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# Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature

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SOLVED EXAMPLES
1. The pressure of air in the bulb of a constant volume gas thermometer is 73 cm of mercury at 0C, 100.3 cm
of mercury at 100Cand 77.8 cmof mercury at roomtemperature. Find the roomtemperature in centigrades.
Sol. We have t = C 100
p p
p p
0 100
0

=
73 3 . 100
73 8 . 77

100C = 17C
1. If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium in one frame will they be in thermal equilibrium in all frames?
2. Does the temperature of a body depend on the frame from which it is observed?
3. It is heard sometimes that mercury is used in defining the temperature scale because it expands uniformly
with the temperature. If the temperature scale is not yet defined, is it logical to say that a substance expands
uniformly with the temperature?
4. In defining the ideal gas temperature scale, it is assumed that the pressure of the gas at constant volume is
proportional to the temperature T. How can we verify whether this is true or not? Are we using the kinetic
theory of gases?Are we using the experimental result that the pressure is proportional to temperature?
5. Can the bulb of a thermometer be made of an adiabatic wall?
6. Why do marine animals live deep inside a lake when the surface of the lake freezes?
7. The length of a brass rod is found to be smaller on a hot summer day than on a cold winter day as measured
by the same aluminium scale. Do we conclude that brass shrinks on heating?
8. If mercury and glass has equal coefficient of volume expansion, could we make a mercury thermometer in a
glass tube?
9. The density of water at 4C is supposed to be 1000 kg/m
3
. Is it same at the sea level and a high altitude?
10. A tightly closed metal lid of a glass bottle can be opened more easily if it is put in hot water for some time.
Explain.
11. If an automobile engine is overheated, it is cooled by putting water on it. It is advised that the water should be
put slowly with engine running. Explain the reason.
12. Is it possible for two bodies to be in thermal equilibrium if they are not in contact?
13. Aspherical shell is heated. The volume changes according to the equation V
u
= V
0
(1 + u). Does the volume
refer to the volume enclosed by the shell or the volume of the material making up the shell?
Objective - I
1. A system X is neither in thermal equilibrium with Y nor with Z. The system Y and Z
(A) must be in thermal equilibrium (B) cannot be in thermal equilibrium
(C*) may be in thermal equilibrium (D) None of these
(+ l-+i X - -i Y+ =ii ~i - ti Z. + =ii -ni =i-i-ii n t l-+i Y -ii l-+i Z
(A) -ni =i-i-ii n tin (B) -ni =i-i-ii n -ti ti =+- t
(C*) -ni =i-i-ii n ti =+- t (D) +
2. Which of the curves in figure represents the relation between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature?
l--- n = +i-=i + =l-== -ii +i-ti: -ii n =--i +- +-i t
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
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3. Which of the following pairs may give equal numerical values of the temperature of a body?
(A*) Fahrenheit and kelvin (B) Celsius and kelvin (C) kelvin and platinum
l--- n = +i -=i n -- + -i +i =ni- ~il++ ni- <zii =+-i t
(A*) +i-ti: -ii +l-- (B) =l-== -ii +l-- (C) +l-- -ii -nl-n
4. For a constant volume gas thermometer, one should fill the gas at
(A) lowtemperature and lowpressure (B) lowtemperature and high pressure
(C*) high temperature and lowpressure (D) high temperature and high pressure.
l-- ~i-- n= -inii n. n= i-i -ilt
(A) +n -i ( +n <i (B) +n -i ( --- <i
(C*) ----n ( +n <i (D) --- -i ( --- <i
5. Consider the following statements.
(A) The coefficient of liner expansion has dimension K
-1
(B) The coefficient of volume expansion has dimension K
-1
(A*) Aand B are both correct. (B) A is correct but B is wrong.
(C) B is correct but Ais wrong. (D) Aand Bare both wrong.
l---lnli- +i-i l-i +il
(A) li+ =i nii+ +i lni K
-1
t
(B) ~i-- =i nii+ +i lni K
-1
t
(A*) A-ii B <i-i = t (B) A=- t l+-- B ~= t
(C) B = t l+-- A~= t (D) A( B <i-i ~= t
6. A metal sheet with a circular hole is heated. The hole
(A*) gets large (B) gets smaller (C) remains of the size (D) gets deformed
(+ -ii+i lz< +- ii- +i -i< nn +i i-i t lz<
(A*) i ti i ni (B) zii ti ini (C) -=i ~i+i +i tni (D) ~l- ini
7. Two identical rectangular strips, one of copper and the other of steel, are rivetted together of forma bimetallic
strip (o
copper
>o
steel
). On heating, this strip will
(A) remain straight (B*) bend with copper on convex side
(C) bend with steel on convex side (D) get twisted
-i -ii -in +i <i (+ =i ~i-i+i li lli = i + (+ l,ii-+ i(i:n ln+ l-n) -ii ni
t (o
copper
>o
steel
). nn +- t i
(A) =iii t ni (B*) := +i n ni l+ -ii --i ~i t
(C) := +i nni l+ -in --in ~i t (D) := +i nni
8. If the temperature of a uniform rod is slightly increased by At, its moment of inertia I about a perpendicular
bisector increases by
(A) zero (B) oIAt (C*) 2oIAt (D) 3oIAt.
l< (+ =n z + -i n ii i =i lz At +i i . n- ~i + + il- z + ~ii i I n lz ti ni
(A) zi- (B) oIAt (C*) 2oIAt (D) 3oIAt.
9. If the temperature of a uniform rod is slightly increased by At, its moment of inertia I about a line parallel to
itself will increases by
(A) zero (B) oIAt (C*) 2oIAt (D) 3oIAt.
l< (+ =n z + -i n ~= lz At+i i . n- ~i + + il- z + ~ii i I n lz ti ni
(A) zi- (B) oIAt (C*) 2oIAt (D) 3oIAt.
10. The temperature of water at the surface of a deep lake is 2oC. The temperature expected at the bottom is
(+ nti nin +i =-t i-i +i -i 2oCt :=+ < i-i +i =-iil- -i ti =+-i t
(A) 0
o
C (B) 2
o
C (C*) 4
o
C (D) 6
o
C
11. An aluminium sphere is dipped into water at 10
0
C. If the temperature is increased, the force of buoyancy
(A) will increase (B*) will decrease (C) will remain constant
(D) may increase of decrease depending on the radius of the sphere.
(-lnl-n +i (+ nini 10
0
C-i in i-i n ii ni t l< -i n lz +i i -i --ni- n
(A) c ini (B*) +n ti ini (C) l-- tni
(D) c ii =+-i t +n ii ti =+-i t t ni n +i lzii l-i + ni
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
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Objective - II
1. A spinning wheel is brought in contact with an identical wheel spinning at identical speed. The wheels slow
down under the action of friction. Which of the following energies of the first wheel decrease?
(A*) kinetic (B) total (C*) mechanical (D) internal
(+ i n-i t ~i lti =ni- -in = i n t . :=+ =ni- lt + =-+ n nii i-i t ii i +i l+i + +ii lt
iin ti i- t in lt +i l--- n = +i -=i -i ( +n ti ini
(A*) nl- (B) +n (C*) i lzi+ (D) ~i -l+
2. A spinning wheel A is brought in contact with another wheel B initially at rest. Because of the friction at
contact, the second wheel also starts spinning. Which of the following energies of the wheel B increase
(A*) kinetic (B*) total (C*) mechanical (D*) internal
(+ i n-i t ~i lti A(+ ~- l-i lt B+ =-+ n nii i-i t =-+ -ii- ii + + +ii < =i lti
in-i i-i + <-i t lt B +i l--- n = +i-=i -i(
(A*) nl- (B*) +n (C*) i lzi+ (D*) ~i-l+
3. A body A is placed on a railway platform and an identical body B in moving train. Which of the following
energies of B are greater than those of Aas seen from the ground ?
(A*) kinetic (B*) total (C*) mechanical (D) internal
(+ -- A- -n+in ii t: t -ii :=i + =ni- (+ -- B nl-lzin - n t ni- = <i- l--- n
= B +i +i-=i -i( A+i -i~i = ~li+ tini
(A*) nl- (B*) +n (C*) i lzii+ (D) ~i -l+
4. In which of the following pairs of temperature scales, the size of a degree is identical ?
(A) mercury scale and ideal gas scale (B) Celsius scale and mercury scale
(C*) Celsius scale and ideal gas scale (D*) ideal gas scale and absolute scale
-i ni-i + l--- n = +i -= i n lni +i ~i+i (+ =ni- t
(A) i< ni-i ~i<zi n= ni-i (B) =l-=i ni-i i< ni-i
(C*) =l-=n ni-i ~i<zi n = ni-i (D*) ~i<zi n= ni-i n-i ni-i
5. Asolid object is placed in water contained in an adiabatic container for some time. The temperature of water
falls during the period and there is no appreciable change in the shape of the object. The temperature of the
solid object.
(A*) must have increased (B) must have decreased
(C) may have increased (D) may have remained constant.
(+ zi n izi n i t ( i-i n + z =n + ln (+ ai = -- ii i-i t := +in n i-i +i -i +n ti i-i
t -ii -- +i ~i+l- n +i : ni- i l-- -ti ti -i t ai= -- +i -i
(A*) l-lz-- = cni (B) l-lz-- = +n ti ni
(C) c =+-i t (D) l-- t =+-i t
6. As the temperature is increased, the time period of a pendulum
(A) increases proportionately with temperature (B*) increase
(C) decrease (D) remains constant
== -i c-i t. nin+ +i ~i-+in
(A) -i + =ni-i-i = c-i t (B*) c-i t
(C) +n ti-i t (D) l-- t-i t
WORKED OUT EXAMPLES
1. The pressure of the gas in a constant volume gas thermometer at steam point (373.15 K) is
1.50 10
4
Pa. What will be the pressure at the triple point of water?
Sol. The temperature in kelvin is defined as
T =
r t
p
p
273.16 K
Thus,
373.15 =
r t
4
P
Pa 10 50 . 1
273.16
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
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manishkumarphysics.in
or, P
t r
= 1.50 10
4
Pa
15 . 373
16 . 273
= 1.10 10
4
Pa.
2. The pressure of air in the bulb of a constant volume gas thermometer at 0Cand 100Care 73.00 cmand 100
cm of mercury respectively. Calculate the pressure at the room temperature 20C.
Sol. The room temperature on the scale measured by the thermometer is
t =
0 100
0 t
p p
p p

