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Short Notes: Form 5 Chemistry
Rate or Reaction

Calculation

Rate of Reaction (Average Rate)
Quantity change oI reactants/products
Rates oI reaction
Total time Ior the reaction


If the quantity change is immeasurable
1
Rates oI reaction
Total time Ior the reaction


Find the Rate From a Graph

Average Rate Rates At an Instant
The rate oI reaction is equal to the slope oI the graph
oI quantity against time.

(Product)
Rate oI Reaction
(Time)


The rate oI reaction at an instant, t, is equal to the
slope oI tangent at that instant.

(Product)
Rate oI Reaction
(Time)














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Chemical Reaction

Precipitation of Sulphur

2HCl
(aq)
Na
2
S
2
O
3(aq)
2NaCl
(aq)
S
(s)
SO
2(g)
H
2
O
(l)


Notes:
1. Yellow precipitate (sulphur) is Iormed.
2. The reaction is slow.

Na
2
S
2
O
3
: Sodium thiosulphate


Potassium Dichromate (VI) with Ethanedioic Acid

Cr
2
O
7
2-
14H

3C
2
O
4
2-
6CO
2
7H
2
O 2Cr
3


Notes:
1. In the reaction, the orange colour oI the solution
turns into green.
Cr
2
O
7
2-
: dichromate(VI) ion (Orange)
C
2
O
4
2-
: ethanedioate ion (Colourless)
Cr
3
: Chromium(III) ion (green)

Potassium Manganate(VII) with Ethanedioic Acid

2MnO
4
-
16H

5C
2
O
4
2-
10CO
2
8H
2
O 2Mn
2


Notes:
1. Mn
2
is colourless
2. In the reaction, the purple colour oI the solution
turns into colourless.
MnO
4
-
: Manganate(VII) ion (Purple)
Mn
2
: Manganese(II) ion colourless

Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

2H
2
O
2

-
2H
2
O O
2

Catalyst: manganese(IV) oxide(MnO
2
), Iron(III) oxide (Fe
2
O
3
), silver (Ag)

Haber Process (Manufacture Ammonia)

N
2
3H
2
2NH
3


(More detail in Form 4 Chapter 9)

Contact Process(Manufacture Sulphuric Acid)

2SO
2
O
2
2SO
3

(More detail in Form 4 Chapter 9)


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Ostwald Process (Manufacture Nitric Acid)

Stage 1
4NH
3(g)
5O
2(g)
4NO
(g)
6H
2
O
(g)

Notes:
1. Temperature 900oC
2. Pressure 4-10 atm
3. Catalyse Platinum (Pt)

Stage 2
2NO
(g)
O
2(g)
2NO
2(g)

Dissolve in water
3NO
2(g)
H
2
O
(l)
2HNO
3(aq)
NO
(g)


Carbon Compound

Alkane

Alkane
Combustion
Complete
Combustion
Incomplete
Combustion
Substitution
Reaction
(Halogenation)


Combustion

Complete combustion

C
2
H
6
+
7
2
O
2
2CO
2
+ 3H
2
O

Incomplete combustion

C
2
H
6
+
5
2
O
2
2CO + 3H
2
O
C
2
H
6
+
3
2
O
2
2C + 3H
2
O

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Substitution Reaction


Alkene

Alkene
Combustion
Complete
Combustion
Incomplete
Combustion
Addition Reaction
+ Bromine/Chlorine
+ Potassium
Manganate(VII)
+ Hydrogen
+ Hydrogen Halide
+ Steam
Polymerization
Alkane Alcohol
Craking Dehydration


Preparation of Alkene

Cracking of Alkane

2C
4
H
10
CH
4
C
2
H
4
C
2
H
6
C
3
H
6


Dehydration of Alchohol

C
2
H
5
OH C
2
H
4
H
2
O

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Combustion:

Complete combustion:

C
2
H
4
3O
2
2CO
2
2H
2
O
Incomplete combustion

C
2
H
4
2O
2
2CO 2H
2
O

C
2
H
4
O
2
2C 2H
2
O
Addition Reaction:

+ Bromine:


+ Potassium Manganate(VII):


+ Hydrohen:

