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A319/A320/A321

TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL


MECHANICS / ELECTRICS & AVIONICS COURSE

34 NAVIGATION

This document must be used for training purpose only
Under no circumstances should this document be used as a reference.
It will not be updated.
All rights reserved.
No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form,
by photostat, microfilm, retrieval system, or any other means,
without the prior written permission of Airbus Industrie.
NAVIGATION GENERAL
System Presentation (1) 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
** Radio Navigation Control Presentation (1) 5 . . . .
** System Controls Presentation (1) 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standby Instrument Presentation (1) 19 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radio Management Panel (RMP) Presentation (1) 31 . .
DDRMI Presentation (1) 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADIRS
ADIRS Principle (1) 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADIRS Presentation (1) 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
** Air Data Probes Presentation (1) 61 . . . . . . . . . . . .
** ADIRS CDU Presentation (2) 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
** ADIRS Switching (2) 77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADIRUs Interconnection (3) 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
** ADIRS Alignment through MCDU (2) 87 . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADIRS Alignment through CDU (2) 91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADIRS Back-up Operation (ATT MODE) (3) 95 . . . . . . . . .
ADIRS Indications on PFD (2) 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADIRS Indications on ND (2) 113 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
** ADIRS Indications on ECAM DU (2) 121 . . . . . . . . . . .
ADIRS ECAM Warnings (2) 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standby Instrument Components (3) 137 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
** ADIRS Components (3) 149 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR) SYSTEM
MMR System Description (1) 159 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MMR Description/Operation (3) 175 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MMR Indications on PFD (2) 183 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MMR Indications on ND (2) 191 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MMR Components (3) 201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WEATHER RADAR (WR) & PREDICTIVE WINDSHEAR
(PWS)
WR/PWS System Presentation (1) 209 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WR/PWS Description/Operation (3) 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WR/PWS Controls and Displays (2) 227 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WR/PWS Operational Precautions (2) 243 . . . . . . . . . . . .
WR/PWS Components (3) 247 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RADIO ALTIMETER (RA) SYSTEM
Radio Altimeter System Presentation (1) 255 . . . . . . .
Radio Altimeter Description/Operation (3) 263 . . . . .
** RA Indications on PFD & AUTO Call Out (2) 269 . .
** Radio Altimeter Components (3) 275 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (TCAS)
TCAS Presentation (1) 283 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TCAS Description/Operation (3) 291 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TCAS Control Panel Description/Operation (2) 297 . .
TCAS Indications on PFD and Aural Alerts (2) 305 . .
TCAS Indications on ND (2) 311 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TCAS Components (3) 317 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM
(EGPWS)
** EGPWS Presentation (1) 333 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
** EGPWS Description/Operation (3) 341 . . . . . . . . . . . .
** EGPWS Modes (3) 347 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
** EGPWS Indications on ND (2) 365 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
** EGPWS Components (3) 371 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME) SYSTEM
DME System Presentation (1) 375 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DME Description/Operation (3) 383 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DME Indications on PFD and ND (2) 389 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DME Components (3) 395 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC) SYSTEM
ATC System Presentation (1) 405 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATC Description/Operation (3) 411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATC Control Panel Description/Operation (2) 417 . . .
ATC Components (3) 425 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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UFD4200 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
34 CONTENTS
Page i
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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF) SYSTEM
ADF System Presentation (1) 439 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADF Description/Operation (3) 449 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADF Indications on ND (2) 455 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADF Components (3) 463 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VOR/MARKERS SYSTEM
VOR/MKR System Presentation (1) 469 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VOR/MKR Description/Operation (3) 481 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VOR/MKR Indications on ND (2) 487 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VOR/MKR Components (3) 497 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WARNINGS
ECAM Warnings (Except ADIRS) (2) 503 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
SPECIFIC PAGES
** ADIRS/CFDS Specific Page Present. (3) 509 . . . .
RAD Alt./CFDS Specific Page Present. (3) 533 . . . .
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UFD4200 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
34 CONTENTS
Page ii
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-00-00 SYSTEM PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
General
ADIRS
Landing and Taxiing Aids Systems
Independent Position Determining Systems
Dependent Position Determining Systems
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SYSTEM PRESENTATION
GENERAL
The aircraft navigation systems provide the crew with
the data required for flight within the most
appropriate safety requirements.
This data is divided into four groups:
- AIR DATA/INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (ADIRS),
- LANDING AND TAXIING AIDS,
- INDEPENDENT POSITION DETERMINING,
- DEPENDENT POSITION DETERMINING.
ADIRS
The ADIRS is an integrated Air Data System and an
Inertial Reference System. One part called Air Data
Reference mainly computes speed and altitude
information from air parameters. The other part called
Inertial Reference mainly computes heading, attitude
and position from gyros and accelerometers.
The ADIRS is composed of three Air Data/Inertial
Reference Units (ADIRUs).
Besides the ADIRUs, there are still standby
instruments:
- Altimeter and Airspeed indicators directly
supplied by pressure lines,
- Standby Compass,
- Standby Horizon.
LANDING AND TAXIING AIDS
The Head-Up Display (HUD) is used as a piloting aids
system for roll out, take-off and landing (optional).
The Instrument Landing System (ILS), is use to obtain
the optimum aircraft position during an approach and
landing phase.
The Marker (MKR) system is used to indicate the
distance to the runway threshold during an ILS descent.
The aircraft is equipped with:
- 1 HUD (optional),
- 2 ILS,
- 1 MARKER (Included in the VOR receiver).
Frequency Control is achieved either automatically or
manually (through the MCDU) by the Flight Management
and Guidance Computers (FMGCs) or manually through the
Radio Management Panels (RMPs).
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INDEPENDENT POSITION DETERMINING SYSTEMS
This part of the navigation systems, called independent
system, provides information regarding the safety of
the aircraft without taking reference from any ground
station.
The Weather Radar / Predictive Windshear (WR/PWS)
system detects the position and intensity of
precipitations which are shown on the Navigation
Displays (NDs).
The windshear capability serves to detect any sudden
change of wind speed and/or direction (Optional).
The Radio Altimeter (RA) system gives the aircraft
height above the ground, independently of the
atmospheric pressure.
The Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) detects
the aircraft in the immediate vicinity.
The Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS)
warns the flight crew about the aircraft behaviour in
dangerous configuration when approaching the ground.
This part of the Navigation system includes:
- 1 Weather Radar / Predictive Windshear (WR/PWS)
(the second is optional),
- 2 Radio Altimeter (RA),
- 1 Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS),
- 1 Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
(EGPWS).
DEPENDENT POSITION DETERMINING SYSTEMS
This part of the navigation system, called dependent
system, provides various means of navigation through
data exchange with ground installations or satellites.
The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) system gives
the aircraft slant distance to a ground station.
The Air Traffic Control system (ATC) enables a ground
operator to identify and track the aircraft without
having to communicate with the flight crew.
The Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) system is a radio
compass system providing the azimuth of a Non
Directional Beacon (NDB) with respect to the aircraft
center line.
The VHF Omni Range (VOR) system gives the bearing of
a ground VOR Station with respect to the magnetic North
and the aircraft angular deviation related to a
preselected course.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is based on the
measurement of the transmission time of signals
broadcast by satellites.
This part of the Navigation includes:
- 2 DME,
- 2 ATC,
- 1 ADF (the second is optional),
- 2 VOR,
- 2 GPS.
NOTE 1: The VOR or DME frequency control is achieved
either automatically or manually (through the
MCDU) by the FMGCs or manually though the RMPs.
NOTE 2: Although the Marker Beacon belongs to the
Landing Aids System, it is physically
integrated into the VOR receiver.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-00-00 RADIO NAVIGATION CONTROL
PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
Automatic Tuning
Manual Tuning
Back-Up Tuning
Self Examination
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RADIO NAVIGATION CONTROL PRESENTATION
AUTOMATIC TUNING
The Automatic Tuning permits the control of VOR / DME,
ILS and ADF by the Flight Management and Guidance
System.
In this case the RMP is transparent to its associated
FMGC.
In normal operation FMGC1 tunes receivers 1, FMGC2
tunes receivers 2.
In case of failure of FMGC 1 or 2, the remaining FMGC
controls all receivers.
MANUAL TUNING
The manual tuning permits the pilot to select, through
the Multipurpose Control Display Unit, a specific
frequency for display on the EFIS.
NOTE: To return to the autotuning mode, the manual
tuning has to be cleared.
BACK-UP TUNING
Radio Management Panels 1 and 2 located on the pedestal
provide back-up for Radio Navigation tuning.
We are in the case of both FMGCs inoperative or
emergency electrical supply.
The ILS course and frequency are the only Radio
Navigation data exchanged.
The selected values on RMP 1 and RMP 2 are identical
for ILS 1 and ILS 2.
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RADIO NAVIGATION CONTROL PRESENTATION
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SELF EXAMINATION
Can VOR 2 frequency be changed through RMP 1?
A - Yes.
B - No.
In back-up mode, an ILS can be tuned through:
A - RMP 1 or 2.
B - RMP 1 only.
C - The onside RMP only.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-00-00 SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
Multipurpose Control Display Unit (MCDU)
ADIRS Control Display Unit (ADIRS CDU)
Radio Management Panel (RMP)
Audio Control Panel (ACP)
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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION
MULTIPURPOSE CONTROL DISPLAY UNIT (MCDU)
The Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU) allows
the crew:
- To display the Radio Navigation frequencies
(automatically or manually tuned) on a specific
page called RAD/NAV.
- To align the Inertial Reference systems from
a specific page called INIT via the FMGC.
- To initiate tests for all navigation
systems and for troubleshooting via the
CFDIU.
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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION - MCDU
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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION
ADIRS CONTROL DISPLAY UNIT (ADIRS CDU)
The ADIRS Control and Display Unit allows the following
functions:
- To switch on the ADR and IR by setting a single
control to NAV.
- To disconnect the ADR output bus by a specific
pushbutton.
- To check the ADIRU operation
- To align the IR instead of using the MCDU.
NOTE: when set to ATT, the systems are still energized
but the IR is in downgraded operation mode.
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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION - ADIRS CDU
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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION
RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL (RMP)
The main function of the Radio Management Panels (RMP)
is to control all communication frequencies. However
they are also used for standby selection of
Radio/NAV frequencies.
The standby operation is used in case of dual FMGC
failure, provided the NAV pushbutton switch has been
pressed.
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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION - RMP
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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION
AUDIO CONTROL PANEL (ACP)
The Audio Control Panels (ACP) enable to control the
reception of all audio signals identifying the various
beacons and stations.
NOTE: DME identification signals can be selected by
using the knob of the colocated VOR or ILS.
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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION - ACP
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-20-00 STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
Standby Compass
Standby Horizon
Standby Altimeter
Standby Airspeed Indicator (ASI)
Metric Altimeter (Option)
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION
STANDBY COMPASS
The standby compass is located on the top windshield
center post.
It is stowed in normal configuration.
A correction card is glued to the side of the compass
assembly.
Non-magnetic lamp:
- A non-magnetic lamp assembly lights the compass card.
It is controlled by a STBY COMPASS switch located on
the INT LT panel on the overhead panel.
Graduated compass:
- The graduated compass card is attached to a magnetic
element. It is free to rotate inside the compass bowl
and is immersed in a damping liquid.
Lubber line:
- A lubber line indicates the magnetic heading.
Compensation holes:
- Two holes marked NS and EW, allow compensation by
positioning two small magnetic bars called
compensators.
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION - COMPASS
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION
STANDBY HORIZON
The Standby horizon is located on the center instrument
panel and comprises the following elements:
Roll pointer:
- The roll information is given by a pointer which
moves in front of a graduated roll scale.
Roll scale:
- The roll scale is graduated in 10 degree increments
between -30 and +30 degrees and 15 degree increments
up to 60 degrees.
Flag:
- The flag comes into view if a failure is detected
in the electrical power supply or if the gyro rotor
speed drops below 18000 RPM.
Pitch drum:
- The pitch drum is divided into two zones separated
by the reference horizon.
The pitch indications are displayed between -80 and
+80 degrees.
Aircraft symbol:
- The aircraft symbol is fixed.
Resetting knob:
- Fast resetting can be performed by pulling the caging
knob (Also used for shipping to protect the gyro).
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION - HORIZON
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION
STANDBY ALTIMETER
The Standby Altimeter is located on the center
instrument panel and comprises the following elements:
Adjustable bugs:
- Four manually adjustable bugs are provided for
reference altitude setting.
Altitude counter:
- A display counter made up of two drums displays the
tens of thousands, and the thousands of feet.
When the altitude is below 10000 feet, the left drum
displays black and white stripes.
In case of negative altitude the left drum displays
orange and white stripes.
Altitude pointer:
- The pointer indicates the hundreds of feet with 20
feet increments.
To prevent the pointer from sticking, an internal
vibrator is installed.
It is only supplied in flight.
Altitude dial:
- The altitude dial is calibrated from O to 1000 feet
with 20 feet graduations.
Baro correction counter:
- The baro correction is displayed on a counter
graduated in hecto Pascals.
Adjustment baro setting knob:
- The knob enables adjustment of the baro setting in
the range of 750 to 1050 hecto Pascals.
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION - ALTIMETER
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION
STANDBY AIRSPEED INDICATOR (ASI)
The Standby Airspeed Indicator (ASI) is located on the
center instrument panel and comprises the following
elements:
Ajustable bugs:
- Four manually adjustable bugs are provided for
reference speed setting.
Speed pointer:
- The pointer moves on a graduated dial.
Speed dial:
- The dial is made of two linear scales: one from 60kt
to 250kt with 5kt increments, the other from 250 to
450kt with 1Okt increments.
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION - AIRSPEED INDICATOR
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION
METRIC ALTIMETER (OPTION)
The Metric Altimeter is located on the center
instrument panel and comprises the following elements:
A display counter, made up of two drums displays the
tens of thousands and the thousands of meters.
Altitude counter:
- When the altitude is below 10,000 meters, the left
drum displays black and white stripes.
In case of negative altitude the left drum displays
orange and white stripes.
Altitude pointer:
- The pointer indicates the hundreds of meters with
50 meter increments.
Altitude dial:
- The altitude dial is calibrated from O to 1000 meters
with 50 meter graduations.
Baro correction counter:
- The baro correction is displayed on a the lower
counter and is graduated in hecto Pascals.
Adjustment baro setting knob:
- The knob enables adjustment of the baro setting in
the range of 870 to 1050 hecto Pascals.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-00-00 RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL (RMP)
PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
General
Standby Navigation Keys
Rotating Knob
Standby/Course (STBY/CRS) Window
Active Window
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RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL (RMP) PRESENTATION
GENERAL
The radio Nav frequency selection can only be performed
when the guarded NAV key LED is on, after a dual FMGS
loss
The ON/OFF switch controls the power supply of the
RMP.
STANDBY NAVIGATION KEYS
As long as the NAV key is the only STBY NAV key selected,
the windows still display communication frequencies.
Then, pressing the VOR, ILS or ADF key changes the
displays to the last RMP memorized values (frequency
and course).
At any time, communication frequencies are still
selectable, simply by pressing the corresponding key.
Beat Frequency Oscillator (BFO) is set on or off by
pressing the key.
NOTE: The Microwave Landing System (MLS) key is a
provision.
ROTATING KNOB
Two concentric knobs allow preselection of frequency
for radio communication and standby navigation systems
and selection of the required course for VORs and ILSs:
- the outer knob controls the most significant
digits,
- the inner knob controls the least significant
digits.
The desired frequency or course is set in the STBY/CRS
window. Frequency becomes active by pressing the
transfer key.
STANDBY/COURSE (STBY/CRS) WINDOW
The STANDBY/COURSE window displays a standby frequency
or a course.
Both can be changed by rotating the knob, but only the
standby frequency can be made active by pressing the
transfer key.
If a course is displayed, the associated frequency is
displayed in the ACTIVE window.
NOTE: If a course is displayed on the STBY/CRS window,
pressing the transfer key will display the ACTIVE
frequency in both windows.
ACTIVE WINDOW
The active window shows the frequency in use of the
system identified by the green LED on the selected
key.
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RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL (RMP) PRESENTATION
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-00-00 DDRMI PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
General
Normal Operation
Failure and Non Computed Data (NCD)
Self Examination
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DDRMI PRESENTATION
GENERAL
The Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator
(DDRMI) is located on the center instrument panel.
Its a combined VOR/ADF/DME RMI.
Note: Some DDRMIs are not equipped with the ADF
capability.
NORMAL OPERATION
The DME 1 Distance is displayed in the left hand window.
The DME 2 Distance is displayed in the right hand
window.
A single pointer indicates the VOR 1 or ADF 1 bearing.
A double pointer indicates the VOR 2 or ADF 2 bearing.
The selection of VOR or ADF is provided for each pointer
by a selector switch.
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EFFECTIVITY
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DDRMI PRESENTATION - NORMAL OPERATION
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DDRMI PRESENTATION
FAILURE AND NON COMPUTED DATA (NCD)
When a failure is detected by the DME or RMI monitoring
circuits, the corresponding DME display window is
blanked.
In case of Non Computed Data (NCD), for example:
- out-of-range station, the window shows white
horizontal dashed lines.
Heading information normally comes from ADIRU 1.
If it fails, the heading is provided by ADIRU 3 after
pilot switching.
In case of VOR or ADF 1 or 2 receiver failure, a red
flag comes into view and the corresponding pointer is
set to the 3 oclock position.
In case of Non Computed Data (NCD), no failure flag
appears, but the corresponding pointer is set to the
3 oclock position.
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SELF EXAMINATION
From which ADIRU can the DDRMI receive information ?
A - ADIRU 1 or 2.
B - ADIRU 2 or 3.
C - ADIRU 1 or 3.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS PRINCIPLE
CONTENTS:
General
ADM Functional Description
ADM Inputs
ADM Output
ADR Computation
IR Strapdown
Ring Laser Gyro
Accelerometer
IR Computation
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
GENERAL
The Air Data/Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU) comprises
an Air Data Reference Unit and an Inertial Reference
Unit, both included in a single unit.
Data from external sensors (Angle of Attack, Total Air
Temperature, Air Data Module) are used by the ADIRU.
The ADIRUs are interfaced with the ADIRS Display
Control Unit (CDU) for control and status annunciation.
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EFFECTIVITY
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - GENERAL
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
ADM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
A microcomputer processes an ARINC signal according
to the discrete inputs and to the digitized pressure.
ADM INPUTS
The ADM Inputs are one pressure input and several
discrete inputs.
The ADMs are identical.
The discrete inputs determine the ADM location and the
type of pressure data (Pitot or Static) provided to
the ADR.
ADM OUTPUT
The ADM output is an ARINC bus which provides digital
pressure information, type of pressure, ADM
identification and BITE status to the ADIRU.
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
ADR COMPUTATION
The ADR processes sensor and ADM inputs in order to
provide air data to users.
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - ADR T
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
IR STRAPDOWN
In a strapdown Inertial Reference System the gyros and
the accelerometers are solidly attached to the aircraft
structure.
The strapdown laser gyro provides directly
accelerations and angular speeds.
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - IR T
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
RING LASER GYRO
The three ring laser gyros, one for each rotation axis,
provide inertial rotation data and are composed of two
opposite laser beams in a ring.
At rest, the two beams arrive at the sensor with the
same frequency.
An aircraft rotation creates a difference of
frequencies between the two beams.
The frequency difference is measured by optical means
providing a digital output which, after computation,
will provide rotation information.
NOTE: Light Amplification Stimulated Emission of
Radiation (LASER)
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - GYRO T
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
ACCELEROMETER
Three accelerometers, one for each axis, provide linear
accelerations.
The acceleration signal is sent to a processor which
uses this signal to compute the velocity and the
position.
IR COMPUTATION
Each ADIRU computes the laser gyro and the
accelerometer outputs to provide Inertial Reference
data to users.
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - ACCELEROMETER T
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
General
MCDU
ADIRS CDU
Probes
FCU
GPS
DMC
DMC/PFD & ND
ADIRS Switching
Users
Self Examination
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ADIRS PRESENTATION
GENERAL
The Air Data Inertial Reference System (ADIRS) is
composed of three Air Data Inertial Reference Units
(ADIRU), each having their own set of probes and
sensors and a common Control Display Unit (CDU).
MCDU
The Multipurpose Control and Display Units (MCDUs) are
normally used to align the Inertial References, to
initiate the ADIRU tests and to display ADIRU
information.
ADIRS CDU
The ADIRS Control Display Unit is used as a back-up
for Inertial Reference alignment. It is also used for
mode selection, information display and status
indication.
PROBES
The Air Data input parameters, such as total and static
pressures, Angle Of Attack (AOA) and Total Air
Temperature (TAT) are sent, from the related probes
and sensors, to the three ADIRUs.
NOTE : static and total pressure are sent to the ADIRUs
via the ADMs.
FCU
The ADIRUs receive, from the Flight Control Unit (FCU),
the Baro correction set by the crew.
GPS
The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides data to
the ADIRS, mainly A/C position and speed. The ADIRS
processes the GPS data and provides pure GPS data,
pure IR data and hybrid GPS/ADIRS data to users.
