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Argentina

1
Argentina
For other uses, see Argentina (disambiguation).
Argentine Republic
[1]
</ref>
Repblica Argentina(Spanish)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto:"En unin y libertad"(Spanish)
"In Unity and Freedom"
Anthem:Himno Nacional Argentino(Spanish)
Argentine National Anthem
Mainland Argentina shown in dark green, with territorial claims shown in light green
Capital
and largest city
Buenos Aires
3436S 5823W
[2]
Official languages
Spanish
[a]
Ethnicgroups (2013) 97% European
3% Mestizo, Amerindian and Asian
Demonym Argentine
Argentinian
Argentinean (uncommon)
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
- President Cristina Fernndez de Kirchner
- Vice President Amado Boudou
- Supreme Court President Ricardo Lorenzetti
Argentina
2
Legislature Congress
- Upper house Senate
- Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Independencefrom Spain
- May Revolution 25 May 1810
- Declared 9 July 1816
- Current constitution 1 May 1853
Area
- Total
2,780,400km
2[3]
</ref> (8th)
1,073,518sqmi
- Water(%) 1.57
Population
- 2013estimate 41,660,417
- 2010census 40,117,096 (32nd)
- Density
14.4/km
2
(212th)
37.3/sqmi
GDP(PPP) 2014estimate
- Total $793.779 billion (22nd)
- Per capita $18,917 (56th)
GDP(nominal) 2014estimate
- Total $404.483 billion (29th)
- Per capita $9,640 (69th)
Gini(2010) 44.49
medium
HDI (2013) 0.811
very high 45th
Currency Peso ($) (ARS)
Time zone ART (UTC3)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Drives on the
right
[b]
Calling code +54
ISO 3166 code AR
Internet TLD .ar
a.
^ De facto at all government levels.
[4]
In addition, some provinces have official de jure languages:
Guaran in Corrientes Province.
Kom, Moqoit and Wichi, in Chaco Province.
b.
^ Trains ride on left.
Argentina
i
/rdntin/, officially the Argentine Republic (Spanish: Repblica Argentina [repulika
axentina]) is a federal republic located in southeastern South America. Covering most of the Southern Cone, it is
bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast; Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the
Argentina
3
east; Chile to the west and the Drake Passage to the south.
With a mainland area of 2,780,400km
2
(1,073,500sqmi), Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world and
the second largest in Latin America. Argentina's population of over 41 million citizens (2013 estimate) constitutes
the world's fourth largest Spanish-speaking nation. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the
Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
A historical and current middle power
[5][6]
and a prominent Latin American
[7][8]
include Great Britain, Ukraine,
Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Argentina."</ref>
[9][10][11][12]
and Southern Cone
[13][14][15]
regional
power, Argentina is one of the G-15 and G-20 major economies and Latin America's third-largest. It is also a
founding member of the United Nations, WBG, WTO, Mercosur, UNASUR, CELAC and OEI. Because of its
stability, market size and increasing share of the high-tech sector, Argentina is classed by investors as a middle
emerging economy with a "very high" rating on the Human Development Index.
The earliest recorded human presence in the area now known as Argentina is dated from the Paleolithic period.
[16]
The Spanish colonization began in 1512.
[17]
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Ro de la
Plata,
[18][19][20]
a Spanish overseas colony founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence
(18101818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, which ended with the country's
reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city. From then onwhile massive
European immigration waves radically reshaped its cultural and demographic outlookArgentina enjoyed an
historically almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity: by the early 20th century it already ranked as the seventh
wealthiest
[21]
developed nation
[22]
in the world. After 1930, however, and despite remaining among the fifteen
richest countries until mid-century,
[21]
it descended into political instability and suffered periodic economic crisis
that sank it back into underdevelopment.
Name and etymology
The name "Argentina" is derived from Latin argentum ("silver", plata in Spanish), a noun associated with the silver
mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
[23]
The first written use of the name can be traced to La Argentina,
[24]
a 1602 poem by Martn del Barco Centenera
describing the region and the foundation of Buenos Aires.
[25]
Although "Argentina" was already in common usage
by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Ro de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, and
"United Provinces of the Ro de la Plata" after independence.
The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents.
[26]
The name
"Argentine Confederation" was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853.
[27]
In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic",
[28]
and that year's constitutional
amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid.
[29][30]
In the English language, the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la
Argentina. This fell out of fashion during the mid to late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as
"Argentina".
Argentina
4
History
Main article: History of Argentina
Pre-Columbian era
Main article: Indigenous peoples in Argentina
The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz, with indigenous
artwork dating from 13,0009,000 years ago.
The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as
Argentina are dated from the Paleolithic period, with further traces
in the Mesolithic and Neolithic.
[16]
Until the period of European
colonization Argentina was relatively sparsely populated by a
wide number of diverse cultures with different social
organizations,
[31]
which can be divided into three main groups:
[32]
Basic hunters and food gatherers without development of
pottery, like the Selknam and Yaghan in the extreme south.
Advanced hunters and food gatherers like the Puelche,
Querand and Serranos in the center-east; and the Tehuelche in
the southall of them conquered by the Mapuche spreading
from Chile
[33]
and the Kom and Wichi in the north.
Farmers with pottery, like the Charra, Minuane and Guaran in the northeast, with slash and burn semisedentary
existence;
[31]
the advanced Diaguita sedentary trading culture in the northwest, which was conquered by the Inca
Empire around 1480; the Toconot and Hna and Kmare in the country's center, and the Huarpe in the
center-west, a culture that raised llamas cattle and was strongly influenced by the Incas.
[31]
Argentina
5
Spanish colonial era
Main article: Colonial Argentina
Territorial divisions of the Viceroyalty of the Ro de la
Plata.
Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of
Amerigo Vespucci. The Spanish navigators Juan Daz de Sols and
Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 1516
and 1526, respectively.
[17]
In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza founded the
small settlement of Buenos Aires, which was abandoned in
1541.
[34]
Further colonization efforts came from Paraguayestablishing the
Governorate of the Ro de la PlataPeru and Chile.
[35]
Francisco
de Aguirre founded Santiago del Estero in 1553. Londres was
founded in 1558; Mendoza, in 1561; San Juan, in 1562; San
Miguel de Tucumn, in 1565.
[36]
Juan de Garay founded Santa Fe
in 1573 and the same year Jernimo Luis de Cabrera set up
Crdoba.
[37]
Garay went further south to re-fund Buenos Aires in
1580.
[38]
San Luis was established in 1596.
[36]
The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the
Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold
mines in Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the
Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Ro
de la Plata in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital.
[39]
Buenos Aires repelled two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and
1807.
[40]
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example
of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism to the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country. Like in the rest
of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.
[41]
Argentina
6
Independence and civil wars
Main articles: May Revolution, Argentine War of Independence and Argentine Civil Wars
Portrait of General Jos de San Martin, Libertador of
Argentina, Chile and Peru.
Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as
successor state to the Viceroyalty,
[18][19][20]
the 1810 May
Revolution replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with
the First Junta, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by
locals.
[41]
In the first clashes of the Independence War the Junta
crushed a royalist counter-revolution in Crdoba,
[42]
but failed to
overcome those of the Banda Oriental, Upper Peru and Paraguay,
which later became independent states.
[43]
Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Centralists
and the Federalistsa move that would define Argentina's first
decades of independence.
[44]
The Assembly of the Year XIII
appointed Gervasio Antonio de Posadas as Argentina's first
Supreme Director.
[44]
In 1816 the Congress of Tucumn formalized the Declaration of
Independence.
[45][46]
One year later General Martn Miguel de
Gemes stopped royalists on the North, and General Jos de San
Martn took an army across the Andes and secured the
independence of Chile; then he led the fight to the Spanish
stronghold of Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru.
[47][48]
</ref> In 1819 Buenos Aires enacted a centralist
constitution that was soon abrogated by federalists.
[46]
The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme
Director rule. In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution, with Bernardino Rivadavia being
appointed as the first president of the country. However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his
resignation and discarded the constitution.
[49]
Centralists and Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed
and formed the Argentine Confederation in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas.
[50]
During his regime he faced a
French blockade (18381840), the War of the Confederation (18361839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade
(18451850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of national territory.
[51]
His trade restriction
policies, however, angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo Jos de Urquiza, another powerful caudillo, beat
him out of power. As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal and federal 1853 Constitution.
Buenos Aires seceded but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of
Cepeda.
[52]
Argentina
7
Rise of the Modern Nation
Main articles: Historical Presidencies and Generation of '80
President Julio Argentino Roca giving his
constitutionally-mandated annual report to Congress,
1886.
Overpowering Urquiza in the 1861 Battle of Pavn, Bartolom
Mitre secured Buenos Aires predominance and was elected as the
first president of the reunified country. He was followed by
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Nicols Avellaneda; these three
presidencies set up the bases of the modern Argentine State.
[53]
Starting with Julio Argentino Roca in 1880, ten consecutive
federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies. The
massive wave of European immigration they promotedsecond
only to the United States'led to a near-reinvention of Argentine
society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the
seventh wealthiest
[21]
developed nation
[22]
in the world. Driven by
this immigration wave and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy
15-fold:
[54]
from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat exports went from 100,000 to 2,500,000t (110,000 to 2,760,000
short tons) per year, while frozen beef exports increased from 25,000 to 365,000t (28,000 to 402,000 short tons) per
year,
[55]
placing Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters.
[56]
Its railway mileage rose from 503 to
31,104km (313 to 19,327mi).
[57]
Fostered by a new public, compulsory, free and secular education system, literacy
skyrocketed from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most Latin American nations would reach even fifty years
later.
[56]
Furthermore, real GDP grew so fast that despite the huge immigration flux, per capita income between 1862
to 1920 went from 67% of developed country levels to 100%:
[57]
By 1865 Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income.
