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;,N OF


Presented by
James Daniel Dowdakin, Jr.
To fulfill the thesis requirement for the degree of
Master of Music
Department of Theory
Eastman School of Music
of the
University of Rochester
June, 1953




On the back cover of the long playing recording 1
of the Dumbarton Oaks Concerto, Ingolf Dahl has given the
following information about its composition:
This work in three movements (Ttmpo giusto;
Q2n was written in the winter of
1937 and spring of 1938 in the French mountains and
in Paris. Its full title reads: "Dumbarton Oaks;
8-V-38; Concerto in E flat for Chamber Orchestra."
The instrumentation consists of 3 violins, 3 violas,
2 cellos, 2 double basses, flute, clarinet, bassoon,
2 French horns.
"Dumbarton Oaks" is the name of the Washing-
ton estate of the Hon. Robert Woods Bliss, former
United States Ambassador to the Argentine and Chair-
man of the Visiting Committee of the Music Department
of Harvard University. This estate was subsequently
to become famous for rather less musical reasons, but
in naming his work Stravinsky was obliquely dedicat-
ing it to Mr. and Mrs. Bliss on the occasion of their
thirtieth wedding anniversary. On this date (May a,
1938) it received its first performance under the di-
rection of Nadia Boulanger at Dumbarton Oaks, and,
almost simultaneously, its first Paris performance,
under the direction of Stravinsky.

The Dumbarton Oaks Concerto followed chrono-
logically the composer's sparkling and lighthearted
ballet "Card Game" and preceded his monumental "Sym-
phony in C". Both of these works are to some extent
reflected in this Concerto. The ballet, in particu-
lar, was the parent of the delicate ganse of
the Concerto's second movement. The symphony, on the
other handl is anticipated, thematically as well as
structural y, in the Concerto's more richly textured
outer movements.
stravinsky, Igor, conducts the Dumbarton Oaks Festival
Or.chestra in his Dumbarton Oaks Concerto. .Mercury Classics
Recording, MG 10014.
terms used in the body of the thesis must be
explained here, e:md these are as follows: zero ... axial se-
ries, and poLlri ty of a series. The zero-axial series is
the term applied to a limited series of notes with no sin-
gle note of the series stressed as its tonic center. The
second term is best described in relation to the formDtion
of scales in the medieval modes. In this system all modes
employ the series of tones wihh different tones de-
signated as final or tonic notes. These final notes <'re
supplied with standard mod,Jl cadence formulas which er;;pha-
size these particular tones. When mentioning the polarity
of a series in this work, it is implied that one pDrticu-
lar tone does receive more emphasis than any of the rest,
and it is felt as the final of the scale bein used.
First Movemen!t
The first movement is titled Tempo Giusto. The me-
tronome setting is J -:=. 152; this tempo is held throughout
the entire movement.
The plan of the movement is as follows:
1. Beginning to Figure 7: Introductory mate-
rial and presentation of the main motive of the first
movement derived from this material. The tonality is
basically E-flat major.
2. Figure 7 to Figure ll: Contrasting section.
The tonality is basically D major.
3. Figure 11 to Figure 20: Material from 1.
above comprises the transition to the fugal subject,
which is derived from the main motive. The fugue is in
C minor.
4. Figure 20 to Figure 25: Return of material
from the first section, altered and extended. The to-
nality is E-flat major.
5. Figure 25 to Figure 28: Coda. The tonali-
ty of the previous section is retained, but there is a
complete cessation of harmonic motion.
From Figure 28 to Figure 29 there is an eight
measure section consisting of linkin5 material between
the first and second movements.
The best description of this type of composition
was given by Ingolf Dahl in his program notes describing
the Symphony in Three Movementsl. He calls this work
"another example of that additive construction, for the in-
vention of which Stravinsky is justly famous and which has
proved so influential on the younger composer. It is a
formal principle which conceives of music as the succes-
sion of clearly outlined blocks, or planes, which are uni-
fied and related through the continuity of a steadily and
logically evolving organic force."
The "logically evolving organic force" in the first
movement of the Dumbarton Oaks Concerto is the treatment of
the three note motive, (57-8 of the E-
flat major scale). This motive, or themes generated from
this motive, is found in every section of the movement.