100C.
Thus,
20C =
Hg of cm 00 . 73 Hg of cm 100
Hg of cm 00 . 73 p
t

100C
or, p
t
= 78.4 cm of mercury.
3. The pressure of the gas in a constant volume gas thermometer is 80 cm of mercury in melting ice at 1 atm.
When the bulb is placed in a liquid, the pressure becomes 160 cm of mercury. Find the temperature of the
liquid.
Sol. For an ideal gas at constant volume,
2
1
T
T
=
2
1
p
p
or, T
2
=
80
160
273.15 K = 546.30 K
4. In a constant volume gas thermometer, the pressure of the working gas in measured by the difference in the
levels of mercury in the two arms of a U-tube connected to the gas at the end. When the bulb is placed at the
room temperature 27.0C, the mercury column in the arm open to atmosphere stands 5.00 cm above the
level of mercury in the other arm. When the bulb is placed in a hot liquid, the difference of mercury levels
becomes 45.0 cm. Calculate the temperature of the liquid. (Atmospheric pressure = 75.0 cm of mercury)
Sol. The pressure of the gas = atmospheric pressure + the pressure due to the difference in mercury levels.
At 27C, the pressure is 75 cm + 5 cm = 80 cm of mercury. At the liquid temperature, the pressure is 75 cm
+ 45 cm = 120 cm of mercury. Using T
2
=
1
2
P
P
T
1
, The temperature of the liquid is
T =
80
120
(27.0 273.15) K = 450.22 K = 177.07C ~ 177C
5. The resistance of a platinum resistance thermometer at the ice point, the steam point and the boiling point
of sulphur are 2.50, 3.50 and 6.50 Orespectively. Find the boiling point of the sulphur on the platinum scale.
The ice point and the steam point measure 0 and 100 respectively.
Sol. The temperature on the platinum scale is defined as
t =

100
R R
R R
0 100
0 t
, The boiling point of sulphur on this scale is
t =
50 . 2 50 . 3
50 . 2 50 . 6

100 ~ 400.
6. A platinum resistance thermometer reads 0 and 100 at the ice point and the boiling point of water
respectively. The resistance of a platinum wire varies with Celsius temperature u as R
t
= R
0
(1 + ou + |u
2
),
where o = 3.8 10
3
/C and | = 5.6 10
7
/(C)
2
. What will be the reading of this termometer if it is placed
in a liquid bath maintained at 50C?
Sol. The resistance of the wire in the thermometer at 100Cand 50Care
R
100
= R
0
[1 + o 100C + | (100C)
2
]
and, R
50
= R
0
[1 + o 50C + | (50C)
2
].
The temperature t measured on the platinum thermometer is given by
t =
0 100
0 50
R R
R R

100
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
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manishkumarphysics.in
=
2
2
) C 100 ( C 100
) C 50 ( C 50
| + + o
| + o
100 = 50.4
7. A platinum resistance thermometer is constructed which reads 0 at ice point and 100 at steam point. Let
t
p
denote the temperature on this scale and let t denote the temperature on a mercury thermometer scale.
The resistance of the platinum coil varies with t as R
t
= R
0
(1 + ot + |t
2
). Derive an expression for the
resistance as a function of t
p
.
Sol. Let
p
t
R denote the resistance of the coil at the platinum scale temperature t
p
. Then
t
p
=
0 100
0 t
R R
R R
p

100
or,
p
t
R
=
100
t
p
(R
100
R
0
) + R
0
=
100
t
p
[R
0
{1 + o 100 + | (100)
2
} R
0
] + R
0
=
100
t
p
[o + 100 + | (100)
2
] R
0
+ R
0
= R
0
(

| + o +
100
t
} ) 100 ( 100 { 1
p
2
= R
0
[1 + o t
p
+ | (100) t
p
].
Only numerical value of o and | are to be used.
8. An iron rod of length 50 cmis joined at an end to an aluminiumrod of length 100 cm. All measurements refer
to 20C. Find the length of the composite system at 100C and its average coefficient of linear expansion.
The coefficient of linear expansion of iron and aluminium are 12 10
8
/Cand 24 10
6
/Crespectively.
Sol. The length of the iron rod at 100C is

1
= (50 cm) [1 + (12 10
11
/C)(100C - 20C)] = 50.048 cm.
The length of aluminium rod at 100Cis

2
= (100 cm) [1 + (24 10
6
/C) (100C 20C)]
= 100.192 cm
The length of the composite system at 100C is
50.048 cm + 100.192 cm = 150.24 cm.
The length of the composite system at 20C is 50 cm.
So, The average coefficient of linear expansion of the composite rod is
o =
) C 20 C 100 ( cm 150
cm 24 . 0

= 20 10
6
/C
9. An iron ring measuring 15.00 cm in diameter is to be shrunk on a pulley which is 15.05 cm in diameter. All
measurements refer to the roomtemperature 20C. To what minimumtemperature should the ring be heated
to make the job possible? Calculate the strain developed in the ring when it comes to the room temperature.
Coefficient of linear expansion of iron = 12 10
6
/C.
Sol. The ring should be heated to increase its diameter from 15.00 cm to 15.05 cm.
Using
2
=
1
(1 + o Au),
=
C / 10 12 cm 00 . 15
cm 05 . 0
6

= 278C
The temperature = 20C+ 278C = 298C.
The strain developed =
1
1 2

= 3.33 10
3
.
10. A pendulum clock consists of an iron rod connected to a small, heavy bob. If it is designed to keep correct
time at 20C, howfast or slowwill it go in 24 hours at 40C? Coefficient of linear expansion of iron = 1.2 10

6
/C.
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
Page # 6
manishkumarphysics.in
Sol. The time period at temperature u is
T = 2t
g
u

= 2t
g
) 1 (
0
ou +
= 2t
g
0

(1 + ou)
1/2
= T
0
|
.
|

\
|
ou +
2
1
1
.
Thus, T
20
= T
0
(

o + ) C 20 (
2
1
1
and, T
40
= T
0
(

o + ) C 40 (
2
1
1
or,
20
40
T
T
= [1 + (20C)o] [1 + (10C)o]
1
= [1 + (20C)o] [1 (10C)o]
or,
20
20 40
T
T T
= (10C) o = 1.2 10
4
...(1)
This is fractional loss of time. As the temperature increases, the time period also increases. Thus, the clock
goes slow. The time lost in 24 hours is, by (i),
At = (24 hours) (1.2 10
4
) = 10.4 s.
11. Apendulumclock having copper rod keeps correct time at 20C. It gains 15 seconds per day if cooled to 0C.
Calculate the coefficient of linear expansion of copper.
Sol. The time period at temperature u is
T = 2t
g
u