By 1901 it had raised to the 10th place ahead of Germany, Austria and France.
By 1908 it had surpassed Denmark, Canada and The Netherlands to reach the 7th place behind Switzerland, New
Zealand, Australia, United States, Great Britain and Belgium. Argentina's per capita income was 70% higher than
Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's and 400% higher than Brazil's.
[21]
Despite these unique achievements, the country was slow to meet its original goals of industrialization:
[58]
after steep
development of capital-intensive local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture sector remained
labor-intensive in the 1930s.
[59]
In 1912, president Roque Senz Pea enacted universal and secret male suffrage, which allowed Hiplito Yrigoyen,
leader of the Radical Civic Union (or UCR), to win the 1916 election. He enacted social and economic reforms and
extended assistance to family farmers and small businesses. Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. The
second administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, influenced by the Great Depression.
[60]
The Infamous Decade
Main articles: Infamous Decade and Argentina in World War II
In 1930 Yrigoyen was ousted from power by the military led by Jos Flix Uriburu. Although Argentina remained
among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century,
[21]
this coup d'tat marks the start of the steady economic and
social decline that pushed the country back into underdevelopment.
Uriburu ruled for two years; then Agustn Pedro Justo was elected with fraud, and signed a controversial treaty with
the United Kingdom. Argentina stayed neutral during World War II, a decision that had full British support but was
rejected by the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. A new military coup rose to government, and
Argentina declared war to the Axis Powers a month before the end of World War II in Europe. The minister of
welfare, Juan Domingo Pern, was fired and jailed because of his high popularity among workers. His liberation was
forced by a massive popular demonstration, and he went to win the 1946 election.
[61]
Argentina
8
Peronism
Main article: Peronism
Official presidential portrait of Juan Domingo Pern
and his wife Eva Pern, 1948.
Pern created a political movement known as Peronism. He
nationalized strategic industries and services, improved wages and
working conditions, paid the full external debt and achieved nearly
full employment. The economy, however, began to decline in
1950 because of over-expenditure. His highly popular wife, Eva
Pern, played a central political role. She pushed Congress to
enact women suffrage in 1947,
[62]
and developed an
unprecedented social assistance to the most vulnerable sectors of
society.
[63]
However, her declining health did not allow her to run
for the vice-presidency in 1951, and she died of cancer the
following year. Pern was reelected in 1951, even surpassing his
1946 performance. In 1955 the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo
in an ill-fated attempt to kill the president. A few months later,
during the self-called Liberating Revolution coup, he resigned and
went into exile in Spain.
[64]
The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, proscribed
Peronism and banned all of its manifestations; nevertheless,
Peronists kept organized underground. Arturo Frondizi from the
UCR won the following elections.
[65]
He encouraged investment
to achieve energetic and industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a
chronic trade deficit and lifted Peronism proscription; yet his efforts to stay in good terms with Peronists and the
military earned him the rejection of both and a new coup forced him out.
[66]
But Senate president Jos Mara Guido
reacted swiftly and applied the anti-power vacuum legislation, becoming president instead; elections were repealed
and Peronism proscribed again. Arturo Illia was elected in 1963 and led to an overall increase in prosperity; however
his attempts to legalize Peronism resulted in his overthrow in 1966 by the Juan Carlos Ongana-led Argentine
Revolution, a new military government that sought to rule indefinitely.
[67]
Dirty War
Main article: Dirty War
Second Resistance March opposing the National
Reorganization Process, December 1982.
Ongana shut down Congress, banned all political parties and
dismantled student and worker unions. In 1969, popular discontent
led to two massive protests: the Cordobazo and the Rosariazo. The
terrorist guerrilla organization Montoneros kidnapped and
executed Aramburu.
[68]
The newly chosen head of government,
Alejandro Agustn Lanusse, seeking to ease the growing political
pressure, let Hctor Jos Cmpora be the Peronist candidate
instead of Pern. Cmpora won the March 1973 election, issued a
pardon for condemned guerrilla members and then secured Pern's
return from his exile in Spain.
[69]
On the day Pern returned to Argentina, the clash between
Peronist internal factionsright-wing union leaders and left-wing youth from Montonerosresulted in the Ezeiza
Massacre. Cmpora resigned, overwhelmed by political violence, and Pern won the September 1973 election with
his third wife Isabel as vice-president. He expelled Montoneros from the party
[70]
and they became once again a
Argentina
9
clandestine organization. Jos Lpez Rega organized the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (AAA) to fight against
them and the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP). Pern died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife, who
signed a secret decree empowering the military and the police to "annihilate" the left-wing subversion,
[71]
stopping
ERP's attempt to start a rural insurgence in Tucumn Province.
[72]
Isabel Pern was ousted one year later by Jorge
Rafael Videla, initiating the National Reorganization Process, often shortened as Proceso.
[73]
The Proceso shut down Congress, removed the judges of the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions,
and resorted to the forced disappearance of suspected guerrilla members and of anyone believed to be associated
with the left-wing. By the end of 1976 Montoneros had lost near 2000 members; by 1977, the ERP was completely
defeated. A severely weakened Montoneros launched a counterattack in 1979, which was quickly annihilated, ending
the guerrilla threat; nevertheless the Junta stayed in government. Then head of State Leopoldo Galtieri launched
Operation Rosario, which escalated into the Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de Malvinas); within two months
Argentina was defeated by the United Kingdom. Reynaldo Bignone replaced Galtieri and began to organize the
transition to democratic rule.
[74]
Contemporary era
Main articles: Argentine economic crisis (19992002) and Kirchnerism
Cristina Fernndez de Kirchner, President of Argentina
since 2007.
Ral Alfonsn won the 1983 elections campaigning for the
prosecution of those responsible for human rights violations
during the Proceso: the Trial of the Juntas and other martial courts
sentenced all the coup's leaders but, under military pressure, he
also enacted the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws, which halted
prosecutions further down the chain of command. The worsening
economic crisis and hyperinflation reduced his popular support
and the Peronist Carlos Menem won the 1989 election. Soon after,
riots forced Alfonsn to an early resignation.
[75]
Menem embraced neoliberal policies:
[76]
a fixed exchange rate,
business deregulation, privatizations and dismantling of
protectionist barriers normalized the economy for a while. He pardoned the officers who had been sentenced during
Alfonsn's government. The 1994 Constitutional Amendment allowed Menem to be elected for a second term. The
economy began to decline in 1995, with increasing unemployment and recession;
[77]
led by Fernando de la Ra, the
UCR returned to the presidency in the 1999 elections.
[78]
De la Ra kept Menem's economic plan despite the worsening crisis, which led to growing social discontent.
[77]
A
massive capital flight was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts, generating further turmoil. The December
2001 riots forced him to resign.
[79]
Congress appointed Eduardo Duhalde as acting president, who abrogated the
fixed exchange rate established by Menem.
[80]
By the late 2002 the economic crisis began to recess, but the
assassination of two piqueteros by the police caused political commotion, prompting Duhalde to move elections
forward.
[81]
Nstor Kirchner was elected as the new president.
[82]
Boosting the neo-keynesian economic policies
[81]
laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining
significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and steep GDP growth.
[83]
Under his administration Argentina restructured its
defaulted debt with an unprecedented discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the International
Monetary Fund,
[84]
purged the military of officers with doubtful human rights records,
[85]
nullified and voided the
Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,
[86]
</ref> ruled them as unconstitutional, and resumed legal prosecution of the
Juntas' crimes. He did not run for reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator Cristina Fernndez
de Kirchner, who was elected in 2007
[87]
and reelected in 2011.
Argentina
10
Geography
Main article: Geography of Argentina
With a mainland surface area of 2,780,400km
2
(1,073,518sqmi), Argentina is located in southern South America,
sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes to the west;
[88]
Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the
northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east; and the Drake Passage to the south;
[89][90]
for an
overall land border length of 9,376km (5,826mi). Its coastal border over the Ro de la Plata and South Atlantic
Ocean is 5,117km (3,180mi) long.
Argentina's highest point is Mount Aconcagua in the Mendoza province (6,959m (22,831ft) above sea level), also
the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres.
[91]
The lowest point is Laguna del Carbn in the San
Julin Great Depression, Santa Cruz province (105m (344ft) below sea level, also the lowest point in the
Southern and Western Hemispheres, and the seventh lowest point on Earth)
The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province; the
southernmost is Cape San Po in Tierra del Fuego province; the easternmost is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen,
Misiones and the westernmost is within Los Glaciares National Park in Santa Cruz province. The maximum
northsouth distance is 3,694km (2,295mi), while the maximum eastwest one is 1,423km (884mi).
Some of the major rivers are the Paran, Uruguay (which join to form the Ro de la Plata), Paraguay, Salado, Negro,
Santa Cruz, Pilcomayo, Bermejo and Colorado.
[92]
These rivers are discharged into the Argentine Sea, the shallow
area of the Atlantic Ocean over the Argentine Shelf, an unusually wide continental platform.
[93]
Its waters are
influenced by two major ocean currents: the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falklands Current.
[94]
Regions
Argentina is divided into seven geographical regions:
[95]
Northwest, a continuation of the high Puna with even higher, more rugged topography to the far-west;
[96]
the arid
precordillera, filled with narrow valleys or quebradas to the mid-west;
[97]
and an extension of the mountainous
Yungas jungles to the east.
[97]
Mesopotamia, a subtropical wedge covering the western Paran Plateau and neighbouring lowlands enclosed by
the Paran and Uruguay rivers.
[91]
Gran Chaco, a large, subtropical and tropical low-lying, gently sloping alluvial plain
[98]
between Mesopotamia
and the Andes.