The motive is found first in the flute line at the
begiru1ing, and later, at Figure 4, it is used independent-
ly. It undergoes a gradual decrease in range from Figure
5 to Figure 6 until its span has been reduced from a per-
fect fourth to a minor second. It appears at that point
concurrently with its original form. The smaller form of
the motive then proceeds to spread out again from Figure 6
to Figure ?.
lingolf Dghl, Program notes of the New York Philharmonic
Society (January 20, 1946), Igor Stravinsky, Conductor.
The contrasting section from Figure 7 to Figure 11
uses two forms of the main motive in a sequence as its
theme. 'I'he original motive is hidden in the texture of
this section, having four entrances in recognizable form
in the sub-section preceding Figure 11.
The motive is employed in the first fugal entrance
found two beats before Figure 13. The first tone, g, is
found in the cello and bass lines and marks the cadence
point of the transitional section. The violas enter with
Q-natural and 1 and then continue with the first complete
statement of the fugal subject.
In the section after Fig. 20, which follows the
fugue, the motive appears as it was used in its first solo
statement after Fig. 4. The instrumentation has been C:<l-
tered, and new elements have been included in addition to
the contrapuntal associate which was used in the first
statement. _F'inally, the motive is found as p<1rt of a seven-
tone ostinato (g, Q-flat, g_, &-flat, Q-flat, !l, &-flat) in
the Coda from Fig. 25 to Fig. 28.
As a general rule, the tonic note of the s ~ l e of a
section is the final tone of the primary motive as it is
used in that section. The flute line gives evidence of
this in the first two measures of the movement in its use
of the motive. The motive is also found in the flute line
in the fourth and fifth bars after the beginning. The sec-
tion from the beginning to Fig. 2 employs the seven tones
of the E-flat major scale.
An altered form of the motive is found in this sec-
tion also; it is in the line in the second and third
b:.-irs after the beginning and in the second and third b&rs
after Fig. 1. This motive use is a fourth below the primary
form. See Ex. 1
Example 1. (I - Beginning)
I" I
.. a..+...... MITIV'&.
.. ..
-61o 1\/..T E R.. I
__ MoTI ..
Ifiaterial from the begi.!hning section is used and ex-
tended in the section from Fig. 2 to Fig. 3. 'Ihis section
is actually a modulation to the key of the first bar after
Fig. 3, C harmonic minor. The original key of E-Flat nL.jor
returns in the second measure after Fie:;. 3. In the fourth
measure triads of major and combine to intro-
duce the first solo statement of the motive at Fig. 4 in t.l::e
key of E-flat major.
The motive is given three times in succession in
the first ~ n d second measures after Fig. 4. Its accomra-
nyinc voice is actually a contrapuntal associate, since the
two lines are found in the return after Fig. 20.
Example 2. (I - Fig. 4)
1ll't M oTv e.
L:&l ,
hfter the statement above in E-flst major, the mo-
tive is given twice in the key of I" h. rrnonic minor <st .,-
naturctll, ,tl).
In the three measure section before Fig. s, there
are entrances of the primary motive in B-flat rrk'ljor, D-flc<t
major, ,snd G minor. These are outlined in ::xample 3.
measL:re Dfter Fig. 6, the primary :notive under[oes a g r ~
duol decre2se in its span, beine reduced from a perfect
fourth to a minor second. ExAmples of these are
extracted from the score in Ex. 4.
From the third measure after Fig. 6 to Fig. 7 the
motive interval is ;,fter the flute gives two
statements of the motive in the minor second form in the
first two me,,;3ures after Fig. 6, it expands this fit_:ure to
a major second in the third measure.
The clarinet adopts the major second form (on and
at the beginning of the fifth mensure and sprec,ds
the interval to a major third on the next beat (g-flut to
After Fig. 6 the horns D.nd bassoon make use of the
original motive and give a forecast of the openinc of the
fugue subject, w.,ich r.:lclkes its first entry at Fig. 13.
The bassoon end second horn are doubled in v.-.. o presenta-
tions of the mot-ive in the first o.nd second me'Jaures of
Ex. 5 below. The first horn enters on the upbeat of the
second me .. sure with a statement on the same tones in stret-
to fashion. iihile the first horn holds his tone, the
bassoon line continues in the forecast of the furue subject.
'i.he first horn und bassoon follow this wi tl.L one more
ment of the motive doubled at the unison.
