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Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential

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Solved Examples
EXAMPLE29.1
Two charges 10 Cand Care placed at points Aand Bseparated by a distance of 10 cm. Find the
electric field at a point P on the perpendicular bisector of AB at a distance of 12 cm from its middle point.
Sol.
10 c 10 c -
A B C
P
12 cm
u u
u
u
E
A
E
E
B
10 cm
The situation is shown in figure . The distance AP = BP =
2 2
) 12 ( cm) (5 cm + = 13 cm.
The field at the point P due to the charge 10 C is
E
A
= 2
0
) 13 ( 4
C 10
cm tc

=
2 4
2 2 9 6
m 10 169
) / 10 9 ( ) 10 10 (

C m N C
= 5.3 10
6
N/C.
This field is along AP. The field due to 10 C at P is E
B
= 5.3 10
6
N/C along PB. As E
A
and E
B
are equal
in magnitude, the restultant will bisect the angle between the two. The geometry of the figure shows that this
resulatant is parallel to the base AB. The magnitude of the resultant field is
E = E
A
cosu + E
B
cosu
= 2 ( 5.3 10
6
N/C )
13
5
= 4.1 10
6
N/C.
If a charge distribution is continuous, we can use the technique of intengration to find the resultant electric
field at a point . Asmall element dQis chosen in the distrubtion and the field
E d

due to dQis calculated. The
resultant field is then calculated by intergrating the componenets of
E d

under proper limits.
EXAMPLE29.2
A ring of radius a contains a charge q distribhuted uniformly over its length. Find the electric field at
a point on the axis of the ring at a distance x from the centre.
A
dQ
x
P
a
o
dE
dEcosu
u
Sol.
Fig. shows the sistuation. Let us consider a small element of the ring at the point Ahaving a charge dQ. The
field at P due to this element is
dE = 2
0
) ( 4 AP
dQ
tc
By symmetry, the field at P will be along the axis OP.
The component of dE along this direction is
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
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dE cosu = 2
0
) ( 4 AP
dQ
tc
|
.
|

\
|
AP
OP
= 2 / 3 2 2
0
) ( 4 x a
xdQ
+ tc
The net field at P is
E =
}
dE cosu =
}
2 / 3 2 2
0
) ( 4 x a
xdQ
+ tc
= 2 / 3 2 2
0
) ( 4 x a
x
+ tc
}
dQ = 2 / 3 2 2
0
) ( 4 x a
xQ
+ tc
EXAMPLE29.3
Three particles, each having a charge of 10 C, are placed at the vertices of an equilaterial triangle
of side 10 cm. Find the work done by a person in pulling them apart to infinite separations.
Sol.
The potential energy of the system in the initial condition is
U =
) cm 10 ( 4
) 10 ( ) 10 ( 3
0
tc
C C
=
m 1 . 0
) /C m - N 10 9 ( ) 10 3 (
2 2 9 2 10


C
= 27 J.
When the charges are infinitely separated, the potential energy is reduced to zero. If we assume that the
charge do not get kinetic energy in the process, the total mechanical energy of the system decreases by
27J. Thus, the work done by the person on the system is 27 J.
EXAMPLE29.4
Two charges + 10 C and + 20 C are placed due to the pair at the middle point of the line joining
the two adding the two charges.
Sol.
Using the equation V =
r
Q
4
0
tc
, the potential due to + 10 C is
V
1
=
m 10 1
) /C m - N 10 9 ( ) 10 10 (
2 -
2 2 9



C
|
= 9 MV..
The potential due to + 20 C is
V
2
=
m
C C
2
2 2 9
10 1
) / m - N 10 9 ( ) 10 20 (


|
= 18 MV..
The net potential at the given point is
9 MV + 18 MV + 27 MV.
If the charge distribtion is continuous, we may use the technique of intergration to find the electric, potential.
EXAMPLE29.5
Figure shows two metallic plates Aand B placed parallel to each other at a separation d. Auniform
electric field E exists between the plates in the direction from plate B to plateA. Find the potential difference
berween the plates.
d
E
A
B
Sol.
Let us take the origin at plate Aand Xaxis along the direction fromAto plate B. We have
V
B
V
A
= }
B
A
r
r
r d E

.
=
}

d
0
dx E
= Ed.
If we work in Cartesian coordinate system
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
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E = E
x i

+ E
y
j

+ E
z k

and d
r

= dx
i

+ dy j

+ dz
k

.
Thus, from
dV = E
x
dx E
y
dy E
z
dz. ............(i)
If we change x to x+dx keeping y and z constant, dy = dz = 0 and from (i)
E
x
=
x
V
c
c
-
.
Similarly, E
y
=
y
V
c
c
-
and E
z
=
z
V
c
c
-
.
The symbols
x c
c
etc. are used to indicate that while differentiating with respect to one coordinate, the others
are kept constant.
Worked out Examples
1. Charges 5.0 10
7
C, 2.5 10
7
C and 1.0 10
7
C are held fixed at the three corners A, B, C of an
equilateral triangle of side 5.0 cm. Find the electric force on the charge at C due to the rest two.
Sol.
The force on C due to A
2
7 7
0
) m 05 . 0 (
) C 10 1 ( ) C 10 5 (
4
1


tc
=
N 18 . 0
m 10 25
C 10 5
C
m N
10 9
2 4
2 14
2
2
9
=

This force acts along AC. The force on C due to B


N 09 . 0
) m 05 . 0 (
) C 10 1 ( ) C 10 5 . 2 (
4
1
2
7 7
0
=

tc
=

This attractive force acts along CB. As the triangle is equilateral, the angle between these two forces is
120. The resultant electric force on C is
[(0.18 N)
2
+ (0.09 N)
2
+ 2(0.18 N) (0.09 N) (cos 120)]
1/2
= 0.16 N.
The angle made by this resultant with CB is
=
+

90
120 cos 18 . 0 09 . 0
120 sin 18 . 0
tan
1
2. Two particles Aand B having charges 8.0 10
6
C and 2.0 10
6
C respectively are held fixed with a
separation of 20 cm. Where should a third charged particle be placed so that is does not experience a
net electric force ?
Sol. As the net electric force on C should be equal to zero, the force due to A and B must be opposite in
direction. Hence, the particle should be placed on the line AB. As A and B have charges of opposite
signs, C cannot be between A and B. Also, Ahas larger magnitude of charge than B. Hence, C should
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
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manishkumarphysics.in
be placed closer to B than A. The situation is shown in figure.
Suppose BC = x and the charge on C is Q.
The force due to
2
0
6
) x cm 20 ( 4
Q ) C 10 0 . 8 (
A
+ tc

=

.
The force due to
2
0
6
x 4
Q ) C 10 0 . 2 (
B
tc

=

.
They are oppositely directed and to have a zero resultant, they should be equal in magnitude. Thus,
2 2
x
2
) x cm 20 (
8
=
+
or, 2
x
x cm 20
=
+
, giving x = 20 cm.
3. Three equal charges, each having a magnitude of 2.0 10
6
C, are placed at the three corners of a right-
angled triangle of sides 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm. Find the force on the charge at the right-angle corner.
Sol.
The situation is shown in figure. The force on A due to B is
2
0
9 6
1
) cm 4 ( 4
) C 10 0 . 2 ( ) C 10 0 . 2 (
F
tc

=

= 9 10
9
2 4
2 12
2
2
m 10 16
1
C 10 0 . 4
C
m N

= 22.5 N
This force acts along BA. Similarly, the force on A due to C is F
2
= 40 N in the directin of CA. Thus, the
net electric force on A is
2
2
2
1
F F F + =
2 2
) N 40 ( ) N 5 . 22 ( + = = 45.9 N.
This resultant makes an angle u with BA where
tanu =
9
16
5 . 22
40
=
4. Two small iron particles, each of mass 280 mg, are placed at a distance 10 cm apart. If 0.01% of the
electron of one particle are transferred to the other, find the electric force between them. Atomic weight
of iron is 56 g/mol and there are 26 electrons in each atom of iron.
Sol. The atomic weight of iron is 56 g/mol. Thus, 56 g of iron contains 6 10
23
atoms and each atom
contains 26 electrons. Hence, 280 mg of iron contains
g 56
26 10 6 mg 280
23

= 7.8 10
22
electrons.
The number of electrons transferred from one particle to another
18 22
10 8 . 7 10 8 . 7
100
01 . 0
= =
.
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
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The charge transferred is, therefore,
1.6 10
19
C 7.8 10
18
= 1.2 C.
The electric force between the particles is
2 2
2
2
2
9
) m 10 10 (
) C 2 . 1 (
C
m N
10 9

|
|
.
|

\
|

= 1.3 10
12
N.
This equals the load of approximately 2000 million grown-up persons ?
5. A charge Q is to be divided on two objects, What should be the values of the charges on the objects so
that the force between the objects can be maximum ?
Sol. Suppose one object receives a charge q and the other Q q. The force between the objects is
2
0
d 4
) q Q ( q
F
tc

=
,
where d is the separation between them. For F to be maximum, the quantity
y = q(Q q) = Qq q
2
should be maximum. This is the case when,
dq
dy
= 0 or, Q 2q = 0 or, q = Q/2
Thus, the charge should be divided equally on the two objects.
6. Two particles, each having a mass of 5 g and charge 1.0 10
7
C, stay in limiting equilibrium on a
horizontal table with a separation of 10 cm between them. The coefficient of friction between each
particle and the table is the same. Find the value of this coefficient.
Sol. The electric force on one of the particles due to the other is
2
2 7
2
2
9
) m 10 . 0 (
1
) C 10 0 . 1 (
C
m N
10 9 F
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