DMC
The Display Management Computers (DMCs) 1 and 2 receive
their data from their related ADIRU and from ADIRU 3.
The Display Management Computer 3 (DMC3) receives
information from all three ADIRUs, to operate as a
back-up in case of DMC1 or 2 failure.
DMC/PFD & ND
ADIRU 1 and 2 display information via DMC 1 and 2, on
the corresponding Primary Flight Display (PFD) and
Navigation Display (ND).
ADIRU 3 operates as a back-up in case of ADIRU 1 or 2
failure.
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ADIRS SWITCHING
Basically, ADIRU 1 is associated to the captain
instruments, ADIRU 2 to the first officer instruments
and ADIRU 3 is in standby.
In case of failure of the Air Data Reference (ADR) or
Inertial Reference (IR) function of ADIRU 1 or 2, the
affected instruments and displays may be manually
switched independently to ADIRU 3 by means of selector
switches.
USERS
The ADIRUs are directly connected to other user system.
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Which ADIRU does not supply DMC 1?
A - ADIRU 1.
B - ADIRU 2.
C - ADIRU 3.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-13-00 AIR DATA PROBES PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
Pitot Probes
Static Ports
AOA Sensors
TAT Sensors
Water Drain
Self Examination
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AIR DATA PROBES PRESENTATION
PITOT PROBES
The total pressure is sent from the Pitot Probes to
the Air Data Modules which convert it into ARINC words
used by the Air Data Inertial Reference Units.
Three pitot probes provide total pressure to three Air
Data Modules (ADM) which convert this pressure into
digital format (ARINC 429).
ARINC words are then sent to the corresponding Air
Data Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU). The standby pitot
probe supplies the standby Airspeed Indicator (ASI)
and ADR3 through its related ADM.
STATIC PORTS
Each Air Data Module transforms the static pressure
coming from the static ports into ARINC words.
Six static ports provide static pressure to five ADMs
which convert this pressure into digital format (ARINC
429).
The standby static ports provide an average pressure
directly to the standby instruments, and to ADR3
through a single ADM.
AOA SENSORS
Each ADIRU receives angle of attack information from
its corresponding Angle Of Attack (AOA) sensors.
The Angle Of Attack sensors are also called Alpha
probes.
TAT SENSORS
The three ADIRUs receive Total Air Temperature
information from two Total Air Temperature sensors.
NOTE: that ADIRU3 receives the Total Air Temperature
(TAT) from the TAT 1 sensor which is composed
of two elements.
WATER DRAIN
The probes are installed in such a way that their
pressure lines do not require a water drain, except
for that of the standby static ports.
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AIR DATA PROBES PRESENTATION
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How do pitot and static probes supply the ADIRUs?
A - Using ADMs which convert pressure into
digital format.
B - Directly with total and static pressures.
C - Directly with digital format.
Where does ADIRU3 receive TAT information from?
A - Captain TAT sensor.
B - First-Officer TAT sensor.
C - Standby TAT sensor.
Which pressure line(s) need(s) to be drained?
A - All pitot lines.
B - All static lines.
C - Only the standby static line.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS CDU PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
System Selector
Keyboard
ON BAT Light
IR Lights
Mode Rotary Selector
ADR P/BSW
Data Selector
Data Display
Status Messages
Status Action Codes
Self Examination
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ADIRS CDU PRESENTATION
SYSTEM SELECTOR
In OFF position, the CDU display is not energized
(Blank Display).
In position 1, 2 or 3 the corresponding system is
selected for data display.
KEYBOARD
The keyboard is used to enter in the selected system
the present position for alignment or Magnetic Heading
if in ATTITUDE mode.
N, S, E, W keys permit position entry.
H allows heading entry in attitude mode.
The green ENTER pushbutton light comes on when either
the NORTH, SOUTH, WEST, EAST, or HEADING has been
selected. When pressed the displayed data is entered
into the Inertial Reference Systems.
The green CLEAR pushbutton light comes on when any key
has been pressed.
When pressed, the displayed data, not yet entered, is
cleared.
ON BAT LIGHT
The amber ON BAT light comes on when one or more Air
Data Inertial Reference Unit are operating on aircraft
batteries.
The ON BAT light comes on for five seconds during the
power up test. ON BAT stays off in case of fast
realignment.
IR LIGHTS
An amber FAULT light comes on, accompanied by ECAM
activation when a fault affects the related Inertial
Reference.
When flashing, attitude and heading may be recovered
in ATT mode.
A white ALIGN light illuminates steady when the related
Inertial Reference is in the alignment phase.
The ALIGN light goes off when alignment has been
completed.
ALIGN light flashes in case of:
- An alignment error
- No Present Position entry within ten minutes
of NAV mode selection.
- Significant difference memorized position at
shutdown and entered position.
MODE ROTARY SELECTOR
The mode rotary selector permits selection of three
modes for each Inertial Reference.
In OFF position, the ADIRU is not energized (ADR and
IR data not available).
NAVIGATION is the normal mode of operation providing
full inertial data to the aircraft systems.
ATTITUDE is a back-up mode, mainly providing attitude
and heading information in case of loss of navigation
capability.
In ATT mode, the magnetic heading must be entered
through the CDU and has to be updated frequently.
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ADIRS CDU PRESENTATION - SYSTEM SELECTOR
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ADIRS CDU PRESENTATION
AIR DATA REFERENCE P/BSW
The output buses of each air data reference are
disconnected when its related pushbutton switch is set
to OFF position.
An amber FAULT light comes on accompanied by ECAM
activation when a fault is detected in the related Air
Data Reference.
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ADIRS CDU PRESENTATION
DATA SELECTOR
The Data Selector permits the display of the selected
Inertial Reference data and status.
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ADIRS CDU PRESENTATION - DATA SELECTOR
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ADIRS CDU PRESENTATION - DATA DISPLAY
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ADIRS CDU PRESENTATION - STATUS MESSAGES
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SELF EXAMINATION
The inertial data, TK/GS, PPOS, WIND, HDG are
available on:
A - ATT only.
B - NAV only.
C - ATT or NAV.
When does the ALIGN light flash?
A - Within five minutes of NAV mode
selection, when present position has not
been entered.
B - During the alignment phase in case of
IRS alignment error.
C - When alignment has been completed.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS SWITCHING
CONTENTS:
General
Principle
Switching Example
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ADIRS SWITCHING
GENERAL
The Air Data Inertial Reference System (ADIRS) is
composed of three Air Data Inertial Reference Units
(ADIRUs)
PRINCIPLE
Various instruments and systems receive data from
the ADIRS for inertial and air data display:
- The Primary Flight Displays (PFDs),
- The Navigation Displays (NDs),
- The ECAM System Display (SD)
- The Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic
Indicator (DDRMI).
The ADIRS provides:
- Barometric altitude to the Air Traffic Control
(ATC) system for mode S.
- Data to the Flight Augmentation Computers
(FACs) for computation of various
characteristic speeds.
- Data to the Weather Radar (WR) system for
antenna attitude stabilization.
Basically, ADIRU1 is associated with systems 1 and
the DDRMI, ADIRU2 with systems 2, ADIRU3 is in
standby.
If an Air Data Reference (ADR) or an Inertial
Reference (IR) fails, the AIR DATA or ATT HDG
selectors enable the crew to use ADR 3 or IR 3.
The manual switching is mainly performed to recover
displays.
The computers select their inputs according to the
switching for consistency of computation and display.
NOTE: The ADIRU data sent to the ECAM System Display
(E/SD) are Static Air Temperature (SAT) and Total
Air Temperature (TAT).
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ADIRS SWITCHING
SWITCHING EXAMPLE
Here is an example of ADIRS switching in order to see
the effects on the schematic.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRUS INTERCONNECTION
CONTENTS:
ADR to IR
ADR to ADR
ADR Switching
IR Switching
Switching Control
Self Examination
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ADIRUS INTERCONNECTION
ADR TO IR
The ADR transmits information used to compute IR data.
The ADR output buses are connected to the IR inputs
respectively called internal (INT) A and B.
Basically, each IR receives 3 ADR outputs, but uses
its own ADR output for IR data computation.
ADR TO ADR
Each ADR receives air data computed by the two other
ADRs to crosscheck its own data.
The 4 parameters checked are:
- static pressure,
- total pressure,
- Angle Of Attack (AOA),
- Total Air Temperature (TAT).
ADR SWITCHING
When the Captain or First Officer ADR fails, the AIR
DATA switch allows the crew to perform a manual
switching to ADR3 to recover air data display.
Note: The basic purpose of the AIR DATA/ATT HDG
switching is to recover data display.
IR SWITCHING
When the Captain or First Officer IR fails, the
attitude heading switch allows the crew to perform a
manual switching to IR3 to recover inertial data
display.
When a manual switching is performed, the ADR
associated to the failed IR is automatically switched
to IR3 to maintain a computation/display homogeneity.
If the associated ADR is not available, IR3 will work
with ADR3.
SWITCHING CONTROL
Two discretes, AUTO and MANUAL, permit each IR to
select a valid input.
AUTO is always grounded for IR1 and IR2.
The state of IR3 AUTO or MANUAL discrete depends on
the selector position.
As soon as an ADR fails, before manual switching, the
air data display is lost but the associated IR
automatically switches to ADR3 to ensure computation
continuity as the internal bus is invalid.
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ADIRUS INTERCONNECTION
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SELF EXAMINATION
What must be done in case of ADR1 failure?
A - Set AIR DATA switch to CAPT3 position.
B - Set ATT HDG switch to CAPT3 position.
C - Leave AIR DATA and ATT HDG switches on
NORM position.
What must be done in case of IR3 failure?
A - Set AIR DATA switch to F/O3 position.
B - Set ATT HDG switch to F/O3 position.
C - Leave ATT HDG switch in NORM position.
When AUTO discrete is grounded, where does the IR
receive air data from?
A - Input bus A.
B - Input bus B.
C - Internal bus, then from bus A, then from
bus B depending on bus validity.
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CONTENTS:
ADIRS Alignment Through MCDU
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ADIRS ALIGNMENT THROUGH MCDU
To perform the IRs alignment, select the FMGC then the
INIT key.
1. To perform the three Inertial Reference alignments,
the NAV position on the ADIRS CDU must be selected,
and then the aircraft Present Position (PPOS) has
to be entered.
To send Present Position (PPOS) you can either enter
a Company Route (CO RTE) or the Latitude (LAT) and
Longitude (LONG) or a FROM/TO.
We will here perform a FROM/TO insertion.
For example LSGG/LGAT:
- Departure from GENOVA,
- Arrival at ATHENS.
Use the keyboard to enter the LSGG/LGAT in the
scratchpad and then the LS key 1R to valid it in
the FROM/TO field.
2. The route corresponding to the chosen FROM/TO is
displayed on the MCDU.
In our example only one company route is available,
insert it by using LS key 6R.
3. The return to the INIT page is automatic after route
insertion.
Now the FROM airport position is given on the LAT
and LONG line. The ALIGN IRS prompt is displayed.
As this airport position is preset, it can be
modified according to the real aircraft position,
this explains the arrows displayed on the LAT line,
which indicate that the LAT can be changed using
the slew keys.
You can now initiate the 3 IRs alignment by pressing
3R key (ALIGN IRS). The present aircraft position
will be automatically sent to the 3 IRs.
4. ALIGN IRS message has disappeared and IR alignment
is now in progress (10 minutes).
ON ADIRS CDU, ALIGN annunciators will go off.
If ALIGN annunciators remain on or begin to flash
it means that the IR alignment phase is
unsuccessful.
NOTE: If the INIT page A was left without having aligned
the IRs, an IR ALIGN message will be displayed
in the scratchpad.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-12-00 ADIRS ALIGNMENT THROUGH CDU
CONTENTS:
ADIRS Alignment Through CDU
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ADIRS ALIGNMENT THROUGH CDU
The aircraft is stationary on ground before take-off.
The three mode selectors are in the OFF position, the
ADIRUs are not energized.
1. When any mode selector is set to the NAV position,
the amber ON BAT light comes on for five seconds
and goes off.
When the ON BAT light is off, the white ALIGN light
comes on.
NOTE: ALIGN light flashes if the aircraft position has
not been entered 10 minutes after NAV mode
selection (using MCDU or ADIRS CDU).
The three selectors are in the NAV position, the IRs
are waiting for aircrafts present position insertion.
2. When the SYS selector is in position 1, 2 or 3, the
window display is energized and the system selected
is ready for display.
DATA display selector must be set to PPOS in order
to enter the present position.
3. ADIRS CDU is now ready to accept the aircrafts
present position (PPOS):
TOULOUSE - BLAGNAC: N43-37-8, E122.6
Present Position LATITUDE: N43-37-8
The keyed latitude is displayed on the left side
of the window display.
The PPOS Latitude is entered into the 3 IRs which
are in align mode whatever the system selected with
the SYS selector.
Present Position LONGITUDE: E1-22-6
The keyed longitude is displayed on the right side
of the window display.
The PPOS Longitude is entered into the 3 IRs, they
are ready to be aligned.
NOTE: If the actual PPOS is different by more than
1 degree in longitude and latitude from the
previous one it must be keyed and entered twice.
4. The DATA selector is now set to the HDG position.
The TTN (Time To Nav) indication gives the renaming
time in minutes until completion alignment.
The message IRS IN ALIGN appears on the MEMO page
of the ECAM DU.
True Heading (HDG) is displayed at TTN 5.
When the alignment is completed, TTN indication
disappears and all ALIGN lights go off. The 3 IRs
are now aligned.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-12-00 ADIRS BACK-UP OPERATION (ATT
MODE)
CONTENTS:
ADIRS Back-Up Operation (ATT Mode)
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ADIRS BACK-UP OPERATION (ATT MODE)
The ATTITUDE mode (ATT) is a back-up mode providing
only attitude and magnetic heading information, in
case of loss of navigation capability (temporary power
cut-off or BITE failures causing excessive data errors
in NAV mode). We will see here the case of an IR2
fault.
1. The single chime sounds, the MASTER CAUT comes on
and the FAULT light on the ADIRS CDU flashes
indicating an IR2 fault (HDG flag on PFD and ND and
ATT on PFD).
NAV IR2 FAULT message appears followed by:
- ATT HDG SWTG... F/O3, on the ECAM DU telling the
crew to switch to IR3 system.
The IR2 fault is also confirmed by the following
status message on ADIRS CDU when system 2 and STS
are selected:
- STS-SELECT ATT
2. When the ATT position is selected, the respective
IR is in ATTITUDE mode. The FAULT light goes off,
the ALIGN light comes on and then goes off (after
20 s).
ATT MOD on the ADIRS CDU window indicates that you
are in attitude mode (Pitch and Roll data again
displayed on the EFIS).
Note that the ATT mode must be engaged with aircraft
in level flight.
In ATT mode the crew can insert a magnetic heading.
In order to perform the HEADING insertion, the DATA
selector must be set to the HDG position.
3. When the DATA selector is in the HDG and the SYS
selector is in position 2,the magnetic heading can
be keyed and entered into IR2.
When the H key is selected the green ENT and CLR
lights come on. HDG appears in the window display.
The magnetic HDG which is 353.9 is typed on the
keyboard.
NOTE: the magnetic heading is indicated on the
instruments.
4. The ENT key is used to send the magnetic heading
to IR2, when done the ENT and CLR lights go off.
The IR2 is now in ATTITUDE mode and mainly sends
attitude and heading data.
If the IR2 had to be used again, the crew should
take into account the gyro drift and update
frequently the HDG reference.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS INDICATIONS ON PFD
CONTENTS:
Attitude
Heading
Airspeed
Vertical Speed
Altitude
Self Examination
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ADIRS INDICATIONS ON PFD
ATTITUDE
The inertial attitude data is displayed by a sphere
in the middle of the Primary Flight Display (PFD).
1. PITCH SCALE
The aircraft pitch angle is given by the displacement
of the pitch attitude scale (white) through a display
window.
For pitch angles of more than 25 or than - 13, the
guidance symbols and the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA)
are removed.
2. ROLL SCALE
The fixed roll scale (white) comprises roll
graduations.
For roll angles of more than 45 the guidance symbols
and the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) are removed.
3. ROLL INDEX
The roll index (yellow) attached to the sphere moves
along the fixed roll scale and provides the roll data
(Aircraft bank angle).
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ADIRS INDICATIONS ON PFD
4. FLIGHT PATH VECTOR
The flight path vector (green) indicates the actual
aircraft inertial trajectory.
The flight path vector is used as a reference when the
Flight Director (FD) is engaged in TRACK/FLIGHT PATH
ANGLE mode (TRK/FPA).
5. DISCREPANCY
When an attitude discrepancy is detected between the
Captain display and the First Officer display, an amber
CHECK ATT message is displayed on both PFDs associated
with aural and visual ECAM cautions.
The attitude discrepancy threshold is 5.
This discrepancy is detected by comparison of the 2 IRSs
in use within the Flight Warning Computer (FWC).
6. FAILURE
In case of attitude failure, the attitude sphere is
cleared and replaced by an attitude flag (ATT red).
The red ATT flag first flashes then remains steady.
The failure is detected by the associated Air Data
Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU).
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ADIRS INDICATIONS ON PFD
HEADING
The magnetic heading is displayed in the lower section
of the Primary Flight Display (PFD) and with a white
heading scale on the horizon line.
1. HEADING SCALES
Two moving heading scales (white) provide the crew
with heading data.
2. HEADING REFERENCE LINE
A fixed heading reference line (yellow) shows the
actual heading on the lower heading scale.
3. ACTUAL TRACK SYMBOL
The diamond shaped symbol (green) indicates the Actual
Track.
4. TRUE HEADING
TRU (white) indicates that true heading is displayed
instead of magnetic heading (automatically when
latitude above 73 north or below 60 south for polar
navigation).
5. DISCREPANCY
When a heading discrepancy is detected between the
Captain display and the First Officer display, an amber
CHECK HDG message is displayed on both PFDs associated
with aural and visual ECAM cautions.
The heading discrepancy threshold is 5.
This discrepancy is detected by a comparison of the 2 IRs
in use within the Flight Warning Computers (FWC).
6. FAILURE
In case of heading failure, the graduations from the
two scales disappear and are replaced on the lower
scale by the red HDG flag.
The red HDG flag first flashes then remains steady.
The failure is detected by the associated ADIRU.
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ADIRS INDICATIONS ON PFD
AIRSPEED
The Computed Airspeed (CAS),given by the ADR, is
displayed on the left hand side of the PFD.
1. AIRSPEED SCALE
A moving airspeed scale (white) with graduations in
knots provides the crew with airspeed information.
Airspeed display starts/stops at 30 kts. Below 30 kts,
the CAS label is set to NCD (No Computed Data).
The speed scale is graduated from 30 to 520 kts.
2. AIRSPEED REFERENCE LINE
A fixed airspeed reference line (yellow) shows the
actual airspeed on the airspeed scale.
The MACH number (green) is displayed if above 0.5 M
and no ILS selection. It disappears at 0.45 M.
3. FAILURE
In case of airspeed failure, the airspeed scale is
replaced by the red SPD flag.
The red SPD flag first flashes then remains steady.
In case of mach failure, the mach number is replaced
by the red MACH flag.
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ADIRS INDICATIONS ON PFD
VERTICAL SPEED
The inertial Vertical Speed (V/S) is displayed on the
right hand side of the Primary Flight Display.
1. V/S SCALE
A vertical speed scale (white) with graduations in
feet per minute, provides the crew with vertical speed
information.
2. V/S POINTER
A pointer (green) provides the vertical speed in analog
form.
The pointer rotates around a point outside the V/S
scale.
Only the portion of the needle inside the scale is
displayed.
3. NUMERICAL VALUE
Above a V/S threshold, a numerical value (green) in
hundreds of feet per minute comes into view and follows
the pointer.
4. EXCESSIVE V/S
In case of excessive vertical speed, the digital and
analog indications become amber.
Excessive V/S when:
- V/S > 6000 ft/mn or V/s < - 6000 ft/mn,
- V/S < - 2000 ft/mn when 1000 < RA Height < 2500 ft,
- V/S < - 1200 ft/mn below 1000 ft RA Height.
5. DEGRADED DATA
When the inertial vertical speed is not available, the
baro vertical speed is automatically displayed.
An amber box surrounds the numerical value.
6. FAILURE
In case of vertical speed failure, the scale is
replaced by the red V/S flag.
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ADIRS INDICATIONS ON PFD - VERTICAL SPEED T
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ADIRS INDICATIONS ON PFD
ALTITUDE
The Altitude is displayed on the right hand side of
the Primary Flight Display.
1. ALTITUDE SCALE
A moving altitude scale (white) with graduations every
hundred feet provides the crew with altitude
information.
2. ALTITUDE INDICATION
The aircraft altitude is shown in a window (yellow)
by a counter for hundreds of feet and a drum for tens
and units.
3. BARO REFERENCE
The baro reference can be standard (STD), QNH or QFE
(optional)(white) according to the selection made on
the EFIS control panel.
4. DISCREPANCY
When an altitude discrepancy is detected between the
Captain display and the First Officer display, an amber
CHECK ALT message is displayed on both PFDs associated
with aural and visual ECAM cautions.