5. (I - Fig. 6)
In the me:)sure preceding Fig. 7, the bassoon line
repeats once .::"gain its forecast of the fugue subject, but
this time the first horn follows with the principal motive
employed in the key of the next section. The first horn
continues with o statement of the subject of the contrus-
ting section. ;l close studJ of the new subject reveals
that it is the original motive plus the inverted retro-
grade form of the same motive. See Ex. 6.
Example 6. (I - Fig. 7)
D--J L - F :::::=!= '-
ij1 ffJ I J 1 n r ...-
The section from Fig. 7 to Fig. 11 is in ternary
form ( 1\ - B - i.l), the pc.:rts indicated by eho.nges of sc<::<le.
The scale of the section from Fig. 7 through the fir st. :nea-
sure aftt:r Fi,s. 8 is basicall.,- D mejor. /1 modulation occurs
in the second measure after Fi.t:. 8, which introduce:.:> the
scule of G major in the third measur-e. (This is an excmple
of an "enclosed-third
modulation; the tonic notes of the
three scales used in the section after Fig. 7, in the nwdu-
lation, &nd in the section followin[ this modulation in the
third measure after Fig. 8 give the following series:
D - B - G.)
;. repetition of material occurs in the first me;tsure
of the G scale. Tbis me.,sure is a f::;irly accurate cop,/ of
the finDl of the D scale found after Fig. 8. l>'.l.Qst
of the lines have been dropped one step for the repeti tiort
in the nevJ scale on G. !1 modul<:,tion in the me.:lsure before
Fig. 9 brinr:s abollt the return at Fig. 9 of the m2teri<l
found ofter Fig. 7. i,fter two and one-h<::lf rkw
mc:.teriel is introduced. In the fourth me Jsure after ?ig. 9
a short passage of fourths is added to the running six-
teenths of the b:c;ssoon line. t.t this same point a broken
statement of the main motive in the violin3. See Ex. 7.
In the fifth ;nesure of Fig. 9 a simpler sc.:le is
announced by the int:rod'-.:.ction of g-natur :11. Fie. 10
the b:,ssoon line becomes 8 series of fourth;_, in <-J six-tone
ostinato which continuE:,:; for four me: surea after Fig. 10.
The ton.:lity of this section from Fig. 10 to Fig. 11 L;

The main :notive makes an in the :;econd
<:md third ;neusures after Fig. 10. 'l'he first tone is 2_1,
found as the final note of a fi[;ure in the c lurinet. '..:'he
violins follow with the re.::;t of the motive an octave hi,t:her.
At the end of the fourth me .. sure of Pig. 10 the first t1NO
notes of t}& motive appear as a chord !-sharp?) ployed
sforzando in the violins and violes. The final tone
is he.;rd in the next measure. 'I'he same process is
at the end of the fifth measure of this section. See Ex. 8.
8. (I - Fig. 10)
11 a :native
chord of the key of E-flat is he;rd, &Jnd cre:Jtes a
of scule to E-fl8t major. This chord is repeated at the
end of the first, second, and third of l"ig. 11.
/, general analysis of the section in D from Fit:. 7
to .F'ig. 11 is th:.;t it is in leading-tone relation tc tbe
section in E-flat mcJjor which follows ot Fig. 11.
The first three meusures .:,lfter Fig. 11 contnin con-
trapunt:, 1 lines derived from the m . found Fig.
2. In the fourth measure after Fig. 11 a close
of the section after Fig. 2 is begun. This continue0 to a
half cadence on a domin.:-_;,nt seventh chord on Q in the
sure before Figure 12. This cadence chord is extended in
the next section from ,?ig. 1? to Fig. 13. ,-,t Fig. the
fugue in C minor completes the suspended cadence. In the
parRllel ex:<mplf:) after Fig. 3, the Q dominant
chord occurred :i.n the mea sure before Fig. 3, and '.'<ns re-
solved in fashion to C minor in the followinc ne;_,-
Vii th the reduction of the penultimate Cctde.c,ce cl1ord
to an octave . in the cellos und basses in the me:.;::.mre rre-
ceding Fig. 13, the first stc.ternent of the fugue subject,
which is quoted in Ex. 10, is begun. This octave 1 is also
the first tone of the subject, which is given in the violH
line in the key of C melodic minor. Ex. 10 includes refer-
ences to the derivation of the melodic fragments of the
fugue subject.
(I - Fig. 13) 6
The next entrance of the subject starts on 1, the
next note after the final note of the viola statement.