The frictional force in limiting equilibrium
f = (5 10
-3
kg) 9.8 m/s
2
= (0.049 ) N.
As these two forces balance each other,
0.049 = 0.009
or = 0.18.
7. A vertical electric field of magnitude 4.00 10
5
N/C just prevents a water droplet of mass
1.00 10
4
kg from falling. Find the charge on the droplet.
Sol. The forces acting on the droplet are
(i) the electric force E q

and
(ii) the force of gravity g m

.
To just prevent from falling, these two forces should be equal and opposite. Thus,
q(4.00 10
5
N/C) = (1.00 10
4
kg) (9.8 m/s
2
)
or q = 2.45 10
9
C.
8. Three charges, each equal to q, are placed at the three corners of a square of side a. Find the electric
field at the fourth corner.
Sol.
Let the charges be placed at the corners A, B and C (figure). We shall calculate the electric field at the
fourth corner D. The field E
1
due to the charge at A will have the magnitude
2
0
a 4
q
tc
and will be along
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
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manishkumarphysics.in
AD. The field E
2
due to the charge at C will have the same magnitude and will be along CD.
The field E
3
due to the charge at B will have the magnitude
2
0
) a 2 ( 4
q
tc
and will be along BD. As E
1
and E
2
are equal in magnitude, their resultant will be along the bisector of the angle between E
1
, E
2
and
hence along E
3
. The magnitude of this resultant is
2
2
2
1
E E + as the angle between E
1
and E
2
is t/2.
The resultant electric field at D is, therefore, along E
3
and has magnitude
3
2
2
2
1
E E E + +
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
) a 2 ( 4
q
a 4
q
a 4
q
tc
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
tc
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
tc
=
2
0
2 2
0
a 8
q
) 1 2 2 (
a 2
1
a
2
4
q
tc
+ =
(
(

+
tc
=
.
9. A charged particle of mass 1.0 g is suspended through a silk thread of length 40 cm in a horizontal
electric field of 4.0 10
4
N/C. If the particle stays at a distance of 24 cm from the wall in equalibrium,
find the charge on the particle.
Sol.
The situation is shown in figure
The forces acting on the particle are
(i) the electric force F = qE horizontally,
(ii) the force of gravity mg downward and
(iii) the tension T along the thread.
As the particle is at rest, these forces should add to zero.
Taking components along horizontal and vertical,
T cosu = mg and T sinu = F
or, F = mg tanu ...........(i)
From the figure,
sinu =
5
3
40
24
=
.
Thus, tanu =
4
3
. From (i),
q(4.0 10
4
N/C) = (1.0 10
3
kg) (9.8 m/s
2
)
4
3
,
giving q = 1.8 10
7
C.
10. A particle A having a charge of 5.0 10
7
C is fixed in a vertical wall. A second particle B of mass 100
g and having equal charge is suspended by a silk thread of length 30 cm from the wall. The point of
suspension is 30 cm above the particle A. Find the angle of the thread with the vertical when it stays in
equilibrium.
Sol.
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
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manishkumarphysics.in
The situation is shown in figure. Suppose the point of suspension is O and let u be the angle between
the thread and the vertical. Forces on the particle B are
(i) weight mg downward
(ii) tension T along the thread and
(iii) electric force of repulsion F along AB.
For equilibrium, these forces should add to zero. Let X BX be the line perpendicular to OB. We shall
take the components of the forces BX. This will give a relation between F, mg and u.
The various angles are shown in the figure. As
2
90 OAB OBA
u
= Z = Z .
The other angles can be written down directly.
Taking components along BX, we get
2
cos F
u
= mg cos(90 u)
= 2 mg sin
2
cos
2
u u
or,
mg 2
F
2
sin =
u
. ........ (i)
Now,
2
2 7
2
2
9
AB
1
) C 10 0 . 5 (
C
m N
10 9 F
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

and AB = 2(OA) sin


2
u
.
Thus,
mg 2
1
.
2
sin ) 10 30 ( 4
10 25 10 9
F
2 2 2
14 9
u


=

.............(ii)
From (i) and (ii)
mg 2
F
2
sin =
u
=
mg 2
1
.
2
sin ) 10 30 ( 4
N 10 25 10 9
2 2 2
11 9
u

or, sin
3
2
3 2
14 9
s
m
8 . 9 ) kg 10 100 ( 2 10 9 4
N 10 25 10 9
2


=
u

= 0.0032
or,
2
sin
u
= 0.15, giving u = 17.
11. Four particles, each having a charge q, are placed on the four vertices of a regular pentagon. The
distance of each corner from the centre is x. Find the electric field at the centre of the pentagon.
Sol.
Let the charges be placed at the vertices A, B, C and D of the pentagon ABCDE. If we put a charge q
at the corner E also, the field at O will be zero by symmetry. Thus, the field at the centre due to the
charges at A, B, C and D is equal and opposite to the field due to the charge q at E alone.
The field at O due to the charge q at E is
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
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manishkumarphysics.in
2
0
a 4
q
tc
along EO.
Thus, the field at O due to the given system of charges is 2
0
a 4
q
tc
along OE.
12. Find the electric field at a point P on the perpendicular bisector of a uniformly charged rod. The length
of the rod is L, the charge on it is Q and the distance of P from the centre of the rod is a.
Sol.
Let us take an element of length dx at a distance x from the centre of the rod (figure). The charge on
this element is
dx
L
Q
dQ = .
The electric field at P due to this element is
2
0
) AP ( 4
dQ
dE
tc
=
.
By symmetry, the resultant field at P will be along OP (if the charge is positive). The component of dE
along OP is
dE cosu = 2 / 3 2 2
0
2
0
) x a ( L 4
dx Q a
AP
OP
.
) AP ( 4
dQ
+ tc
=
tc
Thus, the resultant field at P is
}
u = cos dE E
}

+
tc
=
2 / L
2 / L
2 / 3 2 2
0
) x a (
dx
L 4
aQ
. ....... (i)
We have x = a tanu or dx = a sec
2
u du
Thus,
} }
u
u u
=
+
3 3
2
2 / 3 2 2
sec a
d sec a
) x a (
dx
2 / 1 2 2 2 2 2
) a x (
x
a
1
sin
a
1
d cos
a
1
+
= u = u u =
}
From (i),
2 / L
2 / L
2 / 1 2 2 2
0
) a x (
x
La 4
aQ
E

(
(

+ tc
=
(
(

+ tc
=
2 / 1 2 2 2
0
) a 4 L (
L 2
La 4
aQ
2 2
0
a 4 L a 2
Q
+ tc
=
.
13. Auniform electric field E is created between two parallel, charged plates as shown in figure. As electron
enters the field symmetrically between the plates with a speed v
0
. The length of each plate is l. Find the
angle of deviation of the path of the electron as it comes out of the field.
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 9
manishkumarphysics.in
Sol. The acceleration of the electron is a =
m
eE
in the upward direction. The horizontal velocity remain v
0
as
there is no acceleration in this direction. Thus, the time taken in crossing the field is
0
v
t
l
= . ....... (i)
The upward component of the velocity of the electron as it emerges from the field region is
0
y
mv
eE
at v
l
= =
.
The horizontal component of the velocity remains
v
x
= v
0
.
The angle u made by the resultant velocity with the original direction is given by
2
0
x
y
mv
eEl
v
v
tan = = u
.
Thus, the electron deviates by an angle
2
0
1
mv
eE
tan
l

= u .
14. In a circuit, 10 C of charge is passed through a battery in a given time. The plates of the battery are
maintained at a potential difference of 12 V. How much work is done by the battery ?
Sol. By definition, the work done to transport a charge q through a potential difference V is qV. Thus, work
done by the battery
= 10 C 12 V = 120 J.
15. Charges 2.0 10
6
C and 1.0 10
6
C are placed at corners A and B of a square of side 5.0 cm as
shown in figure. How much work will be done against the electric field in moving a charge of
1.0 10
6
C from C to D ?
Sol. The electric potential at C
|
.
|

\
|
+
tc
=
BC
q
AC
q
4
1
2 1
0
|
|
.
|

\
|

+


=

m 05 . 0
C 10 0 . 1
m 05 . 0 2
C 10 0 . 2
C
m N
10 9
6 6
2
2
9
(9000 V)
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
05 . 0 2
2 2
.
The electric potential at D
|
.
|

\
|
+
tc
=
BD
q
AD
q
4
1
2 1
0
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

=

m 5 . 0 2
C 10 0 . 1
m 05 . 0
C 10 0 . 2
C
m N
10 9
6 6
2
2
9
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 10
manishkumarphysics.in
(9000 V)
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
05 . 0 2
1 2 2
.
The work done against the electric field in moving the charge 1.0 10
-6
C from C to D is q(V
D
V
C
)
= (1.0 10
-6
C) (9000 V)
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
05 . 0 2
2 2 1 2 2
= 0.053 J.
16. The electric field in a region is given by i ) x / A ( E
3

= . Write a suitable SI unit for A. Write an expression
for the potential in the region assuming the potential at infinity to be zero.
l+=i -i zi n l - -i zi i ) x / A ( E
3

= ,ii l<i i-i t A+ ln( - +- SI nizi+ -i: := -i zi n li +i - +-
<i n lnli( . t ni-- t ( l+ ~--- li zi - t HCV_Ch-29_WOE_16
Sol. The SI unit of electric field is N/C or V/m. Thus,
the unit of A is
C
m N
3

or V m
2
.
V(x, y, z) =
}

) z , y , x (
r d . E

2
) z , y , x (
3
x 2
A
x
dx A
= =
}

17. Three point charges q, 2q and 8q are to be placed on a 9 cm long straight line. Find the positions where
the charges should be placed such that the potential energy of this system is minimum. In this situation,
what is the electric field at the charge q due to the other two charges ?
Sol. The maximum contribution may come from the charge 8q forming pairs with others. To reduce its
effect, it should be placed at a corner and the smallest charge q in the middle. This arrangement shown
in figure ensures that the charges in the strongest pair 2q, 8q are at the largest separation.
The potential energy is
(

