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EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER
In the early days pebbles were set in a clay board with no of grovces that could
calculate addition & subtraction. That was the predecisor of Abacus in 3600 BC Abacus
was invented in China which was courished of Row of beats, that slides on stitches in a
rectangular frame. During that period soroban a similar type of device was also in use
in Japan. In 2000 BC Babylomans a Greek scientist first time thought of computer
concept.
In 1617 AD a Scot by name John Napier developed logarithm table called
Napier Box that was strip of boxes on which numbers were printed by shaking the
frame, in a specialised manner that could perform multiplication.
In 1921 William Aughtred invented slides rule, the first anolog computer. But
the same could perform multiplication & division by repeatetive additions & subtractions.
In 1671 a German philosopher Mahamariam gott fried Deivnity invented
calculating machine for multiplication. That was having the concept of the print day
calculator.
In 1821 Charles Babbage designed a machine called Difference Engine
which could calculate trigonometry and logarithm table for astronomical purposes by
using difference method received gold medal from Royal Astronomical Society and later
on called father of computer. (Lady Augustha ada, the first software engineer
programmer known to be mother of computer)
Later he designed a much advanced type of machine called analamic engine
which would execute changeable sequence of operations but that was too far advanced to
be implemented & manufactured with existing technology.
In 1884 William S. Burrough a bank clerk developed a key set adding printing
machine which was mechanical but the machine could record summarise & calculate the
Ba*** transactions.
In 1909 Charles Cattering developed the first Electro mechanical Computer (i.e
Accounting Machine) for commercial use. Upto 1920 this machine was used for
commercial purpose.
1
st
Generation Computer (1942 50)
2
nd
Generation Computer (1950 65)
3
rd
Generation Computer (1965 70)
4
th
Generation Computer (1970 90)
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What is a computer?
A computer is a Electro-electronic machine. It takes inputs, processes the
same as per direction called program and gives you the desired output. All
computers perform these basic operations.
Inputs :
Any information that is fed (given) to the computer for process is called
input.
process
What the user expects the computer to do is called the process. Mainly
computer can do 2 major processes.
1) Arithmetic process That is any affirmative function.
2) Logical process That is comparisons like Equal to, less than or greater than,
true or false etc.
Computer can do the process only if a suitable program is stored in its memory.
Output
The result of the process is the output.
What is a program?
A program is a step by step series of instruction given to the computer to produce
a desired output.
Hardware
All physical parts of the computer, which one can see, feel and touch is called
hardware.

Hardware is of many types depending on their usage. They are mainly catagorised as:
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Input Devices:
Keyboard, Mouse, Magnetic tape, Cassettes and Cartridges, Magnetic Disk etc.
Output Devices:
Output can be generated on any of the following
a) The screen by VDU
b) On the paper by any type of printer.
c) Graphic form by plotters.
d) In audible sound form by speech synthesizer.
e) On a Floppy Disk for the use later.
The input devices and output devices are attached externally to the Main Computer
Box (CPU) and are hence called peripherals.

The main parts of a computer are:
CPU Central Processing Unit:
The main functions of the CPU are
a) To store data & instruction
b) To control the sequence of operation
c) To give commands to all parts of computer system.
d) To do processing That is arithmetic as well as logic.
CPU consists of storage unit (memory unit) ALU and control unit.
Storage Unit:
Data entered into the computer system through input device have to be stored
inside the computer, before the actual processing starts. The storage unit or the primary
storage of a computer system is designed to cater all the needs. The specific functions
are:
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a) All data to be processed and the instructions received for processing.
b) Intermediate result of processing.
c) Final results of processing before these results are released to an output
device.
ALU:
ALU of a computer system is the place where the actual execution of the
instructions taken place during the processing operation. The type and number of
arithmetic and logic operation that a computer can perform is determined by the
engineering design of the ALU. Arithmetic calculation and logical comparison are made
in ALU.
Control Unit:
Although it does not perform any actual processing on data the control unit acts as
a nerves system for the other components of the computer, or can be termed as the nerve
centre of the computer. By selection interpreting and monitoring to the execution of
program instructions the control unit is able to maintain order & direct the operation of
the entire system.