= T
0
|
.
|

\
|
ou +
2
1
1
Thus, T
20
= T
0
[1 + o (10C)]
or,
0
0 20
T
) T T (
= o (10C). .......(i)
T
20
is the correct time period. The period at 0C is smaller so that the clock runs fast. Equation (i) gives
approximately the fractional gain in time. The time gained in 24 hours is
AT = (24 hours) [(10C)o]
or, 15 s = (24 hours) [(10C)o]
or, o =
) C 10 )( hours 24 (
s 15

= 1.7 10
5
/C
12. A piece of metal weighs 46 g in air and 30 g in a liquid of density 1.24 10
3
kg/m
3
kept at 27C. When the
temperature of the liquid is raised to 42C, the metal piece weighs 30.5 g. The density of the liquid at 42C
is 1.20 10
3
kg/m
3
. Calculate the coefficient of linear expansion of the metal.
Sol. Let the volume of the metal piece be V
0
at 27Cand V
u
at 42C. The density of the liquid at 27Cis
0
= 1.24
10
3
kg/m
3
and the density of liquid at 42
0
C is 1.20 10
3
kg/m
3
.
The weight of the liquid displaced = apparent loss in the weight of the metal piece when dipped in the liquid.
Thus, V
0

0
= 46 g 30 g = 16 g
and, V
u

u
= 46 g 30.5 g = 15.5 g
Thus,
u
u

=
0
0
V
V

16
5 . 15
or, 1 + 3 oAu =
16 10 20 . 1
5 . 15 10 24 . 1
3
3

or, 1 + 3o(42C 27C) = 1.00104
or, o = 2.3 10
5
/C
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
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manishkumarphysics.in
13. A sphere of diameter 7.0 cm and mass 266.5 g floats in a bath of liquid. As the temperature is raised, the
sphere begins to sink at a temperature of 35C. If the density of the liquid is 1.527 g/cm
3
at 0C, find the
coefficient of cubical expension of liquid neglect the expansion of sphere.
Sol. It is given that the expansion of the sphere is negligible as compared to the expansion of the liquid. At 0C,
the density of the liquid is
0
= 1.527 g/cm
3
. At 35C, the density of the liquid equals the density of the
sphere. Thus,

35
=
3
) cm 5 . 3 (
3
4
g 5 . 266
t
= 1.484 g/cm
3
Wehave
0

u
=
u
V
V
0
=
) 1 (
1
u +
or,
u
=
u +

1
0
Thus, =
) C 35 (
35
35 0

=
) C 35 ( ) cm / g 484 . 1 (
cm / g ) 484 . 1 527 . 1 (
3
3

= 8.28 10
4
/C
14. An iron rod and a copper rod lie side by side. As the temperature is changed, the difference in the lengths of
the rods remains constant at a value of 10 cm. Find the lengths at 0C. Coefficients of linear expansion of iron
and copper are 1.1 10
5
/C and 1.7 10
5
/C respectively.
Sol. Suppose the length of the iron rod at 0C is
i0
and the length of the copper rod at 0C is
c0
. The lengths at
temperature u are

iu
=
i0
(1 + o
i
u) ...(i)
and
cu
=
c0
(1 + o
c
u). ...(ii)
Subtracting,

iu

cu
= (
i0

c0
) + (
i0
o
i

c0
o
c
)u.
Now,

iu

cu
=
i0

c0
(= 10 cm)
Thus , from (iii),
i0
o
i

c0
o
c
or,
0 c
0 i

=
i
c
o
o
or,
0 c 0 i
0 i

=
i c
c
o o
o
=
C / 10 6 . 0
C / 10 7 . 1
5
5

=
6
17
This shows that
i0

c0
is positive. Its value is 10 cm as given in the question.
Hence,
i0
=
6
17
(
i0

c0
)
=
6
17
10 cm = 28.3 cm
and
c0
=
i0
10 cm = 18.3 cm.
15. A uniform steel wire of cross-sectional area 0.20 mm
2
is held fixed by clamping its two ends. Find the extra
force exerted by each clamp on the wire if the wire is cooled from 100Cto 0C. Youngs modulus of steel =
2.0 10
11
N/m
2
. Coefficient of linear expansion of steel = 2.0 10
5
/C.
Sol. Let us assume that tension is zero at 100C so that
u
is the natural length of the wire at 100C. As the wire
cools down, its natural length decrease to
0
. As the wire is fixed at the clamps, its length remains the same
as the length at 100C. Thus , the extension of the wire over its natural length at 0C is

u

0
=
0
(1 + ou)
0
=
0
ou .
The strain developed is
u
u

0
=
0
0

u
= ou.
The stress developed = Y strain = Y ou .
The tension in the wire at 0C is
T = stress area = Y ot 0.20 mm
2
= (2.0 10
11
N/m
2
) (1.2 10
5
/C) 100C (0.20 10
6
m
2
) = 48 N
This is equal to the extra force exerted by each clamp.
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
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manishkumarphysics.in
16. A glass vessel of volume 100 cm
3
is filled completely with mercury and is heated from 25C to 75C.
What volume of mercury will overflow? Coefficient of linear expansion of glass = 1.8 10
6
/C and
coefficient of volume expansion of mercury is 1.8 10
4
/C.
100 cm
3
~i-- in (+ +i - + izi +i i = i -t i l<i i-i t ~i := 25C = 75C -+ nn l+i i-i
t i +i l+--i ~i-- -- = it t i(ni ` +i- +i ii v=i nii + 1.8 10
6
/C -ii i +i ~i--
v=i n ii+ 1.8 10
4
/C t HCV_Ch-23_WOE_16
Sol. The volume of mercury at 25C is
V
0
= 100 cm
3
.
The coefficient of volume expansion of mercury