+ +
tc
=
x cm 9
8
cm 9
16
x
2
4
q
U
0
2
.
This will be minimum if
x cm 9
8
x
2
A

+ =
is minimum.
For this, 0
) x cm 9 (
8
x
2
dx
dA
2 2
=

+ =
or, 9 cm x = 2x or, x = 3 cm.
The electric field at the position of charge q is
|
|
.
|

\
|

tc
2 2
0 ) x cm 9 (
8
x
2
4
q
= 0
18. An HCl molecule has a dipole moment of 3.4 10
30
Cm. Assuming that equal and opposite charges
lie on the two atoms to form a dipole, what is the magnitude of this charge ? The separation between
the two atoms of HCl is 1.0 10
10
m.
Sol. If the charges on the two atoms are q, q,
q(1.0 10
10
m) = 3.4 10
30
C-m.
or, q = 3.4 10
20
C.
Note that this is less than the charge of a proton. Can you explain, how such a charge can appear on
an atom ?
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 11
manishkumarphysics.in
19. Figure shows an electric dipole formed by two particles fixed at the ends of a light rod of length l. The
mass of each particle is m and the charges are q and + q. The system is placed in such a way that
the dipole axis is parallel to a uniform electric field E that exists in the region. The dipole is slightly
rotated about its centre and released. Show that for small angular displacement, the motion is angular
simple harmonic and find its time period.
Sol. Suppose, the dipole axis makes an angle u with the electric field at an instant. The magnitude of the
torque on it is
| E p | | |

= t
= qlE sinu.
This torque will tend to rotate the dipole back towards the electric field. Also, for small angular
displacement sinu ~ u so that
t = qlEu.
The moment of inertia of the system about the axis of rotation is
2 2
2
l l m
m 2
2
= |
.
|

\
|
= I
.
Thus, the angular acceleration is
o =
u e = u =
t
2
m
qE 2
l I
where e
2
=
l m
qE 2
.
Thus, the motion is angular simple harmonic and the time period is T = 2t
qE 2
ml
.
QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER
1. The charge on a proton is + 1.6 10
19
C and that on an electron is 1.6 10
19
C. Does it mean that
the electron has a charge 3.2 10
19
C less than the charge of a proton ?
2. Is there any lower limit to the electric force between two particles placed at a separation of 1 cm ?
3. Consider two particles A and B having equal charges and placed at some distance. The particle A is
slightly displaced towards B. Does the force on B increase as soon as the particle A is displaced ?
Does the force on the particle A increase as soon as it is displaced ?
4. Can a gravitational field be added vectorially to an electric field to get a total field ?
5. Why does a phonograph-record attract dust particles just after it is cleaned ?
6. Does the force on a charge due to another charge depend on the charges present nearby ?
7. In some old texts it mentioned that 4t lines of force originate from each unit positive charge. Comment
on the statement in view of the fact that 4t is not an integer.
8. Can two equipotential surface cut each other ?
9. If a charge is placed at rest in an electric field, will its path be along a line of force ? Discuss the
situation when the lines of force are straight and when they are curved.
10. Consider the situation shown in figure. What are the signs of q
1
and q
2
? If the lines are drawn in
proportion to the charge, what is the ratio q
1
/q
2
?
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
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manishkumarphysics.in
11. A point charge is taken from a point A to a point B in an electric field. Does the work done by the
electric field depend on the path of the charge ?
12. It is said that the separation between the two charges forming an electric dipole should be small. Small
compared to what ?
13. The number of electrons in an insulator is of the same order as the number of electrons in a conductor.
What is then the basic difference between a conductor and an insulator ?
14. When a charged comb is brought near a small piece of paper, it attracts the piece. Does the paper
become charged when the comb is brought near it ?
OBJECTIVE I
1. Fig. shown some of the electronic field lines corresponding to an electric to an electric field. The figure
suggests that -
l--- <lzi - l-zi n (+ l - -i zi = =-z l - n ii( <zii i n: t -
(A) E
A
> E
B
> E
C
(B) E
A
= E
B
= E
C
(C*) E
A
= E
C
> E
B
(D) E
A
= E
C
< E
B
2. When the seperation between two charges is incresased, the electric potential energy of the charges
(A) increases (B) decresaes
(C) remains the same (D*) may increase or decrease
<i ~i zii + n < i ci: i-i t -i ~i zii +i l - l-il- -i -
(A) c-i t (B) i-i t
(C) - t-i t (D*) c i i =+-i t
3. If a positive charge is shifted from a low-potential region to a high-potential region, the electric potential
energy
(A*) increases (B) decresaes
(C) remains the same (D) may increase or decrease
~n (+ i-in+ ~i zi +i - - li -i zi = --- li -i zi +i ~i n i- t -i l - -i HCV_29_Obj I_3
(A*) c-i t (B) i-i t
(C) (+ =ni- t-i t (D) i =+-i t i c =+-i t
4. Two equal positive charges are kept at points A and B. The electric potential at the points between A
and B (excluding these points) is studied while moving fromAto B. The potential [HCV_Chp.29_Obj_4]
(A) continuously increases (B) continuosly decreases
(C) increases then decreases (D*) decreases than increases
<i =ni- i-in+ ~i zi l-< A B i t A= B +i ~i -n- t ( l-< A B + n l - li +i ~-
(:- l-< ~i + ~l-l+-) l+i i-i t l - li -
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 13
manishkumarphysics.in
(A) nni-i c-i t (B) tn c-i t l+ i-i t
(C) nni-i i-i t (D*) tn i-i t l+ c-i t
5. The electric field at the origin is along the positive X-axis. Asmall circle is drawn with the centre at the
origin cutting theaxes at points A, B, C and D having coordinates (a,0), (0,a), (-a,0), (0,-a) respectively.
Out of the points on the periphery of the circle, the potential is minimum at -
n n l-< l - -i zi i-in+ X-~-i + ~- l<zi t n n l-< +i + -< ni-- t ( (+ zi i -i ii -i i-i t i ~-ii
+i A, B, C D l-< ~i +i-i t :- l-< ~i + l-< zii + +nzi (a,0), (0,a), (-a,0), (0,-a) t -i +i lli
l-i- l-< ~i n = - --n li ti ni -
(A*) A (B) B (C) C (D) D
6. If a body is charged by rubbing it, is weight -
(A) remains precisely constant (B) increases slightly
(C) decreases slightly (D*) may increase slightly or may decrease slightly
l< (+ l-+i +i n+ ~i lzi- l+i i-i t -i :=+i <ni- -
(A) l-- t-i t (B) ii i =i c-i t
(C) ii i =i i-i t (D*) ii i =i c ~ii ii i =i i =+-i t
7. An electric dipole is placed in a uniform electric field. The net electric force on the dipole -
(A*) is always zero (B) depends on the orientation of the dipole
(C) can never be zero (D) dependw on the strength of the dipole
(+ l - l,i +i (+ =ni- l - -i zi n ii i-i t l,i + n l - n -
(A*) tn zii zi - ti -i t (B) l,i + ~lil-i= l-i +-i t
(C) +ii ii zi - -ti ti =+-i t (D) l,i + =in l-i +-i t
8. Consider the situtaion fig. The work done in taking a point charge from P to A is W
A
, from P to B is W
B
and from P to C is W
C
l--- <lzi- l-zi l-i l+l( l-< ~izi +i P = A -+ n i- n W
A
P = B -+ n i- n W
B
-ii P =
C -+ n i- n W
C
+i +-i -i t
(A) W
A
< W
B
< W
C
(B) W
A
> W
B
> W
C
(C*) W
A
= W
B
= W
C
(D) none of these
9. A point charge q is rotated along a circle in the electric field generated by another point charge Q. The
work done by the electric field on the roatating charge in one complete revolution is
(A*) zero (B) positive (C) negative
(D) zero if the charge Q is at the centre and nonzero otherwise
(+ l-< ~i zi q +i (+ ~- l-< ~i zi Q ,ii --- l - -i zi n (+ -i + ~- l<zi i nii i-i t l - -i zi
n (+ -i + ~- l<zi i nii i-i t l - -i zi ,ii (+ i -+ n i li - ~i zi l+i ni +i ti ni -
(A*) zi- (B) i-in+ (C) +iin+
(D) zi - l< ~i zi Q + -< t ~ii ~zi -
OBJECTIVE II
1. Mark out the correct options.
(A*) The total charge of the universe is constant.
(B) The total positive charge of the universe is constant.
(C) The total negative charge of the universe is constant
(D) The total number of charged particles in the universe is constant
l--- n = =ti l+- t -
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
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manishkumarphysics.in
(A*) lz +i + n ~i zi l-- t (B) lz +i + n ~i zi l-- t
(C) lz +i + n +iin+ ~i zi l-- t (D) lz n ~i lzi- +ii +i + n = i l-- t
2. A point charge is brought in an electric field. The electric field at a nearby point HCV II _Ch-29_Obj.2_2
l - -i zi n (+ l-< ~i zi +i nii i-i t -<i+ + l-< l - -i zi
(A) will increase if the charge is positive (B) will decrease if the charge is negative
(C*) may increase if the charge is positive (D*) may decrease if the charge is negative
(A) c ni ~n ~i zi i-in+ t (B) i ni ~n ~izi +iin+ t
(C*) c =+-i t ~n ~i zi i-in+ t (D*) i =+-i t ~n ~i zi +iin+ t
3. The electric field and the electric potential at a point are E and V respectively
(A) If E = 0, V must be zero (B) If V = 0, E must be zero
(C) If E = 0, V cannot be zero (D) If V = 0, E cannot be zero
l+=i l-< l - -i zi ( l - li +nzi E V t -
(A) l< E = 0, V ii zi- tini (B) l< V = 0, E ii zi- tini
(C) l< E = 0, V zi- -ti ti =+-i (D) l< V = 0, E zi- -ti ti =+-i
Ans. None of these :-n = +i: -ti
4. The electric potential decreases uniformly from 120 V to 80 V as one moves on the X-axis from
x = 1 cm to x = + 1 cm. The electric field at the origin
(A) must be equal to 20V/cm (B*)may be equal to 20V/cm
(C*) may be greater than 20V/cm (D) may be less than 20V/cm
x-~-i + ~- l<zix = 1 = ni = x = +1 = ni -+ nl- +- l - li (+ =ni- = 120 i - = 80 i - -+
i-i t + -< l-< l - -i zi -
(A) 20 i-=ni + i ti-i -ilt( (B*) 20 i-=ni + i ti =+-i t
(C*) 20 i-=ni = i<i ti =+-i t (D) 20 i-=ni = +n ti =+-i t
5. Which of the following quantites do not depend on the choice of zero potential or zero potential energy
(A) potential at a point
(B*) potential difference between two points
(C) potential energy of a two - charge system
(D*) change in potential energy of a two-charge system
l--- n = +i -=i ilzii zi - li i zi - l-il- -i + -- l-i -ti +-i t -
(A) (+ l-< li
(B*) <i l-< ~i + n lii--
(C) <i ~i zii + l-+i +i l-il- -i
(D*) <i ~izii + l-+i +i l-il- -i n l- -
6. An electric dipole is placed in an electric field generated by a point charge
(A) The net electric force on the dipole must be zero
(B) The net electric force on the dipole may be zero
(C) The torque on the dipole due to the field must be zero
(D*) The torque on the dipole due to the field may be zero
(+ l - l,i l-< ~i zi ,ii --- l - -i zi n ii t -
(A) l,i + n - n zi - ti -i -ilt(
(B) l,i + n - n zi - ti =+-i t
(C) -i zi + +ii l,i n ~ii i zi - ti -i -ilt(
(D*) -i zi + +ii l,i n ~ii i zi - ti =+-i t
7. A proton and an electron are placed in a unifrorm electric field. [HCV_CHP_29_OBJ-2_7]
(A) The electric forces acting on them will be equal
(B*) The magnitudes of the forces will be equal
(C) Their acelerations will be equal
(D) The magnitudes of the accelerations will be equal.
(+ i i- (+ :n + i- (+ =n l - -i zi n i n( t -
(A) -- nn- ini - n i tin (B*) ni + lnii i ti n
(C) --+ i i tin (D) --+ i + lnii i ti n
8. The electric field in a region is directed outward and is propertional to the distance r form the origin.
Taking the electric potential at the origin to be zero
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 15
manishkumarphysics.in
(A) it is uniform in the region (B) it is proportional to r
(C*) it is proportional to r
2
(D) it increases as one goes away from the origin
(+ -i zi n l - -i zi it +i ~i t -ii n n l-< = < i r =ni- i-i t n n l-< l - li +i ni- zi - n -
-
(A) li -i zi n (+ =ni- t (B) li r + =ni- i-i t
(C*) li r
2
+ =ni-i-i t (D) li n n l-< = < i- c-i t
EXERCISES
1. Find the dimensional formula of c
0
.
c
0
+i lni = zi ai- +il(
Ans. I
2
M
1
L
3
T
4
2. A charge of 1.0 C is placed at the top of the your college building and another equal charge at the top
of your house. Take the separation between the two charges to be 2.0 km. Find the force exerted by
the charges on each other. How many times of your weight is this force ?
1.0 C +i (+ ~i zi ~i+ ntilin i- + lzii ii t . l+ < =i =ni- ~i zi ~i+ i + lzii ii
t <i -i ~i zii + n < i 2.0 l+ni ni- lnl( ~i zii ,ii (+ < = nnii ni n l-+iln( t n ~i+
ii +i l+--i n -i t `
Ans.
4
9
10
3
N = 2.25 10
3
N
3. At what separations should two equal charges, 1.0 C each, be placed so that the force between them
equals the weight of a 50 kg person ? (g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
1.0 C + <i =ni- ~i zii +i (+ < = = l+--i < i i-i -ilt(. -il+ --+ n n 50 l+ni + l+- + ii
+ i ti (g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
Ans.
7
30
10
3
m
4. Two equal charges are placed at a separation of 1.0 m. What should be the magnitude of the charges
so that the force between them equals the weight of a 50 kg person ? (g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
<i =ni- ~i zi (+ < = = 1.0 ni. < i i t ~i zii +i lnii l+--i ti -i -ilt( -il+ --+ n n 50 l+ni
+ l+- + ii + i ti (g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
Ans.
3
7
10
4
C
5. Find the electric force between two protons separated by a distance of 1 fermi (1 fermi = 10
15
m). The
protons in a nucleus remain at a separation of this order.
<i i i- i (+ < = = 1 +ni (1 +ni = 10
15
ni) <i t . + n l- n l-+iln -ii+ n ii-i + n
<i := +il +i ti-i t
Ans. 230.4 N
6. Two charges 2.0 10
6
C and 1.0 10
6
C are placed at a separation of 10 cm. Where should a third
charge be placed such that it experiences no net force due to these charges ?
<i ~i zi 2.0 10
6
+ nin -ii 1.0 10
6
+ ni n (+ < = = 10 = ni +i < i i n t (+ -i=i ~i zi +ti
ii i-i -ilt(. l== t :- ~i zii + +ii +i: liini n ~- i -i +
Ans.
2 10 20
1 2
2 10
=
+
= 5.9 cm from the larger charge in between the two charges
7. Suppose the second charge in the previous problem is 1.0 10
6
C. Locate the position where a third
charge will not experience a net force.
ni- lnl( z- n < =i ~i zi 1.0 10
6
C t t l-il- l-ii l- l+l( ti (+ -i=i ~i zi +i : liini
n ~- i - +
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 16
manishkumarphysics.in
Ans.
) 1 2 ( 10
1 2
10
+ =