The Division of Main Memory: The main memory is divided into 2 parts.
RAM: Randon Access Memory has the facility to access any word from the Memory
without referring to the Previous or following word, that is randomly. The memory being
monolithic is very suitable to micro processor. The only drawback of Ram is that it is
volatile in nature., that is., if power is removed from the chip,(IF there is a power failure)
all the memory cell content is lost.
ROM:
Another type of microcomputer memory is Read only memory. In short known
as ROM. Information and instructions and program are burnt into the ROM chip at the
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time of manufacture. Very complicatedly wired electronic circuits carry out the most
basic computer functions. Special micro programs are written to perform these
operations. Micro programs deal with low level machine language and functions are
essentially substituted for additional hardware. These micro programs are called Firm
ware. Using ultra violet light only these micro programs can be erased and re written.

EBCDIC is more common and hence it is normally termed that 8 bits = 1byte.
Thus the storage capacity of a computer is measured in Bytes as below:
A BIT = EITHER 0 OR 1.
8 BITS = 1BYTE( 1 character)
1024 BYTES = 1 KILOBYTE (KB).
1024 KB = 1 MEGABYTE (MB).
1024 MB = 1 GIGA BYTE (GB).
1024 GB = 1 TRIGABYTE (TB).


POWER-SUPPLY-UNIT:
All the components of a PC need electricity to perform their functions. Most of them need
5-volt supply while some of them require 12-volt supply. If the components are connected to
normal household current there are sure to be blown up. The power supply unit converts high
voltage current to low voltage to keep the components safe.
MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCOMPUTER:
The most spectacular advancement in the field of computer is the
development of the microprocessor. A microprocessor is a chip of integrated
circuit (IC) which has, within itself, the entire electronic circuits of a CPU.
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Development of microprocessors evolved with the introduction of 4 bit processors
followed by 8 bit processors. Now we have 16 bit to 128 bit microprocessors.
More powerful microprocessors are expected soon. Integrated circuits are also
used to build the memory unit. Such a memory is known as semiconductor
memory. The introduction of microprocessors and semiconductor memory has
resulted in drastic reduction in the price and time physical size of a computer. . A
computer which has a microprocessor as the CPU is known as a microcomputer.
Microcomputers invariably use semiconductor memory units. The price of a
microcomputer is considerably low. In fact, a major component of the price
accounts for the associated peripherals. The cheapest ranges of
microcomputers are the personal computers, which come with low priced
peripherals. It is noteworthy that the low price of a microcomputer is due to
technological advancement and not by any reduction in computing power. Some
of todays microcomputers are more powerful than the giants of the yesteryears.