(Catalyst: platinum/nickel)
+ Hydrogen Halide:


+ Steam (H
2
O):

(Catalyst: phosphoric acid; Temperature: 300
o
C; Pressure: 60atm)
Polymerization

(Catalyst: oxygen; Temperature: 200
o
C; Pressure: 1200atm)
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Alcohol

Alkene Carbohydrate
Alcohol fermentation Addition
+ Sodium dehydration Combustion
Oxidation
(+K
2
CrO
7
/KMnO
4
)


Preparation of alchohol

Fermentation of Carbohydrate (Glucose)
C
6
H
12
O
6
2C
2
H
5
OH 2CO
2

Addition of Alkene
C
2
H
4
H
2
O C
2
H
5
OH
|Catalyst:Phosphoric acid; Temperature:300
o
C; Pressure: 60atm |
or
C
2
H
4
H
2
SO
4
CH
3
CH
2
OSO
3
H
CH
3
CH
2
OSO
3
H H
2
O CH
3
CH
2
OH H
2
SO
4

Combustion of Alcohol

C
2
H
5
OH 3O
2
2CO
2
3H
2
O

Dehydration of Alcohol

C
2
H
5
OH C
2
H
4
H
2
O

Alcohol + Sodium

2C
2
H
5
OH 2Na 2C
2
H
5
ONa H
2


Oxidation of Alcohol

C
2
H
5
OH 2|O| CH
3
COOH H
2
O


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Carboxylic Acid
Aldehydes Alchohol
Carboxylic acid Oxidation Oxidation
+ Metal + oxide base + alkali + Metal carbonate + Alchohol
Salt + H
2
O Salt + H
2
O Salt + H
2
Salt + CO
2
+ H
2
O
Esther


Preparation of Carboxylic acid

Oxidation of Alcohol
C
2
H
5
OH 2|O| CH
3
COOH H
2
O

Oxidation of Aldehyde
C
2
H
6
O |O| CH
3
COOH

Reaction

Carboxylic Acid + Alkali

CH
3
COOH NaOH CH
3
COONa H
2
O

Carboxylic Acid + Metal Oxide

2CH
3
COOH MgO Mg(CH
3
COO)
2
H
2
O

Carboxylic Acid + Metal

2CH
3
COOH Mg Mg(CH
3
COO)
2
H
2

Carboxylic Acid + Metal Carbonate

2CH
3
COOH CaCO
3
Ca(CH
3
COO)
2
CO
2
H
2
O

Carboxylic Acid + Alchohol

CH
3
COOH C
2
H
5
OH CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
H
2
O

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Summary of The Reaction

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Oxidation and Reduction

Iron(II) to Iron(III)

Oxidising agent: Chlorine or Bromine

Fe
2
Fe
3
e
Cl
2
2e 2Cl



2Fe
2
Cl
2
2Fe
3
2Cl



Fe
2
Fe
3
e
Br
2
2e 2Br



2Fe
2
Br
2
2Fe
3
2Cl


Observation:
1. The green colour oI Fe
2
solution turns brown
Observation:
1. The green colour oI Fe
2
solution turn brown
2. The brown colour oI bromine water turns into
colourless.

Oxidising agent: Potassium Permanganate(VII)

Fe
2
Fe
3
e
MnO
4

8H

5e Mn
2
4H
2
O

5Fe
2
MnO
4

8H

5Fe
3
Mn
2
4H
2
O

Observation:
1. The green colour oI solution Fe
2
turns brown
2. The purple colour oI the MnO
4

solution turns into colourless



Oxidising agent: Potassium Dichromate(VI)

Fe
2
Fe
3
e
Cr
2
O
7
2-
14 H

6e 2Cr
3
7H
2
O

6Fe
2
MnO
4

8H

6Fe
3
Mn
2
4H
2
O

Observation:
1. The green colour oI solution Fe
2
turns brown.
2. The orange colour oI the Cr
2
O
7
2-
solution turns green.