= 24.1 cm from the charge of smaller magnitude on the line joining the charge in
the side of the smaller charge.
8. Two charged particles are placed at a distance 1.0 cm apart. What is the minimum possible magnitude
of the electric force acting on each charge ?
<i ~i lzi- +i (+ < = = 1.0 = ni < i t + ~i zi nn- in - n +i - --n = i ni- +i t `
Ans. 2.3 10
24
N
9. Estimate the number of electrons in 100 g of water. How much is the total negative charge on these
electrons ?
100 n in i-i n :n +i-i +i = i +i ~i+n- +il( :- :n+i-i +n +i ~izi l+--i t`
Ans. 3.35 10
25
, 5.35 10
6
C
10. Suppose all the electrons of 100 g water are lumped together to form a negatively charged particle and
all the nuclei are lumped together to form a positivively charged particle. If these two particles are
placed 10.0 cm away from each other, find the force of attraction between them. Compare it with your
weight.
ni- lnl( +i 100 n in i-i + =ii :n + i -i +i :+a ai + (+ +i ~i lzi- +i -i l<i i-i t -ii =ii -ili+i
+i :+aai + i- ~i lzi- +i -i l<i i-i t l< <i +i (+ < = = 10.0 = ni < i i- t -i --+ n
~i+i i n l-+iln( := n +i ~- ii = -n-i +il(
Ans. 2.56 10
25
N
11. Consider a gold nucleus to be a sphere of radius 6.9 fermi in which protons and neutrons are distributed.
Find the force of repulsion between two protons situated at largest separation. Why do these protons
not fly apart under this repulsion ?
=i - + (+ -ili+ +i 6.9 +ni lzii + ni n + n nil- l=n i i - - i - l-l- t . (+ < = = ~li+-n
< i l-i- <i i i-i + n l-+ii n ai- +il( ii- := l-+ii + +ii (+ <= = +i -ti
ti i-`
Ans. 1.2 N
12. Two insulating small spheres are rubbed aganist each other and placed 1 cm apart. If they attract each
other with a force of 0.1 N, how many electrons were transferred from one sphere to the other during
rubbing ? [HCV_CHP-29_EX.12]
<i zi ~-in+ ni n (+ < = = n + 1 = ni +i < i i l< i- t l< (+ < = +i 0.1 N + n =
~i+li- +- t -i n- + <ii- (+ nin = <= l+-- :n+i- -ii-i-l- t(`
Ans. 2 10
11
13. NaCl molecule is bound due to the electric force between the sodium and the chlorine ions when one
electron of sodium is transferred to chlorine. Taking the separation between the ions to be
2.75 10
8
cm, find the force of attraction between them. State the assumptions (if any) that you have
made.
NaCl ~i =i ln ( +ni l- ~i-i + n - n + +ii z ~-ii n t . l+ =i ln +i (+ :n + i - +ni i-
+i -ii-i--l- ti -i t ~i-i + n < i 2.75 10
8
= ni n - t (. --+ n ~i+i i n ai- +il( ~i+ ,ii
+i n: +--i~i (l< +i : t ) +i +- +il(
Ans. 3.05 10
9
N
14. Find the ratio of the electric and gravitational forces between two protons.
<i ii-i + n - ( ni ni +i ~-i- ai- +il(
Ans. 1.23 10
36
15. Suppose an attracti ve nucl ear f orce acts between two protons whi ch may be wri tten as
F = Ce
kr
/r
2
. (a) Write down the dimensional formulae and appropriate SI units of C and k. (b) Suppose
t hat k = 1 f ermi
1
and t hat t he r epul si ve el ect ri c f orce bet ween t he pr ot ons i s j ust
balanced by the attractive nuclear when the separation is 5 fermi. Find the value of C.
ni- lnl( +i <i i i - + n (+ -ili+i ~i+i i n +i +-i t . l= F = Ce
kr
/r
2
,ii lnii i =+-i t (a)
C ( K + lni = zi ( - +- SI nizi+ lnli( (b) ni- lnl( l+ k = 1 +ni
1
-ii i i -i + n - l-+i i
n -ili+i ~i+i i n = ai+ = - ln- ti -i t --+ n <i 5 +ni t -i C +i ni- ai- +il(
Ans. (a) ML
3
T
2
, L
1
, Nm
2
, (b) 3.4 10
26
Nm
2
16. Three equal charges, 2.0 10
6
C each, are held fixed at the three corners of an equilateral triangle of
side 5 cm. Find the coulomb force experienced by one of the charges due to the rest two.
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 17
manishkumarphysics.in
2.0 10
6
+ nin + -i- =ni- ~i zi 5 = ni i i + (+ =nit lzii + ziiii i n( t l+=i (+ ~i zi
~- <i -i ~i zii + +ii nnii ni + nin n ai- +il(
Ans. 24.9 N at 30 with the extended sides from the charge under consideration.
17. Four equal charges 2.0 10
6
C each are fixed at the four corners of a square of side 5 cm. Find the
coulomb force experienced by one of the charges due to the rest three.
2.0 10
6
+ nin + -i =ni- ~i zi 5 = ni i i + (+ n + +i -i i n( t l+=i (+ ~i zi ~- -i-i
~i zii + +ii nnii ni + nin n ai- +il(
Ans. 27.5 N at 45 with the extended sides of the square from the charge under consideration.
18. A hydrogen atom contains one proton and one electron. It may be assumed that the electron revolves
in a circle of radius 0.53 angstrom (1 angstrom = 10
10
m and is abbreviated as ) with the proton at the
centre. The hydrogen atom is said to be in the ground state in this case. Find the magnitude of the
electric force between the proton and the electron of a hydrogen atom in its ground state.
(+ ti: i - nii n (+ :n + i - (+ i i - ti -i t i i - +i + -< n - t ( t ni-i i =+-i t l+ :n + i -
0.53 lzii + -i = -++ nni-i t (1 angstrom = 10
10
m) := l-il- n ti: i - nii +i n n ~-ii
n +ti i-i t ti: i - nii +i n n ~-ii n +ti i-i t ti: i - nii +i n n ~-ii n i i - :n + i -
+ n - n +i ni- ai- +il(
Ans. 8.2 10
8
N
19. Find the speed of the electron in the ground state of a hydrogen atom. The description of ground state
is given in the previous problem.
(+ ti: i - nii +i n n ~-ii n :n + i- +i -in ai- +il( n n ~-ii + i n z- n -ii ni t
Ans. 2.18 10
6
m/s
20. Ten positively charged particle are kept fixed on the X-axis at points x = 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, ....., 100
cm. The first particle has a charge 1.0 1.0
8
C, the second 8 10
8
C, the third 27 10
8
C and so on.
The tenth particle has a charge 1000 10
8
C. Find the magnitude of the electric force acting on a 1 C
charge placed at the origin.
<= i- ~i lzi- +i X-~-i x = 10 = ni, 20 = ni, 30 = ni, ....., 100 = ni. l-< ~i i n( t tn +i ~i zi
1.0 1.0
8
C, <= 8 10
8
C, -i= 27 10
8
C ~i :=i +i <= +i ~izi 1000 10
8
C t
nn l-< i 1 C + ~i zi +i- - n +i ni- ai- +il(
Ans. 4.95 10
5
N
21. Two charged particles having charge 2.0 10
8
C each are joined by an insulating string of length 1 m
and the system is kept on a smooth horizontal table. Find the tension in the string.
<i ~i lzi- +i. l-n + ~i zi 2.0 10
8
+ ni n t . 1 ni. +i + -in+ i i = i n( t l-+i +i (+ l-+-i
-i l- ln ii ni t i i n --i ai- +il(
Ans. 3.6 10
6
N
22. Two identical balls, each having a charge of 2.00 10
7
C and a mass of 100 g, are suspended from a
common point by two insulating strings each 50 cm long. The balls are held at a separation 5.0 cm
apart and then released. Find (a) the electric force on one of the charged balls (b) the components of