Sierras Pampeanas, a series of medium-height mountain chains located in the center.
[99]
Cuyo, a basin and range area in the central Andes piedmont, to the west.
[98]
Pampas, a massive and hugely fertile alluvial plain located in the center east.
[100][91]
Patagonia, a large southern plateau consisting mostly of arid, rocky steppes
[91]
to the east, moister cold grasslands
to the south and dense subantarctic forests to the west.
[101]
Argentina
11
Top: Pampas, Sierras Pampeanas, Mesopotamia, Gran Chaco, Cuyo
Bottom: Northwest Puna, Northwest Yungas, Northwest Valleys, western Patagonia, eastern Patagonia.
Climate
Main article: Climate of Argentina
Argentina
12
Tropical climate in Mesopotamia and subpolar in Western Patagonia
Although the most populated areas are generally temperate, Argentina has an exceptional climate diversity, ranging
from tropical in the north
[102]
to subpolar in the far continental south.
[100]
Climate patterns roughly follow the
geographic regional division:
The Northwest climate is varied, with rainfall diminishing north to south and east to west:
[93]
Puna, to the high
Andean west, is dry and with great temperature fluctuation but cold overall, frequently falling below freezing
point at night;
[93]
Yungas, to the east, are tropical, very hot and moisty.
[103]
Mesopotamia is subtropical overall, with hot and very humid tropical climate in the north,
[104]
and gradually
becoming temperate and semi-humid to the south.
[105]
Gran Chaco has very hot subtropical to tropical climate,
[102]
and humid summers with mild drier winters. With
heavy seasonal rainfalls,
[105]
it is subject to periodic droughts.
[106]
Cuyo is generally mild, although mountainous areas have alpine climate with temperatures below freezing much
of the year.
[107]
Pampas and Sierras Pampeanas are temperate, with hot, stormy summers and cool winters; moisture is higher in
the east.
[108]
Patagonia is very windy, with mild summers and cold
[93]
to very cold winters
[109]
with heavy snowfall and
frost,
[93]
especially in mountainous zones.
[110]
Precipitation steeply diminishes from west to east.
[111]
Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas;
following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions.
[108]
The Sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. It
is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Ro de la Plata estuary.
[108]
The Zonda,
a hot dry wind, affects Cuyo and the central Pampas. Squeezed of all moisture during the 6,000m (19,685ft) descent
from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120km/h (75mph), fueling wildfires and causing
damage; between June and November, when the Zonda blows, snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions
usually affect higher elevations.
[112]
Biodiversity
Main article: Environment of Argentina
See also: List of Protected Areas of Argentina
Argentina is a megadiverse country hosting one of the greatest ecosystem varieties in the world: 15 continental
zones, 3 oceanic zones, and the Antarctic region are all represented in its territory. This huge ecosystem variety has
led to a biological diversity that is among the world's largest:
9,372 catalogued vascular plant species (ranked 24th)
[113]
1,038 catalogued bird species (ranked 14th)
[114]
375 catalogued mammal species (ranked 12th)
[115]
338 catalogued reptilian species (ranked 16th)
162 catalogued amphibian species (ranked 19th)
From this total, 529 species of vertebrates and at least 240 plants are threatened, mostly by conversion of natural land
for agriculture and deforestation, but also by industrialization, urbanization and a growing number of alien invasive
Argentina
13
species.
Argentina is also the 9th most biocapable country in the world. As of 2013[116] it has a protected area network
consisting of 299 continental zones (6.3% of total mainland area), 21 Ramsar sites and 11 biosphere reserves,
partially sampling most of its 24 terrestrial ecoregions.
Government
Main articles: Government of Argentina and Politics of Argentina
Argentina is a federal constitutional republic and representative democracy.
[117]
The government is regulated by a
system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution of Argentina, the country's supreme legal document. The
seat of government is the city of Buenos Aires, as designated by Congress.
[118]
Suffrage is universal, equal, secret
and mandatory.
[119][120]
</ref>
The federal government is composed of three branches:
Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and Deputy chambers, makes federal law, declares
war, approves treaties and has the power of the purse and of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting
members of the government.
[121]
The Chamber of Deputies represents the people and has 257 voting members elected to a four-year term. Seats
are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year.
[122]
As of 2013[116] ten provinces have
just five deputies while the Buenos Aires Province, being the most populous one, has 70.
The Chamber of Senators represents the provinces, has 72 members elected at-large to six-year terms, with
each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.
[123]
At least
one-third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women.
Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become
lawsubject to Congressional overrideand appoints the members of the Cabinet and other officers, who
administer and enforce federal laws and policies.
[124]
The president is elected directly by the vote of the people,
serves a four-year term and may be elected to office no more than twice in a row.
[125]
Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts interpret laws and overturn those they find
unconstitutional.
[126]
The Judicial is independent of the Executive and the Legislative. The Supreme Court has
seven members appointed by the Presidentsubject to Senate approvalwho serve for life. The lower courts'
judges are proposed by the Council of Magistrates (a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers,
researchers, the Executive and the Legislative), and appointed by the President on Senate approval.
[127]
Congressional Palace, seat of the Congress
Argentina
14
Casa Rosada, workplace of the President
Palace of Justice, seat of the Supreme Court
Political divisions
Main article: Provinces of Argentina
See also: List of Argentine provinces by population
Argentina is a federation of twenty-three provinces and one
autonomous city, Buenos Aires. Provinces are divided for
administration purposes into departments and municipalities,
except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into
partidos. The City of Buenos Aires is divided into communes.
Provinces hold all the power that they chose not to delegate to
the federal government;
[128]
they must be representative
republics and must not contradict the Constitution.
[129]
Beyond this they are fully autonomous: they enact their own
constitutions,
[130]
freely organize their local
governments,
[131]
and own and manage their natural and
financial resources.
[132]
Some provinces have bicameral
legislatures, while others have unicameral ones.
[133]
</ref>
During the War of Independence the main cities and their
surrounding countrysides became provinces though the
intervention of their cabildos. The Anarchy of the Year XX
completed this process, shaping the original thirteen
provinces. Jujuy seceded from Salta in 1834, and the thirteen
provinces became fourteen. After seceding for a decade,
Buenos Aires accepted the 1853 Constitution of Argentina in
1861, and was made a federal territory in 1880.
[134]
A 1862 law designated as national territories those under
federal control but outside the frontiers of the provinces. In
1884 they served as bases for the establishment of the governorates of Misiones, Formosa, Chaco, La Pampa,
Neuqun, Ro Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego.
[135]
The agreement about a frontier dispute with
Argentina
15
Chile in 1900 created the National Territory of Los Andes; its lands were incorporated into Jujuy, Salta and
Catamarca in 1943.
[134]
La Pampa and Chaco became provinces in 1951. Misiones did so in 1953, and Formosa,
Neuqun, Ro Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, in 1955. The last national territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the
Tierra del Fuego, Antrtida e Islas del Atlntico Sur Province in 1990.
[134]
Foreign relations
Main article: Foreign relations of Argentina
Argentine diplomatic missions ArgentinaNations hosting a
resident diplomatic missionNations without a resident diplomatic
mission
Foreign policy is officially handled by the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship,
which answers to the President.
An historical and current middle power,
[5][6]
Argentina
bases its foreign policies on the guiding principles of
non-intervention,
[136]
human rights, self-determination,
international cooperation, disarmament and peaceful
settlement of conflicts. The country is one of the G-15
and G-20 major economies of the world, and a
founding member of the UN, WBG, WTO and OAS. In
2012 Argentina was elected again to a two-year
non-permanent position on the United Nations Security Council and is participating in major peacekeeping
operations in Haiti, Cyprus, Western Sahara and the Middle East.
As a prominent Latin American
[7][8][9][10][11][12]
and Southern Cone
[13][14][15]
regional power, Argentina co-founded
OEI, CELAC and UNASUR, of which the former president Nstor Kirchner was first Secretary General. It is also a
founding member of the Mercosur block, having Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela as partners. Since 2002
the country has emphasized its key role in Latin American integration, and the blockwhich has some supranational
legislative functionsis its first international priority.
[137]
Argentina claims 965,597km
2
(372,819sqmi) in Antarctica, where it has the world's oldest continuous state
presence, since 1904. This overlaps claims by Chile and the United Kingdom, though all such claims fall under the
provisions of the 1961 Antarctic Treaty, of which Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting
member, with the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat being based in Buenos Aires.
Argentina disputes sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the
South Sandwich Islands,
[138]
which are administered by the United Kingdom as Overseas Territories.
Armed Forces
Main article: Armed Forces of Argentina
Argentina
16
Argentine Marines in formation during a UNITAS joint
amphibious assault exercise in Peru.
The president holds the title of commander-in-chief of the
Argentine Armed Forces, as part of a legal framework that
imposes a strict separation between national defence and internal
security systems:
The National Defence System, an exclusive responsibility of
the federal government,
[139]
coordinated by the Ministry of
Defense and comprising the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
Ruled and monitored by Congress
[140]
through the Houses'
Defence Committees, it is organized around the essential
principle of legitimate self-defence: the repelling of any
external military aggression in order to guarantee freedom of
the people, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity. Its secondary missions include committing to
multinational operations within the framework of the United Nations, participating in internal support missions,
assisting friendly countries, and establishing a sub-regional defence system.
Military service is voluntary, with enlistment age between 18 and 24 years old and no conscription.
Argentina's defence has historically been one of the best equipped in the region, even managing its own
weapon research facilities, shipyards, ordnance, tank and plane factories.
[141]
However, real military
expenditures declined steadily after 1981 and the defence budget in 2011 was about 0.74% of GDP, a
historical minimum, below the Latin American average.