COMPUTER ORGANIZATION:
There are four basic units that constitute a computer. These are:
(i) memory unit
(ii) central processing unit (CPU)
(iii) input unit
(iv) output unit
Memory or storage unit is the place where the program and data are stored. The
memory is divided into a number of cells or words. The total number of words available
in the memory determines the memory capacity. The unit that is normally used to
express the memory capacity is K (stands for kilo), which has a value of 1024 (1000 in
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some cases). Thus a memory capacity 32K means that the memory consists of 32 x 1024
= 32,768 words. To identify a particular word in the memory, a unique number called the
address is associated with each word. Starting with 0, the natural numbers are used for
the purpose of addressing. Thus if the memory contains 32K words, the addressed vary
from 0 to 32,767. The amount of information that can be accommodated in an individual
word depends on the size of the word. Each word consists of a fixed number of bits. A
bit can have a value of 0 or 1 and can be physically represented in the memory as well as
in other places of the computer by means of two states. The number of bits in a word is
called the wordlength. Computers having wordlengths of 8,16,24,32,48 or 64 are very
common. The computer memory is often called random-access memory (RAM) because
the contents of any word can be accessed (for processing or for other purposes) in the
same amount of time regardless of the position of the word within the memory. In
addition to the RAM, a computer may have an additional memory known as read-only
memory (ROM). As implied by the name, the contents of ROM can be used but cannot
be altered by storing new information. Normally, programs and data that are essential for
the basic functioning of the computer, are stored in ROM. The contents of ROM are not
wiped even when the computer is switched off. On the otherhand, the contents of RAM
get wiped when the computer is switched off. The central processing unit (CPU), which
is made entirely of electronic circuits, performs the tasks specified by the program. It
brings the program instructions from the memory one at a time and causes the internal
circuits to execute the instruction. The CPU begins the execution of a program with the
first instruction. Once it has been executed, CPU takes the second instruction from the
memory and executes it. In this way, instructions are executed by the CPU in theorder in
which they appear in the program, until an instruction is encountered that involves a
change in this sequential order of execution. Such instructions are known as control
instructions. A control instruction may specify alteration in the sequential order either
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unconditionally or only if certain conditions are satisfied. The input unit consists of one
or more input devices. Data or program can be entered into the computer through any one
of these devices. Similarly, the output unit consists of one or more output devices through
which the results of the processing can be obtained. Some of the devices can be used
for input as well as for output. Such a device is known as input - output or I-O device.
An input device, an output device, or an input-output device, is also called a peripheral.
INTERNAL REPRESENTATION OF DATA AND INSTRUCTION
From what has been stated earlier we know that a piece of data or an instruction
must be represented by a string or pattern of the symbols 0 and 1. Let us now see how
this can be accomplished. At first we consider only the numeric data. When a piece of
numeric data is represented by a string of 0 and 1 it is called a binary number.
COMPUTER PERIPEHRALS
Computer peripherals are the means of communication between the external
world and the computer. Because of this important characteristic there have been very
significant development in peripheral devices. A wide range of peripherals with varying
capabilities are now available in the market. The range is so large that it is not possible
to include even a brief account of all of these within the framework of the present book.
Only those peripherals that are commonly found with general purpose computers are
described below.
PRINTER:
The purpose of a printer is to produce the results of processing on sheets of paper.
There are many types of printers but they fall into one of the two categories impact
printers and non-impact printers. In the case of an impact printer, an inked ribbon exists
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between the print head and paper, and characters are printed by the head striking the
ribbon. Non-impact printers use techniques other than the mechanical method of head
striking the ribbon. Thermal printers, electrostatic printers and laser printers are
examples of non-impact printers. Being able to eliminate mechanical operations, these
printers are very fast. However, these are not yet very popular because of high cost and
the requirement of a special kind of paper. We shall, therefore, limit our discussion to
impact printers only.
Impact printers can be classified into two categories line printers and serial
printers. A line printer can print an entire line in a single operation while a serial printer
can print only one character at a time. Line printers are mush faster and costlier devices
compared to serial printers. Thus serial printers are generally used with small
microcomputers (especially personal computers) and line printers are used with larger
systems.
What is a computer:
A computer is an electronic device that-
1. Receives the information (data) that we feed into it. (Input)
2. Process the data according to our instructions. (process)
3. Stores the data inside it. (memory)
4. Gives you the result (output)
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INPUT, PROCESSING & OUT PUT
INPUT
What is meant by input?
Input means whatever information we put in (feed into computer for processing. It
includes two main things:
1. the data (facts) that we feed into the computer.
2. The instructions that we give in regard to the data.
PROCESSING
What is meant by processing?
Processing means-
1. treating the data according to the instructions.
2. Changing it into useful information as required.
OUTPUT
Output means the useful information that the computer produced after processing the
data according to our instructions.
Remember that every computer activity consists of three chief steps as under:

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1. (a) Feeding the data into the computer.
(b) Giving instructions for its treatment. Input
2. Treating-the data fed into the computer as per instructions given. Processing
3. Displaying the processed (treated) data on the screen in the required form. Output.