This statement is in F minor, and continues in normal fash-
ion until the end of the subject, where an eighth rest is
substituted for the final note. The last five notes of a
normal statement follow after this rest. The next two
statements are exact re-statements of the subject as given
in the viola line in Ex. 10. These occur in C minor (sixth
measure after Fig. 14) and F minor (third measure after
Fig. 15).
In the three measure section after Fig. 16, scales
on C and F are used concurrentlJ The primary motive is
found in two forms in this section; it occurs in the violin
line in the scale on F as a filled-in interval of a fourth,
which is extended in the second and third measures; and also
in the cello line in the first measure after Fig. 16. In
this second use, it is an application of that portion of the
fugal subject found in the viola line in the second complete
measure of EX. 10
11. (I - Fig. 16)
F1 ' ~ ~ ~ A , e1 cJ ~ ~ e ~
The two scales on F and C shown in Ex. 11 modulate
in the fourth measure after Fig. 16 to a scale on i\-flat;
this scale is found on the enclosed third between the two
original scales found in Ex. 11. The filled-in fourth form
of the motive, as found in the first measure of Ex. 11,
occurs in the viola line in the first measure of the new "-
flat scale ( . Ex. 12). im incomplete statement of the
fugal subject moving from one instrument to another also
starts at this same point. (The three-measure section
which starts after Fig. 16 represents the first three notes
of the fugal subject in its use of the filled-in form of
the primary motive. The section quoted in Ex. 12 is a par-
tial statement of the fugue line found after the primary
motive. The relation of the actual subject to this section
is shown in 12.)
Example 12. (I - e measures before Fig. 17)
1--ffft-- - '=n!-c 2.
I r
I I f t
I I I ' I
' I ' I
I I ' : I
lW .
The motive appears in normal form after the exGmple
shown above. It is found in the cello line as shown in the
first and second measures of Ex. 13; however, this particu-
lar statement has two extensions. If the tied note (g) of
the cellos is resolved to the of the violin line i.n
the next measure, and is continued in that line to the
naturclll, the beginning of the fugal subject is with
the violin portion in inversion. The other applic_;tion of
the motive is as the introductory portion of a complete
statement of the theme of the contrasting section as found
in Ex. 6. In the second measure of i.!:x. 13 the line moves
up from the .sa-flat in the cello to the viola .1 From this
.1 the line continues in the manner found in Ex. 6. Compare
Ex. 6 and Ex. 13.
In the fourth measure after F'ig. 17 a one-measure
extension of the previous material serves 1S a modulation
introduction to the new scale of E-flat minor. The
modulution is effected b.Y nn expanding figure in the upper
strines, as shown in Ex. 14.
Example 14. (I - 3 measures after Fig. 17)
The material found in the thi"'d and fourth measures of "x.
14 is repe:.:,ted essentially in the first two measureo r:fter
Fig. 18.
In the section from Fig. 18 to Fig. 20, the furue
material makes its final e1ppeurances. The fu&ue subject in
E-flat minor, ini tie ted by the horns in the third and fou.rth
measures of Ex. 14, is continued further in the second, third,
and fourth measures after I<,ig. 18. On the final note iu in:-
itation of the subject, founa in the fourth measure,
marks the entrance of another statement of the subject in
the key of R-flat minor.
j,ll elements adopt the scale of -,-flat minor in the
measure before Fig. 19. In the second measure after Fig.
19 the new scale of B-flat minor begins to the
texture. The material in B-flat minor makes use of the fu-
gal subject in this shift of scales, gradually extendinr
its use from the primary motive, ..\S found in the first horn
in the first and second measures of i!:x. 15, to the larre
portion of the subject, as found in the winds in the third
o.nd fourth measures of this same example. With this entry
of the winds all elements are using the of B-fl:.'.t mi-
nor. The 'Ninds continue the subject until the third beat
of the fifth measure on g-flatl. This g-flatl in the VJinds
is the 1::: st tonefround in strict imitation of the fugue :.:>ub-
ject; however, the fugue subject is continued in another
manner in the violins and violas. /\t this point these in-
struments are heard in 8 portion of a scale line sp;:mning
a perfect fifth. This is to be considered an inversion,
both in direction and interval spanned, of the
line of the fugal subject which moves downward :" perfect
fourth in the third and fourth measures at'ter Fig. 13.