L
= 1.8 10
4
/C.
The coefficient of volume expansion of glass

S
= 3 1.8 10
6
/C
= 5.4 10
6
/C.
Thus, the volume of mercury at 75C us
V
Lu
= V
0
(1 +
L
Au)
The volume of mercury overflown
= V
Lu
V
Su
= V
0
(
L

S
) Au ........(i)
= (100 cm
3
) (1.8 10
4
5.4 10
6
)/C (50C) = 0.87 cm
3
.
Note that
a
= (
L

S
) acts as the effective coefficient of expansion of the liquid with respect to the solid.
The expansion of mercury as seen from the glass can be written as
V
u
V
0
= V
0

a
u
or, V
u
= V
0
(1 +
a
u).
The constant
a
is called the apparent coefficient of expansion of the liquid with respect to the solid.
17. Abarometer reads 75.0 cmon a steel scale. The roomtemperature is 30C. The scale is correctly graduated
for 0C. Thecoefficient of linear expansionof steel is o=1.2 10
5
/Cand thecoefficient of volume expansion
of mercury is = 1.8 10
4
/C. Find the correct atmospheric pressure.
(+ i ni -in ni- 75.0cmc -i t +n +i -ini- 30Ct ni-i 0C =ti = c - + ln( -ii
i-i t -in + ln( ii v=i n ii + o=1.2 10
5
/Ct -ii i + ln( ~i-- v=i n ii + =1.8 10
4
/C
t =ti i nni <i +i ni-i +il( HCV_Ch-23_WOE_17
Sol. The 75 cm length of steel at 0C will become
u
at 30C where,

u
= (75 cm) [1 + o (30C)]. ....(1)
The length of mercury column at 30C is
u
. Suppose the length of the mercury column, if it were at 0C, is

