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Global Chassis Control

The Networked Chassis

Sascha Semmler
Dr. Peter Rieth
Technology Change
Basis for Functional Improvement (e.g. Brake System)

networking
Performance

GCC
h assi s Control
Global C
electronics

ic
electronstems
br ake sy

hydraulic
brake systems

1978 2001
Hydraulic Brake System Electronic Brake System Networked Brake System
drum brake ABS, EBD, TCS, BA, ESP "30-m car"
disc brake Electro Hydraulic Brake (brake+chassis+tires)
brake booster ESP II (brake+steering)
Electro Mechanical Brake

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Overview of Global Chassis Control

Global Chassis Control (GCC) targets, in the case of a given


configuration of electronically controlled chassis-subsystems
(ESP, EPS, EAS, CDC, ARS, ...) under respective
given driving conditions the global optimization of
t active safety
t driving comfort
t driving pleasure/fun

Electronic Stability Program (ESP)


Electric Power Steering (EPS)
Electronic Air Suspension (EAS)
Continuous Damping Control (CDC)
Active Roll Stabilization (ARS)

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Driving Dynamics Control – Coexistence Approach

.
ψ, β - Controller
Driving state Active
recognition Arbitration Steering
of driver request
Driver

.
ψ, β - Controller
Driving state Active
Signal distribution

recognition Arbitration Suspension


of driver request

Vehicle
.
ψ, β - Controller
Driving state Active
recognition Arbitration Brake
of driver request
Environment

.
ψ, β - Controller
Driving state Active
recognition Arbitration
Powertrain
of driver request

Signal distribution

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Driving Dynamics Control – Integrated Approach

Active
Steering
Driver

Active
Signal distribution

Suspension
.

Vehicle
Interpretation ψ, β - Controller
of driver
request
Distribution
of set values Active
Driving state Brake
recognition
Environment

Active
Powertrain

Signal distribution

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ESP II
ESP with Active Steering Intervention
ESP II – ESP with Active Steering Intervention
HECU Actuation Steering Wheel Basic Functionality (ESP):
Angle Sensor
„ Anti-lock Brake System (ABS)
„ Traction Control System (TCS)
„ Electronic Brake-force Distr. (EBD)
Powertrain
„ Active Yaw Control (AYC)

Enhanced Functionality by
Angle Superposition (ESP II):
„ Yaw Torque Compensation
by braking on µ-split
Variable (braking distance, steering effort)
Dampers
(4x)
„ Active Yaw Control with steering
intervention (optional suspension)
prior to engine and brake intervention
Electric Steer Assisted Steering „ Understeer Intervention
(ESAS)
Wheel Speed
Sensors (4x)
Sensor Cluster „ Comfortable compensation of
load alterations
„ Handling Support
(Lead Steering)

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ESP II – Braking on µ-split
Problem:

high- µ
low-µ

„ Driver must counter-steer by braking on µ-split


„ Compromise between braking distance and vehicle stability
~10%

Solution:
„ Automatic counter-steering independent of the driver
ESP II (active steering)

Vehicle velocity

60
∆ ~ 10%
vVeh [kph]

40
braking dist. braking dist.
20 35,16 m 40,88 m
Start of braking

0
ESP

Steering wheel angle


60
50 δ DRV w/o ESAS
δ DRV with ESAS
40 ∆δ ESAS
30
δ [°]

20
10
0
-10
0 1 2 Time [s] 3 4 5
with ESP II
with ESP

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ESP II – Increased Comfort of ESP through
Combined Brake, Engine and Steering Intervention

Problem:
„ ESP interventions are late and therefore harsh

Solution:
„ Active Yaw Control with combined brake, engine and steering intervention
(optional suspension)

Advantages:
„ Increased stability of the vehicle
„ Reduced steering effort for the driver

180
120
Steering angle [deg]

60
driver
0
ESP II
-60 total
-120

-180

-240
1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.25 4.5 4.75 5
t [s]

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ESP II – Understeer Intervention

Problem:
„ Driver increases steering wheel angle beyond optimum angle

Solution:
„ Limitation of wheel steering angle

Advantages:
t1 „ Increased stability of the vehicle
„ Reduced steering effort for the driver

t0 t1 t0 t1
Wheel steering angle [°]

15 40

Yaw Rate [°/s]


t0 10
20

5
0

0
-20
-5
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Time [s] Time [s]
with ESP II
with ESP

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ESP II – Handling Support

Problem:
„ Loss of control due to slow vehicle response

Solution:
„ Steering intervention based on driver input (lead steering)

Advantages:
„ Increased agility of the vehicle
„ Reduced steering effort for the driver

ESP II
180
steering angle [ ° ]

120

60

-60

-120

-180
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
t [s]
ESP II angle Driver angle Total angle

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ESP DSR
ESP with Driver Steering Recommendation
ESP with Driver Steering Recommendation (DSR)
HECU Actuation Steering Wheel Basic Functionality (ESP):
Angle Sensor
„ Anti-lock Brake System (ABS)
„ Traction Control System (TCS)
„ Electronic Brake-force Distr. (EBD)
Powertrain
„ Active Yaw Control (AYC)

Enhanced Functionality by
Torque Superposition (DSR):
„ Yaw Torque Compensation
by braking on µ-split surfaces
Variable
Dampers (braking distance, steering effort)
(4x)
„ Active Yaw Control with steering
intervention (optional suspension)
prior to engine and brake intervention
Electric Power Assisted Steering
(EPAS)
Wheel Speed Sensor Cluster
„ Understeer Intervention
Sensors (4x)
„ Comfortable compensation of
load alterations

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ESP with Driver Steering Recommendation
Braking on µ-split
Problem:

high- µ
low-µ

„ Driver must counter-steer by braking on µ-split


„ Compromise between braking distance and vehicle stability

Solution:
„ Steering torque superposition depending on yaw torque
DSR (torque intervention)

Steering wheel angle [°]

30
requested steering angle
measured steering angle
20
Start of braking

10
ESP

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
10
Steering torque [Nm]

additional steering torque


5

-5

-10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

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ESP with Driver Steering Recommendation
Oversteer Intervention

Problem:
„ Slow driver reaction in oversteer situation (counter-steering)

Solution:
„ Steering torque superposition depending on oversteering

Advantages:
„ Increased stability of the vehicle

2
Recomm. Wheel Steering Angle [deg]
1 Measured Wheel Steering Angle [deg]

-1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2 DSR Torque Request [Nm]

-2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Time [s]

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