The Interior Security System, jointly administered by the federal and subscribing provincial governments. At the
federal level it is coordinated by the Interior, Security and Justice ministries, and monitored by Congress. It is
enforced by the Federal Police; the Prefecture, which fulfills coast guard duties; the Gendarmerie, which serves
border guard tasks; and the Airport Security Police. At the provincial level it is coordinated by the respective
internal security ministries and enforced by local police agencies.
Economy
Main articles: Economy of Argentina, Agriculture in Argentina and Argentine foreign trade
Benefiting from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector and a
diversified industrial base, the economy of Argentina is Latin America's third-largest. It has a "very high" rating on
the Human Development Index and a relatively high GDP per capita, with a considerable internal market size and a
growing share of the high-tech sector.
A middle emerging economy and one of the world's top developing nations,
[142]
Argentina is a member of the G-20
major economies. Historically, however, its economic performance has been very uneven, with high economic
growth alternating with severe recessions, income maldistribution andin the recent decadesincreasing poverty.
Early in the 20th century Argentina achieved development,
[22]
and became the world's seventh richest country.
[21]
Although managing to keep a place among the top fifteen economies until mid-century,
[21]
it suffered a long and
steady decline and now it's just an upper middle-income country.
High inflationa weakness of the Argentine economy for decadeshas become a trouble once again, with rates in
2013 between the official 10.2% and the privately estimated 25%, causing heated public debate over manipulated
statistics. Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is classified as "medium", still considerably unequal.
Argentina ranks 102nd out of 178 countries in the Transparency International's 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index.
Argentina
17
Industry
President Fernndez inaugurating a factory in
Ushuaia. Firms like BlackBerry, HP and
Motorola have set up plants in Tierra del Fuego,
drawn by tax breaks.
Manufacturing is the largest single sector in the nation's economy
(19% of GDP), and is well-integrated into Argentine agriculture, with
half the nation's industrial exports being agricultural in nature. Based
on food processing and textiles during its early development in the first
half of the 20th century, industrial production has become highly
diversified in Argentina.
[143]
Leading sectors by production value are:
Food processing and beverages; motor vehicles and auto parts; refinery
products, and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel and
aluminum; and industrial and farm machinery; electronics and home
appliances. These latter include over three million big ticket items, as
well as an array of electronics, kitchen appliances and cellular phones,
among others. The country's auto industry produced 829,000 motor
vehicles in 2011, and exported 507,000 (mainly to Brazil, which in turn exported a somewhat larger number to
Argentina). Beverages are another significant sector, and Argentina has long been among the top five wine
producing countries in the world; beer overtook wine production in 2000, and today leads by nearly two billion liters
a year to one.
Other manufactured goods include: glass and cement; plastics and tires; lumber products; textiles; tobacco products;
recording and print media; furniture; apparel and leather. Most manufacturing is organized around 280 industrial
parks, with another 190 slated to open during 2012. Nearly half the industries are based in the Greater Buenos Aires
area, although Crdoba, Rosario, and Ushuaia are also significant industrial centers; the latter city became the
nation's leading center of electronics production during the 1980s. The production of computers, laptops, and servers
grew by 160% in 2011, to nearly 3.4 million units, and covered two-thirds of local demand. Another important rubric
historically dominated by imports farm machinery will likewise mainly be manufactured domestically by 2014.
Construction permits nationwide covered nearly 19 million m (205million ft) in 2008. The construction sector
accounts for over 5% of GDP, and two-thirds of the construction was for residential buildings.
Argentine electric output totaled over 122billion Kwh in 2009. This was generated in large part through well
developed natural gas and hydroelectric resources. Nuclear energy is also of high importance,
[144]
and the country is
one of the largest producers and exporters, alongside Canada and Russia of cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope widely
used in cancer therapy.
Argentina
18
Transport
Main article: Transport in Argentina
Vintage Line A station entrance of Buenos Aires
Metro. The city was the first in Latin America and in
the Southern Hemisphere to develop a subway
network.
Argentina has the largest railway system in Latin America, with
36,966km (22,970mi) of operating lines out of a full network of
almost 48,000km (30,000mi). This system links all 23 provinces
plus Buenos Aires City, and connects with all neighboring
countries. There are four incompatible gauges in use; this forces
virtually all interregional freight traffic to pass through Buenos
Aires. The system has been in decline since the 1940s: regularly
running up large budgetary deficits, by 1991 it was transporting
1400 times less merchandise than it did in 1973.
Buenos Aires, all provincial capitals except Ushuaia, and all
medium-sized towns are interconnected by 69,412km (43,131mi)
of paved roads, out of a total road network of 230,604km
(143,291mi). Most important cities are linked by a growing
number of expressways, including Buenos AiresLa Plata,
RosarioCrdoba, CrdobaVilla Carlos Paz, Villa MercedesMendoza, National Route 14 General Jos Gervasio
Artigas and Provincial Route 2 Juan Manuel Fangio, among others. Nevertheless this road infrastructure is still
inadequate and cannot handle the sharply growing demand caused by deterioration of the railway system.
There are about 11,000km (6,800mi) of waterways, mostly comprising the La Plata, Paran, Paraguay and Uruguay
rivers, with Buenos Aires, Zrate, Campana, Rosario, San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, Barranqueras and San Nicolas de los
Arroyos as the main fluvial ports. Some of the largest sea ports are La PlataEnsenada, Baha Blanca, Mar del Plata,
QuequnNecochea, Comodoro Rivadavia, Puerto Deseado, Puerto Madryn, Ushuaia and San Antonio Oeste.
Buenos Aires has historically been the most important port; however since the 1990s the Up-River port region has
become dominant: stretching along 67km (42mi) of the Paran river shore in Santa Fe province, it includes 17 ports
and in 2013[116] accounted for 50% of all exports.
As of 2013[116] there are 159 airports with paved runways out of more than a thousand. The Ezeiza International
Airport, about 35km (22mi) from downtown Buenos Aires,
[145]
is the largest in the country, followed by Cataratas
del Iguaz in Misiones, and El Plumerillo in Mendoza. Aeroparque, in the city of Buenos Aires, is the most
important domestic airport.
[146]
Media and communications
Main article: Communications in Argentina
Print media industry is highly developed in Argentina, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national
ones include the centrist Clarn, the best-seller in Latin America and the second most widely circulated in the
Spanish-speaking world; La Nacin (center-right, published since 1870), Pgina/12 (left-wing, founded in 1987), the
Buenos Aires Herald (Latin America's most prestigious English language daily, dating back to 1876) and La Voz del
Interior (center, founded in 1904)
[147]
Argentina began the world's first regular radio broadcasting on 27 August 1920, when Richard Wagner's Parsifal
was aired by a team of medical students led by Enrique Telmaco Susini in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo.
[148]
By
2002[116] there were 260 AM and 1150 FM registered radio stations in the country.
The Argentine television industry is large, diverse and popular across Latin America, with many productions and TV
formats having been exported outside. Since 1999 Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite
television in Latin America, as of 2014[116] totaling 87.4% of the country's households, a rate similar to those in the
United States, Canada and Europe.
Argentina
19
As of 2011[116] Argentina has also the highest coverage of networked telecommunications among Latin American
powers: about 67% of its population has internet access and 137.2%, mobile phone subscriptions.
Science and technology
Main article: Science and technology in Argentina
Argentine satellite SAC-D
Argentines have three Nobel Prize laureates in the Sciences. Bernardo
Houssay, the first Latin American among them, discovered the role of
pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals. Csar Milstein did
extensive research in antibodies. Luis Leloir discovered how organisms
store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the compounds
which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates. Argentine
research has led to the treatment of heart diseases and several forms of
cancer. Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart
successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. Ren Favaloro
developed the techniques and performed the world's first ever coronary
bypass surgery.
Argentina's nuclear programme has been highly successful. In 1957
Argentina was the first country in Latin America to design and build a
research reactor with homegrown technology, the RA-1 Enrico Fermi.
This reliance in the development of own nuclear related technologies,
instead of simply buying them abroad, was a constant of Argentina's
nuclear programme conducted by the civilian National Atomic Energy
Commission (CNEA). Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology
have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of
producing weapon-grade uranium, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however, Argentina
has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes. As a member of the Board of Governors of the
International Atomic Energy Agency, Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation
efforts and is highly committed to global nuclear security. In 1974 it was the first country in Latin America to put
in-line a commercial nuclear power plant, Atucha I. Although the Argentine built parts for that station amounted to
10% of the total, the nuclear fuel it uses are since entirely built in the country. Later nuclear power stations employed
a higher percentage of Argentine built components; Embalse, finished in 1983, a 30% and the 2011 Atucha II reactor
a 40%.
Despite its modest budget and numerous setbacks, academics and the sciences in Argentina have enjoyed an
international respect since the turn of the 1900s, when Dr. Luis Agote devised the first safe and effective means of
blood transfusion as well as Ren Favaloro, who was a pioneer in the improvement of the coronary artery bypass
surgery. Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields such as nanotechnology, physics, computer
sciences, molecular biology, oncology, ecology, and cardiology. Juan Maldacena, an Argentine-American scientist,
is a leading figure in string theory. Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Vctor-1 (1996),
PEHUENSAT-1 (2007), and those developed by CONAE, the Argentine space agency, of the SAC series. The Pierre
Auger Observatory near Malarge, Mendoza, is the world's foremost cosmic ray observatory.
Space research has also become increasingly active in Argentina. Argentina has its own satellite programme, nuclear
power station designs (4th generation) and public nuclear energy company INVAP, which provides several countries
with nuclear reactors.