0
,
Then,

u
=
0
(

+ ) C 30 (
3
1
1
. ....(ii)
By (i) and (ii),

0
(

+ ) C 30 (
3
1
1
= 75 cm [1 + o (30C)]
or,
0
= 75 cm
(

+
o +
) C 30 (
3
1
1
)] C 30 ( 1 [
= 75 cm (

|
.
|

\
|
o + ) C 30 (
3
1
= 74.89 cm
EXERCISE
1. The steam point and the ice point of a mercury thermometer are marked as 80 and 20. What will be the
i< ini ni + ni ii l-< ( ltni+ +nzi 80 -ii 20 l-l-t- l+ n t t inini 32iai + < -i
t. =l-n i< ni- n -i l+--i tini`
Ans. 20
0
C
2. A constant volume thermometer registers a pressure of 1.500 10
4
Pa at the triple point of water and a
pressure of 2.050 10
4
Pa at the normal boiling point. What is the temperature at the normal boiling point?
(+ l-- ~i-- -inii n + lzi+ l-< 1.500 10
4
i-+n <i -ii =ini- +i-- l-< 2.050 10
4
i-+n <i <zii-i t
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
Page # 9
manishkumarphysics.in
Ans. 373.3 K
3. A gas thermometer measures the temperature from the variation of pressure of a sample of gas. If the
pressure measured at the melting point of lead is 2.20 times the pressure measured at the triple point of
water, find the melting point of lead.
(+ n = ini ni. n = + (+ -n - + <i n l- - + ~iii -i +i ni- +-i t l< =i= + nn- l-<
nii ni <i. n + lzi+ l-< ni n <i +i 2.20 n-i t. =i= +i nn- l-< ai- +il
Ans. 601 K
4. The pressure measured by a constant volume gas thermometer is 40 kPa at the triple point of water. What
will be the pressure measured at the boiling point of water (100C)?
n + lzi+ l-< l-- ~i-- n = -inii ,ii nii ni <i40 l+ni i -+n ( kPa) t n + +i- l-< (100C)
nii ni <i l+--i ti ni `
Ans. 55 kPa
5. The pressure of the gas in a constant volume gas thermometer is 70 kPa at the ice point. Find the pressure
at the steam point.
(+ l-- ~i-- n= -inii n ltni+ <i 70 kPa t ii l-< <i ai- +il
Ans. 96 kPa
6. The pressure of the gas in a constant volume gas thermometer are 80 cm, 90 cm and 100 cm of mercury at
the ice point, the steam point and in a heated wax bath respectively. Find the temperature of the wax bath.
(+ l-- ~i-- n= -inii n ltni +. iin l-< -ii nn ni n +i -i< n <i +nzi 80 =ni, 90 =ni -ii 100 =ni
i< ---i t nin +i -i< +i -i ai- +il
Ans. 200
0
C
7. In a Callenders compensated constant pressure air thermometer, the volume of the bulb is 1800 cc. When
the bulb is kept immersed in a vessel, 200 cc of mercury has to be poured out. Calculate the temperature of
the vessel.
+ n n l-+il- l-i <i i -inii (callender's compensated constant air pressure thermometer) n -
~i-- 1800 i- = ni t - l+=i izi n ii i-i t 200 i- = ni ii i l-+ini i-i t izi + -i +i
ni-i +il
Ans. 307 K
8. A platinum resistance thermometer reads 0 when its resistance is 80 Oand 100 when its resistance is 90
O. Find the temperature at the platinum scale at which the resistance is 86 O.
-nl-n l-ii -inii +i iai+0 80 O -ii 100 90 O t t 86 O iai+ <-i t. -nl-n ni-
-i ai- +il
8. 60
9. A resistance thermometer reads R = 20.0 O, 27.5 O, and 50.0 O at the ice point (0C), the steam point
(100C) and the zinc point (420C) respectively. Assuming that the resistance varies with temperature as R
u
= R0 (1 + ou + |u
2
), find the value of R
0
, o and |. Here u represents the Celsius scale.
(+ l-ii -inii +i iai+R = 20.0 O, 27.5 O, ( 50.0 O +nzi ltni+ (0C), ii l-< (100C) -ii
l+ l-< (420C) t ni- nil l+ -i + =ii l-ii n l-- R
u
= R0 (1 + ou + |u
2
) + ~-=i ti-i t.
R
0
, o ( | + ni- ai- +il ti u =l-== ni- -i <lzi- +-i t
9. 20.0 O, 3.8 10
3
/
0
C, 5.6 10
7
/
0
C
2
10. A concrete slab has a length of 10 m on a winter night when the temperature is 0C. Find the length of the
slab on a summer day when the temperature is 35C. The coefficient of linear expansion of concrete is 1.0
10
5
/C.
=<i +i i- n -i 0Ct (+ ++i i +i n-i: 10 ni. t :=+i n-i: nni + l<-i n ai- +il . -i
35C ti-i t ++i +i li+ =i nii+1.0 10
5
/Ct
10. 10.0035 m
11. A meter scale made of steel is calibrated at 20C to give correct reading. Find the distance between 50
cm mark and 51 cm mark if the scale is used at 10C. Coefficient of linear expansion of steel is 1.1
10
5
/C.
-in +i -i t ~i (+ ni ni-i 20C =ti iai + < - + ln ~ ziil+- l+i ni t l< ni-i +i 10C-i
+- l+i i -i 50 = ni ( 51 = ni + l--ti + i- +i <i ai- +il -in +i li+ =i n ii +1.1
10
5
/C t
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
Page # 10
manishkumarphysics.in
11. 1.00011 cm
12. A railway track (made of iron) is laid in winter when the average temperature is 18C. The track consists
of sections of 12.0 m placed one after the other. How much gap should be left between two such
sections so that there is no compression during summer when the maximum temperature goes to
48C? Coefficient of linear expansion of iron = 11 10
8
/C.