The Altitude discrepancy threshold is:
- 250 ft with baro selected (QNH or QFE),
- 500 ft with STD selected.
This discrepancy is detected by comparison of the 2
ADRs in use within the Flight Warning Computers (FWC).
5. FAILURE
In case of altitude failure, the altitude scale is
replaced by the red ALT flag.
The red ALT flag first flashes then remains steady.
The failure is detected by the associated ADIRU.
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SELF EXAMINATION
What is displayed if the inertial vertical speed is
not available?
A - A red V/S flag comes on.
B - A degraded V/S data provided by ADR.
C - Nothing.
What information is displayed on the airspeed scale?
A - CAS from ADR.
B - CAS from ADR mixed with inertial speed.
C - CAS from ADR, inertial speed if ADR
failure.
What happens if an altitude failure occurs?
A - The altitude scale goes out of view.
B - A red ALT flag is displayed.
C - A and B.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS INDICATIONS ON ND
CONTENTS:
ROSE Mode
ARC Mode
PLAN Mode
Self Examination
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ADIRS INDICATIONS ON ND
ROSE MODE
The ROSE mode provides a 360 degree sector (compass
rose) around the fixed aircraft symbol (yellow).
1. SPEED
The speed information (green) is displayed in the left
upper corner.
The True Airspeed (TAS) is displayed for speeds higher
than 100 kts.
2. WIND
The wind information (green) is displayed in the left
upper corner showing force and direction.
3. HEADING
The magnetic heading is read on a full rotating dial,
on a fixed lubber line (yellow).
A TRU (white) message is displayed when in true heading
instead of magnetic heading in polar areas.
A diamond shaped symbol (green) indicates the aircraft
actual track.
4. DISCREPANCY
When a heading (HDG) discrepancy occurs between the
Captain and First Officer Navigation Displays (NDs),
an amber CHECK HDG message is displayed on both NDs
associated with aural and visual ECAM cautions.
The heading (HDG) discrepancy threshold is 5.
This discrepancy is detected by comparison of the 2 IRS
in use within the Flight Warning Computer (FWC).
5. FAILURE
When a heading failure is detected, a HDG red flag is
displayed.
The red HDG flag first flashes then remains steady.
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EFFECTIVITY
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ADIRS INDICATIONS ON ND
ARC MODE
The ARC mode provides a 90 degree sector ahead of the
fixed aircraft symbol.
1. SPEED
The speed information (green) is displayed in the left
upper corner.
The True Airspeed (TAS) is displayed for speeds higher
than 100 kts.
2. WIND
The wind information (green) is displayed in the left
upper corner showing force and direction.
3. HEADING
The magnetic heading (white) is read on a partial
rotating dial, on a fixed lubber line.
A TRU (white) message is displayed when in true heading
instead of magnetic heading in polar areas.
A diamond shaped symbol (green) indicates the aircraft
actual track.
4. DISCREPANCY
When a heading (HDG) discrepancy occurs between the
Captain and First Officer Navigation Displays (NDs),
an amber CHECK HDG message is displayed on both NDs
associated with aural and visual ECAM cautions.
The Heading (HDG) discrepancy threshold is 5.
This discrepancy is detected by comparison of the 2 IRs
in use within the Flight Warning Computer (FWC).
5. FAILURE
When a heading failure is detected, a red HDG flag is
displayed.
The red HDG flag first flashes then remains steady.
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EFFECTIVITY
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ADIRS INDICATIONS ON ND
PLAN MODE
The PLAN mode provides a map display centered
automatically on the active waypoint or any other
waypoint of the flight plan after pilot action on the
MCDU.
1. SPEED
The speed information (green) is displayed in the left
upper corner.
The True Airspeed (TAS) is displayed for speeds higher
than 100 kts.
2. WIND
The wind information (green) is displayed in the left
upper corner.
3. HEADING
The map displayed (white) is referenced to north up.
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EFFECTIVITY
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EFFECTIVITY
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SELF EXAMINATION
A heading discrepancy between the NDs is detected
by?
A - FWCs.
B - DMCs.
C - ADIRS.
How is the drift angle indicated?
A - By a diamond shaped symbol rotating on
the heading dial.
B - By the difference between heading
reference and actual track symbol.
C - A or B, according to information
validity.
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS INDICATIONS ON ECAM
DISPLAY UNIT
CONTENTS:
Total Air Temperature/Static Air Temperature
Failure
Switching
Self Examination
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
ADIRS INDICATIONS ON ECAM DISPLAY UNIT
TOTAL AIR TEMPERATURE/STATIC AIR TEMPERATURE
The Total Air Temperature (TAT) (Green) and Static Air
Temperature (SAT) (Green) are permanently displayed.
TAT range: - 60C + 99C,
SAT range: - 99C + 80C.
FAILURE
In case of failure or when no computed data information
is received, the data is replaced by amber crosses.
SWITCHING
Basically, ADR2 provides data.
ADR3 provides data when the AIR DATA switch is set to
First Officer 3 (F/O 3).
Back up data is provided by setting the AIR DATA switch
to the F/O 3 position.
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EFFECTIVITY
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
SELF EXAMINATION
The TAT and SAT data is provided by?
A - ADR1 or ADR3.
B - ADR2 or ADR3.
C - ADR1 or ADR2.
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS
CONTENTS:
General
ADR 1 or 2 Fault
ADR 3 Fault
IR 1 or 2 Fault
IR 3 Fault
Overspeed
Stall Warning
ATT Discrepancy
HDG Discrepancy
ALT Discrepancy
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EFFECTIVITY
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ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS
GENERAL
The ADIRS warning messages are shown on the lower part
of the upper ECAM display unit.
IMPORTANT:
Although the ADIRS warnings are amber, they are
directly computed by the FWC from ADIRU data.
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EFFECTIVITY
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ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS - ADR 1 OR 2 FAULT
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EFFECTIVITY
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ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS - ADR 3 FAULT
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS - IR 1 OR 2 FAULT
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS - IR 3 FAULT
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS - OVERSPEED
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS - STALL WARNING
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS - ATT DISCREPANCY
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS - HDG DISCREPANCY
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EFFECTIVITY
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ADIRS ECAM WARNINGS - ALT DISCREPANCY
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-20-00 STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
Airspeed Indicator
Altimeter
Compass
Horizon Indicator
VOR/DME RMI
Metric Altimeter (Option)
VOR/ADF/DME RMI (Option)
ADF/RMI (Option)
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EFFECTIVITY
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 9FN
LOCATION:
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The standby Airspeed Indicator(ASI) contains a
capsule operated mechanism which measures the
pitot/static pressure differential from the standby
static probes and the standby pitot.
An integral lighting supplied with external 5VAC is
provided to illuminate the instrument.
ALTIMETER
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3FN
LOCATION:
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The standby altimeter is supplied with static pressure
by the standby probes to indicate the barometric
altitude of the aircraft.
An integral lighting with external 5VAC is provided
to illuminate the instrument.
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS - AIRSPEED INDICATOR - ALTIMETER
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS
COMPASS
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 2FN
LOCATION:
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The magnetic compass, installed on the top of the
windshield center part, is an independent instrument
which provides the crew with the aircrafts magnetic
heading.
NOTE: The calibration of the compass must be done after
the radio receivers are switched on.
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS - COMPASS
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS
HORIZON INDICATOR
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 7FN
LOCATION:
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The gyroscopic horizon, installed on the center
instrument panel, is an independent instrument which
provides the crew with a constant indication of the
aircrafts attitude.
VOR/DME RMI
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 11FN
LOCATION:
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The VOR/DME Radio Magnetic Indicator (VOR/DME RMI)
installed on the center instrument panel, uses digital
ARINC 429 type inputs.
It receives parameters from ADIRUs, VORs and DMEs for
the display of:
- Magnetic or true heading,
- VOR bearings,
- DME distances.
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS - HORIZON INDICATOR - VOR/DME RMI
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS
METRIC ALTIMETER (OPTION)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 15FN
LOCATION
ZONE: 211
DESCRIPTION
The metric altimeter is supplied with static pressure
by the standby air data to indicate the barometric
altitude of the aircraft in meters.
An integral lighting with external 5VAC is provided
to illuminate the instrument.
VOR/ADF/DME RMI (OPTION)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 21FN
LOCATION:
ZONE: 211
DESCRIPTION
The VOR/ADF/DME Radio Magnetic Indicator (VOR/ADF/DME
RMI) installed on the center instrument panel, uses
digital ARINC 429 type inputs.
It receives parameters from ADIRUs, VORs, ADFs and
DMEs for the display of:
- Magnetic or true heading,
- VOR bearings,
- ADF bearings,
- DME distances.
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS - METRIC ALTIMETER AND VOR/ADF/DME RMI (OPTIONS)
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS
ADF/RMI (OPTION)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 13FN
LOCATION:
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The ADF Radio Magnetic Indicator (ADF/RMI) installed
on the center instrument panel, uses digital ARINC 429
type inputs.
It receives parameters from ADIRUs and ADFs for the
display of:
- Magnetic or true heading,
- ADF bearings.
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EFFECTIVITY
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STANDBY INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS - ADF/RMI (OPTION)
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
Air Data Module
AOA Sensors
Static Probes
TAT Sensors
Pitot Probes
ADIRS CDU
ADIRUs
VMO/MMO Switch
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ADIRS COMPONENTS
AIR DATA MODULE
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 19FP1, 19FP2, 19FP3, 19FP4
19FP5, 19FP6, 19FP7, 19FP8
LOCATION
ZONE: 121, 125, 126, 127, 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The ADMs are near and above the level of the pitot and
static probes, this to permit the ADM pneumatic
plumbing to be self draining (except stby static line).
AOA SENSORS
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3FP1, 3FP2, 3FP3
LOCATION
ZONE: 127, 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The AOA sensor is of the windvane type.
The sensing element is a small wing, positioned in the
airflow direction, linked to a free turning shaft.
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ADIRS COMPONENTS
STATIC PROBES
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 7DA1, 7DA2, 7DA3
8DA1, 8DA2, 8DA3
LOCATION
ZONE: 121, 122, 127, 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The probes are protected from icing by a heater
circuit.
TAT SENSORS
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 11FP1, 11FP2
LOCATION
ZONE: 121, 122
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
There are 2 sensing elements in each sensor.
The TAT sensors are heated through the Probe Heating
Computer (PHC).
The heating element must not be energized on the
ground.
NOTE: The second sensing element on the TAT 2 sensor
is not used.
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ADIRS COMPONENTS
PITOT PROBES
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 9DA1, 9DA2, 9DA3
LOCATION
ZONE: 125, 126
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The probes are protected from icing by a heater
circuit.
ADIRS CDU
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 2FP
LOCATION
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The ADIRS CDU is located on overhead panel 20VU.
It contains 3 identical connectors, each connector is
linked to one ADIRU.
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ADIRS COMPONENTS
ADIRUs
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 1FP1, 1FP2, 1FP3
LOCATION
ZONE: 127, 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The ADIRU is contained in a 4 MCU case as defined in
ARINC 600.
The ADIRU contains an ADR and an IR portion supplied
by a common power source.
VMO/MMO SWITCH
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 22FP
LOCATION
ZONE: 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
This switch is selected for particular flights with
the landing gear down (Ferry flights for example).
It allows the ADR to determine the normal or alternate
VMO/MMO law.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-36-00 MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
General
ILS Principle
GPS Principle
Components
ILS Indicating
GPS Indicating
Self Examination
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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION
GENERAL
The Multi Mode Receiver (MMR) system is a Navigation
Sensor with 2 internal receivers.
MMR = ILS + GPS
ILS PRINCIPLE
The function of the Instrument Landing System (ILS)
is to provide the crew and airborne system users with
signals transmitted by a ground station.
A descent axis is determined by the intersection of a
Localizer beam (LOC) and a Glide Slope beam (G/S)
created by this ground station at known frequencies.
The ILS allows measurement and display of angular
deviations and receives the Morse audio signal which
identifies the ILS ground station.
ILS operational frequency range:
- LOC: between 108.1 and 111.95 MHz,
- G/S: between 329.15 and 335 MHz.
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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION
GPS PRINCIPLE
The NAVigation System Time And Ranging Global
Positioning System ( NAV.S.T.A.R. GPS ) is a worldwide
navigation radio aid which uses satellite signals to
provide accurate navigation information.
The architecture of the system is composed of 3 parts
called segments:
- Spatial Segment
- Control Segment
- User Segment
SPATIAL SEGMENT
The spatial segment is composed of a constellation of
24 satellites.
These satellites are arranged in six separate orbital
planes of four satellites each on a circular orbit and
have the following characteristics:
- 55 inclination to the Equator,
- an altitude of approx 20200 km with an orbital
period of 12 sideral hours.
These satellites give:
- the satellite position (Ephemeris of the
constellation),
- the constellation data (Almanach).
- the atmospheric corrections.
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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION - GPS PRINCIPLE - SPATIAL SEGMENT
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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION
GPS PRINCIPLE (Continued)
CONTROL SEGMENT
The control segment is composed of four monitor
stations and one master control station which track
the satellites, compute the ephemeris, clock
corrections and control the navigation parameters and
transmit them to the GPS users.
The four monitor stations are located at:
- KWAJALEIN
- HAWAII
- ASCENCION ISLAND
- DIEGO GARCIA
The master control station is located at:
- COLORADO SPRINGS.
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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION
GPS PRINCIPLE (Continued)
USER SEGMENT
The principle of GPS position computation is based on
the measurement of transmission time of the GPS signals
broadcast by at least 4 satellites.
This segment is constitued by the GPS receiver and
defined as follows:
- signal acquisition,
- distance calculation,
- navigation computation (Satellite choice,
positioning, propagation corrections),
- detection and isolation of failed satellites
(GPS PRIMARY).
NOTE: When GPS mode is active, no VOR/DME/ADF data is
used for navigation.
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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION
COMPONENTS
The components are two ILS antennas, 2 GPS antennas
and two MMR units.
The MMR system is also connected to:
- Primary Flight Display (PFD) and Navigation
Display (ND) for display.
- Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
control unit for display control.
- Flight Management and Guidance Computer (FMGC)
for ILS auto-tuning and GPS position.
- Multipurpose Control Display Units (MCDU) for
ILS manual tuning.
- Captain and First Officer Radio Management
Panels (RMP) for ILS back-up tuning.
- Audio Control Panels (ACP) for ILS audio
signal.
- Air Data and Inertial Reference Unit for
GPIR data.
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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION - COMPONENTS
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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION
ILS INDICATING
The ILS data appears on the PFD as soon as the ILS
pushbutton switch on the EFIS control panel has been
pressed in and on the ND when ROSE/ILS mode has been
selected.
ILS information is displayed in magenta.
The ILS1 information is displayed on PFD1 and ND2.
The ILS2 information is displayed on PFD2 and ND1.
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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION - ILS INDICATING
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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION
GPS INDICATING
The GPS data is displayed on the MCDUs and on the NDs.
- GPS data on MCDU (GPS MONITOR page):
* GPS position (Lat, Long)
* True Track
* GPS altitude
* Figure of Merit
* Ground Speed
* Number of satellites tracked
* Mode.
- GPS message on ND:
* Availability of the GPS Primary navigation function.
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SELF EXAMINATION
The satellite orbital planes have an inclination of:
A - 60.
B - 55 to the Equator.
C - 45 to the Equator.
The control segment is composed of:
A - 3 monitor stations.
B - 5 monitor stations.
C - 4 monitor stations and one master
control station.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-36-00 MMR DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
CONTENTS:
General
ILS Function
GPS Function
LGCIU
CFDIU
Users
Indicating
Self Examination
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MMR DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
GENERAL
The Multi Mode Receiver (MMR) system includes:
- 2 MMR units,
- 1 Glide Slope (G/S) antenna,
- 1 Localizer (LOC) antenna,
- 2 GPS antennas.
ILS FUNCTION
AUTO TUNING
In normal operation, each Flight Management and
Guidance Computer (FMGC) automaticaLly tunes its
ownside ILS part (Port A) of the MMR unit through its
ownside Radio Management Panel (RMP).
If an FMGC failure occurs, a discrete (A/B switching)
changes the tuning port (Port B) of the MMR unit, which
is directly connected to the opposite FMGC.
MANUAL TUNING
From each Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU)
both MMR units can be manually tuned through their
ownside FMGC.
NOTE: To return to the auto tuning mode, the manual
mode has to be cleared.
BACK-UP TUNING
In case of failure of both FMGCs, a back-up tuning is
provided by RMP 1 and 2.
Either RMP controls both MMR units, if STBY NAV mode
is activated on RMP 1 and 2 (RMP 3 not used for navaids
tuning).
In emergency electrical configuration RMP 1 only is supplied.
ANTENNAS
The Glide Slope (G/S) and Localizer (LOC) antennas are
common to both MMR units. Each antenna has two independent
connectors, for each MMR units.
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MMR DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
GPS FUNCTION
GPS OPERATION
The Global Positioning System (GPS) function is
achieved by a stand alone satellite navigation sensor
using the U.S GPS satellites constellation.
The GPS primary function is to track the RF signals
received from the satellites and compute its own
position and output the GPS data to the 3 ADIRUs.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) or
Autonomous Integrity Monitored Extrapolation (AIME)
provide integrity and availability of this data.
The GPS provides three dimensional aircraft position,
velocities and exact time used for hybrid computations
by the 3 ADIRUs.
In case of failure of one GPS, the ADIRU automatically
selects the only operative GPS to compute hybrid GPIR
data.
ANTENNAS
The GPS antenna is an L-band active antenna, with an
integrated preamplifier and filter, providing an
omnidirectional upper hemispheric coverage.
The GPS antenna operates at a frequency of 1575.42 Mhz
called L1.
A second frequency of 1227.6 Mhz, called L2, is used
to estimate the propagation error of L1 and to suppress
it.
ADIRU
To reduce initialization time, MMR unit 1 and 2 receive
position data (lat, long), time and date from the
associated ADIRU.
In case of failure of ADIRU2 the primary source of
ADIRU3 being GPS1, it is necessary to select the second
input port of ADIRU3 (GPS2) by means of the ATT/HDG
switching to preserve the side 1/side 2 segregation.
- MMR1/ADIRU1/FMGC1,
- MMR2/ADIRU3/FMGC2.
FMGC
The IR portion of ADIRU1 or 2 provides FMGC1 or 2 with
pure IR data, pure GPS data and hybrid GPIR data for
position fixing.
The FMGC position is a mix of the hybrid GPS/IRS
position and the mixed IR position.
NOTE: As long as GPS/IRS mode is active, radio updating
DME/DME or VOR/DME is not allowed.
LGCIU
Each Landing Gear Control Interface Unit (LGCIU) sends
a Ground/Flight discrete signal which is used by the
receiver BITE module to count the flight legs in case
of CFDIU failure.
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MMR DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
CFDIU
The Centralized Fault Display Interface Unit (CFDIU)
enables tests and trouble shooting to be carried out
on the MMR system using the MCDU.
The test can be done only on ground.
USERS
The MMR data is sent to the FMGCs for aircraft guidance
during take off, approach and landing phases.
The MMR data is also sent to the ECAM for warnings.
The MMR 1 data is send to the Ground Proximity Warning
System (GPWS) for mode 5 computation (Descent below GS).
NOTE: A discrete signal sent by the FMGC inhibits any
frequency change in the MMR unit when LAND mode
is armed below 700 ft.
INDICATING
The ILS 1 data is sent, through the Display Management
Computers (DMCs), to the CAPT PFD and F/O ND and the
ILS 2 data is sent to the F/O PFD and CAPT ND.
An audio signal is also processed by the MMR unit (ILS
part) and sent to the Audio Management Unit (AMU) so
that it can be heard by the crew.
Pure GPS data is available for display only on the GPS
MONITOR page of the MCDUs. Operational messages may
also be displayed on the NDs.
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
SELF EXAMINATION
Which ILS receiver provides the Ground Proximity
Warning Computer with data?
A - ILS 2 receiver.
B - ILS 1 receiver.
C - ILS 1 and ILS 2 receivers.
Where is ILS 2 data displayed?
A - On Capt ND and F/O PFD.
B - On Capt PFD and F/O ND.
C - On F/O PFD and F/O ND.
The primary source of ADIRU3 is:
A - GPS2.
B - GPS1.
C - GPS1 and 2.
The IR portion of the ADIRU provides the FMGC with:
A - IR data, pure GPS data and hybrid GPIR
data.
B - VOR/DME data.
C - only GPS data.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-36-00 MMR INDICATIONS ON PFD
CONTENTS:
ILS Pushbutton
ILS Characteristics
Vertical Deviation
Lateral Deviation
Flags
Self Examination
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR INDICATIONS ON PFD
ILS PUSHBUTTON
The ILS data is displayed on the PFD if the ILS
pushbutton is switched on the Electronic Flight
Instrument System (EFIS) control panel.
ILS CHARACTERISTICS
The ILS characteristics are displayed in magenta in
the bottom left corner of the PFD.
The ILS identification is displayed after decoding by
the ILS receiver.
An amber ILS message flashes when APPR mode has been
armed and ILS display not selected.
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MMR INDICATIONS ON PFD - ILS PUSHBUTTON AND CHARACTERISTICS
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR INDICATIONS ON PFD
VERTICAL DEVIATION
The vertical deviation index (magenta) is associated
with the Glide/Slope (G/S) beam reception.