[149]
Established in 1991, the CONAE has since launched two satellites successfully and,
[150]
in
June 2009, secured an agreement with the European Space Agency on for the installation of a 35-m diameter antenna
and other mission support facilities at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The facility will contribute to numerous ESA
space probes, as well as CONAE's own, domestic research projects. Chosen from 20 potential sites and one of only
Argentina
20
three such ESA installations in the world, the new antenna will create a triangulation which will allow the ESA to
ensure mission coverage around the clock.
[151]
Tourism
Main article: Tourism in Argentina
The largest ski center in Latin America, Bariloche
(Argentine Patagonia)
Tourism in Argentina is characterized by its cultural offerings and its
ample and varied natural assets. The country had 5.28 million visitors
in 2010, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the top
destination in South America, and second in Latin America after
Mexico. Revenues from international tourists reached US$4.93 billion
in 2010, up from US$3.96 billion in 2009.
[152]
The country's capital
city, Buenos Aires, is the most visited city in South America.
Tourist destinations:
Buenos Aires, the capital of the Nation.
Iguaz National Park, waterfalls and jungle.
Bariloche, the largest ski centre in Latin America, and La Angostura.
Los Alerces National Park in central Patagonia.
Los Glaciares National Park, everlasting glaciers.
Inca and colonial sites in Humahuaca, the Calchaqu Valleys, Iruya, Tilcara, and other cities of the North.
Demographics
Main article: Demographics of Argentina
See also: Argentine people
Balvanera, filled with picturesque Dutch style
tenements.
In the 2001 census [INDEC], Argentina had a population of 36,260,130,
and preliminary results from the 2010 census were of 40,091,359
inhabitants. Argentina ranks third in South America in total population
and 33rd globally. Population density is of 15 persons per square
kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50 persons.
The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03% annually,
with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a
mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. The net migration
rate has ranged from zero to four immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants.
The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, a little below the world
average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively
high at 10.8%. In Latin America this is second only to Uruguay and well above the world average, which is currently
7%. Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates, recently about 1% a year, as well as a
comparatively low infant mortality rate. Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is still nearly twice as high as that in
Spain or Italy, compared here as they have similar religious practices and proportions.
[153]
The median age is
approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is 77.14 years.
Argentina became in 2010 the first country in Latin America and the second in the Americas to allow same-sex
marriage nationwide. It was the tenth country to allow same-sex marriage.
Argentina
21
Ethnography
Main articles: Ethnography of Argentina and Immigration to Argentina
Norwegian-Argentine children, during the celebration
of the National Day of Norway.
As with other areas of new settlement such as the United States,
Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil and Uruguay, it is
considered that Argentina is a country of immigrants. Argentines
usually refer to the country as a crisol de razas (crucible of races,
or melting pot).
During the 18th and 19th centuries especially, Argentina was the
country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world,
with 6.6 million, second only to the USA in the numbers of
immigrants received (27 millions) and ahead of such other areas of
new settlement like Canada, Brazil and Australia.
Strikingly, at those times, the national population doubled every
two decades. This belief is endured in the popular saying "los
argentinos descienden de los barcos" (Argentines descend from
the ships). Therefore, most Argentines are descended from the
19th- and 20th-century immigrants of the great immigration wave
to Argentina (18501955), with a great majority of these
immigrants coming from diverse European countries. The majority
of these European immigrants came from Italy and Spain.
[154]
Argentina is home to a significant population of Arab and partial
Arab background, mostly of Syrian and Lebanese origin (in Argentina they are considered among the White people,
just like in the USA Census). The Asian population in the country numbers at around 180,000 individuals, most of
whom are of Chinese and Korean descent, although an older Japanese community that traces back to the early 20th
century also exists.
Family in northern Argentina
Although statistically not significant enough sample size to be a
reliable nationwide projection, a study conducted on 218 individuals in
2010 by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach, has established that
the genetic map of Argentina is composed by 79% from different
European, mainly Italian and Spanish ethnicity, 18% of different
ethnicities Native American, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups, and
63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indian.
[155]

[156]
Recent Illegal immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia,
Paraguay and Peru, with smaller numbers from Dominican Republic,
Ecuador and Romania.
[157]
The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents
and has launched a program to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence
visas so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.
Argentina
22
Languages
Main article: Languages of Argentina
Dialectal variants of the Spanish language in
Argentina.
The de facto official language is Spanish, spoken by almost all
Argentines.
[158]
The country is the largest Spanish-speaking
society that universally employs voseo, the use of the pronoun vos
instead of t ("you"), which imposes the use of alternate verb
forms as well. Due to the extensive Argentine geography, Spanish
has a strong variation among regions, although the prevalent
dialect is Rioplatense, primarily spoken in the La Plata Basin and
accented similarly to Neapolitan language.
[159]
Italian and other
European immigrants influenced Lunfardothe regional
slangpermeating the vernacular vocabulary of other Latin
American countries as well.
There are several second-languages in widespread use among the
Argentine population:
English,
[160]
taught since elementary school. 42.3% of
Argentines claim to speak it, with 15.4% of them claiming to
have a high level of language
comprehension.Wikipedia:Citation needed
Italian, by 1.5million people.
[158][161]
Arabic Language, specially its Northern Levantine dialect, by
one million people.
[158]
Standard German, by at least 400,000 people.
[158][162]
Yiddish, by about 200,000 people,
[158]
the largest Jewish
population in Latin America and 7th in the world.
[163]
Guaran, by about 200,000 people,
[158]
mostly in Corrientes, where it is official de jure.
Catalan, by about 174,000 people.
[158]
French, including the rare Occitan language.
Quechua, by about 65,000 people, mostly in the north west.
[158]
Wich, by about 53,700 people, mostly in Chaco
[158]
where, along with Kom and Moqoit, it is official de jure.
Aymara, by 30,000 people, mostly in the Andean northwest.
[158]
Welsh, including its Patagonian dialect, in which about 25,000 WelshArgentines are fluent.
[158]
Some districts
have recently incorporated it as an educational language.
[164]
Argentina
23
Religion
Main article: Religion in Argentina
Francis, the first pope from the New World, was born
and raised in Argentina.
The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion
[165]
and, although
it does not enforce an official religion, it gives Roman Catholicism
a differential status.
[166][167]
</ref>
According to a CONICET poll, Argentines are 76.5% Catholic,
11.3% Agnostics and Atheists, 9% Evangelists, 1.2% Jehova's
Witnesses, 0.9% Mormons; 1.2% follow other religions, including
Islam, Judaism and Buddhism.
[168]
The country is home to both the largest Muslim and largest Jewish
communities in Latin America, the latter being the 7th most
populous in the world.
[163]
Argentina is a member of the
International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance.
Argentines show high individualization and de-institutionalization
of religious beliefs;
[169]
23.8% of them claim to always attend
religious services; 49.1%, to seldom do and 26.8%, to never
do.
[170]
On 13 March 2013, Argentine Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio
was elected as Pope of the Catholic Church and took the name
"Francis", becoming the first pope from the Americas and from the
Southern Hemisphere, the first non-European pope in 1272 years,
and the first Jesuit one.
Urbanization
See also: List of cities in Argentina by population
Argentina is highly urbanized, with 92% of its population living in cities: the ten largest metropolitan areas account
for half of the population. About 3million people live in the city of Buenos Aires, and including the Greater Buenos
Aires metropolitan area it totals around 13million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world.
The metropolitan areas of Crdoba and Rosario have around 1.3million inhabitants each and Mendoza, Tucumn,
La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe have at least half a million people each.
The population is unequally distributed: about 60% live in the Pampa region (21% of the total area), including
15million people in Buenos Aires Province. The provinces of Crdoba and Santa Fe, and the city of Buenos Aires
have 3million each. Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumn, Entre Ros,
Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. Tucumn is the most densely populated with 60 inhabitants per square
kilometre (160/sqmi), the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average, while the
southern province of Santa Cruz has around 1 inhabitants per square kilometre (2.6/sqmi)Wikipedia:Citation
needed
Argentina
24
Education
Main article: Education in Argentina
Argentina has historically been placed high in the global rankings of
literacy, with rates similar to those of developed countries.
The Argentine education system consists of four levels:
An initial level for children between 45 days to 5
years old, with the last year being compulsory.
A primary or lower school mandatory level lasting 6
or 7 years.
[171]
As of 2010[116] the country has a
literacy rate of 98.07%.
A secondary or high school mandatory level lasting
5 or 6 years. As of 2010[116] 18.3% of people over
age 15 have completed secondary school.
A higher level, divided in tertiary, university and
post-graduate sub-levels. As of 2013[116] there are 47 national public universities across the country, as well as
46 private ones. As of 2010[116] 6.3% of people over age 20 have graduated from university. The public
universities of Buenos Aires, Crdoba, La Plata, Rosario, and the National Technological University are some of
the most important.
The Argentine state guarantees universal, secular and free-of-charge public education for all levels.
[172]
Responsibility for educational supervision is organised at the federal and individual provincial states. In the last
decades the role of the private sector has grown across all educational levels.
Health care
Main article: Health care in Argentina
The University of Buenos Aires School of
Medicine, alma mater to many of the country's
3,000 medical graduates, annually.
Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labor
union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales), government insurance plans,
public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans.
Health care cooperatives number over 300 (of which 200 are related to
labor unions) and provide health care for half the population; the
national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the
five million senior citizens.
There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and
37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations).
[173][174]
The
relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in
mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953
to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease increased from 20% to
23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratory problems from 7% to 14%, digestive maladies
(non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infectious diseases, 4%. Causes related to
senility led to many of the rest. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.
[175]
The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948
[176]
to 12.1 in
2009 and raised life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76. Though these figures compare favorably with global
averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America.
Argentina
25
Culture
Main article: Culture of Argentina
See also: List of Argentines
Argentina is a multicultural country with significant European influences. Its cities are largely characterized by both
the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of European styles in fashion, architecture
and design.