n +i li (ni t +i -i t : ) =<i + l<-i n lzii ni t . ~i =- -i 18C ti -i t li + 12.0 ni. n-
+ (+ + i< (+ lzi n t := +i + <i + i + i- l+--i ~ -in (iini -ii-) i-i -ilt l+ nni i
n ~li+-n -ini- 48C ti i-i t. +i: =+-- - ti` nit +i li+ =i nii+ = 11 10
8
/C.
12. 0.4 cm
13. A circular hole of diameter 2.00 cm is made in an aluminium plate at 0C. What will be the diameter at
100C? o for aluminium = 2.3 10
5
/C.
0C -i ini (-lnl-n +i (+ -n n 2.00 = ni i= +i (+ -ii+i lz< t 100C -i :=+i i= l+--i
tini` (-lnl-n + ln o = 2.3 10
5
/C.
13. 2.0046 cm
14. Two metre scales, one of steel and the other of aluminium, agree at 20C. Calculate the ratio aluminium-
centimetre/steel-centimetre at (a) 0C, (b) 40C and (c) 100C. o for steel = 1.1 10
5
/C and for
aluminium = 2.3 10
5
/C.
<i ni ni-. (+ -in +i -ii (+ (-lnl-n +i 20C =ni- iai+ <zii- t ~-i-
(-lnl-n=-ini-in=-ini +i ni-i +il
(a) 0C,-i (b) 40C -i ( (c) 100C -i -in + ln o = 1.1 10
5
/C ( (- lnl-n + ln
= 2.3 10
5
/C
14. (a) 0.99977 (b) 1.00025 (c) 1.00096
15. A metre scale is made up of steel and measures correct length at 16C. What will be the percentage
error if this scale is used (a) on a summer day when the temperature is 46C and (b) on a winter day
when the temperature is 6C? Coefficient of linear expansion of steel = 11 10
6
/C.
-in = -i t ~i (+ ni ni-i 16C -i =ti n-i: ni-i t l-zi- zi l +i ni- l+--i ti ni. l< t ni-i
+- l+i i (a) nni + l<-i n -i 46C ti-i t -ii (b) =<i + l<-i n -i 6C? ti -i t` -in +i
li+ =i nii+ = 11 10
6
/C
Ans. (a) 0.033% (b) 0.011%
16. A metre scale made of steel reads accurately at 20C. In a sensitive experiment, distances accurate
upto 0.055 mm in 1m are required. Find the range of temperature in which the experiment can be
performed with this metre scale. Coefficient of linear expansion of steel = 11 10
6
/C.
-in +i (+ nini-i 20C -i =ti iai+ <-i t (+ ~- =niti i n n 1 ni. <i n 0.055 lnni +i
iii -i ~iz+ t t -i i= ai- +il ln t in := ni ni-i +i =ti-i = l+i = =+ -in
+i li+ =i nii+ = 11 10
6
/C.
Ans. 15
0
C to 25
0
C
17. The density of water at 0C is 0.998 g/cm
3
and at 4C is 1.000 g/cm
3
. Calculate the average coefficient
of volume expansion of water in the temperature range 0 to 4C.
0C -i i-i +i i- 0.998 nin= ni
3
-ii 4C -i 1.000 nin= ni
3
ti -i t 0C = 4C -i i= n i-i
+i ~i=- ~i-- =i nii + ai- +il
Ans. 5 10
4
/
0
C
18. Find the ratio of the lengths of an iron rod and an aluminium rod for which the difference in the lengths
is independent of temperature. Coefficients of linear expansion of iron and aluminium are 12 10
6
/C
and 23 10
6
/C respectively.
(+ ni t +i z -ii (+ (- lnl-n +i z +i n-i: i +i t ~- in ai- +il l=+ ln . n-i: i +i ~--
-i l-i -ti +-i ti nit -ii (-lnl-n +i li+ =i nii+ +nzi 12 10
6
/C ( 23 10
6
/C t
Ans. 23 : 12
19. A pendulum clock gives correct time at 20C at a place where g = 9.800 m/s
2
. The pendulum consists
of a light steel rod connected to a heavy ball. It is taken to a different place where g = 9.788 m/s
2
. At
what temperature will it give correct time? Coefficient of linear expansion of steel = 12 10
6
/C
HCV_Ch-23_Ex_19
(+ nn i i ti g = 9.800 m/s
2
t. 20C =ti =n <-i t nn (+ t-+i -in z (i) = (+
iii n< +i i + -i t := (=i <=i nt n ii i-i t ti g = 9.788 m/s
2
t l+= -ini-
t =ti =n < ni -in + ln( ii =i n ii + = 12 10
6
/C t
Ans. 82
0
C
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
Page # 11
manishkumarphysics.in
20. An aluminium plate fixed in a horizontal position has a hole of diameter 2.00 cm. A steel sphere of
diameter 2.005 cm rests on this hole. All the lengths refer to a temperature of 10C. the temperature of
the entire system is slowly increased. At what temperature will the ball fall down? Coefficient of linear
expansion of aluminium is 23 10
6
/C and that of steel is 11 10
6
/C.
(+ (-lnl-n -n -il- l-i- n +=+ ii t: t. :=n 2.00 =ni i= +i (+ lz< t := lz< 2.005
=ni i= ini -in +i nini ii t~i t =n-- n-i:i 10C -i t =-i l-+i +i -i ii ii cii
i-i t l+= -i nini ln ini` (- lnl-n +i li+ =i n ii + 23 10
6
/C -ii -in +i 11
10
6
/C +i t
Ans. 219
0
C
21. A glass window is to be fit in an aluminium frame. The temperature on the working day is 40C and the
glass window measures exactly 20 cm 30 cm. What should be the size of the aluminium frame so
that there is no stress on the glass in winter even if the temperature drops to 0C? Coefficient of linear
expansion for glass and aluminium are 9.0 10
6
/C and 24 10
6
/C respectively.
(-lnl-n +i -ii n +i- +i li +i nnii ni t l+=i l<= -i 40C t -ii +i- +i li +i +i
ni 20 30 = ni t (-lnl-n +i -i i +i ~i+i +i ti -i -ilt l+ l< =l<i n -i 0C t i -i
ii +i- +i: l-n - nn? +i- -ii (- lnl-n + li+ =i +nzi 9.0 10
6
/C -ii 24 10
6
/C
t
Ans. 20.012 cm 30.018 cm