The vertical scale and the vertical index flash when
the deviation is excessive.
When the deviation is out of range, the vertical index
is against one stop and only its outer half remains
in view.
LATERAL DEVIATION
The lateral deviation index (magenta) is associated
with the Localizer (LOC) beam reception.
The lateral scale and the lateral index flash when the
deviation is excessive.
When the deviation is out of range, the lateral index
is against one stop and only its outer half remains
in view.
The ILS course is represented by a magenta course
pointer on the heading scale.
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR INDICATIONS ON PFD - VERTICAL AND LATERAL DEVIATION T
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR INDICATIONS ON PFD
FLAGS
In case of failure, a corresponding flag is shown in
red:
- if a LOC or G/S receiver fails, a red LOC or
G/S flag appears on the corresponding deviation
scale.
- if both LOC and G/S signals have failed, an
ILS 1 (or 2) flag is also displayed.
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR INDICATIONS ON PFD - FLAGS T
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
SELF EXAMINATION
When do the G/S and LOC scales appear on the PFD?
A - When the ILS pushbutton is selected.
B - When G/S and LOC beams are received.
C - A and B.
When does the lateral deviation scale flash?
A - When the LOCALIZER receiver is faulty.
B - When the deviation is excessive.
C - When the aircraft is out of range.
When does the red ILS flag appear?
A - When both LOC and G/S signals have
failed.
B - When ILS frequency is not available.
C - When the ILS is not selected on the FCU.
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
34 - NAVIGATION
34-36-00 MMR INDICATIONS ON ND
CONTENTS:
ILS Data
GPS Data
Self Examination
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
MMR INDICATIONS ON ND
ILS DATA
DATA DISPLAY
All the indications are displayed in ROSE-ILS mode.
Only the ILS course pointer (magenta) is displayed in
ROSE-NAV or ARC mode if the ILS pushbutton is selected
on EFIS control panel.
ILS CHARACTERISTICS
In ROSE-ILS mode, the ILS characteristics are displayed
in magenta, in the top right corner of the ND.
The ILS identification is displayed after decoding by
the ILS receiver.
The ILS information is crossed over on the NDs (ILS 1
on ND 2; ILS 2 on ND 1).
A green ILS APP message appears on the top middle of
the ND when an ILS approach has been selected on the
MCDU.
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR INDICATIONS ON ND - ILS DATA - DATA AND ILS CHARACTERISTICS
EFFECTIVITY
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
MMR INDICATIONS ON ND
ILS DATA
VERTICAL DEVIATION
The vertical deviation index (magenta) is associated
with the Glide/Slope (G/S) beam reception.
The vertical scale (white) and the vertical index (G/S)
flash when the deviation is excessive.
When the deviation is out of range, the vertical index
is against one stop and only its outer half remains
in view.
LATERAL DEVIATION
The lateral deviation bar (magenta) is associated with
the Localizer (LOC) beam reception.
The lateral scale (white) and the lateral bar (LOC)
flash if the deviation is excessive.
The lateral bar, corresponding to the center part of
the ILS course pointer (magenta), can move on the
deviation scale and gives the Localizer deviation.
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR INDICATIONS ON ND - ILS DATA - VERTICAL AND LATERAL DEVIATIONS T
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
MMR INDICATIONS ON ND
ILS DATA
FLAGS
In ROSE-ILS mode, if a failure occurs, a corresponding
flag is displayed in red.
In case of ILS failure, the ILS course pointer becomes
red and points to 12 oclock and the lateral bar is
removed.
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR INDICATIONS ON ND - ILS DATA - FLAGS T
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
MMR INDICATIONS ON ND
GPS DATA
GPS data indications are displayed in all ND modes.
A green GPS APP message appears on the top middle of
the ND when a GPS approach has been selected in the
MCDU.
When, for any reason, the GPS primary navigation is
lost, the navigation function is degraded and reverts
to traditional navigation function (IRS, Radio Nav
...). An amber GPS PRIMARY LOST message is also
displayed at the bottom of the ND. In turn when the
GPS is used by the FMGC for navigation, the GPS PRIMARY
message is displayed in white at the bottom of the ND.
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MMR INDICATIONS ON ND - GPS DATA
EFFECTIVITY
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Page 199
EFFECTIVITY
ALL
SELF EXAMINATION
What is displayed in ROSE-NAV mode when the ILS
pushbutton is selected on the EFIS control panel?
A - An ILS course pointer.
B - A lateral deviation bar.
C - A and B.
How is the excessive deviation displayed on
vertical scale?
A - The Glide/Slope index disappears.
B - A red "G/S" symbol appears in the middle
of the scale.
C - The Glide/Slope index and the scale
flash permanently.
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EFFECTIVITY
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-36-00 MMR COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
MMR Unit
Glide/Slope Antenna
Localizer Antenna
GPS Antenna
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR COMPONENTS
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Before working on the ILS antennas, put a warning
notice in the cockpit, on the pedestal, to tell persons
not to operate the radar system.
MMR UNIT
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 40RT1, 40RT2
LOCATION
ZONE: 120
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The front face of the MMR unit is fitted with four
LEDs and a TEST pushbutton.
When the TEST pushbutton is pressed in, the functional
test starts, the 4 LEDS come on.
If the test is OK, the green TEST OK LED comes on, the
other LEDs should go off when the TEST pushbutton is
released.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 connector.
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MMR COMPONENTS - MMR UNIT
EFFECTIVITY
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
MMR COMPONENTS
GLIDE/SLOPE ANTENNA
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 4RT
LOCATION
ZONE: 110
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The Glide/Slope (G/S) antenna is a folded half loop
type driven by capacitance coupling.
The G/S antenna is horizontally polarized and has an
impedance of 50 ohms.
The antenna has two independent RF connectors used to
feed two independent ILS receivers.
LOCALIZER ANTENNA
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3RT
LOCATION
ZONE: 110
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The Localizer (LOC) antenna is a folded half loop type
driven by capacitance coupling.
The LOC antenna is horizontally polarized and has an
impedance of 50 ohms.
The antenna has two independent RF connectors used to
feed two independent ILS receivers.
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR COMPONENTS - GLIDE/SLOPE AND LOCALIZER ANTENNAS T
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
GPS ANTENNA
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 43RT1, 43RT2
LOCATION
ZONE: 210
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The GPS antenna is an active antenna with an integrated
preamplifier and filter and has a right hand circular
polarized and omnidirectional radiation pattern.
A 50 ohm impedance coaxial cable connects the antenna
to the MMR.
The power supply of the preamplifier is provided by
the MMR unit.
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EFFECTIVITY
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MMR COMPONENTS - GPS ANTENNA T
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
34 - NAVIGATION
34-41-00 WR/PWS SYSTEM PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
General
Weather Radar (WR) Principle
Predictive Windshear (PWS) Principle (Option)
Components
WR Indicating
PWS Indicating (Option)
Self Examination
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EFFECTIVITY
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WR/PWS SYSTEM PRESENTATION
GENERAL
The Airborne Weather Radar and Predictive Windshear
System (WR/PWS) detects and localizes atmospheric
disturbances and windshear events in the area scanned
by the antenna.
Note: The PWS (Predictive Windshear System) function
is optional.
WEATHER RADAR (WR) PRINCIPLE
The WR helps the pilots to avoid these areas and the
associated turbulences by determining their range and
bearing.
It can also be used for ground mapping.
The radar emits microwave pulses through a directive
antenna which picks up the return signals.
The distance is determined by the time taken for the
echo to return.
The azimuth is given by the antenna position when the
echo is received.
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EFFECTIVITY
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WR/PWS SYSTEM PRESENTATION - WEATHER RADAR (WR) PRINCIPLE
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PREDICTIVE WINDSHEAR (PWS) PRINCIPLE (OPTION)
A windshear event is a sudden change of wind speed
and/or direction over a small distance due to downwards
and/or upwards movement of the air.
The most critical moment for the aircraft is near the
ground level during the approach or in take-off.
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COMPONENTS
The main components are an antenna, a wave guide, a
transceiver and a control unit.
The WR/PWS system is also connected to the Navigation
Displays (NDs) via the DMCs for display.
Note: The control panels shown here after are given
as examples. They may differ according to your
aircraft configuration.
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WR INDICATING
The Weather Radar image is shown on the Captain and
First Officer Navigation Displays.
Radar image and radar information status (TILT, GAIN,
failure) are displayed in the different EFIS modes
(ARC and ROSE) except in PLAN mode.
PWS INDICATING (OPTION)
The Predictive Windshear indications are shown on the
Captain and F/O PFDs and NDs.
The windshear phenomenon is indicated by an icon
superimposed on the radar image in the different EFIS
modes (ARC and ROSE) except in PLAN mode.
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Windshear indications are shown:
A - Only on the NDs.
B - On the PFDs and the NDs.
C - On the Upper ECAM DU.
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CONTENTS:
General
System Description
System Interfaces
Indicating
Self Examination
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GENERAL
The Weather Radar and Predictive Windshear System
(WR/PWS) is composed of:
- 1 control unit,
- 1 transceiver (WR/PWS),
- 1 antenna,
- 1 wave guide.
Note: The PWS function is optional.
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
CONTROL UNIT
The Control Unit provides modes of operation, antenna
tilt and gain of the receiver digitized information,
via an ARINC 429 bus.
An ON/OFF discrete ensures the energization of the
transceiver which in turn supplies the control unit
and the antenna.
Two other discrete signals enable:
- the windshear function (through AUTO/OFF
switch)
- BITE management, sent to the CFDIU.
TRANSCEIVER
The Weather Radar uses the principle of radio echoing
to detect the level of precipitation, the ground map,
and the principle of Doppler effect to detect the
turbulence areas.
The transmitter operates in X-Band frequency at 9345
MHz.
The PWS function also uses the principle of Doppler
effect to detect windshear events.
Horizontal and vertical wind velocity, gravity and
aircraft true airspeed are the different windshear
components for the determination of the windshear
threshold.
ANTENNA
The Weather Radar antenna is energized and controlled
in azimuth and elevation by the transceiver.
The radio frequency signals are exchanged between the
transceiver and the antenna, via a wave guide.
The antenna scans a 180 sector in azimuth and has a
tilt coverage of + or - 15.
An internal circuit of the transceiver ensures antenna
stabilization.
The stabilization data is: pitch and roll angles,
selected tilt, antenna azimuth and elevation angle.
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SYSTEM INTERFACES
ADIRUs
The WR receives, from Air Data and Inertial Reference
Units (ADIRUs) one and three, pitch and roll data, for
the stabilization and control of the antenna, and
ground speed for Doppler mode correction.
The ADIRU, which provides data, is selected by means
of the ATT/HDG selector switch.
The PWS function receives data from ADIRU 1 and 3 for
velocity calculations:
- TAS, Altitude (or corrected altitude), EW and
NS velocity GS, TRK angle, TRUE HDG and MAG
HDG.
LGCIU
The Landing Gear Control Interface Unit (LGCIU) sends
Flight/Ground information to the transceiver.
This discrete signal is used by the receiver BITE
module to count the flight legs.
In windshear condition, a landing gear extended signal
is used in order to determine the transition from the
landing mode to the take-off mode.
CFDIU
The Multipurpose Control and Display Units (MCDUs)
allow the system to be tested via the Centralized Fault
Display Interface Unit (CFDIU).
The test is only available on ground.
During the test, the antenna carries out an elevation
and an azimuth scanning sequence.
QUALIFIERS A AND B SIGNALS
Two types of qualifier inputs are required to prevent
automatic activation of the windshear function.
- Qualifier A: 2 qualifiers are used (QA1 and QA2).
Provided by the ATC/TCAS control unit, which
indicates the position of the AUTO/ON/STBY switch.
Qualifier A is valid when AUTO or ON is selected.
- Qualifier B: 2 qualifiers are used (QB1 and QB2).
Provided by EIU 1 and 2, which indicates a normal
engine oil pressure.
Qualifier B is valid when the engine is running
(high oil pressure).
The Windshear function is automatically activated
below 2300ft RA and at least one of the two qualifier
inputs, of both qualifiers A and B, has to be valid.
RA
The Radio Altimeter provides altitude information
through an ARINC 429 bus.
This data is used for automatic activation of the
windshear function.
AUDIO INHIBIT SIGNALS
These discretes are used to indicate whether the aural
alert output has to be active or not.
- predictive windshear aural alerts (discrete
input) inhibited by stall warning,
- predictive windshear discrete output is used
to inhibit aural alerts generated by TCAS or
GPWS or other FWC warnings.
AUDIO MIXING BOX
An analog audio output allows the transmission of the
aural alert windshear to an audio mixing box connected
to loudspeakers.
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SYSTEM INTERFACES (Contd)
EGPWS
The Enhanced GPWS receives Predictive Windshear alerts
from the radar hazard bus to determine the priorities.
Alert Priorities:
- WR/PWS warning,
- WR/PWS caution,
- GPWS Terrain warning,
- GPWS Terrain caution.
INDICATING
The Weather Radar transceiver is connected to the DMCs
by means of two ARINC 453 buses.
Each data cable is terminated at one end by a low
inductance resistor (68 ohms) to avoid a signal return.
The Weather Radar image is shown on the CAPT and F/O
NDs when ROSE or ARC mode is selected on the EFIS
control panel.
The Windshear events are shown on the CAPT and F/O NDs
and all visual alerts on the CAPT and F/O PFDs.
NOTE: When both EFIS control panels are in PLAN mode,
the WR/PWS transceiver is de-energized.
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Which component controls antenna stabilization?
A - ADIRU.
B - Transceiver.
C - Antenna.
Which data is used for antenna stabilization?
A - Pitch and roll.
B - Selected tilt angle, antenna azimuth
angle and elevation angle.
C - A and B.
When is the Windshear function automatically
activated?
A - Below 2300ft and one of the two
qualifier inputs, of both qualifiers A
and B, is valid.
B - Always when a windshear event is
encountered.
C - When the AUTO/ON/STBY selector on the
ATC/TCAS Control Unit is in STBY
position.
The Predictive Windshear discrete output is used to:
A - Inhibit the windshear function.
B - Inhibit aural alerts generated by TCAS
or GPWS or other FWC warnings.
C - Transmit the aural alert to the Audio
Mixing Box.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-41-00 WR/PWS CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS
CONTENTS:
Control Panel
Control Panel With Split Function (Option)
WR Failure Messages
PWS Indications (Option)
PWS Alert Levels (Option)
Self Examination
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CONTROL PANEL
OFF/SYS/ON SYSTEM SWITCH
When the system switch is set to ON, the Weather Radar
system is energized and operates if at least one ND
is set to ROSE or ARC mode.
NOTE: The operative radar transceiver is de-energized
when both EFIS selectors are in PLAN mode.
GAIN KNOB
The GAIN Knob permits receiver sensitivity adjustment
in the different modes.
In AUTO position, the optimum setting is automatically
adjusted.
Clockwise rotation of the GAIN knob (manual gain
setting) adjusts the sensitivity to the MAX position.
When not in AUTO mode, MAN is displayed in green in
the right lower corner on the NDs except in case of
failure or system TEST.
MODE SELECTOR
1 - WX Position
When the mode selector is in the WX position, the radar
is in normal mode of operation and the colors on the
NDs depend on the intensity of the precipitation.
Precipitation rate and related color echoes
(P: precipitation rate):
- P < 1 mm/h: Black.
- 1 < P < 4 mm/h: Green.
- 4 < P < 12 mm/h: Yellow.
- P > 12 mm/h: Red.
2 - WX/TURB position
This mode corresponds to operation in weather and
turbulence detection.
The turbulence detection is limited to the first 40 NM
from the A/C, beyond, the turbulence is displayed in
the conventional colors as in WX mode.
The turbulence areas are displayed in magenta on the
NDs (P > 5 mm/s).
3 - MAP position
The MAP mode is useful for back-up navigation, to
display mountains, cities, coast lines or land/water
boundaries.
The colors on the NDs depend on the ground map:
- Mountains and cities: Amber.
- Ground: Green.
- Calm water: Black.
NOTE: A manual gain control is recommended when in MAP
mode.
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CONTROL PANEL (CONTD)
TILT KNOB
The TILT knob allows manual control of the antenna
elevation. The antenna elevation angle can be adjusted
in 1/4 degree steps within a range of - 15 up to +
15.
NOTE: TILT information is displayed in cyan in the
right lower corner of the NDs except in case of
failure or system TEST.
NOTE: During a windshear detection event, the TILT
antenna is automatically controlled. However,
the TILT displayed on the NDs corresponds to the
control panel setting.
WINDSHEAR SWITCH (OPTION)
The WINDSHEAR AUTO/OFF switch enables the
activation/deactivation of the predictive windshear
function.
When in AUTO position the predictive windshear
detection is automatically activated below 2500ft
whatever the OFF/SYS/ON system switch position.
The predictive windshear function detection can
operate either with weather radar modes activated or
independently.
A dedicated windshear icon is superimposed on the radar
image, displayed on the NDs, when the phenomena is
detected.
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CONTROL PANEL WITH SPLIT FUNCTION (OPTION)
1/OFF/2 SYSTEM SWITCH
This three stable position switch enables the
activation of the transceiver 1 or 2 (if installed).
When the switch is set to 1 or 2, the selected weather
radar system is energized and operates if at least one
ND is set to ROSE or ARC mode.
MODE SELECTORS
Two mode selector switches are available. The left one
is dedicated to the CAPT and the right one to the F/O.
1 - WX Position:
When the mode selector is in the WX position, the radar
is in normal mode of operation and the colors on the
NDs depend on the intensity of the precipitation.
Precipitation rate and related color echoes
(P: precipitation rate):
- P < 1 mm/h: Black.
- 1 < P < 4 mm/h: Green.
- 4 < P < 12 mm/h: Yellow.
- P > 12 mm/h: Red.
2 - WX/TURB position:
This mode corresponds to operation in weather and
turbulence detection.
The turbulence detection is limited to the first 40 NM
from the A/C, beyond, the turbulence is displayed in
the conventional colors as in WX mode.
The turbulence areas are displayed in magenta on the
NDs (P > 5 mm/s).
TILT KNOBS
Two TILT knobs are available. The left one is dedicated
to the CAPT and the right one to the F/O.
The TILT knobs allow manual control of the antenna
elevation.
The antenna elevation angle can be adjusted in 1/4 degree
steps within a range of - 15 up to + 15.
NOTE: TILT information is displayed in cyan in the
right lower corner of the NDs except in case of
failure or system TEST.
NOTE: During a windshear detection event, the TILT
antenna is automatically controlled. However,
the TILTs displayed on the NDs correspond to the
control panel settings.
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CONTROL PANEL WITH SPLIT FUNCTION (OPTION) (CONTD)
CAPT/BOTH/FO SWITCH (OPTION)
1 - BOTH POSITION:
The CAPT and the F/O can operate separately the control
panels using their associated controls. Thus, two
different weather radar images, with different
settings, can be displayed on the CAPT and F/O NDs.
Each scan of the weather radar alternately refreshes
the CAPT and the F/O displays.
2 - CAPT Position:
The weather radar image with the CAPT setting is
displayed on both NDs.
3 - F/O Position:
The weather radar image with the F/O setting is
displayed on both NDs.
NOTE: Below 2500ft the switch must be set to CAPT or
F/O position in order to keep an appropriate
refresh rate of the radar image in case of
windshear event detection.
WINDSHEAR SWITCH (OPTION)
The WINDSHEAR AUTO/OFF switch enables the
activation/deactivation of the predictive windshear
function.
When in AUTO position the predictive windshear
detection is automatically activated below 2500 ft
whatever the 1/OFF/2 system switch position.
The predictive windshear function detection can
operate either with weather radar modes activated or
independently.
A dedicated windshear icon is superimposed on the radar
image, displayed on the NDs, when the phenomena is
detected.
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WR FAILURE MESSAGES
Two types of failures are likely to affect the radar
system:
- Failures which result in a loss of radar image,
displayed in red (loss of a radar system
component).
- Failures which affect the radar image,
displayed in amber (loss of a function).
EXAMPLE: Transceiver failure red message: WXR T/R
(Red) appears in the right lower corner of
the ND.
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WR/PWS CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS
PWS INDICATIONS (OPTION)
The windshear information is presented on the NDs only
in the 10NM range.
If not in this range and a windshear alert is generated,
the message:
- W/S: SET RNG 10 NM is shown on the NDs.
When a windshear fault occurs, the radar image remains
available if the fault does not affect the radar modes
or detection function.
When a fault is detected amber PRED W/S message appears
on the NDs if:
- A/C on ground or flap/slat lever not in 0
position.
- WINDSHEAR AUTO/OFF switch on W/R control
panel in AUTO position.
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WR/PWS CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS
PWS ALERT LEVELS (OPTION)
There are three alert levels defined in function of
event seriousness and distance from the aircraft.
Visual and aural warnings are provided in function of
the level detected.
- LEVEL 3: between 50ft and 1200ft (Warning Alert)
* Aural warning message: GO AROUND WINDSHEAR
AHEAD (Approach), WINDSHEAR AHEAD WINDSHEAR
AHEAD (Take-Off)
* Visual warning: red W/S AHEAD message on PFD.