[177]
The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance.
[178]
Finally, indigenous American traditions have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu.
Literature
Main article: Argentine literature
Four of the most influential Argentine writers. Top-left
to bottom-right: Julio Cortzar, Victoria Ocampo,
Jorge Luis Borges and Adolfo Bioy Casares.
Although Argentina's rich literary history began around 1550,
[179]
it reached full independence with Esteban Echeverra's El
Matadero, a romantic landmark that played a significant role in the
development of 19th century's Argentine narrative, split by the
ideological divide between the popular, federalist epic of Jos
Hernndez' Martn Fierro and the elitist and cultured discourse of
Sarmiento's masterpiece, Facundo.
The Modernist movement advanced into the 20th century
including exponents such as Leopoldo Lugones and poet
Alfonsina Storni; it was followed by Vanguardism, with Ricardo
Giraldes's Don Segundo Sombra as an important reference.
Jorge Luis Borges, Argentina's most acclaimed writer and one of
the leading figures in the history of literature,
[180]
found new ways
of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical
debate and his influence has extended to authors all over the globe.
Short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph are among his most
famous books. He was a friend and collaborator with Adolfo Bioy
Casares, who wrote one of the most praised science fiction novels,
The Invention of Morel. Julio Cortzar, one of the founders of the
Latin American Boom, influenced an entire generation of writers in the Americas and Europe.
Other highly regarded Argentine writers, poets and essayists include Eugenio Cambaceres, Almafuerte, Hugo Wast,
Enrique Banchs, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Victoria Ocampo, Silvina Ocampo, Roberto Arlt, Eduardo Mallea,
Silvina Bullrich, Ernesto Sbato, Mara Elena Walsh. Toms Eloy Martnez, Manuel Puig and Osvaldo Soriano.
Argentina
26
Music
Main article: Music of Argentina
Argentine singer and songwriter Carlos Gardel, perhaps the most prominent figure in the history of tango.
Por una Cabeza
Tango, a Rioplatense musical genre with European and African influences,
[181]
is one of Argentina's international
cultural symbols.
[182]
The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of jazz and swing in the United
States, featuring large orchestras like those of Osvaldo Pugliese, Anbal Troilo, Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro and
Juan d'Arienzo. After 1955, virtuoso stor Piazzolla popularized Nuevo tango, a subtler and more intellectual trend
for the genre. Tango enjoys worldwide popularity nowadays with groups like Gotan Project, Bajofondo and
Tanghetto.
Argentina developed strong classical music and dance scenes that gave rise to renowned artists such as Alberto
Ginastera, composer; Alberto Lysy, violinist; Martha Argerich and Eduardo Delgado, pianists; Daniel Barenboim,
pianist and symphonic orchestra director; and to ballet dancers Jorge Donn, Jos Neglia, Norma Fontenla,
Maximiliano Guerra, Paloma Herrera, Marianela Nez, Iaki Urlezaga and Julio Bocca.
A national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s from dozens of regional musical genres and went to influence
the entirety of Latin American music. Some of its interpreters, like Atahualpa Yupanqui and Mercedes Sosa,
achieved worldwide acclaim.
The romantic ballad genre included singers of international fame such as Sandro de Amrica.
Argentine rock developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s, when Buenos Aires and Rosario became
cradles of aspiring musicians. Founding bands like Los Gatos, Almendra and Manal were followed by Seru Giran,
Los Abuelos de la Nada, Soda Stereo and Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota, with prominent artists including
Litto Nebbia, Luis Alberto Spinetta, Charly Garca, Fito Paez and Len Gieco.
Tenor saxophonist Leandro "Gato" Barbieri and composer and big band conductor Lalo Schifrin are among the most
internationally successful Argentine jazz musicians.
Argentina
27
Theatre and cinema
Main articles: Theatre in Argentina and Cinema of Argentina
Teatro Coln, one of the five best concert venues in the
world.
Buenos Aires is one of the great theater capitals of the world, with
a scene of international caliber centered around Corrientes
Avenue, "the street that never sleeps", sometimes referred to as an
intellectual Broadway in Buenos Aires.
[183]
Teatro Coln is a
global landmark for opera and classical performances; its acoustics
are considered among the world's top five.
[184][185]
</ref> Other
important theatrical venues include Teatro General San Martn,
Cervantes, both in Buenos Aires City; Argentino in La Plata, El
Crculo in Rosario, Independencia in Mendoza, and Libertador in
Crdoba. Griselda Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi,
Carlos Gorostiza, and Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the most
prominent Argentine playwrights.
Development of Argentine cinema started in 1896; by the early 1930s it had already become Latin America's leading
film producer, a place it kept until the early 1950s.
[186]
The world's first animated feature films were made and
released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918.
Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition: the country has won fourteen Goya Awards for Best Spanish
Language Foreign Filmbeing by far the most awardedand is also the only Latin American country that has won
an Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film, with The Official Story (1985) and The Secret in Their Eyes (2009). In
addition, Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov and Gustavo Santaolalla have been honored with Academy
Award for Best Original Score nods. Many other Argentine films have been acclaimed by the international critique:
Camila (1984), Man Facing Southeast (1986), A Place in the World (1992), Pizza, Beer, and Cigarettes (1997), Nine
Queens (2000), A Red Bear (2002), The Motorcycle Diaries (2004) and The Aura (2005) being some of them.
As of 2013[116] about 100 full-length motion pictures are being created annually.
Visual arts
See also: Argentine painting
Detail of The Nereids Fountain by Lola Mora.
Some of the best-known Argentine painters are Cndido Lpez
and Florencio Molina Campos (Nave style); Ernesto de la
Crcova and Eduardo Svori (Realism); Fernando Fader
(Impressionism); Po Collivadino, Atilio Malinverno and Cesreo
Bernaldo de Quirs (Postimpressionism); Emilio Pettoruti
(Cubism); Julio Barragn (Concretism and Cubism) Antonio Berni
(Neofigurativism); Roberto Aizenberg and Xul Solar (Surrealism);
Gyula Koice (Constructivism); Eduardo Mac Entyre (Generative
art); Juan Del Prete (Futucubism); Luis Seoane, Carlos
Torrallardona, Luis Aquino, and Alfredo Gramajo Gutirrez
(Modernism); Lucio Fontana (Spatialism); Toms Maldonado and
Guillermo Kuitca (Abstract art); Len Ferrari and Marta Minujn
(Conceptual art); and Ciruelo (Fantasy art).
In 1946 Gyula Koice and others created The Mad Movement in Argentina, which then spread to Europe and United
States, where it had a significant impact. Toms Maldonado was one of the main theorists of the Ulm Model of
design education, still highly influential globally.
Argentina
28
Other Argentine artists of worldwide fame include Adolfo Bellocq, whose lithographs have been influential since the
1920s, and Benito Quinquela Martn, the quintessential port painter, inspired by the immigrant-bound La Boca
neighborhood.
Internationally laureate sculptors Erminio Blotta, Lola Mora and Rogelio Yrurtia authored many of the classical
evocative monuments of the Argentine cityscape.
Architecture
Main article: Architecture of Argentina
Argentine Bon March, inside of Galeras Pacfico.
The colonization brought the Spanish Baroque architecture, which can still be appreciated in its simpler Rioplatense
style in the reduction of San Ignacio Min, the Cathedral of Crdoba, and the Cabildo of Lujn. Italian and French
influences increased at the beginning of the 19th century with strong eclectic overtones that gave the local
architecture a unique feeling.
Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscape and those around the world: Juan
Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with
Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone and Viktor
Suli left an Art Deco legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific body of Neoclassical and Rationalist
architecture. Alberto Prebisch and Amancio Williams were highly influenced by Le Corbusier, while Clorindo Testa
introduced Brutalist architecture locally. Csar Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities
worldwide: Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s made him one of the world's most
prestigious architects, with the Norwest Center and the Petronas Towers among his most celebrated creations.
Argentina
29
Cuisine
Main article: Argentine cuisine
Argentine beef as asado, a traditional dish.
Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to
continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous
and Criollo creations, including empanadas (a small stuffed
pastry), locro (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and
gourd), humita and mate.
The country has the highest consumption of red meat in the world,
traditionally prepared as asado, the Argentine barbecue. It is made
with various types of meats, often including chorizo, sweetbread,
chitterlings, and blood sausage.
Common desserts include facturas (Viennese-style pastry) and
dulce de leche (a sort of milk caramel jam used to fill cakes and
pancakes), alfajores (shortbread cookies sandwiched together with chocolate, dulce de leche or a fruit paste).
Argentine wine, one of the world's finest, is an integral part of the local menu. Malbec, Torronts, Cabernet
Sauvignon, Syrah and Chardonnay are some of the most sought-after varieties.
Sports
Main article: Sports in Argentina
Lionel Messi, four time FIFA Ballon d'Or winner,
playing for Argentina
The official national sport of Argentina is pato, played with a
six-handle ball on horseback, but the most popular sport is
association football. The national football team has won 25 major
international titles including two FIFA World Cups, two Olympic
gold medals and fourteen Copa Amricas. Over one thousand
Argentine players play abroad, the majority of them in European
football leagues. There are 331,811 registered football players, and
Argentina has produced some of the greatest players in the world,
including joint FIFA Player of the Century Diego Maradona, four
time FIFA Ballon d'Or recipient Lionel Messi, Argentina and Real
Madrid legend Alfredo Di Stfano, 1978 World Cup winning
captain Daniel Passarella and Golden Boot winner Mario Kempes,
and the all-time leading goalscorer for the national team Gabriel
Batistuta.
The Argentine Football Association (AFA) was formed in 1893
and is the eighth oldest national football association in the world.