the resultant force on it along and perpendicular to the string (c) the tension in the string (d) the
acceleration of one of the balls. Answers are to be obtained only for the instant just after the release.
2.00 10
7
C ~i zi 100 n in < ni- + +i <i =ni- n <i +i (+ -il-a l-< = 50 = ni + n-i: +i
+ -in+ i li ,ii n+ii ni t <i -i n <i +i (+ < = = 5.0 = ni < n i+ zi l<i i-i t ai- +il(
: (a) l+=i (+ ~i lzi- n < - n (b) n < i i + ~- l<zi ( n-- liini n + i+ (c) i i n --i
(d) l+=i (+ n < +i i n <i +i zi- + - -- z-i- + +i + ln( ti --i ai- +- t
Ans. (a) 0.144 N
(b) zero, 0.095 N away from the other charge
(c) 0.986 N and
(d) 0.95 m/s
2
perpendicular to the string and going away from the other charge
23. Two identical pith balls are charged by rubbing against each other. They are suspended from a horizontal
rod through two strings of length 20 cm each, the separation between the suspension points being 5
cm. In equilibrium, the separation between the balls is 3 cm. Find the mass of each ball and the
tension in the strings. The charge on each ball has a magnitude 2.0 10
8
C.
<i =ni- n <i +i (+ < = = n+ ~i lzi- l+i i-i t --t (+ -i l- z = 20 = ni n-i: +i <i i li ,ii
n+ii ni t . l-n-- l-< ~i + n < i 5 = ni t =i-i-ii n n <i + n < i 3 = ni t + n < +i < ni-
( i li n --i ai- +il( + n < ~i zi +i lnii 2.0 10
8
C t
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 18
manishkumarphysics.in
Ans. 8.2 g, 8.2 10
2
N
24. Two small spheres, each having a mass of 20 g, are suspended from a common point by two insulating
strings of length 40 cm each. The spheres are identically charged and the separation between the balls
at equilibrium is found to be 4 cm. Find the charge on each sphere.
20 nin <ni- + <i zi nini +i (+ -il-a l-< = 40 =ni n-i: +i <i +-in+ ili ,ii n+ii ni
t <i -i ni n =ni- = ~i lzi- t ( --+ n =i-i-ii n < i 4 =ni t + ni n ~i zi ai- +il(
Ans. 4.17 10
8
C
25. Two identical pith balls, each carrying a charge q, are suspended from a common point by two strings
of equal length l. Find the mass of each ball if the angle between the strings is 2u in equilibrium.
[HCV_CHP-29_EX.25]
q ~i zi +i <i =ni- n <i +i (+ -il-a l-< = =ni- n-i: +i i li ,ii n+ii ni t l< =i-i-ii n
ili + n +i i 2u ti -i + n < +i < ni- ai- +il(
Ans.
u tc
u
2 2
0
2
sin g 16
cot q
l
26. A particle having a charge of 2.0 10
4
C is placed directly below and at a separation of 10 cm from the
bob of a simple pendulum at rest. The mass of the bob is 100 g. What charge should the bob be given
so that the string becomes loose.
2.0 10
4
C ~i zi +i (+ +i (+ l-i =n ni n+ + ai+ -i- ni n+ = 10 = ni < i ii ni t ni n+ +i
<ni- 100 nin t ni n+ +i l+--i ~i zi l<i i( -il+ ii cni ti i(`
Ans. 5.4 10
9
C
27. Two particles A and B having charges q and 2q respectively are placed on a smooth table with a
separation d. A third particle C is to be clamped on the table in such a way that the particles A and B
remain at rest on the table under electrical forces. What should be the charge on C and where should
it be clamped ?
q 2q ~i zi + <i +i A B (+ l-+-i ln (+ < = = d < i i t ( t (+ -i=i +i C ln :=
-t = + + (clamped) ii i-i t l+ - ni + ii n A B ln l-i t C ~i zi l+--i ti ni
( := +ti + + ii i-i -ilt(`
Ans. (6 4
2
) q, between q and 2q at a distance of (
2
1) d from q.
28. Two identically charged particles are fastened to the two ends of a spring of spring constant 100 N/m
and natural length 10 cm. The system rests on a smooth horizontal table. If the charge on each particle
is 2.0 10
8
C, find the extension in the length of the spring. Assume that the extension is small as
compared to the natural length. Justify this assmuption after you solve the problem.
100 - -ni. l- n l--i + ( 10 ni. + n n-i: +i (+ l- n + <i -i l=i = <i =ni- ~i lzi- +i i t l-+i
(+ ii i lt- -i l- n l-ii-ii n t l< + +i ~i zi 2.0 10
8
C t -i l- n +i n-i: n l+--i
=i ti ni` ni- lnl( l+ =i n n n-i: +i - n-i n ~- t z- +i tn +- + z-i- := ni--i +i ~il-
-i:
Ans. 3.6 10
6
m
29. Aparticle Ahaving a charge of 2.0 10
6
C is held fixed on a horizontal table. Asecond charged particle
of mass 80 g stays in equilibrium on the table at a distance of 10 cm from the first charge. The
coefficient of friction between the table and this second particle is = 0.2. Find the range within which
the charge of this second particle may lie.
2.0 10
6
C ~i zi +i (+ +i (+ -i l- n -iil- t 80 n in +i (+ < =i ~i lzi- +i tn +i = 10 = ni
< i n =i-i-ii n t := < = +i n + n n ii + = 0.2 t < = +i + ~i zi +i i= ai- +il(
Ans. between 8.71 10
8
C
30. A particle A having a charge of 2.0 20
6
C and a mass of 100 g is placed at the bottom of a smooth
inclined plane of inclination 30 Where should another particle B, having same charge and mass, be
placed on the incline so that it may remain in equilibrium ?
100 n in < ni- 2.0 20
6
C ~i zi +i (+ +i 30 n +i in (+ l-+- ~i-- -n + l----n l-< ii
t =ni- ~i zi ( <ni- +i (+ ~- +i B ~i-- -n +ti ii i( -il+ t =i-i-ii n t
Ans. 27 cm from the bottom
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 19
manishkumarphysics.in
31. Two particles Aand B, each having a charge Q, are placed a distance d apart. Where should a particle
of charge q be placed on the perpendicular bisector of AB so that it experiences maximum force ?
What is the magnitude of this maximum force ?
Q ~i zi + <i +i A B (+ < = = d < i i n( t q ~i zi + (+ +i +i AB + n-- l,ii+ +ti
ii i-i -ilt(. l=- t ~lin- n ~- i + ` := ~li+-n n +i lnii l+--i ti ni`
Ans. d/2
2
, 3.08 2
0
d 4
Qq
tc
32. Two particles A and B, each carrying a charge Q, are held fixed with a separation d between them. A
particle C having mass m and charge q is kept at the middle point of the line AB. (a) If it is displaced
through a distance x perpendicular toAB, what would be the electric force experiencd by it. (b) Assuming
x << d, show that this force is proportional to x. (c) Under what conditions will the particle C execute
simple harmonic motion if it is released after such a small displacement ? Find the time period of the
oscillations if these conditions are satisfied.
Q ~i zi + <i +i A B (+ < = = d < i -iil- t m < ni- q ~i zi +i (+ +i C ii AB + n l-<
ii i-i t (a) l< := AB + n-- x < i l-iil- l+i i-i t . -i :=+ ,ii ~- i l+i ni n l+--i
tini (b) x << d, ni-- t(. <zii: l+ t n x + =ni-i-i t (c) l+- ll-il-i n +i C =n ~i- nl-
+ ni. l< := :=i +i ~- l-iil- + zi i i-i t ` l< l-il-i = - ti -i ti -i <i n- +i ~i- +in ai-
+il(
Ans. (a)
2 / 3
2
2
0
4
d
x 2
Qqx
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ tc
(c)
2
1
3
0
3
Qq
d m
(
(