Oxidising agent: Hidrogen Peroxide

Fe
2
Fe
3
e
H
2
O
2
2H

2e 2H
2
O

2Fe
2
H
2
O
2
2H

2Fe
3
2H
2
O
Observation:
1. The green colour oI solution Fe
2
turns brown

Oxidising agent: Concentrated Nitric Acid

Fe
2
Fe
3
e
NO
3
-
4H

3e NO 2H
2
O

3Fe
2
NO
3
-
4H

3Fe
3
NO 2H
2
O

Observation:
1. The green colour oI solution Fe
2
turns brown
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10
Iron(III) to Iron(II)

Reducing Agent: More reactive Metal

Fe
3
e Fe
2

Zn Zn
2
2e

2Fe
3
Zn 2Fe
2
Zn
2


Observation:
1. The brown colour oI the iron(III) solution turn green.
2. Zinc powder dissolve in the solution.

Reducing Agent: Sulphur Dioxide

Fe
3
e Fe
2

SO
2
2H
2
O SO
4
2-
4H

2e

2Fe
3
SO
2
2H
2
O 2Fe
2
SO
4
2-
4H



Observation:
1. The brown colour oI the iron(III) solution turn green.

Reducing Agent: Hydrogen Sulphide

Fe
3
e Fe
2

H
2
S 2H

S 2e

2Fe
3
H
2
S 2Fe
2
2H

S

Observation:
1. The brown colour oI the iron(III) solution turn green.
2. Yellow precipitate Iorms in the solution.

Reducing Agent: Sodium Sulphite

Fe
3
e Fe
2

SO
3
2-
H
2
O SO
4
2-
2H

2e

2Fe
3
SO
3
2-
H
2
O 2Fe
2
SO
4
2-
2H



Observation:
1. The brown colour oI the iron(III) solution turn green.

Reducing Agent: Tin(II) Chloride

Fe
3
e Fe
2

Sn
2
Sn
4
2e

2Fe
3
Sn
2
2Fe
2
Sn
4


Observation:
1. The brown colour oI the iron(III) solution turn green.



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11
Displacement of Metal
|A more reactive metal can displace a less reactive ion oI metal Irom its compound.|

Example:
Mg PbCl
2
MgCl
2
Pb
3Zn Fe
2
O
3
3ZnO 2Fe
Al CuSO
4
Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
Cu

Electrochemical Series

Reactivity Series


Displacement of Halogen
|A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halide Irom its compound.|

Example:
Cl
2
KBr KCl Br
2

Br
2
NaI NaBr I
2

F
2
KI KF I
2


Reactivity of Halogen

Colour of Halogen and Halide
Halogen Colour in
water
Colour in
CCl
4

Chlorine (Cl
2
) Pale Yellow Pale Yellow
Bromine (Br
2
) Brown/Orange/
Yellow
Brown/Orange/
Yellow
Iodine (I
2
) Brown/Orange/
Yellow
Purple
Halogen Colour in
water
Colour in
CCl
4

Chloride (Cl
-
) Colourless Colourless
Bromide (Br
-
) Colourless Colourless
Iodide (I
-
) Colourless Colourless


More reactive

F
2
~ Cl
2
~ Br
2
~ I
2
~ At
2

More reactive

K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, C, Zn, H, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu, Ag
More electropositive

K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Ag

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12
The Oxidising Agent and Reducing Agent

Oxidising Agent (Reduction) Redusing Agent (Oxidation)
Halogen
Cl
2
2e 2Cl


Br
2
2e 2Br

I
2
2e 2I


Metal
Mg Mg
2
2e
Zn Zn
2
2e
Al Al
3
2e
Metal Ion
Mg
2
2e Mg
Pb
2
2e Pb
Sn
2
2e Sn
Halide Ion
2Cl