The AFA today counts 3,377 football clubs, including 20 in the
Premier Division. Since the AFA went professional in 1931,
fifteen teams have won national tournament titles, including River
Plate with 33 and Boca Juniors with 24. Over the last twenty
years, futsal and beach soccer have become increasingly popular. The Argentine beach football team was one of four
competitors in the first international championship for the sport in 1993.
[187]
An increasing number of girls and
women play the sport, who have organized their own national championships since 1991 and were South American
champions in 2006.
Argentina
30
Basketball is the second most popular sport; a number of basketball players play in the U.S. National Basketball
Association and European leagues including Manu Ginbili, Andrs Nocioni, Carlos Delfino, Luis Scola and
Fabricio Oberto. The men's national basketball team won Olympic gold in the 2004 Olympics and the bronze medal
in 2008. Argentina has been ranked number one in the FIBA World Rankings between 2007 and 2010.
Argentina has an important rugby union football team, "Los Pumas", with many of its players playing in Europe.
Argentina beat host nation France twice in the 2007 Rugby World Cup, placing them third in the competition. The
Pumas are currently (as per October, 2013) tenth in the official world rankings.
On 4 July 2013, Buenos Aires was selected as host city for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.
[188]
National symbols
Main article: National symbols of Argentina
Some of Argentina national symbols are defined by law, while others are traditions lacking formal designation. The
Flag of Argentina consists of three horizontal stripes equal in width and colored light blue, white and light blue, with
the Sun of May in the center of the middle white stripe. The flag was designed by Manuel Belgrano in 1812; it was
adopted as a national symbol on 20 July 1816.
[189]
The Coat of Arms, which represents the union of the provinces,
came into use in 1813 as the seal for official documents. The Argentine National Anthem was written by Vicente
Lpez y Planes with music by Blas Parera, and was adopted in 1813. The National Cockade was first used during the
May Revolution of 1810 and was made official two years later.
[190]
The Virgin of Lujn is Argentina's patron saint.
The hornero, living across most of the national territory, was chosen as the national bird in 1928 after a lower school
survey. The ceibo is the national floral emblem and national tree, while the quebracho colorado is the national forest
tree. Rhodochrosite is known as the national gemstone.
The national sport is pato, an ancient horseback game locally originated in the early 1600s, predecessor of horseball.
Argentine wine is the national liquor, and mate, the national infusion. Asado and locro are considered as the national
dishes.
Notes
[1] Article 35 of the Argentine Constitution gives equal recognition to the names "United Provinces of the River Plate", "Argentine Republic"
and "Argentine Confederation" and authorizes the use of "Argentine Nation" in the making and enactment of laws.<ref
name="FOOTNOTEConstitution of Argentinaart. 35">Constitution of Argentina, art. 35.
[2] http:/ / tools.wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Argentina& params=34_36_S_58_23_W_type:country
[3] Area does not include territorial claims in Antarctica (965,597 km
2
, including the South Orkney Islands), the Falkland Islands (11,410 km
2
),
the South Georgia (3,560 km
2
) and the South Sandwich Islands (307 km
2
).<ref name=totalpop>
[4] Though not declared official de jure, the Spanish language is the only one used in the wording of laws, decrees, resolutions, official
documents and public acts.
[5] [5] Wood 1988, p.18.
[6] [6] Solomon 1997, p.3.
[7] [7] Huntington 2000, p.6.
[8] Nierop 2001, p.61: "Secondary regional powers in Huntington's view<ref name="FOOTNOTEHuntington20006">Huntington 2000, p.6.
[9] [9] Lake 2009, p.55: "The US has created a foundation upon which the regional powers, especially Argentina and Brazil, can develop their own
rules for further managing regional relations."
[10] [10] Papadopoulos 2010, p.283: "The driving force behind the adoption of the MERCOSUR agreement was similar to that of the establishment
of the EU: the hope of limiting the possibilities of traditional military hostility between the major regional powers, Brazil and Argentina."
[11] Malamud 2011, p.9: "Though not a surprise, the position of Argentina, Brazils main regional partner, as the staunchest opponent of its main
international ambition [to win a permanent seat on the UN Security Council] dealt a heavy blow to Brazils image as a regional leader."
[12] [12] Boughton 2012, p.101: "When the U.S. Treasury organized the next round of finance meetings, it included several non-APEC members,
including all the European members of the G7, the Latin American powers Argentina and Brazil, and such other emerging markets as India,
Poland, and South Africa."
[13] [13] Morris 1988, p.63: "Argentina has been the leading military and economic power in the Southern Cone in the Twentieth Century."
[14] Adler & Greve 2009, p.78: "The southern cone of South America, including Argentina and Brazil, the two regional powers, has recently
become a pluralistic security community."
Argentina
31
[15] [15] Ruiz-Dana et al. 2009, p.18: "[...] notably by linking the Southern Cone's rival regional powers, Brazil and Argentina."
[16] [16] Abad de Santilln 1971, p.17.
[17] [17] Crow 1992, p.128.
[18] [18] Levene 1948, p.11, vol. IV: "[After the Viceroyalty became] a new period that commenced with the revolution of 1810, whose plan
consisted in declaring the independence of a nation, thus turning the legal bond of vassalage into one of citizenship as a component of
sovereignty and, in addition, organizing the democratic republic."
[19] Snchez Viamonte 1948, pp.196197: "The Argentine nation was a unity in colonial times, during the Viceroyalty, and remained so after
the revolution of May 1810. [...] The provinces never acted as independent sovereign states, but as entities created within the nation and as
integral parts of it, incidentally affected by internal conflicts."
[20] Vanossi 1964, p.11: "[The Argentine nationality is a] unique national entity, successor to the Viceroyalty, which, after undergoing a long
period of anarchy and disorganization, adopted a decentralized form in 18531860 under the Constitution."
[21] Bolt & Van Zanden 2013.
[22] [22] Daz Alejandro 1970, p.1.
[23] "Information on Argentina". (http:/ / www.argentine-embassy-uk. org/ docs_eng/ links/ links_information_argentina. shtml) Argentine
Embassy London.
[24] The poem's full name is La Argentina y conquista del Ro de la Plata, con otros acaecimientos de los reinos del Per, Tucumn y estado del
Brasil.
[25] [25] Traba 1985, pp.15, 71.
[26] [26] Constitution of Argentina, 1826, art. 1.
[27] [27] Constitution of Argentina, 1853, Preamble.
[28] [28] Rosenblat 1964, p.78.
[29] [29] Constitution of Argentina, 1860 amd., art. 35.
[30] [30] Also stated in article 35 of all subsequent amendments: 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957, 1972 and 1994 (current)
[31] [31] Edwards 2008, p.12.
[32] Abad de Santilln 1971, pp.1819.
[33] [33] Edwards 2008, p.13.
[34] Crow 1992, pp.129132.
[35] Abad de Santilln 1971, pp.96140.
[36] [36] Crow 1992, p.353.
[37] [37] Crow 1992, p.134.
[38] [38] Crow 1992, p.135.
[39] [39] Crow 1992, p.347.
[40] [40] Crow 1992, p.421.
[41] [41] Abad de Santilln 1971, p.194ff.
[42] [42] Rock 1987, p.81.
[43] Rock 1987, pp.8283.
[44] Lewis 2003, pp.3940.
[45] [45] Rock 1987, p.92.
[46] [46] Lewis 2003, p.41.
[47] Galasso 2011, pp.349353, vol. I.
[48] San Martn's military campaigns, together with those of Simn Bolvar in Gran Colombia are collectively known as the Spanish American
wars of independence.<ref name="FOOTNOTEGalasso2011185252vol. I">Galasso 2011, pp.185252, vol. I.
[49] [49] Lewis 2003, p.43.
[50] [50] Lewis 2003, p.45.
[51] Lewis 2003, pp.4647.
[52] Lewis 2003, pp.4850.
[53] Galasso 2011, pp.363541, vol. I.
[54] Lewis 1990, pp.1830.
[55] Mosk 1990, pp.8889.
[56] [56] Cruz 1990, p.10.
[57] Daz Alejandro 1970, pp.23.
[58] Galasso 2011, pp.567625, vol. I.
[59] Lewis 1990, pp.3738.
[60] Galasso 2011, pp.7178, vol. II.
[61] Galasso 2011, pp.181302, vol. II.
[62] [62] Barnes 1978, p.3.
[63] [63] Barnes 1978, p.113ff.
[64] Galasso 2011, pp.303351, vol. II.
[65] Galasso 2011, pp.353379, vol. II.
Argentina
32
[66] [66] Robben 2011, p.34.
[67] Galasso 2011, pp.381422, vol. II.
[68] [68] Robben 2011, p.127.
[69] Galasso 2011, pp.423465, vol. II.
[70] Robben 2011, pp.7677.
[71] [71] Robben 2011, p.145.
[72] [72] Robben 2011, p.148.
[73] Galasso 2011, pp.467504, vol. II.
[74] Galasso 2011, pp.505532, vol. II.
[75] Galasso 2011, pp.533549, vol. II.
[76] Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p.6.
[77] Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p.9.
[78] Galasso 2011, pp.551573, vol. II.
[79] Galasso 2011, pp.575587, vol. II.
[80] Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p.12.
[81] Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p.13.
[82] Galasso 2011, pp.587595, vol. II.
[83] Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p.16.
[84] Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p.15.
[85] Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p.14.
[86] The Full Stop and Due Obedience laws had been abrogated by Congress in 1998.<ref>
[87] Galasso 2011, pp.597626, vol. II.
[88] [88] McColl 2005, p. 52: "The Andes Mountains form the "backbone" of Argentina along the western border with Chile."
[89] [89] McKinney 1993, p.6.