FEATURES OF A COMPUTER:
A computer has six chief features that are as below:
1. Speed 2. Accuracy 3. Storage
4. Tirelessness 5. Automation 6. Versatility.
SPEED
A computer is an electronic device in which electrical signals at the speed of light. So, a
computer does its jobs very speedily. It never slows down and keeps working at a
uniform speed. Its speed is measured in microseconds (1/millionth second) and in every
smaller units.
ACCURACY
A computer never makes errors normally. But errors may occur in its hardware. Modern
computers have features for detecting errors and for correcting them as well. Usually,
errors are committed by the operator in feeding the data.

INPUT

PROCESSING


OUTPUT


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STORAGE
A computers Systems Unit is capable of storing a large amount of data in its memory.
Not only this, it can produce the data again and again on demand. A human brain can
never do that.
TIRELESSNESS
Unlike human-beings and other animals, a computer never gets tired or bored if it has to
do the same job again and again. Even if it has to do a million calculations, it will do the
last one with the same speed and accuracy as the first one.
AUTOMATION
Once the instructions have been given, a computer can carry on its job automatically till it
is complete.
VERSATILITY
A computer is capable of performing a large number of different jobs working logically
step by step.
POWER-SUPPLY UNIT
All the components of a PC need electricity to perform their functions. Most of them
need 5-volt supply while some of them require 12-volt supply. If the components are
connected to normal household current, they are sure to be blow up. The power-supply
unit converts high voltage current to a low voltage to keep the components safe.
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MAIN MEMORY
The main memory is there to store information including instructions that tell the PC
what to do and how to process the data. The size of the memory is measures in bytes,
kilobytes and megabytes.
The memory of the computer has two parts- ROM and RAM. ROM (Read Only
Memory) consists of fixed data or instructions that cannot be changed. ROM is put in
when the PC is manufactured.
RAM (Random Access Memory) is the data read from the hard disk of the computer. It
also stores information when the PC is running. But when the computer is switched off,
all the data in RAM is lost.
CPU
The Central Processing Unit is the most important item inside the Systems Unit. It is the
brain of the computer and does all the thinking for the PC. Also, it carries out all the
instructions given by the operator. It has two chief parts:
1. The Control Unit.
2. The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
The control unit fetches data from the memory and puts it in proper order for the
processor. It also sends the processed result back to the memory.
The ALU decodes instructions, solves arithmetical problems and carries out jobs that
need logic to arrive at a result.
INPUT-OUTPUT PORTS:
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The Systems Unit has to communicate with outer hardware-keyboard, monitor, mouse
disks and printer etc. This job is done through various ports. For each item of the outer
hardware, there are two exclusive ports inside the Systems Unit.
A port is a connector on the back of the Systems Unit or any other device. A cable is
used to connect the port of one device to another.
Ports are of two types-serial or parallel-according to the cables used for connecting the
Systems Unit with a device (printer etc.). Serial or parallel cables depend on the mode of
data-transmission. If the data is transmitted over parallel signals, the cables and ports
have to be parallel ones. But if the data is sent over serial signals, the cables and ports
must be serial ones.
DISK DRIVES:
Disk drives are provided in the System Unit wherein disks are inserted. A drive consists
of three items:
(a) A slot that accepts the disk.
(b) A motor that spins the inserted disk.
(c) A device that moves across the disk to read or write the data stored on it.
Remember that most of the memory in a PC a volatile. It means that information in the
memory is lost each time the computer is turned off after a working session. Moreover,
the size of the memory has a limit. So, copies of the information are stored permanently
on disks or tapes.
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When we need the information, the disk is inserted in the drive and a copy of the
information gets loaded onto the memory of the computer temporarily. The original
version remains intact on the disk itself.
VIDEO CARD
All the information is stored in the computers memory, we know. To make this
information fully useful, we need to have it displayed on the monitor so that we may
correct the errors, if any. This job is done for us by the video card which is called
Display Adapter Card as well. This card serves as a link between the PCs memory and
the video screen (monitor).
EXPANSION SLOTS
An expansion slot is where an expansion card can be fitted. Each expansion slot leads to
the bus on the motherboard. The bus is a channel or path which enables the various parts
of a computer to communicate with one another. It serves as a road along which signals
are sent. An expansion bus allows extra hardware (cards etc.) to be attached to the
system.
Expansion slots allow the expansion cards to be plugged in. The cards offer extra
options-the options that are not available on the basic PC. For example, Empty RAM
Chip Slots are used to add extra RAM chips to expand the memory of the computer.
HARD DISK
The hard disk is the computers permanent storage unit. It can hold large amounts of data
and instructions. The information stored on the hard disk is not affected even when the
PC is turned off. It remains quite intact unless the hard disk is damaged in some way or
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you instruct the PC to overwrite it. One thing more, the user cannot change the
information stored on the hard disk.
There may be only one hard disk or more than one in the Systems Unit of a computer. If
the disks are more than one, each of them is called a platter.