22. The volume of glass vessel is 1000 cc at 20C. What volume of mercury should be poured into it at this
temperature so that the volume of the remaining space does not change with temperature? Coefficient
of cubical expansion of mercury and glass are 1.8 10
4
/C and 9.0 10
6
/C respectively.
+i - + (+ izi +i 20C -i ~i-- 1000 i- =ni t := -i :=n i + l+--i ~i-- ii i
l+ zii - -ii- +i ~i-- -i + =ii ll- - -ti ti` ii -ii +i- +i ~i-- =i n ii+ +nzi
1.8 10
4
/C -ii 9.0 10
6
/C t
Ans. 50 cc
23. An aluminium can of cylindrical shape contains 500 cm
3
of water. The area of the inner cross-section of
the can is 125 cm
2
. All measurements refer to 10C. Find the rise in the water level if the temperature
increases to 80C. The coefficient of linear expansion of aluminium = 23 10
6
/C and the average
coefficient of volume expansion of water = 3.2 10
4
/C respectively.
(- lnl-n +i (+ n-i+i + - n 500 =ni
3
i-i t + - + ~i-l+ ~- -i +i +i -i zi+n 125 = ni
2
t =n--
ni 10C -i + ln t l< -i c+ 80C ti i-i t -i i-i + -n n lz ai- +il (-lnl-n +i
li+ =i n ii + = 23 10
6
/C -ii i-i +i ~i =- ~i-- =i n ii + = 3.2 10
4
/C t
Ans. 0.089 cm
24. A glass vessel measures exactly 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm at 0C. it is filled completely with mercury at this
temperature. When the temperature is raised to 10C, 1.6 cm
3
of mercury overflows. Calculate the coefficient
of volume expansion of mercury. Coefficient of linear expansion of glass = 6.5 10
6
/C
+i- + (+ izi +i 0C-i ni 10 10 10 =ni t :=+i := -i i = i-i i l<i ni t
-i +i 10C-+ c ii i-i t. 1.6 =ni
3
ii it l-+n i-i t i + ~i-- =i nii+ +i ni-i
+il +i - +i li+ =i n ii + = 6.5 10
6
/C
Ans. 1.8 10
4
/
0
C
25. The densities of wood and benzene at 0C are 880 kg/m
3
and 900 kg/m
3
respectively. The coefficients of
volume expansion are 1.2 10
3
/Cfor wood and 1.5 10
3
/Cfor benzene. At what temperature will a piece
of wood just sink in benzene?
0C -i n+ i -ii i- + i- +nzi 880 l+nini
3
-ii 900 l+nini
3
t n+ i + ln ~i-- =i
nii + 1.2 10
3
/C ( i- +i 1.5 10
3
/Ct l+= -i n+ i +i + i i- n = i ni`
Ans. 83
0
C
26. A steel rod of length 1m rests on a smooth horizontal base. If it is heated from 0C to 100C, what is the
longitudinal strain developed?
1 ni n-i -in +i z (+ l-+- ~iii ii t: t l< :=+i 0C= 100C, -+ nn l+i i -i l+--i
~- -i l|l- --- ti ni`
Ans. zero
27. A steel rod is clamped at its two ends and rests on a fixed horizontal base. The rod is unstrained at 20C.
Findthelongitudinal strain developed in the rodif thetemperature rises to50C. Coefficient of linear expansion
of steel = 1.2 10
5
/C.
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
Page # 12
manishkumarphysics.in
(+ -in z :=+ <i-i l=i -n- = +=i t: t -ii l-i -il- ~iii ii t: t 20C-i z
n +i: l|l- -ti t l< -i c+ 50Cti i -i z n --- ~-< l|l- ai- +il -in +i li+
=i n ii + = 1.2 10
5
/C
Ans. 3.6 10
4
28. A steel wire of cross-sectional area 0.5 mm
2
is held between two fixed supports. If the wire is just taut at
20C, determine the tension when the temperature falls to 0C. Coefficient of linear expansion of steel is
1.2 10
5
/C and its Youngs modulus is 2.0 10
11
N/m
2
. [Q.28/HCV-2/Ch-23/Exercise] 
0.5 lnni
2
~--i +i -izi+n ini -in +i (+ -i <i l-i ~iiii + i- +=i ni t l< 20C-i
-i = --i t ~i t . -i 0C -+ ln- --i l-iil- +il -in +i li+ =i n ii +
1.2 10
5
/C -ii n +i i-i-i 2.0 10
11
- -ni
2
t
Sol. F = A Y o At
= 0.5 10
6
2 10
11
1.2 10
5
20
= 24 N
Ans. 24 N
29. A steel rod is rigidly clamped at its ends. The rod in under zero tension at 20C. If the temperature rises
to 100C, what force will the rod exert on one of the clamps. Area of cross-section of the rod = 2.00 mm
2
.
Coefficient of linear expansion of steel = 12.0 10
6
/C and Youngs modulus of steel = 2.00 10
11
N/m
2
.
(+ -in z :=+ <i-i l=i <c-i + +=i t: t 20C z n --i zi- t l< -i c+ 100C
ti i-i t. -i z l+=i (+ +n- l+--i n nnini z + ~--i +i +i -izi+n = 2.00 nini
2
. (
-in +i li+ =i nii+ = 12.0 10
6
/C-ii -in + ln n +i i-i-i nii+ = 2.00 10
11
--ni
2
Ans. 384 N
30. Two steel rods and an aluminium rod of equal length
0
and equal cross-section are joined rigidly at their ends
as shown in the figure below. All the rods are in a state of zero tension at 0C. Find the length of the system
when the temperature is raised to u. Coefficient of linear expansion of aluminium and steel are o
a
and o
s
respectively. Youngs modulus of aluminium is Y
a
and of steel is Y
s
=ni- n-i:
0
-ii =ni- ~--i +i ini <i -in +i z -ii (-lnl-n +i z l--- l-zi n <zii ~-=i
:-+ l=i = i i ni t =n-- z 0C-i zi- --i +i l-il- n t -i c i+ u + l<i i-i
t := l-+i +i n-i: ai- +il (- lnl-n ( -in + li+ =i n ii + +nzi o
a
-ii o
s
t
(- lnl-n + ln n +i i-i-i n ii + Y
a
-ii -in + ln Y
s
t
.
Ans. (