- LEVEL 2: between 50ft and 1200ft (Caution Alert)
* Aural warning message: MONITOR RADAR DISPLAY
* Visual warning: amber W/S AHEAD message on
PFD.
- LEVEL 1: No windshear advisory above 1500ft.
No aural or visual warnings only the windshear icon
superimposed on the radar image.
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SELF EXAMINATION
In which mode is the manual gain adjustment
recommended?
A - In any mode.
B - In MAP mode.
C - In WX/TURB mode.
Can a radar image be displayed in PLAN mode?
A - Yes.
B - No.
Does an amber warning mean the loss of radar image?
A - Yes.
B - No.
When the radar system switch is in OFF position?
A - The predictive windshear function is not
activated.
B - The predictive windshear function is
active until the WINDSHEAR/AUTO/OFF is
in the AUTO position.
B - The predictive windshear function is
always available.
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CONTENTS:
Special Precautions
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WR/PWS OPERATIONAL PRECAUTIONS
TRAINING INFORMATION POINT
SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS
Some special precautions must be taken before using
the weather radar system on the ground in MAP, WX or
WINDSHEAR mode.
- The dangerous zone forward of the aircraft must be
free of metallic obstacles such as hangars or aircraft,
within 5 meters in an arc of + or - 90 on either side
of the aircraft centerline.
- Make sure that nobody is within a distance of 1.5
meters from the antenna, in an arc of + or - 135 on
either side of the aircraft centerline.
- The system must not be operated during the refueling
of the aircraft or during any refueling operation
within 100 meters.
NOTE: Although the power radiated by the system is
low, the above written safety precautions should
be observed for obvious routine reasons
(behaviour with respect to other types of radar
systems).
To avoid radiating danger, and nuisance aural
alerts the WINDSHEAR AUTO/OFF selector switch
must be selected OFF independently of the radar
selector switch.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-41-00 WR/PWS COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
WR/PWS Transceiver
WR/PWS Mounting Tray
WR/PWS Antenna
WR/PWS Control Unit
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WR/PWS COMPONENTS
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Move the radar antenna assembly carefully to prevent
injury to persons and damage to equipment (approximate
weight: 15kg (33lb)).
Note: The PWS function is optional.
WR/PWS TRANSCEIVER
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 1SQ1
LOCATION
ZONE: 121
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The face of the transceiver is fitted with a TEST
pushbutton and a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) on the
front of the transceiver.
The back is equipped with an ARINC 600 size connector
including the wave guide insert.
When the TEST pushbutton is pressed, a test sequence
is started, RADAR OK and INPUT OK appear at the end
when no faults have been detected.
WR/PWS MOUNTING TRAY
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 9SQ
LOCATION
ZONE: 121
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The WR transceiver is cooled by the avionics
ventilation system. The wave guide switch ensures
switching of the RF signal from the antenna to the
transceiver in the case of dual weather radar
installation.
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WR/PWS COMPONENTS
WR/PWS ANTENNA
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 7SQ (Antenna Drive)
FIN: 11SQ (Antenna Plate)
LOCATION
ZONE: 110
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The antenna movements are ensured by 2DC motors and
the angular positions are copied by synchros.
Two switches for Azimuth (AZ) and Elevation (EL) are
installed on the antenna drive.
They are normally mechanically locked in the ON
position.
When in OFF position, the command of the corresponding
motor is cancelled.
NOTE: A position indicator for the elevation axis (+ or
-45) is used to check the antenna drive
calibration with AZ switch in OFF position.
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WR/PWS COMPONENTS
WR/PWS CONTROL UNIT
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3SQ
LOCATION
ZONE: 210
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The gain and tilt data are digitized by an 8 bit analog
to digital converter.
Moreover, the different positions of the mode selector
switch and the data, from the potentiometer, are
formatted to ARINC 429 words.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-42-00 RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM
PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
Principle
Components
Indicating
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RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM PRESENTATION
PRINCIPLE
The Radio Altimeter (RA) System determines the height
of the aircraft above the terrain during initial climb,
approach and landing phases.
The RA can therefore operate over non-flat ground
surface.
The principle of the radio altimeter is to transmit a
frequency modulated signal, from the aircraft to the
ground, and to receive the ground reflected signal
after a certain delay.
The time between the transmission and the reception
of the RA signal is proportional to the A/C height.
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RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM PRESENTATION - PRINCIPLE
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RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM PRESENTATION
COMPONENTS
The components are two transceivers, two fans, two
transmission antennae and two reception antennae.
The RA system is also connected to the DMCs for display
on the Primary Flight Displays (PFDs).
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RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM PRESENTATION - COMPONENTS
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RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM PRESENTATION
INDICATING
The aircraft height data is displayed on the Primary
Flight Displays for heights less than or equal to 2500
ft.
The altitude is also shown by means of:
- A ground line rising on to the pitch down area
(Below 300 ft).
- A red ribbon next to the altitude scale
(Below 500 ft).
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RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM PRESENTATION - INDICATING
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-42-00 RADIO ALTIMETER
DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
CONTENTS:
General
Transceiver
Antennae
Fan
Indicating
Users
EIU
LGCIU
CFDIU
Self Examination
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RADIO ALTIMETER DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
GENERAL
The Radio Altimeter (RA) system consists of two
independent systems comprising :
- Two transceivers with associated mounts and
fans,
- Two transmission antennae,
- Two reception antennae.
TRANSCEIVER
The RA transceiver measures the radio height of the
aircraft in relation to the ground.
The transceiver operates in a frequency range of 4200
to 4400 Mhz.
ANTENNAE
The RA system includes two identical transmission and
reception antennae.
The operating range of the antenna according to the
aircraft attitude is limited to + or - 30 degree for
pitch and roll.
FAN
Each RA transceiver is cooled by an associated fan,
attached under the transceiver mount.
A capacitor is mounted on the fan case in order to
suppress the parasites.
INDICATING
In normal operation, RA 1 provides the radio height
to the Captain Primary Flight Display (PFD) and RA 2
to the First Officer PFD through the Display Management
Computers (DMCs).
In case of one transceiver failure the DMC
automatically switches to the other one.
The radio height information appears on the PFDs when
less than or equal to 2500 ft.
USERS
The RA information is sent to various systems through
ARINC 429 buses.
- EGPWS for terrain warnings,
- FMGCs for processing data,
- FWCs for call out indications and warnings,
- ELACs for integration into various flight
parameters.
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RADIO ALTIMETER DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
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RADIO ALTIMETER DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
EIU
The Engine Interface Unit (EIU) 1(2) sends a ground
discrete to the RA 1(2) to inhibit the test on ground
when the associated engine is operating.
N2 rating > minimum idle rating.
LGCIU
The Landing Gear Control Interface Unit (LGCIU)
provides the flight/ground information which is used
by the receiver BITE module to count the flight legs.
CFDIU
The Multipurpose Control and Display Units (MCDUs)
allow the systems to be tested via the Centralized
Fault Display and Interface Unit (CFDIU).
The tests are only available on ground.
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SELF EXAMINATION
In normal operation, how is the height data
provided ?
A - By system 1 to Capt PFD and F/O PFD
B - By system 2 to CAPT PFD and F/O PFD
C - By system 1 to CAPT PFD and by system 2
to F/O PFD
What happens if Radio Altimeter 1 fails ?
A - RA 2 provides data to the EGPWC.
B - FMGC 1 provides data to the EGPWC.
C - The EGPWC no longer receives Radio
Altitude.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-42-00 RA INDICATIONS ON PFD AND
AUTOMATIC CALL OUT
CONTENTS:
Decision Height (DH)
Radio Height
Analog Indication
Rising Runway Indicating
Failure
Automatic Call Out
Self Examination
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RA INDICATIONS ON PFD AND AUTOMATIC CALL OUT
DECISION HEIGHT (DH)
After the selection made by the pilot on the
Multipurpose Control Display Unit (MCDU), the Decision
Height (DH) data is displayed in the fourth column of
the Flight Mode Annunciator as soon as Radio Altimeters
operate.
When the radio height reaches the Decision Height (DH),
an amber DH message flashes then remains steady.
RADIO HEIGHT
The radio height is displayed at the bottom of the
attitude sphere for heights less than 2500 feet.
The indication accuracy is in function of the height.
- H > 50 ft: 10 ft increments,
- 5 ft < H <= 50 ft: 5 ft increments,
- H <= 5 ft: 1 ft increments.
ANALOG INDICATION
A red ribbon is displayed on the right of the altitude
scale representing the field elevation.
This red ribbon is displayed below 570 ft.
On ground the top of the ribbon is on the middle of
the altitude window.
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RA INDICATIONS ON PFD AND AUTOMATIC CALL OUT
RISING RUNWAY INDICATING
In the final phase of an approach, below 150 feet, the
white lower limit of the attitude sphere moves up as
the aircraft approaches the ground.
This lower limit line covers the graduations of the
pitch scale when it moves up.
FAILURE
When the slat/flap lever is not at zero, if both Radio
Altimeters fail, a red RA flag is shown in place of
the radio height information.
Independently of slat/flap position, with failure of
both RA, the red ribbon indication goes out of view
and the white lower limit line remains in its position.
AUTOMATIC CALL OUT
Below 400 feet, the radio altitude is announced by a
synthetic voice,generated by the Flight Warning
Computer (FWC).
The altitude call out corresponds to predetermined
thresholds selected by pin programming listed
hereafter:
- 400: four hundred
- 300: Three hundred
- 200: two hundred
- 100: one hundred
- 50: fifty
- 40: forty
- 30: thirty
- 20: twenty
- 10: ten
- 5: five
- DH + 100: hundred above
- DH: minimum
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SELF EXAMINATION
With DH of 100ft entered on the MCDU, when will the
radio altitude indication become amber?
A - At 100 ft.
B - At 200 ft.
C - At 400 ft.
When does the red RA flag appear on the PFD?
A - When one RA fails.
A - When both RAs fail and the slats are
extended.
A - When both RAs fail below 2500ft.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-42-00 RADIO ALTIMETER COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
RA Transceivers
RA Fans
RA Antennae
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RADIO ALTIMETER COMPONENTS
RA TRANSCEIVERS
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 2SA1, 2SA2
LOCATION
ZONE: 152
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The face of the transceiver is fitted with a TEST p/b,
a TEST connector and four LEDS.
When the TEST p/b is pressed in, the four LEDs come
on.
If the test is OK, the four LEDs go off when the TEST
p/b is released out.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 electrical
connector.
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RA COMPONENTS - TRANSCEIVERS
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RADIO ALTIMETER COMPONENTS
RA FANS
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3SA1, 3SA2
LOCATION
ZONE: 152
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The six-blade fan is integral with a removal base plate
attached under the transceiver mount. It is contained
in a square aluminium alloy case. It is supplied with
115VAC through the electrical circuit of the associated
transceiver.
Parasites are suppressed by a capacitor mounted on the
fan.
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RA COMPONENTS - FANS
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RADIO ALTIMETER COMPONENTS
RA ANTENNAE
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: - Reception : 5SA1, 5SA2
- Transmission : 6SA1, 6SA2
LOCATION
ZONE: 153
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The transmission and the reception antennae are
identical.
The small thickeners antenna is installed on the
aircrafts skin.
Each antenna is supplied through a coaxial connector
linked to the transceiver.
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RA COMPONENTS - ANTENNAE
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-43-00 TCAS PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
Principle
Components
Indicating
Self Examination
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TCAS PRESENTATION
PRINCIPLE
The Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is a
system whose function is to detect and display aircraft
in the immediate vicinity and to provide the flight
crew with indications to avoid these intruders.
The TCAS indications for flight plan modifications are
in the vertical plane only.
The TCAS detects the air traffic control system or
TCAS equipped aircraft and maintains surveillance
within a range determined by its sensivity.
To evaluate threat potential of other aircraft the
system divides the space around aircraft into 4
volumes.
- OTHER TRAFFIC VOLUME.
The OTHER TRAFFIC VOLUME is the first volume providing
the presence and the progress of on intruder.
(No collision threat).
- PROXIMATE TRAFFIC VOLUME.
The proximate traffic volume is defined by a given
volume around the TCAS equipped aircraft.
(No collision threat, but in vicinity).
- TRAFFIC ADVISORY VOLUME (TA).
When the intruder is relatively near but does not
represent an immediate threat, the TCAS provides an
aural and visual information known as Traffic Advisory
(TA).
The TCAS aural messages can be inhibited depending on
higher priority aural messages.
- RESOLUTION ADVISORY VOLUME (RA).
When the intruder represents a collision threat, the
TCAS triggers an aural and visual alarm known as
Resolution Advisory (RA), which informs the crew about
avoidance maneuvers.
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TCAS PRESENTATION - PRINCIPLE
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TCAS PRESENTATION
COMPONENTS
The TCAS components are two antennae, one TCAS computer
and one TCAS/ATC control panel.
Note: The TCAS/ATC control panels shown here after are
given as examples. They may differ according to
the aircraft configuration.
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TCAS PRESENTATION - COMPONENTS
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TCAS PRESENTATION
INDICATING
The TCAS indications appear on the PFD and the ND.
The visual resolution and traffic advisory indications
are associated with aural indications such as "TRAFFIC,
TRAFFIC", "CLIMB, CLIMB"...
The TCAS displays only the most threatening intruders.
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TCAS PRESENTATION - INDICATING
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SELF EXAMINATION
Which aircraft are detected by the TCAS ?
A - All.
B - Only ATC Mode S equipped A/C.
C - ATC equipped A/C.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-43-00 TCAS DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
CONTENTS:
General
Antennae
Control Panel
Computer
ATC
Radio Altimeter
ADIRU
CFDIU
LGCIU
Indicating
Inhibition
Pin Programming
DATA Loader
Self Exination
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TCAS DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
GENERAL
The Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
includes:
- 1 control unit (common with ATC system),
- 1 computer,
- 2 antennae (1 top and 1 bottom).
ANTENNAE
The TCAS directional antennae provide azimuth
information on aircraft located within the TCAS
surveillance range.
They transmit at 1030 MHz and receive at 1090 MHz.
The phase and amplitude of the received signal depend
on the direction of the signal source which permits
the relative bearing of the transmitting aircraft to
be determined.
CONTROL PANEL
The operating modes of the TCAS are selected on a
common TCAS/ATC control panel.
The TCAS information is transmitted to the TCAS
computer via the ATC transponder.
COMPUTER
The TCAS computer ensures two main functions:
- a transmission/reception function for intruder
acquisition,
- a processing function for operation control.
(Digital, discrete and analog types interfaces,
intruder trajectory computation and tracking, visual
and aural alert commands).
ATC
The operative ATC Mode S transponder transmits response
to ATC ground station interrogations and data to the
TCAS.
(Baro altitude, TCAS mode from control panel, TCAS
broadcast messages).
The Mode S transponder permits communication between
the TCAS and a TCAS equipped and detected aircraft
through the communication link function for exchanging
coordination messages.
RADIO ALTIMETER
The Radio Altimeter (RA) provide radio height used as
reference to determine the computation sensitivity
level and triggers the inhibit orders.
The radio height is used in the 0 to 2500Ft range.
ADIRU
The IR part ADIRU provides the magnetic heading and
the pitch and roll attitude information to the TCAS
computer.
NOTE:
The Baro altitude is transmitted via the ATC
transponder.
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TCAS DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
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TCAS DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
CFDIU
The Centralized Fault Display Interface Unit (CFDIU)
allows testing and trouble-shooting of the TCAS through
the MCDU.
The tests are only available on ground.
LGCIU
The Landing Gear Control and Interface Unit (LGCIU)
provides a flight ground signal used by the BITE module
for flight leg counting.
It provides also a landing gear extended signal for
TCAS operation.
INDICATING
Visual indications are presented on the NDs and PFDs.
The NDs present the location of intruders in the
traffic area.
The PFDs present the avoidance maneuver indications
on the vertical speed scale.
The FWCs monitor the validity of the information.
Synthesized voice announcements generated by the TCAS
computer and broadcast by the loudspeakers accompany
the visual indications.
INHIBITION
Various discrete signals are used for inhibition by
equipment with higher priority than the TCAS.
These priorities are:
- windshear
- stall
- EGPWS messages
Consequently Traffic Advisory (TA) mode is selected
and the voice announcements are cancelled (Master
Warning P/B switch).
PIN PROGRAMMING
Some pin programs define the operating mode of the
TCAS.
Operating mode:
- audio level output,
- all traffic/threat traffic display,
- ground display mode (TA mode),
- number of intruders displayed, (8 maximum),
- aircraft altitude limit (48000Ft).
DATA LOADER
It will be possible to load software data into the
TCAS computer by means of a DATA loader.
The remote loading capability is linked by 2 ARINC 429
low speed buses to a dedicated connector in the
aircraft.
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SELF EXAMINATION
The TCAS/ATC control panel controls:
A - ATC transponders and TCAS computer
directly.
B - ATC transponders directly and TCAS
computer through the ATC transponders.
C - TCAS computer directly and ATC
transponders through the TCAS computer.
The TCAS receives heading, pitch and roll data from:
A - ADIRU 1.
B - ADIRU 1 or 3 according to AIR DATA
switch status.
C - Selected ATC transponder.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-43-00 TCAS CONTROL PANEL D/O
CONTENTS:
COLLINS Control Panel
SEXTANT ControL Panel
GABLES Control Panel
Self Examination
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TCAS CONTROL PANEL D/O
COLLINS CONTROL PANEL
GENERAL
The purpose of this module is to understand the use
of the various controls of the TCAS part of the
TCAS/ATC control panel.
MODE SELECTOR
The TCAS mode of operation is selected by means of a
rotary mode selector.
- STBY and XPDR position:
The advisory generation and surveillance functions are
inhibited.
- TA position:
This mode provides only traffic advisories, it doesnt
generate any resolution advisories.
- TA/RA position:
This is the normal operating mode, it provides the
preventive and the corrective advisories in order to
avoid conflicts with other aircraft.
-TFC position:
This mode provides all traffic indications of all
aircraft in the other, proximate, TA and RA volumes
(8 maximum).
ABOVE/N/BELOW SWITCHES
The TCAS surveillance envelope is expanded above or
below the TCAS equipped aircraft whatever the mode
selected (TA-TA/RA-TFC).
-ABOVE position:
From -2700 ft to +9900 ft.
-N (normal position):
From -2700 ft to +2700 ft.
-BELOW position:
From +2700 ft to -9900 ft.
INOP SWITCHES
The functions under INOP placards are reserved for a
future use.
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TCAS CONTROL PANEL D/O - COLLINS
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TCAS CONTROL PANEL D/O
SEXTANT CONTROL PANEL
STBY/TA/TA/RA MODE SELECTOR
The TCAS mode of operation is selected by means of a
rotary mode selector.
- STBY position:
The advisory generation and surveillance functions are
inhibited.
- TA position:
This mode provides only traffic advisories, it doesnt
generate any resolution advisories.
- TA/RA position:
This is the normal operating mode, it provides the
preventive and the corrective advisories in order to
avoid conflicts with other aircraft.
THRT/ALL/ABV/BLW MODE SELECTOR
Two other types of targets for TCAS traffic can be
selected by means of a rotary mode selector.
- THRT position:
The THRT function (THREAT TRAFFIC), defined as
PROXIMATE traffic, is conditioned by the presence of
a TA or RA intruder.
- ALL position:
The ALL function, defined as OTHER traffic, provides
all intruders that do not enter in the proximate, TA
and RA categories.
The TCAS surveillance envelope is expanded above or
below the TCAS equipped aircraft for Traffic Advisory.
-ABV position:
From -2700 ft to +9900 ft.
-BLW position:
From +2700 ft to -9900 ft.
In normal operation (non selection of ABV or BLW), the
vertical surveillance taken into account is between
+/- 2700ft.
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TCAS CONTROL PANEL D/O - SEXTANT
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TCAS CONTROL PANEL D/O
GABLES CONTROL PANEL
TCAS MODE SELECTOR
The TCAS mode of operation is selected by means of a
rotary mode selector.
-OFF position:
TCAS advisory generation and surveillance functions
are inhibited
- TA position:
The TCAS computer is fully operational but provides
only traffic advisories, it doesnt generate any
resolution advisories. TA intruders are displayed on
the NDs.
- TA/RA position:
This is the normal operating mode, it provides the
preventive and the corrective advisories in order to
avoid conflicts with other aircraft.
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TCAS CONTROL PANEL D/O - GABLES
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With mode selector in TA position:
A - Only traffic advisories are provided.
B - All traffic indications are provided.
C - No TCAS information is provided.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-43-00 TCAS INDICATIONS ON PFD AND
AURAL ALERTS
CONTENTS:
General
Preventive Resolution Advisory
Corrective Resolution Advisory
Aural Alerts
V/S Failure
TCAS Failure
Self Examination
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TCAS INDICATIONS ON PFD AND AURAL ALERTS
GENERAL
The PFD presents indications on the Vertical Speed
(V/S) scale, only in case of Resolution Advisories
(RA) detection.
The indications, given in the form of red or green
partially colored sectors, advise the crew of the
action necessary to resolve the conflict.
PREVENTIVE RESOLUTION ADVISORY
A preventive resolution advisory informs the crew to
avoid certain deviations from current vertical speed.