MS WORD
Action Click/Select
Open Ms Word start/program/microsoft word
Type the para CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES - Type from cursor
Save the file in My documents giving file name as WORD5991 -
File/save/filename/ok
Type your name at the bottom - Ctrl+end & type
Save the file again - File/Save or save tool button
Observe the difference between the first save and the subsequent save (while doing
subsequent save it wont ask you any File name. That means no need to give name
again)
Close this file. But dont exit Ms Word - File/close
Observe the difference between closing a file and exit Ms Word - File/Exit
Open an existing file which you have already created - File/Open/File name/Open
Delete any word in your document using only Backspace Key
Delete any word in your document using only Delete Key
Observe the difference between the above two keys
Delete any word in your document using only mouse Block/Edit/cut
Go around the file using Scroll Bars
Try different Movement Keys
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With Key Board
TO MOVE PERFORM THIS ACTION
Left one character Press left arrow key
Right one character Press right arrow key
Left one word Press Ctrl+left arrow key
Right one word Press Ctrl+right arrow key
Up one line Press up arrow key
Down one line Press down arrow key
Up one paragraph Press Ctrl + up arrow key
Down one paragraph Press Ctrl + down arrow key
To start or end of a line Press Home or End keys
Up or down one screen Press Page Up or Page Down keys
To the top or bottom of
the current screen
Press Ctrl + Page Up or Ctrl + Page Down
To the start or end of the
document
Press Ctrl + Home or Ctrl + End

With Mouse

TO MOVE PERFORM THIS ACTION
Up or down one line Click the up or down arrow on the vertical scroll bar
Up or down one screen Click the vertical toolbars scroll bar between the box and the
up or down arrow
Up or down any amount Drag the scroll bar box up or down
Up or down one page Click the Previous Page or Next Page button on the vertical
scroll bar
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Try different highlighting methods
With Mouse
TO SELECT THIS PERFORM THIS ACTION
One Word Double click any where on the word
One sentence Press and hold Control key and click any where in the
sentence
One line Click the selection bar next to the lines
Multiple lines Drag in the selection next to the lines
One paragraph Double click the selection bar next to the paragraph
Entire document Press and hold Ctrl and click any where in the selection bar
With Key Board
TO SELECT THIS PERFORM THIS ACTION
Any amount word by
word, line by line
Press hold Shift key use 4 direction arrow keys
Entire document Press Ctrl+A
Selection (highlighting or blocking) is very important because if you want to
perform some action on some data first you have to highlight that particular
portion.
Try to make Bold / Italic / Underline / change into some other good font style
/ give some good color click B,I & U and other tool buttons.
Now try to remove Bold/Italic/Underline (This Bold, Italic and Underline
buttons are called Toggle Buttons) Repeat above action
Try to type the following using Subscript and Superscript. First type normally
H
2
O - select 2 then click format, font, Subscript.
E = MC2 select 2 then click format, font, superscript
A
1
2
= A
2
2
+ A
3
2
Move the first para using only cut and paste buttons. Dont use copy button.
Move some matter using only mouse - Block, cut and paste
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Copy some matter using only mouse block, edit, copy & paste
Try all justification buttons Tool bar
Change the line spacing to 1.5 Format, paragraph, linespacing, ok
Try to use Bullets and Numbering - Tool bar
Observe where you are? (using status bar)
Observe the details of Menus/Tools Bars on the screen
Try to remove one of the tool bars from the screen view / tool bar standard/
format drawing etc.,
Try to add one tool bar to the screen click as above.
Try to give page border to your document Format/Borders & shading/page
borders/ select
Try to insert one picture in your document Insert /Picture /clipart/ok / select/
insert.