c t
33. Repeat the previous problem if the particle C is displaced through a distance x along the line AB.
z- +i <iti: l< +i C +i <i +i AB + ~-l<zi x <i -+ l-iil- l+i i-i t`
Ans. time period
2
1
3
0
3
Qq 2
md
(
(

c t
=
34. The electric force experienced by a charge of 1.0 10
6
C is 1.5 10
3
N. Find the magnitude of the
electric field at the position of the charge.
1.0 10
6
C + ~i zi ,ii ~- i l+i ni - n 1.5 10
3
N t ~i zi +i l-il- l - -i zi +i lnii ai-
+il(
Ans. 1.5 10
3
N/C
35. Two particles A and B having charges of + 2.00 10
6
C and of 4.00 10
6
C respectively are held
fixed at a separation of 20.0 cm. Locate the point(s) on the line AB where (a) the electric field is zero
(b) the electric potential is zero.
2.00 10
6
C 4.00 10
6
C + <i +i A B (+ <= = 20.0 =ni. < i n( t ii AB l-< l-<~i
+i l-il- ai- +il(. ti : (a) l - -i zi zi - t (b) l - li zi - t
Ans. (a) 48.3 cm from A along BA
(b) 20 cm from A along BA and
3
20
cm from A along AB
36. A point charge produces an electric field of magnitude 5.0 N/C at a distance of 40 cm from it. What is
the magnitude of the charge ?
(+ l-< ~i zi :=n 40 =ni < i 5.0 N/C lnii +i l - -i zi --- +-i t ~i zi +i lnii l+--i t `
Ans. 8.9 10
11
C
37. A water particle of mass 10.0 mg and having a charge of 1.50 10
6
C stays suspended in a room.
What is the magnitude of electric field in the room ? What is its direction ?
10.0 mg < ni- ( 1.50 10
6
C ~i zi +i (+ i-i +i (+ +i (+ +n = l-n l- t +n n l - -i zi +i
lnii l+--i t ` :=+i l<zii +i t `
Ans. 65.3 N/C, upward
38. Three identical charges, each having a value 1.0 10
8
C, are placed at the corners of an equilateral
triangle of side 20 cm. Find the electric field and potential at the centre of the triangle.
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 20
manishkumarphysics.in
-i- =ni- ~i zi. l-n + ~i zi 1.0 10
8
C t . 20 = ni i i + (+ =nit lzii + +i -i i n( t
lzii + + -< l - -i zi ( li ai- +il(
Ans. zero, zi- 2.3 10
3
V
39. Positive charge Q is distributed uniformly over a circular ring of radius R. A particle having a mass m
and a negative charge q, is placed on its axis at a distance x from the centre. Find the force on the
particle. Assuming x << R, find the time period of oscillation of the particle if it is released from there.
R lzii +i (+ -ii+i n i-in+ ~i zi Q =ni- = l-l- t m <ni- +i ~i zi q +i (+ +i
:=+ ~-i + -< = x < i ii ni t +i n ai- +il( x << R ni-- t (. +i + <i n- +i ~i- +in
ai- +il( l< := ti = zi i i(
Ans.
2 / 1
3
0
3
Qq
mR 16
(
(

c t
40. A rod of length L has a total charge Q distributed uniformly along its length. It is bent in the shape of
a semicircle. Find the magnitude of the electric field at the centre of curvature of the semicircle.
[Q.40/HCV-2/CH-29/Exercise] [4]
L n-i: +i (+ z :=+i n-i: + ~- l<zi + n Q ~i zi =ni- = l-l- t := (+ ~z -i + n ni i
ni t ~z -i + +-i + -< l - -i zi +i lnii ai- +il(
[Q.40/HCV-2/CH-29/Exercise] [4]
Sol. Linear charge density =
L
Q
. Let there be a small element of length Rdu at an angle u from OA.
Charge on element = Rdu.
Electric field due to element =
2
R
kdq
dE =
2
R
Rd k u
dE = dEsinu i

dEcosu j

E
x
= EdE sinu =
}
t
t
|
.
|

\
|
u

2 /
2 /
d
R
k
sinu =
R
k
| |
2 /
2 /
cos
t
t
u = 0
E
y
=EdEcosu =
}
t
t
|
.
|

\
|
u

2 /
2 /
d
R
k
cosu =
R
k
( )
2 /
2 /
sin
t
t
u =
R
k 2
E
Net
=
R
k 2
j

=
0
4
2
e t

t
L
L / Q
j

E
Net
= 2
0
L 2
Q
e
E
Net
= 2
0
L 2
Q
e
, along angular bisector or ring and away from ring. Ans.
41. A 10 cm long rod carries a charge of + 50 C distributed uniformly along its length, Find the magnitude
of the electric field at a point 10 cm from both the ends of the rod.
10 = ni n-i (+ z + 50 C ~i zi :=+i n-i: + ~-l<zi =ni- = l-l- t z + <i-i l=i = 10
= ni < l-i- l-< - -i zi +i lnii ai- +il(
Ans. 5.2 10
7
N/C
42. Consider a uniformly charged ring of radius R. Find the point on the axis where the electric field is
maximum.
R lzii + (+ =ni- = ~i lzi- n l-i +il( ~-i t l-< ai- +il( ti - -i zi ~li+-n
ti
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 21
manishkumarphysics.in
Ans. R /
2
43. A wire is bent in the form of a regular hexagon and a total charge q is distributed uniformly on it. What
is the electric field at the centre ? You may answer this part without making any numerical calculations.
(+ -i +i (+ l-ln- i i + n ni i ni t -ii := + n ~i zi q =ni- = l-l- t + -< l -
-i zi +i t ` ~i := z- +i --i l-i +i : ~i l++ ni-i( l+ t ( < =+- t
Ans. zero zi-
44. A circular wire-loop of radius a carries a total charge Q distributed uniformly over its length. A small
length dL of the wire is cut off. Find the electric field at the centre due to the remaining wire.
a lzii + (+ -ii+i -i + n + n ~i zi Q :=+i n-i: l-l- t -i = (+ ~- n-i: dL +i + i
+ii i-i t + -< zi i -i + +ii l - -i zi ai- +il(
Ans. 2
0
2
a 8
QdL
c t
45. A positive charge q is placed in front of a conducting solid cube at a distance d from its centre. Find the
electric field at the centre of the cube due to the charges appearing on its surface. [2]
[HCV-II_Chap. 29_45]
(+ ii-in+ ~i zi q (+ -in+ ai = i- + =in- :=+ + -< = d < i ii ni t i- + + -< :=+ a
-l-i- ~i zii + +ii. l - -i zi ai- +il( [2]
Sol.
Due to presence of +q charge, charge is redistributed on conducting solid sphere in such a way that
net electric field inside conducting sphere is zero.
E