It can be represented by one or two red sectors on the
V/S scale.
CORRECTIVE RESOLUTION ADVISORY
A corrective resolution advisory informs the crew to
perform a vertical avoidance maneuver.
The grey background of the V/S scale is totally
replaced by red/green sectors.
The V/S indications (Digital value and needle) are in
the colour of the corresponding sector.
AURAL ALERTS
Trajectory correction or holding visual orders are
accompanied by synthesized voice announcements
generated by the TCAS computer, whose level can be
adjusted by the crew.
- PREVENTIVE RESOLUTION ADVISORY
"TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC" (Only in case of TA detection)
"MONITOR VERTICAL SPEED, MONITOR VERTICAL SPEED"
- CORRECTIVE RESOLUTION ADVISORY
"CLIMB, CLIMB, CLIMB"
"CLIMB, CROSSING CLIMB, CLIMB, CROSSING CLIMB"
"REDUCE CLIMB, REDUCE CLIMB"
"INCREASE CLIMB, INCREASE CLIMB"
"CLIMB, CLIMB NOW, CLIMB, CLIMB NOW"
"DESCEND, DESCEND, DESCEND"
"DESCEND, CROSSING DESCENT, DESCEND, CROSSING DESCENT"
"REDUCE DESCENT, REDUCE DESCENT"
"INCREASE DESCENT, INCREASE DESCENT"
"DESCEND, DESCEND NOW, DESCEND, DESCEND NOW"
- AIRCRAFT SEPARATION HAS BEEN ACHIEVED:
"CLEAR OF CONFLICT"
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TCAS INDICATIONS ON PFD AND AURAL ALERTS - PREVENTIVE AND CORRECTIVE ADVISORIES
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TCAS INDICATIONS ON PFD AND AURAL ALERTS
V/S FAILURE
In case of vertical speed indication failure, a red
V/S flag appears.
TCAS information, if any, are presented without V/S
indications.
TCAS FAILURE
In case of TCAS failure, a red TCAS flag is displayed
when the system cannot deliver Resolution Advisories
(RA) data.
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TCAS INDICATIONS ON PFD AND AURAL ALERTS - FAILURES
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The PFD presents TCAS indications:
A - On the V/S scale in case of TA and RA
detection.
B - On the SPEED scale as Preventive
Advisoriy.
C - On the V/S scale only in case of RA
detection.
The colour of the V/S indications change to:
A - red when in presence of a corrective RA
detection
B - green when a in presence of corrective
RA detection
C - red or green when in presence of a
corrective RA detection depending on the
sector band in which they are.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-43-00 TCAS INDICATIONS ON ND
CONTENTS
Display Conditions
Intruder
No Bearing Intruder
Messages
Self Examination
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TCAS INDICATIONS ON ND
DISPLAY CONDITIONS
The ND presents traffic indication using different
symbols corresponding to the type of intruders
These indications are displayed only in ROSE and ARC
modes, and ONLY in the 10, 20 and 40 NM range.
NOTE: If the PLAN mode is selected, a message informs
the crew to change mode.
INTRUDER
The intruders are displayed with range, bearing,
reative altitude and vertical speed tendancy depending
on the setting of the mode selector on the TCAS/ATC
control panel.
Only the eight most threatening intruders are
displayed.
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TCAS INDICATIONS ON ND - INTRUDER TYPE
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TCAS INDICATIONS ON ND
NO BEARING INTRUDER
The TCAS can detect an intruder not equipped with TCAS
without acquiring its bearing.
Its characteristics are displayed on the lower part
of the ND.
Only the two most threatening intruders are displayed,
the most dangerous is displayed on the left side.
MESSAGES
Different type of messages can be displayed:
- Mode and Range messages,
- TCAS operations and failure messages.
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TCAS INDICATIONS ON ND - NO BEARING INTRUDER AND TCAS MESSAGES
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SELF EXAMINATION
A RA is represented on the ND with:
A - a red square
B - A red circle
C - a white filled diamond shape.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-43-00 TCAS COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
TCAS Computer (Collins)
TCAS Computer (Honeywell)
TCAS Computer (Bendix)
TCAS Antennae
TCAS Control Panel (Collins)
TCAS Control Panel (Sextant)
TCAS Control Panel (Gables)
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TCAS COMPONENTS
TCAS COMPUTER (COLLINS)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 1SG
LOCATION
ZONE: 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The front face of the computer is fitted with 9 LEDs
and a TEST pushbutton.
When the TEST pushbutton is pressed in, the 9 LEDs
come on.
If the test is OK, the LEDs should go off when the
TEST pushbutton is released out.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 electrical
connector.
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TCAS COMPONENTS
TCAS COMPUTER (HONEYWELL)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 1SG
LOCATION
ZONE: 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The front face of the computer is fitted with 11 LEDs
and a TEST pushbutton.
When the TEST pushbutton is pressed in, the 11 LEDs
come on (lAMP Test first then SELF-TEST).
If the test is OK, the LEDs should go off.
The TEST can be repeated until a maximun of 10 flight
legs have been displayed.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 electrical
connector.
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TCAS COMPONENTS
TCAS COMPUTER (BENDIX)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 1SG
LOCATION
ZONE: 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The front face of the computer is fitted with a data
loading connector which enables data to be loaded from
a portable data loader.
The front face is also fitted with a test connector.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 electrical
connector.
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TCAS COMPONENTS
TCAS ANTENNAE
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 7SG1, 7SG2
LOCATION
ZONE: 230, 130
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The TCAS directional antennae are composed of four
passive and independent vertically-polarized
elements.
A teflon gasket is located between the fuselage and
the base of the antenna in order to facilitate the
removal of the antenna.
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TCAS COMPONENTS - ANTENNAE
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TCAS COMPONENTS
TCAS CONTROL PANEL (COLLINS)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3SH
LOCATION
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The processor of the TCAS/ATC control panel controls
the ATC and TCAS function via an ARINC 429 bus.
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TCAS COMPONENTS - CONTROL PANEL (COLLINS)
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TCAS COMPONENTS
TCAS CONTROL PANEL (SEXTANT)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3SH
LOCATION
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The processor of the TCAS/ATC control panel controls
the ATC and TCAS function via an ARINC 429 bus.
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TCAS COMPONENTS - CONTROL PANEL (SEXTANT)
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TCAS COMPONENTS
TCAS CONTROL PANEL (BENDIX)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3SH
LOCATION
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The processor of the TCAS/ATC control panel controls
the ATC and TCAS function via an ARINC 429 bus.
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TCAS COMPONENTS - CONTROL PANEL (BENDIX)
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-48-00 ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY
WARNING SYSTEM PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
General
Principle
Components
Indicating
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ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM PRESENTATION
GENERAL
The Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS)
is built over the current GPWS.
- EGPWS = GPWS + "ENHANCED" functions.
PRINCIPLE
The purpose of the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning
System (EGPWS) is to help prevent accidents caused by
Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT).
When boundaries of any alerting envelope are exceeded;
aural alert messages, visual annunciations and
displays are generated.
The basic GPWS modes generate aural and visual warnings
corresponding to an aircraft behaviour when the alert
envelope is penetrated.
The "ENHANCED" features complete the basic GPWS modes:
- Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF): Increase the
terrain clearance envelope around the airport
runway.
- Terrain Awareness alerting and Display (TAD):
Incorporation of a terrain database to predict
conflict between flight path and terrain and
to display the conflicting terrain.
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ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM PRESENTATION
COMPONENTS
The system comprises an EGPWC, a control panel, two
warning lights and two TERRAIN ON ND mode pushbutton
switches.
The EGPWS is connected to various navigation systems
(WR, RA, ADIRS, ILS...).
It processes the navigation data and generates alarms.
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ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM PRESENTATION
INDICATING
The basic GPWS modes generate visual warnings through
associated lights and synthetic warnings through the
loudspeakers.
The "ENHANCED" GPWS functions allow the terrain hazards
to be displayed on the Navigation Display (ND).
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CONTENTS:
General
Digital Inputs
Digital Outputs
Enhanced Function
EGPWS Controls
Aural Warnings
Visual Warnings
FWC
LGCIU
Self Examination
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EGPWS DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
GENERAL
The Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS)
consists of:
- 1 computer,
- 2 GPWS / G/S pushbutton with integral lights,
- 1 GPWS control panel,
- 2 TERRAIN ON ND pushbuttons.
DIGITAL INPUTS
The EGPWS receives ARINC 429 data inputs from the
navigation sensors in order to monitor the aircraft
position with respect to the terrain and provide audio
and visual warnings when in hazardous situation.
DIGITAL OUTPUTS
An ARINC 429 transmitter provides a maintenance output
data bus.
This output bus is used by the CFDIU for maintenance
purposes and by the Aircraft Integrated Data System
(AIDS) for the Data Management Unit (DMU).
ENHANCED FUNCTION
The EGPWC outputs a display of terrain data in ARINC
453 data bus format to the DMCs.
The terrain data is displayed on the ND automatically
in place of the radar image when a Terrain Caution or
Warning is detected or any time by using the TERR ON
ND pushbutton.
The EGPWS receives the Predictive Windshear (PWS)
alerts from the weather radar hazard bus to determine
the priority. The PWS has priority over EGPWS modes.
EGPWS CONTROLS
Various pushbuttons allow the crew to control the
actions of the EGPWS.
When pressed in, on the GPWS control panel:
- The TERR p/b (white legend) inhibits the
terrain awareness.
- The SYS p/b (white legend) inhibits all the
GPWS warnings (mode 1 to 5).
- The G/S MODE p/b (white legend) inhibits the
glide/slope mode (mode 5).
- The FLAP MODE p/b (white legend) inhibits flap
abnormal condition input (mode 4) and generates
the green "GPWS FLAP MODE OFF" message on the
ECAM MEMO page (EWD).
- The LDG FLAP 3 p/b (white legend) selects the
landing FLAP 3 position and generates the green
"GPWS FLAP 3" message on the ECAM MEMO page
(EWD).
When pressed in the GPWS / G/S p/b, on the instrument
panels, has two functions:
- The GPWS / G/S p/b sends a ground signal to
trigger the self test sequence (available on
ground or above 2000 ft Above Ground Level:
AGL),
- or cancels the glide/slope aural and visual
warnings when triggered.
When the TERRAIN ON ND p/b is pressed in, on the center
instrument panel, the green ON legend comes on to
indicate that terrain data is displayed on the ND.
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EGPWS DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
AURAL WARNINGS
The audio output is used to broadcast aural warning
messages which identify the activated mode.
The ECAM control panel sends an audio suppression
signal, when the EMERG CANCEL p/b is pressed, to the
EGPWC in order to momentarily cancel the EGPWS
warnings.
VISUAL WARNINGS
In hazardous flight configurations or system failures
the EGPWC provides discretes for the illumination of
warning legends.
Five discretes control the warning legends:
- One for red GPWS legends, for ground proximity
warning (mode 1 to 4) and for Terrain Caution
and Warning Alert.
- One for amber G/S legends, for Glide/Slope
advisory alert (mode 5).
- Two monitor outputs for the amber FAULT legends
on the SYS and TERR p/b of the GPWS control
panel.
These discretes are also sent to the System
Data Acquisition Concentrators (SDACs) to
generate the ECAM "GPWS FAULT" and "GPWS TERR
DET FAULT" warning messages.
- One monitor output for the availability of the
terrain mode.In case of FMS low accuracy a
green TERR STBY is sent through the SDACs to
the ECAM MEMO page (EWD).
FWC
The Flight Warning Computers (FWCs) send a discrete
to the EGPWC to inhibit all warnings when a stall or
windshear warning is triggered.
The EGPWC sends two discretes to the FWCs and the TCAS
in order to inhibit auto call out and low speed warnings
and change TCAS mode from Resolution Advisory (RA) to
Traffic Advisory (TA) when the GPWS or G/S warnings
are in progress.
These discretes are also used by the Digital Flight
Data Recorder (DFDR).
LGCIU
The Landing Gear Control Interface Unit sends a
flight/ground discrete signal to the EGPWC BITE mode
to count the flight legs.
This discrete is also used for Mode 4 (Unsafe Terrain
Clearance).
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SELF EXAMINATION
What happens to the EGPWS when the stall warning is
triggered?
A - All modes are inhibited.
B - Mode 4 is inhibited.
C - Mode 5 is inhibited.
What happens when the G/S p/b is pressed in on the
GPWS control panel?
A - The Glide/Slope mode is inhibited.
B - Only Glide/Slope mode is valid.
C - The self test sequence is initiated.
What happens when the TERR ON ND p/b is pressed in?
A - The ND displays the terrain image.
B - The terrain image is superposed with the
radar image on the ND.
C - The radar image is present until a
terrain caution or warning is detected.
The EGPWS has priority over:
A - All systems.
B - Auto call out, low speed warning and
TCAS.
C - Stall and windshear.
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CONTENTS:
General
Warning Modes
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
Mode 4
Mode 5
Terrain Awareness And Display (TAD)(JAA & FAA)
Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF)
Self Examination
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EGPWS MODES
GENERAL
The Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS)
computes and compares the aircraft behaviour with a
predermined envelope.
WARNING MODES
When the warning envelope is penetrated, visual and
aural warnings are generated.
The aural messages are broadcast through the cockpit
loudspeakers and visual warnings are indicated by the
GPWS / G/S pushbutton lights and the GPWS control
panel.
A terrain image is displayed on the ND.
NOTE: A number of airports through the world have
approaches or departures which are not entirely
compatible with the standard GPWS operation.
These airports are identified in the data base,
the GPWS recognizes them and modifies the profile
and triggers the warning in accordance.
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EGPWS MODES
MODE 1
Mode 1 provides an alert warning for high descent rates
into terrain and for rapidly increasing sink rates
near the runway when landing.
The SINK RATE voice message changes into PULL UP when
the aircraft reaches the inner boundary.
These alerts will continue until the boundary
penetration is corrected.
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EGPWS MODES
MODE 2
Mode 2 provides a warning based on the radio height
and on how rapidly the radio height decreases.
Mode 2A: Landing flaps not down and not in the glide
slope beam (TERRAIN, TERRAIN).
Mode 2B: Landing flaps down or in the glide slope beam
within +/- 2 dots of deviation (ILS approach) (PULL
UP).
When in landing configuration the voice message will
only be "TERRAIN" until the barometric altitude
increases by 300 ft.
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MODE 3
Mode 3 provides a warning for excessive altitude loss
after take-off, climb or during a go-around (DONT
SINK).
This mode is based on radio height, altitude (inertial,
barometric or computed altitude) and altitude rate
(IVS computed altitude rate or barometric altitude
rate).
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MODE 4
Mode 4 generates warnings based on the radio height,
computed airspeed and aircraft configuration.
TOO LOW TERRAIN is broadcast when the aircraft is below
1000 ft with landing gear retracted and/or flaps not
in landing configuration.
TOO LOW GEAR or TOO LOW FLAPS are broadcast depending
on the aircraft configuration (gear up or down, flaps
extended or retracted, aircraft speed in relation to
the radio height).
NOTE: The TOO LOW GEAR message has priority over the
TOO LOW FLAPS message.
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MODE 5
Mode 5 provides warnings when the aircraft flight path
descends below the Glide/Slope beam during ILS
approaches.
The amplitude of the GLIDE SLOPE voice message and the
repetition rate are increased when closing to the
ground.
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TERRAIN AWARENESS AND DISPLAY (TAD)(JAA & FAA)
When a terrain threat forward of the aircraft path is
detected, with respect to the aircraft position and
the local terrain database, caution and warning alerts
are triggered.
When the envelope boundaries are met the following
alerts are generated:
- Terrain Caution Alert: "TERRAIN AHEAD" is
broadcast (JAA).
- Terrain Caution Alert: "CAUTION TERRAIN,
CAUTION TERRAIN" is broadcast (FAA).
- Terrain Warning Alert: "TERRAIN AHEAD, PULL
UP" is broadcast (JAA).
- Terrain Warning Alert: "TERRAIN, TERRAIN, PULL
UP" is broadcast (FAA).
These alerts are completed by a terrain image on the
NDs:
- Red area for warnings.
- Yellow area for cautions.
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TERRAIN CLEARANCE FLOOR (TCF)
The Terrain Clearance Floor is an increasing terrain
clearance enveloppe around the airport runway to
provide protection against Controlled Flight Into
Terrain (CFIT).
The TCF alert function complements the existing Mode
4. When TCF alert envelope is penetrated "TOO LOW
TERRAIN" is broadcast.
It is based on current A/C position, nearest runway
center point position and Radio Altitude.
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SELF EXAMINATION
If the voice message "TERRAIN, TERRAIN" is heard,
in which mode and configuration are you?
A - In mode 2A, with flaps down or in the
glide slope beam.
B - In mode 2B, with flaps down or in the
glide slope beam.
C - In mode 2A, with flaps not down and not
in the glide slope beam.
Which synthetic voice is broadcast in case of an
excessive rate of descent?
A - SINK RATE.
B - TERRAIN TERRAIN.
C - GLIDE SLOPE.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-48-00 EGPWS INDICATIONS ON ND
CONTENTS:
General
Background Display
Terrain Caution Alert
Terrain Warning Alert
Self Examination
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EGPWS INDICATIONS ON ND
GENERAL
The Terrain Awareness alerting and Display (TAD)
function displays the background terrain and terrain
alerts, forward of the aircraft, in the ROSE and ARC
mode navigation displays.
BACKGROUND DISPLAY
The background terrain display is depicted as variable
density dot patterns in green, yellow or red depending
on how close the terrain is relative to aircraft
altitude.
NOTE: Terrain is not shown if more than 2000 feet below
the reference altitude and if the terrain
elevation is within 400 ft of the runway
elevation nearest the aircraft.
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EGPWS INDICATIONS ON ND - BACKGROUND DISPLAY T
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EGPWS INDICATIONS ON ND
TERRAIN CAUTION ALERT
When the conditions of terrain caution alerts are met,
the background image is enhanced to highlight the
terrain caution threats by coloring them in solid
yellow.
TERRAIN WARNING ALERT
When the conditions of terrain warning alerts are met,
the background image is enhanced to highlight the
terrain warning threats by coloring them in solid red
(caution threats are also available).
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EFFECTIVITY
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EGPWS INDICATIONS ON ND - TERRAIN CAUTION AND WARNING ALERTS
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A yellow high density indication means that:
A - An unknown terrain is being overflown.
B - Terrain is between 1000 ft and 2000 ft
above A/C altitude.
C - There is no close terrain.
When a Terrain Warning Alert is triggered:
A - The red GPWS warning comes on with
"TERRAIN ALERT" alert caution.
B - "TERRAIN ALERT, PULL UP" alert warning
is heard continuously associated with a
red GPWS warning and the red "TERR
AHEAD" message on ND.
C - the amber G/S warning comes on with a
cyan "TERR" message on ND.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-48-00 EGPWS COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
EGPWC
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EGPWS COMPONENTS
EGPWC
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 1WZ
LOCATION
ZONE: 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
Behind the latched door, the computer is fitted with:
- a self test switch
- a headphone jack
- an RS232 test connector for a CRT or a PC
- a PCMCIA interface for uploading or downloading
internal EGPWC information.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 connector.
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EGPWS COMPONENTS - COMPUTER
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-51-00 DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
Principle
Components
Indicating
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DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION
PRINCIPLE
The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) provides
digital readout of the aircraft slant range distance
from a selected ground station.
The system generates interrogation pulses from an
onboard interrogator and sends them to a selected
ground station.
After a 50 micro seconds delay, the ground station
replies.
The interrogator determines the distance in Nautical
Miles (NM) between the station and the aircraft.
The interrogator detects the Morse audio signal which
identifies the ground station.
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DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION - PRINCIPLE
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DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION
COMPONENTS
The components are two antennae and two interrogators.
The DME system is also connected to:
- Primary Flight Displays (PFD), Navigation
Displays (ND) and Digital Distance Radio
Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI) for display.
- Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
control unit for display control.
- Flight Management and Guidance Computers (FMGC)
for tuning (manual and auto).
- Captain and F/O Radio Management Panels (RMP)
for back-up tuning.
- Audio Control Panels (ACPs) for DME audio
signal.
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DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION - COMPONENTS
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DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION
INDICATING
The DME distance is shown on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD) (if ILS/DME) and on the Navigation Display (ND)
(if VOR/DME).
The DME distance is also shown on the two windows of
the Digital Distance Radio Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI).
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DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION - INDICATING
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-51-00 DME DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
CONTENTS:
General
Auto Tuning
Manual Tuning
Back Up Tuning
Antenna
Users
Suppressor
AMU
LGCIU
Indicating
CFDIU
Self Examination
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DME DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
GENERAL
The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Sytem includes:
- 2 DME Interrogators,
- 2 DME Antennae.
AUTO TUNING
In normal operation each Flight Management Guidance
Computer (FMGC) automatically tunes its ownside DME
interrogator through its ownside Radio Management
Panel (RMP) via port A.
When the FMGC fails, the DME receives a discrete signal
through the RMP to automatically select port B.
With failure of one FMGC the other FMGC can control
the DME interrogators, one directly, the other through
its RMP.