EXCEL



Open EXCEL Program Start/Program/Microsoft Excel
Type your name in the first cell
Save the file in My documents directory giving your name
Select a cell and observe the changes in column header, in row header and in formula
bar.
Close the file but dont exit EXCEL - File/close.
Open your file again File/select at bottom or open/File name/ Open.
Exit EXCEL and open EXCEL and your file again (observe the difference between
closing a file and exit EXCEL) (1) File Exit (2) As above in 1
Enter the following; data (you can use arrow keys, Tab and Enter key to move)
Use Auto fill to enter Sl. No.

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Sl.No Description Jan Feb Price/Unit Total/Qty Sales
1 Televisions 12 345.50

2 Air conditioners 7 5 375.45

3 Music Systems 21 12 285.20

4 CD Players 11 3 515.75

5 Refrigerators 9 6 225.00

Total

Average




Increase 1
st
column width - Hold column seperator with mouse and increase or
decrease.
Decrease the Jan and Feb column widths ----same as above----
Adjust other columns widths also
(you can increase or decrease the column widths according to your requirements)
Move the first entry in the Feb column to the first cell in the Price/Unit column
(using cut and paste)
Move the first entry in the Feb column to the first cell in the Price/Unit column
(using only mouse) drag/Drop
Copy the last entry of the Jan column to the first cell in the Feb column (using
copy and paste)
Make the filed names (headings) bold and centre aligned From Tool Bar
Try different types of selection methods
Using mouse
Using key board

Try to select full row at a time click row header 1,2,3 etc.
Try to select full column at a time click column header, ABC etc.
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This selection (highlighting or blocking) is very important because if you
want to perform some action on some data first you have to highlight that
particular portion.

Make the values left aligned Tool Bar
Make the values right aligned do
Make the values centre aligned do
Make the two cells of Total and Average bold and right aligned Tool Bar
Insert a column between Feb & Price/Unit'

Mar
19
7
34
18
7
Calculate Total-Qty using formula select the call where you want answer. Type =
first and then formula.
Calculate Total-Qty for all the items using auto fill Hold cell handle & drag
Calculate Sales column using formula (Price/Unit* total Qty)
Find total of Sales column using Auto Sum select the date & click sigma in tool
Bar.
Find the average of sales using format tool bar.
Change the value of CD players in Feb to 15 and observe the changes in Total and
Average sales.
Insert a row in the top of your table and give company name select Row No. 1 click
Insert / Row/ Type.
Merge A to G columns and Make the Company name centre to the table.
Change the font and size of this heading Tool Bar.
Give some good colour to heading and underline it Tool Bar.
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Delete the value 21 in Jan column and type 13 there (even now you can observe the
changes in Total and Average Sales)
Delete the last row (average) - select the row & press Delete button in key board.
Bring back that row using undo command Tool Bar or Edit/Undo.
Again delete that row using redo command (dont type it again)
Try to understand the difference between undo and redo commands.
Give some light shading to the last column
Give some name to your worksheet (this is not the name of the filebut just worksheet
name)
Similarly give a name to the second sheet

EXCEL CHARTS
Open a new file and enter the data given below

No. of Courses
94-95 26
95-96 27
96-97 30
97-98 27
98-99 34
Find the total number of people trained using auto sum
Try to arrive the total number of courses in some other cell
Create a Column graph, with the title No. of courses conducted
Give names to your Graph and worksheet.
Save the file as EXCEL 287992