulting evolution of the eastern and western parts of Zhuangnan fault zone. Zhuangnan fault zone
takes on east-west structural framework under the right-lateral strike slip and the NS extension stress field in
Cenozoic had developed on the tectonic background of Meso-Paleozoic structures. There were two peak-activity
periods of the two faults. They were the sedimentary period of third member of Shahejie Formation and the
sedimentary period of the first member of Shahejie Formation. Its structural system inherited the paleostructure, such
as complex faulted blocks and rolling anticline.
Third, through the tectonic evolution and dynamics research of regional and Zhuangnan fault zone, it was found that
Zhuangnan fault zone is manipulated by the activity of the two main boundary faults of Zhanhua Sag (Changdi fault,
Chengdong fault) .The offsets of the two boundary faults gradually decrease into the accommodation zone (KONG
Dong-yan, 2005), so the tectonic framework of Middle Zhuangnan fault zone has been less affected by boundary
faults. Zhuangnan fault is the only fault in dipping S which cut the overlying formations and basement strata. The
arches bending in middle part of Zhuangnan fault zone is to balance the significant differences between the activity
intensity of the two main boundary faults of Zhanhua Sag.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41202126) and major
national science and technology projects (Grant No. 2008ZX05042-001).
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AUTHORS
J ing WANG, she is Mongolian nationality, born in Chengde in August 1986, Master of geology, lectorate of
Chengde Petroleum College.
She currently mainly engaged in the tectonic characteristics of basin and analysis of distribution of oil and gas
reservoir.
Email: jxinwang@sina.com