u
+
o + o
+
S a
S S a a
0
Y 2 Y
Y 2 Y
1
31. A steel ball initially at a pressure of 1.0 10
5
Pa is heated from 20C to 120C keeping its volume constant.
Find the pressure inside the ball. Coefficient of linear expansion of steel = 12 10
6
/Cand bulk modulus of
steel = 1.6 10
11
N/m
2
.
-in +i (+ n< il-i+ <i 1.0 10
5
i-+n 20C= 120C-+ ~i-- l-- i- t( nn +i i-i t
n< + ~-< <i ai- +il -in +i li+ =i nii+ = 12 10
6
/C( -in +i ~i-- i-i-i nii+
= 1.6 10
11
- -ni
2

Ans. 5.8 10
8
Pa
32. Showthat moment of inertia of a solid body of any shape changes with temperature as I = I
0
(1 + 2ou), where
I
0
is the moment if inertia at 0C and o is the coefficient of linear expansion of the solid.
+- +il l+ l+=i ii ~i|l- +i ai= -- +i ~iii -i + =ii I = I
0
(1 +2ou), + ~-=i ll--
ti-i t . ti I
0
0C-i ~ii i t -ii o ai= +i li+ =i n ii+ t
33. A torsional pendulum consists of a solid disc connected to a thin wire (o = 2.4 10
5
/C) at its centre. Find
the percentage change in the period between peak winter (5C) and peak summer (45C).
(+ ni i <i + +i (+(+ -n -i (o= 2.4 10
5
/C) +i (+ ai = -+-i + + -< i + -ii ni
t ii =<i (5C) = ii nni (45C) -+ :=+ ~i-+in n l-zi- l- - ai- +il
Ans. 9.6 10
2
Chapter # 23 Heat and Temperature
Page # 13
manishkumarphysics.in
34. A circular disc made of iron is rotated about its axis at a constant velocity e. Calculate the percentage
change in the linear speed of a particle of the rim as the disc is slowly heated from 20C to 50C
keeping the angular velocity constant. Coefficient of linear expansion of iron = 1.2 10
5
/C.
ni t +i (+ -ii+i -+-i :=+i ~-i + l- l-- +i ii n e = i nii i ti t -+-i +i :=+i +i ii
n l-- i- t ( 20C = 50C -+ iiii nn l+i i-i t -i :=+i - ln l-i- +i +i li+ -in
= l-zi- l- - +i ni-i +il = 1.2 10
5
/C
Ans. 3.6 10
2