MANUAL TUNING
From each Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU)
both DMEs can be manually tuned through their ownside
FMGC (via port A).
BACK UP TUNING
In case of dual FMGC failure the RMPs enable BACK-UP
tuning.
ANTENNA
The DME antenna transmits the DME interrogation and
receives the reply from the selected ground station.
The DME antenna operates within the low band from 962
to 1213 Mhz (1025 to 1150 Mhz for interrogation and
962 to 1213 Mhz for reply).
USERS
The DME data is sent to the FMGCs for radio distance
computation.
SUPPRESSOR
The DME and the Air Traffic Control (ATC) operate in
the same frequency range.
A suppressor coaxial between the ATC transponders and
DME interrogators is necessary to prevent simultaneous
transmission and to interrupt reception of the other
systems.
AMU
The DME audio signals are transmitted to the Audio
Management Unit (AMU) and then dispatched to the
headsets and/or loudspeakers.
The pilot can adjust the volume of the DME ground
station by pressing the VOR pushbutton on the Audio
Control Panel (ACP) or the ILS pushbutton in case of
collocated ILS/DME (if ILS mode is selected on EFIS
CTL Panel).
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DME DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
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EFFECTIVITY
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DME DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
LGCIU
Each Landing Gear Control Interface Unit (LGCIU) sends
a discrete signal to the associated DME interrogator.
This is a Ground/Flight information used by the
receiver BITE module to count the flight legs.
INDICATING
DME data is sent to the Navigation Displays (NDs) and
the Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) through the Display
Management Computers (DMCs) and directly to the Digital
Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI).
CFDIU
The MCDUs allow the systems to be tested and trouble
shooting to be performed via the Centralized Fault
Display Interface Unit (CFDIU).
The tests are only available on ground.
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EFFECTIVITY
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SELF EXAMINATION
What is the suppressor coaxial between DME and ATC
used for ?
A - To inhibit DME operation.
B - To prevent simultaneous transmission and
to interrupt reception of the other
systems.
C - To prevent simultaneous transmission and
to inhibit the transmission of the other
systems.
Where is the DME 1 information displayed ?
A - On CAPT PFD and F/O PFD.
B - On CAPT PFD, CAPT and F/O ND and DDRMI.
C - On CAPT F/O PFD and ND.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-51-00 DME INDICATIONS ON PFD AND ND
CONTENTS:
On PFD
On ND
VOR-D Pusbutton
Failure
Self Examination
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DME INDICATIONS ON PFD AND ND
ON PFD
When an Instrument Landing System (ILS) station is
collocated with a Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
station, the ILS/DME distance is displayed in magenta
in the left lower corner of the Primary Flight Display
(PFD).
This data comes into view when the ILS P/B on the EFIS
control panel is pressed in.
ON ND
When the mode selector on the EFIS control panel, is
set to ROSE or ARC mode and the ADF/VOR selector is
set to VOR the DME distance is displayed in green in
the left or right lower corner of the Navigation
Display (ND).
Nothing is displayed if non collocated VOR/DME ground
station.
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DME INDICATIONS ON PFD AND ND (SHEET 1/2) T
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DME INDICATIONS ON PFD AND ND
VOR-D PUSHBUTTON
In ROSE-NAV and ARC mode it is possible to show the
DME and VOR/DME ground stations which are included in
the navigation data base.
If not tuned nor included in the flight plan the DME
or VOR/DME ground stations are displayed in magenta
when the VOR-D pushbutton is pressed in on the EFIS
control panel.
FAILURE
When a failure occurs, the corresponding red DME flag
is displayed in place of the distance, in the lower
corner of the corresponding side for the ND and in the
left lower corner for the PFD.
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DME INDICATIONS ON PFD AND ND (SHEET 2/2) T
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SELF EXAMINATION
What does it mean when dashes are displayed instead
of DME1 distance indication on the ND ?
A - DME1 interrogator has failed.
B - DME1 interrogator is not receiving the
ground station signal.
C - There is no DME station collocated to
the VOR station selected.
When the VOR-D pushbutton is pressed in, on the
EFIS control panel,the ND shows:
A - The DME and the VOR/DME ground stations
included in the data base.
B - Only the VOR/DME ground stations.
C - The DME and the VOR/DME ground stations
included in the flight plan.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-51-00 DME COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
DME Interrogators (Collins)
DME Interrogators (Allied)
DME Interrogators (Thomson)
DME Antennae
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DME COMPONENTS
DME INTERROGATORS (COLLINS)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 2SD1, 2SD2
LOCATION
ZONE: 127,128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The front face of the interrogator is fitted with 2
LEDs and a TEST pushbutton.
When the TEST pushbutton is pressed in, the functional
test starts.
At the end of the test, the color of the LEDs indicates
the status of the LRU.
- CONTROL FAIL LED red: test not completed.
- LRU STATUS LED red: fault detected during test.
- LRU STATUS LED green: no fault detected during
test.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 connector.
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DME COMPONENTS - INTERROGATORS (COLLINS)
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DME INTERROGATORS (ALLIED)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 2SD1, 2SD2
LOCATION
ZONE: 127,128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The face of the interrogator is fitted with two
pushbutton switches and a Liquid Cristal Display (LCD).
The LCD provides user interfaces for test, fault
display and troubleshooting.
The front face is also fitted with an RS-232 connector
for interfacing with personal computers.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 connector.
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DME COMPONENTS - INTERROGATORS (ALLIED)
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DME INTERROGATORS (THOMSON)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 2SD1, 2SD2
LOCATION
ZONE: 127,128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The face of the interrogator is fitted with a TEST
pushbutton switch and six LEDs.
- R/T OK (green): DME OK.
- R/T FAIL (red): DME faulty.
- BUS IN FAIL (amber): invalid input.
- ANT FAIL (amber): antenna faulty.
- IND N
o
1 FAIL: indicator N
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1 faulty.
- IND N
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2 FAIL: indicator N
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2 faulty.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 connector.
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EFFECTIVITY
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DME COMPONENTS - INTERROGATORS (THOMSON)
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DME COMPONENTS
DME ANTENNAE
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3SD1, 3SD2
LOCATION
ZONE: 121,127
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The DME antenna is of the blade type with a radiating
cavity driven by capacitance coupling.
It is vertically polarized and has an impedance of 50
ohms.
DME and ATC antennae are interchangeable.
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DME COMPONENTS - ANTENNAE
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-52-00 ATC SYSTEM PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
Principle
Components
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ATC SYSTEM PRESENTATION
PRINCIPLE
The Air Traffic Control (ATC) transponder is an
integral part of the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon
System (ATCRBS).
The transponder is interrogated by radar pulses
received from the ground station.
It automatically replies by a series of pulses.
These reply pulses are coded to supply identification
(Mode A) and automatic altitude reporting (Mode C) of
the aircraft on the ground controllers radar scope.
These replies enable the controller to distinguish the
aircraft and to maintain effective ground surveillance
of the air traffic.
The ATC transponder also responds to interrogations
from aircraft equipped with a Traffic Collision
Avoidance System (TCAS) (Mode S).
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ATC SYSTEM PRESENTATION - PRINCIPLE
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ATC SYSTEM PRESENTATION
COMPONENTS
The components are two transponders, four antennae,
and one ATC/TCAS control panel.
Note: The TCAS/ATC control panels shown here after are
given as examples. They may differ according to
the aircraft configuration.
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ATC SYSTEM PRESENTATION - COMPONENTS
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-52-00 ATC DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
CONTENTS:
General
Control Panel
Transponder
Antennae
Suppressor
ADIRU
FMGC
CFDIU
TCAS
Self Examination
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ATC DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
GENERAL
The Air Traffic Control (ATC) system includes:
- 1 control panel (common to both systems and
TCAS),
- 2 transponders,
- 4 antennae.
CONTROL UNIT
A single ATC/TCAS control panel enables system
selection. It provides the selected transponder with
code and function data and,in return, receives status
data.
The ATC control panel converts selected mode and
selected code data into digital data and transmits
this data in ARINC 429 format to the selected
transponder.
The Landing Gear Control and Interface Units (LGCIUs)
provide a ground/flight signal to the ATC transponder
via the ATC control panel for BITE purposes.
TRANSPONDER
In normal operation, one ATC transponder operates and
the other is in standby mode.
The operating mode (A, C or S) of the transponder is
determined by the decoding of the time between the
interrogation pulses.
The main function of the mode S transponder is
surveillance. Each transponder has its own and unique
address coded on 24 bits so that every interrogation
can be directed to a specific aircraft preventing
multiple replies.
The mode S is also used in collision avoidance (TCAS).
ANTENNAE
The ATC antennae transmit replies to interrogations
from the ATC ground station. Top and bottom antennae
provide the antenna diversity features that allow a
better radar coverage.
The antenna operates in the 960 MHz to 1220 MHz
frequency band with an interrogation frequency of
1030 MHz and a reply frequency of 1090 MHz.
SUPPRESSOR
The ATC, the DME and the TCAS operate in the same
frequency range. A suppressor signal is transmitted,
via a coaxial, by the operating system to inhibit the
other systems and to prevent simultaneous
transmission.
ADIRU
ADIRU 1 and ADIRU 2 provide barometric altitude to
associated transponders for mode C.
In case of failure of ADIRU 1 or 2, the pilot can
switch to ADIRU 3 through the AIR DATA selector switch.
FMGC
The Flight Management and Guidance Computers (FMGCs)
provide the flight number.
This data will be transmitted to an ATC ground station
after a mode S interrogation.
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ATC DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
CFDIU
The Centralized Fault Display Interface Unit (CFDIU)
allows testing and trouble-shooting of the ATC system
through the Multipurpose Control and Display Units
(MCDUs).
The tests are only available on ground.
TCAS
The Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) allows
individual communications with each TCAS equipped
aircraft through the Mode S transponder.
This enables a coordination of avoidance manoeuvers
by acquisation, at regular intervals, of the relative
altitude and the separation range.
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SELF EXAMINATION
The ATC transponders and DME transponders are:
A - Connected by ARINC buses to exchange
distance data.
B - Connected by a suppressor coaxial which
transmits an analog signal preventing
simultaneous transmission.
C - Not connected.
If ADIRU 2 fails, is the ATC 2 transponder still
able to operate in altitude reporting mode?
A - Yes, because altitude data is
automatically received from ADIRU 3.
B - Yes, because altitude data will be
recovered after manual switching of the
AIR DATA selection to ADIRU 3.
C - No, ATC 2 will be definitively lost.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-52-00 ATC CONTROL PANEL D/O
CONTENTS:
COLLINS Control Panel
SEXTANT Control Panel
GABLES Control Panel
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ATC CONTROL PANEL D/O
COLLINS CONTROL PANEL
GENERAL
The purpose of this module is to understand the use
of the various controls of the common ATC/TCAS control
panel.
MODE SELECTOR
The mode selector enables the ATC transponder operation
mode to be selected.
- STBY position :
No transmission and the answers of the two transponders
are inhibited (electrically supplied but not
operating).
- XPDR position :
The answers are transmitted on ground and in flight
by the selected transponder.
- TA-TA/RA-TFC positions :
Enables the selection of the TCAS modes.
NOTE: In STBY or XPDR position the TCAS advisory
generation and surveillance functions are
inhibited.
SELECTOR KNOB
The selector knob enables the selection of the ATC
transmission code.
The code range is 0000 to 7777.
CODE DISPLAY WINDOW
The liquid crystal display window shows the selected
ATC identification code.
There are specific ranges for emergency codes on Mode
A, as for example :
- 7700 to 7777 for emergency configuration,
- 7600 for total failure of radio communication system.
ATC FAIL LIGHT
This FAULT light comes on in case of failure of the
selected transponder.
The ATC FAIL light also comes on during a functional
or a lamp test.
NOTE: In case of ATC control panel failure, the
transponder continues to transmit the last
displayed code.
IDENT PUSHBUTTON
When the IDENT pushbutton is pressed in, an additional
identification pulse is generated in mode A and mode
C replies.
This is to obtain a more precise location of the
aircraft.
1/2 SELECTOR
This switch enables the selection of the desired active
ATC system.
When transponder 1 is active, transponder 2 is in
standby.
ABOVE/BELOW SWITCHES
Used when TCAS system is installed.
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ATC CONTROL PANEL D/O - COLLINS
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ATC CONTROL PANEL D/O
SEXTANT CONTROL PANEL
GENERAL
The purpose of this module is to understand the use
of the various controls of the common ATC/TCAS control
unit.
STBY/AUTO/ON SELECTOR
This selector enables the ATC transponder operation
mode to be selected.
- STBY position:
Transmission and answers to ground station or other
aircraft are inhibited (electrically supplied but not
operating).
- AUTO POSITION:
In this mode, the transponder only operates in flight
except for mode S which also operates on ground.
- ON POSITION:
In this position, the transponder operates in flight
and on ground.
1/2 SELECTOR
This selector enables the selection of the desired
active ATC system.
When transponder 1 is active, transponder 2 is in
standby.
ALT RPTG SELECTOR
The ALT RPTG selector, when in ON position, enables
the altitude transmission for the ATC mode C.
Selection of the OFF position suppresses the altitude
information transmission. The altitude is provided by
ADIRU1 ( For ATC1) or 2 (For ATC2) or ADIRU3 in case
of failure of ADIRU1 or 2.
ATC FAIL LIGHT
This FAULT light comes on in case of failure of the
selected transponder.
The ATC FAIL light also comes on during a functional
or a lamp test.
NOTE: In case of ATC control unit failure, the
transponder continues to transmit the last
displayed code.
KEYBOARD
The keyboard enables the selection of the ATC
transmission code.
When pressed in, the CLR key clears the code display
and, when pressed twice, restores the previous code
by the active code.
The code range is from 0000 to 7777.
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ATC CONTROL PANEL D/O - SEXTANT
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ATC CONTROL PANEL D/O
GABLES CONTROL PANEL
GENERAL
The purpose of this module is to understand the use
of the various controls of the common ATC/TCAS control
panel.
1/2 SELECTOR
This switch enables the selection of the desired active
ATC system.
When transponder 1 is active, transponder 2 is in
standby.
XPNDR FAULT LIGHT
This FAULT light comes on in case of failure of the
selected transponder.
The XPNDR FAULT light also comes on during a functional
or a lamp test.
NOTE: In case of ATC control panel failure, the
transponder continues to transmit the last
displayed code.
KEYBOARD
The keyboard enables the selection of the ATC
transmission code.
When pressed in, the CLR key clears the code display
and, when pressed twice restores the previous code by
the active code.
The code range is 0000 to 7777.
CODE DISPLAY WINDOW
The liquid crystal display window shows the selected
ATC identification code and the system in use.
There are specific ranges for emergency codes on mode
A, as for example :
- 7700 to 7777 for emergency configuration.
- 7600 for total failure of radio communication system.
Fault indications can also be displayed.
IDENT PUSHBUTTON
When the IDENT pushbutton is pressed in, an additional
identification pulse is generated in mode A and mode
C replies.
This is to obtain a more precise location of the
aircraft.
STBY/AUTO/ON MODE SELECTOR
A mode selector switch enables the ATC transponder
operation mode to be selected.
- STBY position :
No transmission and the answers of the two transponders
are inhibited (electrically supplied but not
operating).
- AUTO position :
The answers are transmitted only when the aircraft is
in flight.
- ON position :
The answers are transmitted on ground and in flight.
OFF-TA-TA/RA MODE SELECTOR
Used when TCAS system is installed.
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ATC CONTROL PANEL D/O - GABLES
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-52-00 ATC COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
ATC Transponders (Collins)
ATC Transponders (Honeywell)
ATC Antennae
ATC Control Panel (Collins)
ATC Control Panel (Sextant)
ATC Control Panel (Gables)
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ATC COMPONENTS
ATC TRANSPONDERS (COLLINS)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 1SH1, 1SH2
LOCATION
ZONE: 127,128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The front face of the transponder is fitted with 5
LEDs and a TEST pushbutton.
When the TEST pushbutton is pressed in, the 5 LEDs
come on.
If the test is OK, the LEDs should go off when the
TEST pushbutton is released out.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 electrical
connector.
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EFFECTIVITY
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ATC COMPONENTS - TRANSPONDERS (COLLINS)
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ATC COMPONENTS
ATC TRANSPONDERS (HONEYWELL)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 1SH1, 1SH2
LOCATION
ZONE: 127,128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The front face of the transponder is fitted with 6
LEDs, a PUSH TO TEST pushbutton switch and a DATA
LOADER plug.
When the PUSH TO TEST pushbutton is pressed in, the 6
LEDs come on for approximately three seconds.
After three others seconds, the XPDR PASS LED comes
on green if the test is successfuly passed.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 electrical
connector.
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ATC COMPONENTS
ATC ANTENNAE
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 7SH1, 7SH2, 7SH3, 7SH4
LOCATION
ZONE: 127,128,223,224
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The ATC antenna is of the blade type with a radiating
cavity driven by capacitance coupling.
It is vertically polarized and has an impedance of 50
ohms.
ATC and DME antennae are interchangeable.
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ATC COMPONENTS
ATC CONTROL PANEL (COLLINS)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3SH
LOCATION
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The control panel is composed of two independent
modules, each dedicated to one transponder.
A monitoring function checks that the transmitted data
corresponds to the displayed data.
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ATC COMPONENTS - CONTROL PANEL (COLLINS)
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
ATC COMPONENTS
ATC CONTROL PANEL (SEXTANT)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3SH
LOCATION
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The control panel is composed of two independent
modules, each dedicated to one transponder.
A monitoring function checks that the transmitted data
corresponds to the displayed data.
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ATC COMPONENTS - CONTROL PANEL (SEXTANT)
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EFFECTIVITY
ALL
ATC COMPONENTS
ATC CONTROL PANEL
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3SH
LOCATION
ZONE: 211
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The control panel is composed of two independent
modules, each dedicated to one transponder.
A monitoring function checks that the transmitted data
corresponds to the displayed data.
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ATC COMPONENTS - CONTROL PANEL (GABLES)
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-53-00 ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
Principle
Components
Indicating
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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION
PRINCIPLE
The Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) is a radio
navigation aid.
The ADF system provides:
- An identification of the relative bearing to
a selected ground station called Non
Directional Beacon (NDB).
- Aural identification of the ground station.
The relative bearing is the angle between the aircraft
heading and the aircraft/ground station axis.
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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION - PRINCIPLE
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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION
The combination of signals, received from two loop
antennae and from one omni-directional sense antenna,
provides bearing information.
The ground stations operate in a frequency range of
190 to 1750 Khz.
An additional Morse signal is provided to identify the
selected ground station.
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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION
COMPONENTS
The Automatic Direction Finder system is composed of
two receivers and two antennae.
The ADF system is also connected to:
- Navigation Displays (ND) and Digital Distance
Radio Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI) for display.
- Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
panels for control display.
- Flight Management and Guidance Computer (FMGC)
for auto-tuning.
- Multipurpose Control Display Units (MCDU) for
manual tuning.
- Captain and First Officer Radio Management
Panels (RMP) for back-up tuning.
- Audio Control Panels (ACP) for ADF audio
signal.
Note: ADF 2 system is optional.
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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION - COMPONENTS
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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION
INDICATING
The Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) system
information can be displayed on the Navigation Displays
(ND) system and on the Digital Distance Radio Magnetic
Indicator (DDRMI).
On the NDs, depending on the position of the ADF
selector switch on the EFIS control panel:
- ADF 1 is represented by a single pointer
- ADF 2 is represented by a double pointer.
On the DDRMI, depending on the position of the ADF
selector switch:
- ADF 1 is represented by a single pointer
- ADF 2 is represented by a double pointer.
Note: Some DDRMIs are not equipped with the ADF
capability.
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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION - INDICATING
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-53-00 ADF DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
CONTENTS:
General
Auto Tuning
Manual Tuning
Back Up Tuning
Antennae
LGCIU
Indicating
CFDIU
Self Examination
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ADF DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
GENERAL
The Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) System includes:
- 2 Identical ADF receivers,
- 2 Identical ADF antennae.
NOTE: ADF 2 system is optional.
AUTO TUNING
In NDB approach each Flight Management and Guidance
Computer (FMGC) automatically tunes its ownside ADF
receiver through its ownside Radio Management
Panel(RMP).
With failure of one FMGC, the other FMGC can control
the two ADF receivers, one directly, the other through
its Radio Management Panel (RMP).
When the FMGC fails, the ADF receives a discrete
through the RMP to automatically select port B.
MANUAL TUNING
From each Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU)
both ADFs can be manually tuned through their ownside
FMGC .
BACK UP TUNING
In case of dual FMGC failure, the RMPs enable BACK-UP
tuning.
ANTENNAE
The ADF antenna provides three signals and consists
of one sense antenna and two loop antennae called
longitudinal antenna and lateral antenna.
The ADF antenna comprises:
- One pre-amplifier, for each antenna, supplied
by the ADF receiver in + or - 12 VDC.
- A test loop which enables a self test.
The ADF ground stations operate in a frequency range
of 190 to 1750 KHz divided into two parts:
- Non Directional Beacons (NDB):
190 to 550 KHz,
- Standard commercial broadcast AM stations:
550 to 1750 KHz.
LGCIU
Each Landing Gear Control Interface Unit (LGCIU) sends
discrete signals to the associated ADF receiver.