= 0 =
e arg ch int po
E

+
e arg ch induced
E

e arg ch int po
E

=
r

d
kq
2
so that
e arg ch induced
E

=
r

d
kq
2
Ans.
)
`

2
d
kq
]
46. A pendulum bob of mass 80 mg and carrying a charge of 2 10
8
C is at a distance d from its centre.
Find the electric field at the centre of the cube due to the charges appearing on its surface.
80 mg < ni- +i (+ ni n+ +i ni n+. l= 2 10
8
C ~i zi t . 20 kv/m + =ni- ( -i l- l - -i zi n l-i
t i i n --i ai- +il(
Ans. 8.8 10
4
N
47. A particle of mass m and charge q is thrown at a speed u against a uniform electric field E. How much
distance will it travel before coming to momentary rest ?
m < ni- q ~i zi +i (+ +i =ni- l - -i zi E + lzu n = + +i i-i t ~i lzi+ = lini-ii n ~i-
= t l+--i <i - + nni`
Ans.
qE 2
mu
2
48. A particle of mass 1 g and charge 2.5 10
4
C is released from rest in an electric field of
1.2 10
4
N/C. (a) Find the electric force and the force of gravity acting on this particle. Can one of
these forces be neglected in comparison with the other for approximate analysis ? (b) How long will it
take for the particle to travel a distance of 40 cm ? (c) What will be the speed of the particle after
travelling this distance ? (d) How much is the work done by the electric force on the particle during this
pariod ?
1 n in < ni- 2.5 10
4
C ~i zi +i (+ +i 1.2 10
4
N/C + (+ l - -i zi n lini-ii = zi i i-i t (a)
+i +i - - n ( n n ai- +il( +i :-n = (+ n =l--+ lzn ii + ln( < = +i - n-i n
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 22
manishkumarphysics.in
-n ni-i i =+-i t` (b) +i +i 40 =ni <i - +- n l+--i =n nn ni` (c) := < i +i - +- + i<
+i +i -in +i tini` (d) := ~ -in n - n ,ii +i l+--i +i l+i i-i t `
Ans. (a) 3.0 N, 9.8 10
3
N, (b) 1.63 10
2
s
(c) 49.0 m/s (d) 1.20 J
49. A ball of mass 100 g and having a charge of 4.9 10
5
C is releasd from rest in a region where a
horizontal electric field of 2.0 10
4
N/C exists. (a) Find the resultant force acting on the ball. (b) What
will be the path of the ball ? (c) Where will the ball be at the end of 2s ?
100 n in < ni- 4.9 10
5
C ~i zi +i (+ n < +i lini-ii = (+ -i zi n zi i i-i t . ti 2.0 10
4
N/C
+i (+ -i l- - -i zi -l-i- t (a) n < +i - liini n ai- +il( (b) n < +i i +i ti ni` (c) 2s z-i-
n< +ti tini`
Ans. (a) 1.4 N making an angle of 45 with

g and

E
(b) straight line along the resultant force
(c) 28 m from the starting point on the line of motion
50. The bob of a simple pendulum has a mass of 40 g and a positive charge of 4.0 10
6
C. It makes 20
oscillations in 45 s. A vertical electric field pointing upward and of magnitude 2.5 10
4
N/C is switched
on. How much time will it now take to complete 20 oscillations ?
(+ =n nin+ + nin+ +i <ni- 40 g ~izi 4.0 10
6
C t t 45 s n 20 <in- +-i t
2.5 10
4
N/C lnii +i (+ l - -i zi -i i - +i ~i nnii i-i t ~ := 20 <i n- i +- n l+--i
=n nnni`
Ans. 52 s
51. A block of mass m and having a charge q is placed on a smooth horizontal table and is connected to
a wall through an unstressed spring of spring constant k as shown in figure. A horizontal electric field
E parallel to the spring is switched on. Find the amplitude of the resulting SHM of the block.
m < ni- +i (+ l l= q ~i zi t . (+ l-+-i -i l- n ii t -ii l-zii- =i <ii = k l- n l--i +
ini (+ ~-i -- (unstressed) l- n ,ii i t l- n + =ni-- (+ -i l- l - -i zi E nnii i-i t l +i
liini =n ~i- nl- +i ~iin ai- +il(
Ans. qE/k
52. A block of mass m containing a net positive charge q is placed on a smooth horizontal table which
terminates in a vertical wall as shown in figure. The distance of the block from the wall is d. Ahorizontal
electric field E towards right it switched on. Assuming elastic collisions (if any) find the time period of
the resulting oscillatory motion. Is it a simple harmonic motion ?
m < ni- +i (+ l . l= + n i-in+ ~i zi q t . (+ l-+-i -i l- n ii t n l-zii- =i (+ -i
i <ii + =ii nni t l +i <ii = < i d t <i i ~i (+ -i l- l - -i zi E nnii i-i t ++i +i i-i
ni-- t ( (l< +i : ti -i t ). liini <in-i nl- +i ~i- +in ai- +il( +i t =n ~i- nl- t `
Ans.
qE
md 8
53. A uniform electric field of 10 N/C exists in the vertically downward direction. Find the increase in the
electric potential as one goes up through a height of 50 cm.
10 N/C +i (+ =ni- l - -i zi -i i -i- +i ~i lni- t l< 50 = ni - -i: -+ ii i( -i l - -i zi n
lz ai- +il(
Ans. 5 V
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 23
manishkumarphysics.in
54. 12 J of work has to be done against an existing electric field to take a charge of 0.01 C fromAto B. How
much is the potential difference V
B
V
A
?
0.01 C + ~i zi +i A= B -+ n i- n lni- l - -i zi + lz 12 J +i +-i -i t lii-- V
B
V
A
l+--i t`
Ans. 1200 volts
55. Two equal charges, 2.0 10
7
C each, are held fixed at a separation of 20 cm. A third charge of equal
magnitude is placed midway between the two charges. It is now moved to a point 20 cm from both the
charges. How much work is done by the electric field during the process ?
2.0 10
7
C + <i =ni- ~i zi (+ < = = 20 = ni < i l-i- t =ni- lnii +i (+ -i=i ~i zi <i -i ~i zii
+ n l-< ii i-i t ~ := <i -i + n l-< ii i-i t ~ := <i -i ~i zii + n l-< ii
i-i t ~ := <i -i ~i zii = 20 = ni < l-i- l-< -+ n ii i-i t := l+i n l - -i zi ,ii l+--i +i
l+i i-i t`
Ans. 3.6 10
3
J
56. An electric field of 20 N/C exists along the X-axis in space. Calculate the potential difference
V
B
V
A
where the points A and B are given by,
(a) A = (0, 0) ; B = (4m, 2m)
(b) A = (4m, 2m) ; B = (6m, 5m)
(c) A = (0, 0) ; B = (6m, 5m).
Do you find any relation between the answers of parts (a), (b) and (c) ?
20 N/C +i (+ l - -i zi ~i+izi n X-~-i + ~- l<zi lni- t lii-- V
B
V
A
+i ni-i +il( ti l-< A
B l< i- t -
(a) A = (0, 0) ; B = (4m, 2m)
(b) A = (4m, 2m) ; B = (6m, 5m)
(c) A = (0, 0) ; B = (6m, 5m)
+i ~i iin (a), (b) (c) + --ii + n +i : = i i- t `
Ans. (a) 80 V (b) 40 V (c) 120 V
57. Consider the situation of the previous problem. A charge of 2.0 10
4
C is moved from the point A to
the point B. Find the change in electrical potential energy V
B
V
A
for the cases (a), (b) and (c).
z- +i l-il- l-i +il( 2.0 10
4
C +i (+ ~i zi l-< A= l-< B -+ n ii i-i t (a) , (b)
(c) l-il-i + ln( - l-il- -i n l-- V
B
V
A
ai- +il(
Ans. 0.016 J, 0.008 J, 0.024 J
58. An electric field ) 30 j 20 i ( E

+ = N/C exists in the space. If the potential at the origin is taken to be
zeror, find the potential at (2m, 2m).
(+ l - -i zi ) 30 j 20 i ( E

+ = N/C ~i+izi n lni- t l< n n l-< li zi - lni i-i t -i (2ni, 2ni)
li ai- +il(
Ans. 100 V
59. An electric field Ax i E

= exists in the space, where A = 10 V/m
2
. Take the potential at (10 m, 20 m) to
be zero. Find the potential at the origin.
(+ l - -i zi Ax i E

= ~i+izi n lni- t . ti A= 10 i -/ni
2
. (10 ni, 20 ni) li zi - ni- nil( n n l-<
li ai- +il(
Ans. 500 V
60. The electric potential existing in space is V(x, y, z) = A(xy + yz + zx). (a) Write the dimensional
formula of A. (b) Find the expression for the electric field. (c) If Ais 10 SI units, find the magnitude of the
electric field at (1 m, 1 m, 1 m). [HCV_CHP-29_Ex_Q.60]
~i+izi n lni- l - li V(x, y, z) =A(xy + yz + zx) t (a) A+i lni = zi lnli( (b) l - -i zi +i +
lnli( (c) l< A10 SI nizi+ t -i (1 ni, 1 ni, 1 ni) l- -izi +i lnii ai- +il(
Ans. (a) MT
3
I
1
(b) )} y x ( k

