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Mining with Paste Fill
Mehmet Yumlu, Principal Mining Engineer
AMC Consultants Pty Ltd
AusIMM Cobar Mining Seminar
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6 August 2010


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Outline
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I t d ti Introduction
What is Paste Fill?
Why Using Paste Fill?
Paste Fill System Design
Paste Fill Making Process
Distribution and placement
Mining with Paste Fill - Case Studies
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What is paste fill?
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Paste fill is dense non draining sl rr made fromsingle or a combination of Paste fill is dense non draining slurry made from single or a combination of
several suitable solid materials produced to toothpaste consistency
For surface disposal no cement required
For underground backfill cement always required
Terminology
Paste (P)
Paste fill (PF)
Paste backfill (PB)
Cemented paste backfill (CPB)
Composite fill (CF)
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Composite fill (CF)
Paste aggregate fill (rocky paste fill) (PAF)


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Why Paste fill?
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i d d t i t t hi h lit engineered product consistent high quality
suitable for most mining methods - versatile
lower cost for a given exposure duty - economic
reduces surface footprint - environment friendly
allows extraction of ore pillars - increasing resource extraction
allows effective local and regional ground support - safety
fast filling rates enables shorter stope cycle times - productivity
non segregating - reduced dilution
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g g g


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What are Paste Fill Duties in UG Mining?
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Wh i t t d i t th i i l t b kfill When integrated into the mining cycle paste backfill serves
as a working platform,
as a wall to work alongside as a wall to work alongside
as an engineered artificial back
As a local and regional ground support paste fill As a local and regional ground support paste fill
provides confinement to ore pillars and the host rock, and
prevents unravelling, thereby limiting convergence and subsidence into the mine p g, y g g
voids.
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Some Myths.
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P t i NOT Paste is NOT
The solution to all future mine fill problems
A method which will enable a mine to place all tailings underground A method which will enable a mine to place all tailings underground
A fill type by which all the water is absorbed through cement hydration
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Paste Fill Design
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Paste fill is engineeredto meet the following criteria Paste fill is engineered to meet the following criteria
Flow properties (rheology)
delivery of paste from surface to underground via boreholes and pipes at the highest practical y p g pp g p
pulp density
Strength properties
paste to remainstable when exposedto static or dynamic loading conditions experiencedby paste to remain stable when exposed to static or dynamic loading conditions experienced by
the mining operation
This includes short term during the local mining operation and
Long term stability against regional seismicity
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Strength Design
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A l ti l Analytical
Empirical
Numerical
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Rheology Design
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Rh l i th t d f th fl ti f fl id Rheology is the study of the flow properties of fluids
Water is a Newtonian fluid
If you tip water out of a glass it will start to flow immediately
Pastefill is a non-Newtonian fluid
If you want to get toothpaste out of the tube, you must squeeze it first
Yield stress is the measure of how much work is required for the paste to start
flowing
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Typical Paste Fill Characteristics
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Particle si e distrib tion Particle size distribution
Minimum 15% passing 20 micron
No top size No top size
Rheological properties
Yield stress for surface disposal less than 100 Pa
Yield stress for backfill 100 to 700 Pa
Strength properties
Stiffness, E=150 to 450 MPa
Can be engineered to desired strength ( 100 kPa to 5 MPa)
( CS)
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Typical strength values (UCS)
300 to 1,000 kPa for vertical exposures
>1,000 kPa for undercut exposures


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What are methods of making paste fill?
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What are the delivery options?
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Gravity delivery to borehole
Surface conveyor to borehole
Pump delivery thru Pump delivery thru
Borehole
Decline
Agi truck delivery to borehole
Internal boreholes
Level pipelines
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Paste fill barricades
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Engendered shotcrete barricades required to retain paste fill
Planar
Arched
Mullock waste pile
Combination of waste and shotcrete
Cemented rockfill
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Paste Fill Operations Increasing Popularity
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Ab t 100 ti ld id About 100 operations worldwide
Many ongoing projects
Canada = 35 / 2
Australia = 24 / 5
South America = 12 /4
Europe = 11 /8
Asia = 7 / 9
Africa = 5 /1
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Case Study 1
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Underground Cu and Zn operation
Production 1.0 MTPA
Mining methods Mining methods
Longitudinal & transverse sublevel stoping
Drift and fill
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Case Study 1
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Online paste fill plant, 45 m
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/hour
Using full tailings, SG of 4.5
PSD (50-60% passing 20 microns with P80 of 63 microns)
Solid density 82%w/w (49.5%v/v)
Slump: 7 10 inch
Paste bulk and dry density: 2.6 and 2.0 tonnes/m
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Stope size 20m H x 7m W x 30m L (panels) p (p )
Target design strength: 1.0 MPa
GP cement; 7%(150 kg/m3) for primaries and 5% (110kg/m3) for secondaries
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; ( g ) p ( g )
Pump delivery, 125 mm diameter thru decline and boreholes
Shotcrete barricades


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Shotcrete barricades
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Case Study 1
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Case Study 1
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Case Study 2
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U d d ld i Underground gold mine
Production 450 TPA
Mining method
Underhand cut and fill
Backfill types
Paste fill
Rockfill
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Case Study 2
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Dr paste fill s stem 120 m
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/ho r Dry paste fill system, 120 m
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/hour
Using volcanic tuff
PSD(30% 20 i P80 100 i ) SG f 2 55 PSD (30% -20 micron, P80 100 micron), SG of 2.55
Solids density 50%w/w (28%v/v)
W d d b lk d i 1 5 / 3 d 0 8 / 3 Wet and dry bulk density 1.5 t/m3 and 0.8 t/m3
GP cement; 15 to 20%w/w (100 to 150 kg/m3)
Target design UCS >1,500 kPa
Stope size 5m W x 5m H x 30m L (cells)
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Shotcrete barricade
Gravity delivery thru borehole, 150mm dia distribution system


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Case Study 2
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Case Study 2
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Previous cut Lift 1
Next cut Lift 2
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Case Study 3
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U d dZ d Pb i Underground Zn and Pb mine
Production 1.6 MTPA
Tabular flat dipping massive sulphide orebody (dip <20 )
Mining methods
Drift and Fill
Bench stoping
Backfill
Rockfill
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Paste fill


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Case Study 3
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Online paste plant sing DCT 100 m
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/ho r Online paste plant using DCT, 100 m
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/hour
Full mill tailings (35% passing 20 micron, P80 100 micron), SG of 3.6
S lid d it 75% / (48% / ) Solids density 75%w/w (48%v/v)
Wet and dry bulk density 2.15 t/m3 and 1.6 t/m3
Yi ld 50 100 P (10 10 5 i h l ) Yield stress 50 to 100 Pa (10 to 10.5 inch slump)
Pump delivery through decline, 200 mm diameter, 3.5 km long
Shotcrete barricades
Stope size 10m W x 6m H x 150m L
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Target design UCS 500 kPa, @7% cement (100 kg/m3)
Slag 60% : cement 40%


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Case Study 3
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Thank you for listening
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A ti ? Any questions?
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