Cl
2
2e
2Br

Br
2
2e
2I

I
2
2e
Fe
3+

Fe
3
e Fe
2

Fe
2+

Fe
2
Fe
3
e
Potassium Manganate(VII)
MnO
4

8H

5e Mn
2
4H
2
O
Sulphur Dioxide
SO
2
2H
2
O SO
4
2-
4H

2e
Potassium Dicromate(VI)
Cr
2
O
7
2-
14 H

6e 2Cr
3
7H
2
O
Hydrogen Sulphide
H
2
S 2H

S 2e
Hydrogen Peroxide
H
2
O
2
2H

2e 2H
2
O
Sodium Sulphite Aqueous
SO
3
2-
H
2
O SO
4
2-
2H

2e
Concentrated Nitric Acid
NO
3
-
4H

3e NO 2H
2
O
Tin(II) Chloride Aqueous
Sn
2
Sn
4
2e

Rusting

Step 1: Formation pf Ion
Anode:
Fe Fe
2
2e
Cathode:
O
2
H
2
O 4OH
-
4e

Step 2: Corrosion of Iron
Fe
2
2OH
-
Fe(OH)
2


Step 3: Formation of iron(III) hydroxide

4Fe(OH)
2
H
2
O O
2
4Fe(OH)
3


Step 4: Formation of Hydrated Iron(III) Oxide

Fe(OH)
3
Fe
2
O
3
xH
2
O

General Equation

4Fe 3O
2
xH
2
O 2Fe
2
O
3
xH
2
O
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Preparation of Oxygen Gas

Decomposition of Potassium Manganate (VII)

2KMnO
4
K
2
MnO
4
MnO
2
O
2


Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate (V)

2KClO
3
2KCl 3O
2

|Manganese(IV) Oxide as catalyst|
Decomposition of Potassium Nitrate

2KNO
3
2KNO
2
O
2


Extraction of Iron From Its Ore

Production of Carbon Dioxide
C O
2
CO
2


Production of Carbon Monoxide
CaCO
3
CaO CO

Reduction of Iron Ore to Iron
Upper Section oI the Ballast Furnace
Fe
2
O
3
3CO 2Fe 3CO
2


Fe
3
O
4
4 CO 3Fe 4CO
2


Lower Section oI the Ballast Furnace
Fe
2
O
3
3C 2Fe 3CO

Fe
3
O
4
4 C 3Fe 4CO
2


Removal of Impurities
CaO SiO
2
CaSiO
3



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14
Thermochemistry

Calculation

Heat of Reaction

Thermal Energy Change
Number oI Mole
H A =

Thermal Energy Change

Q mcAu

m mass oI solution volume oI solution
c speciIic heat capacity oI solution

Number of Mole

For solution
1000
MV
n =

For gas (When volume is given)
3 3
Volume oI gas
Molar volume oI gas (22.4dm at stp / 24dm at rtp)
n =
For solid, liquid or gas ( When mass is given )
mass
Molar mass (RAM/RMM)
n =

Chemical Reaction

Exothermic Reaction

Dissolving Alkali or Acid

-
2
NaOH Na OH
H O +
+

2
2
2 4 4
H SO H SO
H O
+
+

Dissolving of Anhydrous Salt

2 2
2
4 4
CuSO Cu SO
H O
+
+

2
2
2 3 3
Na CO 2Na CO
H O
+
+




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15
Combustion of Fuel
Example:
Combustion of Carbon
C O
2
CO
2

Combustion of Hydrogen
2H
2
O
2
2H
2
O
Combustion of Ethane
C
2
H
6

7
2
O
2
2CO
2
3H
2
O

Reaction of Acid
Neutralisation
HCl NaOH NaCl H
2
O

2HNO
3
CaO Ca(NO
3
)
2
H
2
O
Acid + Reactive Metal
H
2
SO
4
Zn ZnSO
4
H
2

Acid + Carbonate Acid
HCl CaCO
3
CaCl
2
CO
2
HCl
Displacement Reaction
Zn CuSO
4
ZnSO
4
Cu

Endothermic Reaction

Dissolving of Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Nitrate and Ammonium Sulphate

-
2
4 4
NH Cl NH Cl
H O
+
+

2
4 3 4 3
NH NO NH NO
H O
+
+

2
2
4 4 4 4
(NH )SO 2NH SO
H O
+
+

Dissolving of Hydrated Salt

CuSO
4
-xH
2
O Cu
2
SO
4
2-
xH
2
O

Na
2
CO
3
-xH
2
O 2Na CO
3
2-
xH
2
O

Thermal Decomposition of salts

CaCO
3
CaO CO
2


2Ca(NO
3
)
2
2CaO 4NO
2
O
2