This Ground/Flight information is used by the receiver
BITE module to count the flight legs.
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ADF DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
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ADF DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
INDICATING
The ADF data is sent to the Navigation Displays (NDs)
through the Display Management Computers (DMCs) and
also to the DDRMI.
The ADF audio signal is processed by the receiver and
sent to the Audio Management Unit (AMU) and can be
heard by the crew.
NOTE: Some DDRMIs are not equipped with the ADF
capability.
CFDIU
The MCDUs allow the systems to be tested and trouble
shooting to be performed via the Centralized Fault
Display Interface Unit (CFDIU).
The tests are only available on ground.
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SELF EXAMINATION
How are the antenna amplifiers supplied ?
A - By the 28 DC NORM BUS.
B - By the 115 VAC NORM BUS.
C - By + or - 12 VDC through the ADF
Receiver.
If FMGC 1 has failed, is the ADF 1 receiver tuned ?
A - Yes, from the opposite FMGC.
B - Yes, through RMP1.
C - No, ADF 1 cannot be tuned.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-53-00 ADF INDICATIONS ON ND
CONTENTS:
ADF Characteristics
ADF Pointers
NDB Pushbutton
Failures
Self Examination
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ADF INDICATIONS ON ND
ADF CHARACTERISTICS
DISPLAY IN ROSE OR ARC MODE
When the mode selector is set to ROSE or ARC mode, and
the ADF/VOR selectors are set to ADF, the ADF station
characteristics are displayed in green in the left
lower corner (ADF1) or right lower corner (ADF2) of
the ND.
Note: ADF 2 system is optional
POINTERS
Two kinds of green pointer can show the ADF ground
station bearings on the heading dial.
- Single green pointer for ADF1
- Double green pointer for ADF2
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ADF INDICATIONS ON ND
NDB PUSHBUTTON
In ROSE-NAV and ARC modes, when the Non Directional
Beacon (NDB) pushbutton is selected on the Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) control panel, magenta
triangle symbols show the ADF ground stations.
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ADF INDICATIONS ON ND
FAILURES
When a failure occurs, a red flag is displayed in the
left lower corner (ADF1) or right lower corner (ADF2)
on the ND and the corresponding pointer disappear.
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SELF EXAMINATION
What is displayed in case of Non Computed Data?
A - A RED flag.
B - Dashes in place of identification.
C - The ground station characteristics and
pointer disappear.
What is displayed in case of ADF failure?
A - The pointer symbol and the ADF flag
appear in RED.
B - The ground station characteristics and
pointer disappear and the RED ADF flag
appears.
C - No ADF indications on ND.
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34-53-00 ADF COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
ADF Receiver (Collins)
ADF Receiver (Allied)
ADF Antennae
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ADF COMPONENTS
ADF RECEIVER (COLLINS)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 2RP1, 2RP2
LOCATION
ZONE: 127, 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The face of the ADF Receiver is fitted with two LEDs
and a TEST pushbutton switch. When it is pressed in,
the functional test starts.
If no fault is detected during the test the green LRU
STATUS LED comes on.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 connector.
ADF RECEIVER (ALLIED)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 2RP1, 2RP2
LOCATION
ZONE: 127, 128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The face of the ADF Receiver is fitted with two
momentary pushbutton switches and a Liquid Cristal
Display (LCD).
The LCD provides user intefaces for test, fault display
and troubleshooting.
The front face is also fitted with an RS-232 connector
for interfacing with personnal computers.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 connector.
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ADF COMPONENTS - ADF RECEIVERS
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ADF ANTENNAE
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3RP1, 3RP2
LOCATION
ZONE: 244, 253
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
It is a combined loop and sense antenna enclosed in a
fiberglass housing.
The omnidirectional sense antenna is vertically
polarized.
The directional loop antennae are horizontally
polarized.
The output impedance of the antenna is 78 ohms.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-55-00 VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
VOR Principle
MKR Principle
Components
VOR Indicating
MKR Indicating
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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION
VOR PRINCIPLE
The Very high frequency Omni-directional Range(VOR)
system is a medium-range radio navigation aid.
The VOR system receives, decodes and processes bearing
information from the omni-directional ground station
(working frequency range: 108 to 117.95 Mhz)
The ground VOR station generates a reference phase
signal and a variable phase signal.
The phase difference between these signals, called
bearing, is function of the aircraft position with
respect to the ground station.
The bearing is the angle between the Magnetic North
and the ground station/aircraft axis.
Furthermore, the VOR station provides a Morse
identification which identifies the station.
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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION - VOR PRINCIPLE
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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION
MRK PRINCIPLE
The MARKER (MKR) system is a radio navigation aid which
indicates the distance between the aircraft and the
runway threshold.
The MARKER (MKR) system is normally used together with
the ILS system during an ILS approach.
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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION - MKR PRINCIPLE
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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION
COMPONENTS
The VOR and MKR systems are composed of two receivers,
one marker antenna and one dual VOR antenna.
The VOR/MKR system is also connected to:
- Navigation Displays (ND), Primary Flight
Displays (PFD) and VOR/ADF/DME Radio Magnetic
Indicator (VOR/ADF/DME RMI) for display.
- Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
panels for control display.
- Flight Management and Guidance Computers (FMGC)
for auto-tuning.
- Multipurpose Control Display Units (MCDU) for
manual tuning.
- Captain and First Officer Radio Management
Panels (RMP) for back-up tuning.
- Audio Control Panels (ACP) for VOR/MKR
audio signal.
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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION - COMPONENTS
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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION
VOR INDICATING
The indicators show that the aircraft is flying from
the ground station and is on the right,crossing and
then on the left hand side of the course selected by
the pilot.
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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION - VOR INDICATING (EXAMPLE)
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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION
MKR INDICATING
When the aircraft overflies the Marker, the type of
Marker is display on the PFDs in different colors, and
is indicated by an aural identification.
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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION - MKR INDICATING
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-55-00 VOR/MKR DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
CONTENTS
General
VOR Auto Tuning
VOR Manual Tuning
VOR Back Up Tuning
VOR Antenna
VOR Users
MKR Control
MKR Antenna
AMU
LGCIU
Indicating
CFDIU
Self Examination
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VOR/MKR DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
GENERAL
The Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Range (VOR)
and Marker (MKR) system includes:
- 2 Identical VOR/MKR receivers (only MKR1 system
is installed on aircraft),
- 1 Dual VOR ANTENNA,
- 1 MKR ANTENNA.
VOR AUTO TUNING
In normal operation each Flight Management and Guidance
Computer (FMGC) automatically tunes its ownside VOR
receiver through its ownside Radio Management Panel
(RMP) via port A.
With failure of one FMGC, the other FMGC can control
the two VOR/MKR receivers, one directly, the other
through its Radio Management Panel (RMP).
When the FMGC fails, the VOR receives a discrete
through the RMP to automatically select port B.
VOR MANUAL TUNING
From each Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU)
both VORs can be manually tuned through their ownside
FMGC .
VOR BACK UP TUNING
In case of dual FMGC failure, the RMPs enable BACK-UP
tuning.
VOR ANTENNA
The dual VOR antenna receives the signals coming from
the ground stations.
The VOR Antenna operates in the 108 to 117.95 Mhz
range.
VOR USERS
The VOR data is sent to the FMGCs for aircraft position
computation.
MKR CONTROL
The system consists of two identical VOR/MKR receivers
but only MKR one is operative as it is connected to
the MKR antenna.
The MKR system operates at a fixed frequency and does
not need any control.
MKR ANTENNA
The MKR antenna receives MKR signals when the aircraft
flies over the MKR beacons.
The MKR Antenna operates at 75 Mhz.
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VOR/MKR DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
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VOR/MKR DESCRIPTION/OPERATION
AMU
The pilot can adjust the volume of the VOR ground
station and MKR beacon identification signals using
the VOR and MKR pushbuttons on the AUDIO CONTROL PANEL
(ACP).
Selected VOR ground station and MKR beacon
identification audio signals are transmitted to Audio
Management Unit (AMU) and then dispatched to the
headsets and/or loudspeakers
LGCIU
Each Landing Gear Control Interface Unit (LGCIU) sends
discrete signals to the associated VOR receiver.
This Ground/Flight information is used by the receiver
BITE module to count the flight legs.
INDICATING
VOR data is sent to the Navigation Displays (ND)
through the Display Management Computers (DMC) and to
the Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator
(DDRMI).
The MKR data is sent to the Primary Flight Displays
(PFD) through the Display Management Computers (DMC).
CFDIU
The MCDUs allow the systems to be tested and trouble
shooted via the Centralized Fault Display Interface
Unit (CFDIU).
The tests are only available on ground.
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SELF EXAMINATION
To which of the following is the MKR Antenna
connected ?
A - VOR/MKR receiver 2.
B - VOR/MKR receiver 1.
C - VOR/MKR receivers 1 and 2.
If FMGC 2 has failed, is VOR 2 receiver tuned ?
A - Yes, from the opposite FMGC.
B - Yes, from the opposite FMGC but after
switching.
C - No, the VOR 2 cannot be tuned.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-55-00 VOR INDICATIONS ON ND
CONTENTS:
VOR Characteristics
Pointers
Course/Lateral Deviation
VOR-D Pushbutton
Failures
Self Examination
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VOR INDICATIONS ON ND
VOR CHARACTERISTICS
DISPLAY IN ROSE OR ARC MODE
When the mode selector is set to ROSE or ARC mode, and
the ADF/VOR selector is switched to VOR, the VOR
station characteristics are displayed in white in the
left lower corner (VOR 1) or right lower corner (VOR
2) of the ND.
POINTERS
DISPLAY IN ROSE AND ARC MODES
Two types of white pointer can show the VOR ground
station bearings on the heading dial.
- Single white bearing pointer for VOR 1
- Double white bearing pointer for VOR 2
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VOR INDICATIONS ON ND
COURSE/LATERAL DEVIATION
CONDITIONS OF DISPLAY
Additionally, in ROSE-VOR mode, other information is
displayed on the ND.
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VOR INDICATIONS ON ND T
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VOR INDICATIONS ON ND
VOR-D PUSHBUTTON
CONDITIONS OF DISPLAY
In ROSE-NAV and ARC positions, it is possible to show
in magenta the VOR ground stations which are not tuned
nor already included in the flight plan.
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VOR INDICATIONS ON ND
FAILURES
CONDITIONS OF DISPLAY
Depending on the mode selected on the EFIS control
panel, red flags are displayed.
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VOR INDICATIONS ON ND T
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SELF EXAMINATION
In which ND mode is the VOR course deviation
information displayed ?
A - In ROSE-VOR mode.
B - In ROSE-NAV mode.
C - In any mode.
When is the "M" symbol displayed in the VOR
characteristics ?
A - When the VOR is tuned from the MCDU.
B - When the VOR is tuned from the RMP.
C - When a failure occurs.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-55-00 VOR/MKR COMPONENTS
CONTENTS:
VOR/MKR Receiver (Collins)
VOR/MKR Receiver (Allied)
VOR Antenna
MKR Antenna
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VOR/MKR COMPONENTS
VOR/MKR RECEIVER (COLLINS)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3RS1,3RS2
LOCATION
ZONE:127,128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The face of the VOR/MKR Receiver is fitted with two
LEDs and a TEST pushbutton switch. When it is pressed
in, the functional test starts.
If no fault is detected during the test the green LRU
STATUS LED comes on.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 connector.
VOR/MKR RECEIVER (ALLIED)
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 3RS1,3RS2
LOCATION
ZONE:127,128
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The face of the VOR/MKR Receiver is fitted with two
momentary pushbutton switches and a Liquid Cristal
Display (LCD).
The LCD provides user intefaces for test, fault display
and troubleshooting.
The front face is also fitted with an RS-232 connector
for interfacing with personal computers.
The back is fitted with an ARINC 600 connector.
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VOR/MKR COMPONENTS - RECEIVERS
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VOR/MKR COMPONENTS
VOR ANTENNA
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 4RS
LOCATION
ZONE: 324
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The dual VOR antenna is located on the top of the tail.
It is a small-sized half-wave folded dipole type.
The antenna is horizontally polarized and has an
impedance of 50 ohms.
MKR ANTENNA
IDENTIFICATION
FIN: 1RS
LOCATION
ZONE: 133
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The dielectric, foam-filled, polyester fiberglass
housing, fitted with a metal leading edge, protects
against moisture and erosion.
The antenna is horizontally polarized and has an
impedance of 50 ohms.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-00-00 ECAM WARNINGS (EXCEPT ADIRS)
CONTENTS:
General
ILS Fault
PRED W/S Fault
RA Fault
TCAS Fault
GPWS Fault
GPWS TERR DET Fault
GPS Fault
FM/GPS POS DISAGREE
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ECAM WARNINGS
GENERAL
Note: There are no dedicated ECAM pages for the
navigation system.
In case of a NAV FAULT, there will be no system
page called for the corresponding failure.
ILS FAULT
This warning is triggered in case of an ILS1 (or 2 or
ILS1+2) receiver failure (LOC and G/S parts).
In case of failure of one ILS receiver, the landing
capability is limited to CAT1 (CAT1 inoperative when
both receivers have failed).
PRED W/S FAULT
This warning is triggered in case of a detected
windshear fault.
RA FAULT
This warning is triggered in case of an RA1 (or 2 or
RA1+2) failure.
In case of failure of both RAs, the landing capability
is limited to CAT1.
When only one RA has failed, no local warnings are
shown but CAT3 is inoperative.
TCAS FAULT
This warning is triggered in case of a TCAS internal
failure.
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ECAM WARNINGS
GPWS FAULT
This warning is triggered in case of a GPWS failure.
Notice the amber FAULT light on the GPWS control panel.
NOTE: In case of ILS1 failure, only mode 5 is inhibited,
consequently the FAULT light does not come on
and the GPWS FAULT message is not triggered.
GPWS TERR DET FAULT
This warning is triggered in case of terrain detection
failure as well as the amber TERR FAULT light on the
GPWS control panel.
GPS FAULT
This warning is triggered in case of a GPS1 (or 2 or
1+2) failure.
FM/GPS POSITION DISAGREE
When latitude or longitude from either GPSSU1 or 2
deviates more than 0.5 Nm the amber NAV FM/GPS POS
DISAGREE is triggered.
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS/CFDS SPECIFIC PAGES
PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
General
ADR SYSTEM TEST
ADR OUTPUT TESTS
ADR GROUND REPORT
ADR INPUT STATUS
IR SYSTEM TEST
IR INTERFACE TEST
IR GROUND REPORT
IR INPUT STATUS
ADR Self Test Values
IR Self Test Values
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GENERAL
The tests for ADR 1,2 and 3 are identical and the tests
for IR 1,2 and 3 are also identical.
Therefore, we will only see system 1 for each one.
Remember that the ADR and IR are Type 1 systems.
ADR SYSTEM TEST
The activation of the SYSTEM TEST allows the power-up
test and the continuous BITE test resident in the ADIRU
to be repeated (check of the system integrity after
an ADIRU replacement).
When a fault is detected by the system, during the
test, the failure data will be listed on the MCDU in
the same way as trouble shooting data page (HEX
coding).
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ADR OUTPUT TESTS
1.SLEW TESTS
- ALT DYNAMIC SLEW test
The activation of the ALT DYNAMIC SLEW test causes the
ADR to output a simulated ramp of altitude (Label 203).
The low and the high altitude limits, as well as the
slew rate, are specified by the operator.
The altitude increasing or decreasing is visualized
on the PFD.
The test is inhibited if TAS > 100 kts.
- CAS DYNAMIC SLEW test
The activation of the CAS DYNAMIC SLEW test causes the
ADR to output a simulated ramp of Computed Air Speed
(Label 206).
The low and the high speed limits, as well as the slew
rate, are specified by the operator.
The speed increasing or decreasing is visualized by
the operator on the PFD.
The test is inhibited if TAS > 100 Kts.
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ADR OUTPUT TESTS (CONT)
2.INTERFACE TESTS
When the test input command to the ADIRU is activated,
a sequence is initiated which simulates an actual
flight state of the ADIRU.
The ADR will provide calibrated test values to the
instruments.
This checks the computer, the transmission and the
display of the air data parameters.
Test sequence:
-0 to 5 seconds: failure warning mode tested (see
tables).
-5 to 10 seconds: Altitude Ramp test (rate of 600
ft/mn).
-10 seconds until test completion: fixed output test
values.
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ADR OUTPUT TESTS (CONT)
3.AOA SENSOR TESTS
The activation of the AOA SENSOR TEST causes the
AOA sensor to be commanded to a fixed position (40
degrees) greater than the stall warning threshold
thus, the Flight Warning Computer activates the
aural STALL warning and the cricket sound.
ADR GROUND REPORT
When the GROUND REPORT line select key is pressed in,
it reports all internal faults detected since the last
landing.
When a fault is detected by the system, during the
test, the failure data will be listed on the MCDU in
the same way as trouble shooting data page (HEX
coding).
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ADR INPUT STATUS
When the INPUT STATUS line select key is pressed in,
it describes the current state/value of the selected
ADR inputs (discrete, analog and ARINC inputs).
Example on the INPUT STATUS page 2/8:
- WMO/MMO DISC 1 OPEN
- WMO/MMO DISC 2 GND
- WMO/MMO DISC 3 OPEN
- WMO/MMO DISC 4 OPEN
When no discrete is in the ground state (open), the
ADR uses the BASIC LAW values for WMO/MMO (350 Kts,
0.82M).
Only one of the four WMO/MMO program discretes can be
in the ground state at any one time.
Ex: The WMO/MMO DISC 2 is available and is provided
by the L/G DOWN WMO/MMO SELECTION switch (22FP).
The normal position of this switch is open and it
is grounded after crew action for particular
flights (ex: ferry flight).
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IR SYSTEM TEST
When the SYSTEM TEST line select key is pressed in, a
complete test of the IR system is activated (power-up
and continuous BITE tests).
When a fault is detected by the system, during the
test, the failure data will be listed on the MCDU in
the same way as trouble shooting data page (HEX
coding).
NOTE: A lockout display is presented in case of a
disagreement between ground information from
CFDIU and ADIRU when the TEST mode is addressed
(with TAS or Inertial GS > or = 100 Kts).
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IR INTERFACE TEST
When the test input command to the ADIRU is
activated, a sequence is initiated which simulates
an actual flight state of the ADIRU.
The IR will provide calibrated test values to the
instruments.
This checks the computer, the transmission and the
display of inertial reference parameters.
The test mode is inhibited whenever any of the
following conditions exist:
- Ground speed > or = 20 Kts
- IR in ATT mode.
Test sequence:
- 0 to 2 seconds: Output set to functional test,
annunciator discretes energized (see table).
- After 2 seconds: Output set to functional
test, annunciator discretes released to
normal status (see table).
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IR GROUND REPORT
When the GROUND REPORT line select key is pressed in,
it reports all internal faults detected since the last
landing.
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IR INPUTS STATUS
When the INPUT STATUS line select key is pressed in,
it describes the current state of the selected IR
inputs (discrete, analog and ARINC inputs).
Example on the INPUT STATUS page 4/6, ARINC input value
from the Control Display Unit (CDU):
- The SET LAT, SET LONG and SET HEADING
displayed values are copies of data
received from each of the listed signal
sources (here the CDU).
The latitude and the longitude inputs are
processed during the ALIGN mode, the
heading input is processed during the ATT
mode.
These displayed data are latched as display
values until new valid source data is
received from each signal source.
In case of invalid inputs dashes (-----)
are displayed.
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IR SELF TEST VALUES (1/2) T
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IR SELF TEST VALUES (2/2) T
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34 - NAVIGATION
34-42-00 RADIO ALTIMETER/CFDS SPECIFIC
PAGE PRESENTATION
CONTENTS:
General
LRRA ARINC Test
LRRA RAMP Test
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RADIO ALTIMETER/CFDS SPECIFIC PAGE PRESENTATION
GENERAL
The RA is a type 1 system.
The RA system is not available in CFDS back-up mode.
LRRA ARINC TEST
During the ARINC TEST, an integrity test is performed,
the antena circuit and the CFDIU input data are tested.
This test is performed after a Removal/Installation
of a Radio Altimeter antenna or transceiver.
During the test (0.8 second), observe the following
indications on the CAPT PFD:
- the bottom sector line moves down from the
horizon line.
- the radio altitude value indicates 40 ft.
If no failure, at the end of the test, NO FAILURE
DETECTED message appears on the MCDU.
LRRA RAMP TEST
The RAMP TEST tests the complete Radio Altimetric
chain.
A start altitude, a stop altitude and a slope must be
entered prior to triggering the test.
Then, the line key adjacent to TRIGGER has to be
pressed.
Observe on the CAPT PFD that:
- Radio Altitude starts from the entered value,
0 ft in this example, then increases at a
constant rate of 25 ft/s until reaching the
Stop Altitude of 2500 ft. Also notice the
movement of the red ribbon and the lower line
of the attitude sphere on the PFD.
NOTE: The REPLAY line key restarts the test.
The CONTINUE line key continues the RAMP TEST
if it was interrupted before the end.
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RADIO ALTIMETER/CFDS SPECIFIC PAGE PRESENTATION
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THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
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