) x z ( j

) z y ( i

{ A + + + + + (c) 35 N/C
61. Two charged particles, having equal charges of 2.0 10
5
C each, are brought from infinity to within a
separation of 10 cm. Find the increase in the electric potential energy during the process.
2.0 10
5
C =ni- ~i zi + <i ~i lzi- +i ~--- = 10 = ni < i + ii- ni( i- t := l+i n - l-il-
-i n lz ai- +il(
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 24
manishkumarphysics.in
Ans. 36 J
62. Some equipotential surfaces are shown in figure. What can you say about the magnitude and the
direction of the electric field ?
l-zi n + z =nli a <zii n( t l - -i zi +i l<zii ( lnii + i n ~i +i +t =+- t `
Ans. (a) 200 V/m making an angle 120 with the X-axis
(b) radially outward, decreasing with distance as
2
r
m V 6
E

=
63. Consider a circular ring of radius r, uniformly charged with linear charge density . Find the electric
potential at a point on the axis at a distance x from the centre of the ring. Using this experssion for the
potential, find the electric field at this point.
r lzii +i (+ -ii+i n li+ ~i zi i- = =ni- = ~i lzi- t ~-i + ni + + -< = x < i
l-i- l-< l - li ai- +il( li + := + +i i n +- t ( := l-< l - -i zi ai- +il(
Ans.
2 / 3 2 2
0
2 / 1 2 2
0
) x r ( 2
x r
,
) x r ( 2
r
+ c

+ c

64. An electric field of magnitude 1000 N/C is produced between two parallel plates having a separation of
2.0 cm as shown in figure.
l-zii- =i. <i =ni-- -n i + n. i (+ < = = 2 = ni < t . 1000 N/C lnii +i (+ l- -i zi nnii i-i
t
(a) What is the potential difference between the plates ?
(b) With what minimum speed should an electron be projected from the lower plate in the direction
of the field so that it may reach the upper plate ?
(c) Suppose the electron is projected from the lower plate with the speed calculated in part. (b)
and the direction of projection makes an angle of 60 with the field. Find the maximum height
reached by the electron. (Neglect gravity) [HCV
_
II _Chap.-29_64] [4]
(a) -n i + n lii-- l+--i t `
(b) -i- ini -n = (+ :n + i- +i -i zi +i l<zii n l+= - --n n = -i l- l+i i -il+ t -i -n
-+ t- i(
(c) ni- nil l--ni -n = :n + i - +i (b) iin n = nli- n = -i l- l+i i-i t -i i +i l<zii n -i zi
= 60 +i +i i -i-i t :n +i- + ,ii i-- ~li+-n --i: ai- +il( (Neglect gravity)
Sol.
E = 1000 N/C
(a) V = E.d. = 1000
100
2
= 20 volt
(b) by work energy theorem
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 25
manishkumarphysics.in
AKE = work done

2
1
mv
2
= eEd
v =
m
eEd 2
=
31
2 19
10 1 . 9
10 2 1000 10 6 . 1 2


= 2.65 10
6
m/s
(c) H =
eff
2 2
g 2
sin u u
g
eff
=
m
eE
H =
eE 2
m sin u
2 2
u
=
3 19
31 2 2 6
10 10 6 . 1 2
10 1 . 9 60 sin ) 10 65 . 2 (

= 0.5 10
2
m
H = 0.5 cm
Ans. (a) 20 V (b) 2.65 10
6
m/s (c) 0.50 cm
65. A uniform field of 2.0 N/C exists in space in x-direction.
(a) Taking the potential at the origin to be zero, write an expression for the potential at a general point
(x, y, z). (b) At which points, the potential is 25 V ? (c) If the potential at the origin is taken to be 100
V, what will be the expression for the potential at a general point ? (d) What will be the potential at the
origin if the potential at infinity is taken to be zero ? Is it practical to choose the potential at infinity to
be zero ?
2.0 N/C +i (+ =ni- -i zi ~i+izi n x-l<zii n lni- t
(a) n n l-< li zi - ni-- t ( (+ i+ l-< (x, y, z) li +i + lnli(
(b) l+- l-< ~i li 25 V t ?
(c) l< n n l-< li 100 V lni i( -i (+ i+ l-< li +i + +i ti ni`
(d) l< ~--- li zi - ni- lni i( -i n n l-< li l+--i ti ni` +i ~--- li zi - n -i til+
t `
Ans. (a) (2.0 V/m) x (b) points on the plane x = 12.5 m
(c) 100 V (2.0 V/m) x (d) infinity
66. How much work has to be done in assembling three charged particles at the vertices of an equilateral
triangle as shown in figure ?
l-zi n <zii ( ~- =i -i- ~i lzi- +ii +i (+ =nit lzii + ziiii -iil- +- + ln( l+--i +i +-i ni`
Ans. 234 J
67. The kinetic energy of a charged particle decreases by 10 J as it moves from a point at potential 100 V
to a point at potential 200 V. Find the charge on the particle.
(+ ~i lzi- +i 100 i - + (+ l-< = 200 i - li + (+ l-< -+ nl- +-i t -i -=+i nl- -i 10 n
i i-i t +i ~i zi +i ni- ai- +il(
Ans. 0.1 C
68. Two identical particles, each having a charge of 2.0 10
4
C and mass of 10 g, are kept at a separation
of 10 cm and then released. What would be the speeds of the particles when the separation becomes
large ?
10 n in <ni- 2.0 10
4
C ~i zi + <i =ni- +i (+ <= = 10 cm < i i- t ~i l+ zi l< i-
t <i -i + n < i ~li+ ti i-i t -i +ii +i n +i ti ni`
Ans. 600 m/s
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 26
manishkumarphysics.in
69. Two particles have equal masses of 5.0 g each and opposite charges of +4.0 10
5
C and
4.0 10
5
C. They are released from rest with a separation of 1.0 m between them. Find the speeds
of the particles when the separation is reduced to 50 cm.
<i +ii +i =ni- < ni- 5.0 n in t -ii ~i zi ll- +4.0 10
5
C 4.0 10
5
C t --+ n < i 1.0
ni. t -i --t lini-ii = zi i i-i t +ii +i n ai- +il( l+ --+ n +i < i 50 = ni ti n: ti
Ans. 54 m/s for each particle
70. A sample of HCl gas is placed in an electric field of 2.5 10
4
N/C. The dipole moment of each HCl
molecule is 3.4 10
30
Cm. Find the maximum torque that can act on a molecule.
HCl n = +i (+ l-<zi 2.5 10
4
N/C + (+ l - -i zi n ii i-i t + HCl ~i +i l,i ~ii i 3.4 10

30
Cm t ~i nn =+- ini ~li+-n n ~ii i ai- +il(
Ans. 8.5 10
26
Nm
71. Two particles A and B, having opposite charges 2.0 10
6
C and 2.0 10
6
C, are placed at a
separation of 1.0 cm. (a) Write down the electric dipole moment of this pair. (b) Calculate the electric
field at a point on the axis of the dipole 1.0 cm away from the centre . (c) Calculate the electric field at
a point on the perpendicular bisector of the dipole and 1.0 m away from the centre.
ll- ~i zi 2.0 10
6
C ( 2.0 10
6
C, + <i +i A B (+ <= = 1.0 =ni < i i n( t (a) :=
n +i - l,i ~ii i lnli( (b) l,i + ~-i + + -< = 1.0 = ni < l-i- l-< l - -i zi +i ni-i +il(
(c) l,i + n-- l,ii+ + -< = 1.0 m < l-i- l-< l- -i zi +i ni-i +il(
Ans. (a) 2.0 10
8
Cm (b) 360 N/C (c) 180 N/C
72. Three charges are arranged on the vertices of an equilateral triangle as shown in figure. Find the dipole
moment of the combination.
-i- ~i zi (+ =nit lzii + ziiii l-zii- =i l-i- l+ n( t = i - +i l,i ~ii i ai- +il(
Ans.
3 qd
, along the bisector of the angle at 2q, away from the triangle
73. Find the magnitude of the electric field at the point P in the configuration shown in figure for
d >> a. Take 2qa = p.
l-zi n <zii l-i= n d >> a + ln( l-< P l - -i zi +i lnii ai- +il( ni- nil( l+
2qa = p.
Ans. (a) 2
0
d 4
q
tc
(b) 3
0
d 4
p
tc
(c)
2 2 2
3
0
p d q
d 4
1
+
tc
74. Two particles, carrying charges q and +q and having equal masses m each, are fixed at the ends of
a light rod of length a to form a dipole. The rod is clamped at an end and is placed in a uniform electric
field E with the axis of the dipole along the electric field. The rod is slightly tilted and then released.
Neglecting gravity find the time period of small oscillations.
Chapter # 29 Electric Field & Potential
Page # 27
manishkumarphysics.in
q +q ~i zi + <i +i. l-n + +i < ni- m t . a n-i: +i (+ t-+i z = t ( (+ l,i +i l-ni i
+- t z +i (+ l= = += l<i i-i t -ii := (+ =ni- l - -i zi n l,i + ~-i +i l - -i zi + ~- l<zi
ii i-i t z +i ii i =i n +i+ zi l<i i-i t n +i -n ni-- t ( ~- ~iin + <i n-i +i ~i-
+in ai- +il(
Ans.
qE
ma
2t
75. Assume that each atom in a copper wire contributes one free electron. Estimate the number of free
electrons in a copper wire having a mass of 6.4 g (take the atomic weight of copper to be
64 g/mol).
ni- nil( l+ (+ -i + -i n + nii (+ n +- :n + i - < -i t 6.4 n in < ni- + (+ -i + -i n n +-
:n+ i-i +i = i +i ~i+n- +il( (-i +i nii ii 64 nin/ni n) n nil(
Ans. 6 10
22