[90] Fearns & Fearns 2005, p.31.
[91] [91] McColl 2005, p.52.
[92] McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp.5, 7, 8, 51, 175.
[93] McCloskey & Burford 2006, p.8.
[94] McCloskey & Burford 2006, p.18.
[95] This regional subdivision does not include Argentine Antarctica claims.
[96] [96] Crooker 2009, p.16.
[97] McCloskey & Burford 2006, p.209.
[98] [98] Crooker 2009, p.32.
[99] McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp.5, 157.
[100] McCloskey & Burford 2006, p.5.
[101] Menutti & Menutti 1980, p.44.
[102] [102] Crooker 2009, p.22.
[103] McCloskey & Burford 2006, p.11.
[104] McCloskey & Burford 2006, p.203.
[105] McCloskey & Burford 2006, p.6.
[106] Menutti & Menutti 1980, pp.5657.
[107] [107] Crooker 2009, p.17.
[108] Menutti & Menutti 1980, p.69.
[109] Crooker 2009, p.25: "[Sarmiento, the] small town in the Chico River Canyon of Chubut Province holds [as of 2009] the record for the
lowest temperature in South America, a bone chilling 27.22C (17F)."
[110] Menutti & Menutti 1980, p.73.
[111] McCloskey & Burford 2006, p.7.
[112] Menutti & Menutti 1980, p.53.
[113] Includes higher plants only: ferns and fern allies, conifers and cycads, and flowering plants. UNIQ-ref-0-9453e29cf496f7cd-QINU
[114] Includes only birds that breed in Argentina, not those that migrate or winter there.Article 35 of the Argentine Constitution gives equal
recognition to the names "United Provinces of the River Plate", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" and authorizes the use of
"Argentine Nation" in the making and enactment of laws.<ref name="FOOTNOTEConstitution of Argentinaart. 35">Constitution of
Argentina, art. 35.
[115] [115] Excludes marine mammals.
[116] http:/ / en.wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Argentina& action=edit
[117] [117] Constitution of Argentina, art. 1.
[118] [118] Constitution of Argentina, art. 3.
[119] [119] Constitution of Argentina, art. 37.
[120] Since 2012 suffrage is optative for ages 16 and 17.<ref>
Argentina
33
[121] [121] Constitution of Argentina, arts. 53, 59, 75.
[122] [122] Constitution of Argentina, arts. 45, 47, 50.
[123] [123] Constitution of Argentina, arts. 54, 56.
[124] [124] Constitution of Argentina, art. 99.
[125] [125] Constitution of Argentina, art. 90.
[126] [126] Constitution of Argentina, art. 116.
[127] [127] Constitution of Argentina, arts. 99, 114.
[128] [128] Constitution of Argentina, art. 121.
[129] [129] Constitution of Argentina, arts. 5, 6.
[130] [130] Constitution of Argentina, art. 123.
[131] [131] Constitution of Argentina, art. 122.
[132] Constitution of Argentina, arts. 124125.
[133] The City of Buenos Aires is a federal district, but its local organization has similarities with the provinces: it has its own constitution, an
elected mayor and representatives to the Senate and Deputy chambers.<ref name="FOOTNOTEConstitution of Argentinaart.
129">Constitution of Argentina, art. 129.
[134] [134] Rey Balmaceda 1995, p.19.
[135] [135] Rock 1987, p.155.
[136] [136] Margheritis 2010, pp.15, 92.
[137] [137] Galasso 2011, p.600, vol. II.
[138] [138] Constitution of Argentina, T. R. 1.
[139] [139] Constitution of Argentina, arts. 125, 126.
[140] [140] Constitution of Argentina, arts. 21, 75, 99.
[141] Maldifassi & Abetti 1994, pp.6586.
[142] The other top developing nations being Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey.Area does not include territorial
claims in Antarctica (965,597 km
2
, including the South Orkney Islands), the Falkland Islands (11,410 km
2
), the South Georgia (3,560 km
2
)
and the South Sandwich Islands (307 km
2
).<ref name=totalpop>
[143] Evolucin de la industria nacional Argentina } (http:/ / www. gestiopolis. com/ recursos2/ documentos/ fulldocs/ eco/ evoindnalarg. htm) .
Gestiopolis.com. Retrieved on 2012-10-25.
[144] Themes in Nuclear Energy and Physics (http:/ / www. cnea. gov. ar/ xxi/ divulgacion/ reactores/ c_reactores_fii. html). CNEA. Retrieved
on 2012-10-25.
[145] Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p.76.
[146] Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, pp.2425.
[147] Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p.45.
[148] [148] Moore 1995.
[149] Science and Education in Argentina (https:/ / web.archive. org/ web/ 20080617145706/ http:/ / www. argentina. ar/ sw_seccion.
php?id=124& idioma_sel=en). argentina.ar
[150] satellites (http:/ / www. conae.gov.ar/ eng/ satelites/ satelites. html). CONAE. Retrieved on 2012-10-25.
[151] Interplanetary support station to be installed in Argentina (http:/ / buenosairesherald. com/ BreakingNews/ View/ 4670). Buenos Aires
Herald (2009-06-23). Retrieved on 2012-10-25.
[152] See table in pp. 8.
[153] [153] UN Demographic Yearbook, 2007.
[154] Captulo VII. Inmigrantes (https:/ / web.archive. org/ web/ 20070610215422/ http:/ / www. cels. org. ar/ Site_cels/ publicaciones/
informes_pdf/ 1998. Capitulo7.pdf). CELS Informe 1998
[155] http:/ / onlinelibrary. wiley. com/ doi/ 10.1111/ j. 1469-1809. 2009. 00556. x/ full
[156] http:/ / www.scielo. org.ar/ scielo.php?script=sci_abstract& pid=S0025-76802006000200004& lng=es& nrm=iso& tlng=es
[157] "El variet de la calle Florida" (http:/ / www. clarin.com/ diario/ 2007/ 03/ 04/ sociedad/ s-01373795. htm) (Editorial) Clarn
[158] [158] Ethnologue 2013.
[159] Colantoni & Gurlekian 2004, pp.107119.
[160] [160] English is also the primary language of the disputed Falkland Islands.
[161] Many elder people also speak a macaronic language of Italian and Spanish called cocoliche, which was originated by the Italian immigrants
in the late 19th century.
[162] It gave origin to a mixture of Spanish and German called Belgranodeutsch.
[163] [163] DellaPergola 2012.
[164] Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p.602.
[165] [165] Constitution of Argentina, art. 14.
[166] [166] Constitution of Argentina, art. 2.
[167] In practice this differential status amounts to tax-exempt school subsidies and licensing preferences for radio broadcasting frequencies.<ref
name=irfr1>
[168] Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazbal 2008, p.9.
Argentina
34
[169] Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazbal 2008, p.21.
[170] Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazbal 2008, p.24.
[171] [171] Level duration depends on jurisdiction.
[172] [172] The post-graduate sub-level of higher education is usually paid.
[173] ESTADISTICAS VITALES INFORMACION BASICA AO 2008 (http:/ / www. deis. gov. ar/ Publicaciones/ Archivos/ Serie5Nro52.
pdf). Ministry of Health (December 2009)
[174] UNData (http:/ / undata. un. org/ )
[175] [175] UN Demographic Yearbook. 1957.
[176] UN Demographic Yearbook. Historical Statistics. 1997.
[177] McCloskey & Burford 2006, p.91.
[178] McCloskey & Burford 2006, p.123.
[179] [179] Rivas 1989, p.11.
[180] [180] Bloom 1994, p.2.
[181] [181] Miller 2004, p.86.
[182] Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, p.121.
[183] Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, p.48.
[184] Long 2009, pp.2125.
[185] The other top venues being Berlin's Konzerthaus, Vienna's Musikverein, Amsterdam's Concertgebouw and Boston's Symphony Hall.<ref
name="FOOTNOTELong20092125">Long 2009, pp.2125.
[186] [186] King 2000, p.36.
[187] [187] Argentina earned the right to play in the 2010 World Cup in South Africa for which it joined Nigeria, Korea Republic and Greece for
qualifying in group B. It was knocked-out in the quarterfinals by Germany.
[188] Buenos Aires elected as Host City for 2018 Youth Olympic Games (http:/ / www. olympic. org/ news/
buenos-aires-elected-as-host-city-for-2018-youth-olympic-games/ 202222)
[189] Ferro 1991, pp.234325.
[190] [190] Calvo 1864, p.20ff.
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External links
Government
Official portal (http:/ / www. argentina. gob. ar/ )
Travel
Argentina Ministry of Tourism (http:/ / www. turismo. gov. ar/ eng/ menu. htm) (official website)
National Institute of Tourism Promotion (http:/ / www. argentina. travel/ en) (official website)
Overview
Argentina (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ ar. html) entry at The World
Factbook
Argentina (http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Regional/ South_America/ Argentina) at DMOZ
Argentina (http:/ / lanic. utexas. edu/ la/ argentina/ ) at Latin American Network Information Center
Argentina (http:/ / ucblibraries. colorado. edu/ govpubs/ for/ argentina. htm) at University Libraries University
of Colorado Boulder
Key Development Forecasts for Argentina (http:/ / www. ifs. du. edu/ ifs/ frm_CountryProfile.
aspx?Country=AR) at International Futures
Geographic data related to Argentina (http:/ / www. openstreetmap. org/ browse/ relation/ 286393) at
OpenStreetMap
Argentina at Wikipedia books
Wikimedia Atlas of Argentina
Article Sources and Contributors
38
Article Sources and Contributors
Argentina Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=616455425 Contributors: -- April, -5-, .Jos, 100110100, 10dkafka, 11mick, 11tas, 1234r00t, 16@r, 203.244.209.xxx, 220 of
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