Compare bX. 10 and Ex. 15.
t .. xample 15. (I - 2 measures Fig.
s,e .1
Two beats before Fig. 20 the first horn is heard on
wiiict js th8 fir3t note of the primary r:1otive in E-
flat major which appears in the section :.:fter Fig. 20. 'l'he
key of r::-flnt r:ttljor i:.> neld vlithout accidental:.; from .:'ir.
?0 to the end of the Cod:J at Fig. 28. This section fro!n
Fig. 20 ;JS as Fig. 25 make.s use of mo.!terial found in
the first section of the composition from the to
Fig. 7f it qualifies, therefore, as a recapitulation.
'I'he mElterial found in the five rne:..tsure s after .;:'ig.
20 is a re-statement of the muterial found in Ex. 2. '...'r;.e
chnnges are in the orchestrationl and in addi-
tion ,,fter Fig. 20 of u stt;cc,::to cello .. :md bass line in
eighth notes. there is no modulation out of
mnj or in this entire closiq; section, the movement. to /
minor expected in the third measure of this .Jection does
Example 16. (I - Fig. 20
lThe horn end have the
sociQte after the violins
these lines after Fig. 4.
From the third meJsure after 20 to Fig. 21 the
original terial of Ex. 2 is extended .::nd developed. 'Ihe
running accompaniment(bassoon line) continues in a low
range, but, finally, moves upward scalewise in the measure
before Fig. 21. The staccato celJ..o.s and b-.iS6es continue in
eighth notes from Fig. 20 to 21.
In the four-measure section after Fig. 21, all lines
stress portion.:; of the E-flat sc .. or chords from the scc:le.
The bassoon line dictates tne h<,rmony of the section. lt
repeats n pattern on the domim;nt seventh c!;or-.:t in
each of ti1e four me"''.sure.s. In its u:..icL.
leGds in to the section after Fig. 22, it gives a brief
st;;>,tement of tr1e primary motive (BB-flut, D, E-flat).
- -
In the next section found after Fig. 22, u
of t-he beginninL of the compo;.;i tion is developed. The rna-
terial found in the fourth me:.,sure ufter Fig. 1, -.:tnd ccu-
tinuin.c throue.:;h to Fit:. 2, is extended o.fter Fig. f'ro:c:
three rneDsures to 1 .. ive meusure.s in
One be:. t be fort :B'ig. 23 the second horn begins "'
sto.tement of the pri:n ,ry motive in the key of E-flat r:Le.l or.
Tilis .>ection from Fig. 23 to Fig. 25 is G. re-stc.:te.:11ent, < new extension, of the m.::..terL.l found from J:'ig. 20
to Fig. 21. The extension is ended an
flat mc;.jor scale;, which is hulted on the leiidinc tone by C).n
eighth rect. The resolution of this le<::..ding tone to ,g_-
fl2tl in the first ufter Fig. 25 m3rks the be[in-
nine of the See Ex. 52.
sudden end to tLe nervot s h_,rr:tordc novement of the previ.ous
sectioD. . , downward-movinc scele line in the upper '"trings
is contr"; sted with a sevena.tone ostim: to in tr.e lower
strirJ.fS moves, within its This osti-
n;:CJtO is ectu<1ll.;' two of the tLree-note pri:n<:r J
moti (Q.-fl. t, _gl, st-flntl) plus one other member of tL.e
E-fl<:01t tri;u (g), whicr1 indic::1tes the beginnin.t of
each group. The windc> and Lorn:J move dowm; rd on
choros of the key of E-flat mr::lj or, wldch move from one
chord membe1 to the next(with chanre._, ir:. i o-
sj tion of <Jll the other parts. One member of the cLur,_, is
usu-,llj ,ltered to creete C\ new chord, althouLL this
cilteration does not occur every time. See Ex. 40.
The section from 7ig. 27 to Fig. 28 is an exact
copy of the 8ection from Fig. 25 to .?ig. with tlle second
"'ection at .:.: volume than the first. The Codd frou
Pig. ?5 to Fi[. 28, therefore, has its own form C .-B-, )
In the linking section Fig. 28 to .?ig.
a :noduL,tion occurs frorr; the E-flat or scc:1le of tLe first
movement to the key of F ffi3j or. '.::'his chord appe rG in t.l1e
sixth rne;_:sure after I<,ii.> 28. In the seventh e it_ l:t,"
:ne:-;sures, the sinrle tone, E, is hecrd, doubled in oct: ve s.
'1'his is ti1c dor:dnant scale step of the B-flat sce.le u:::;ed in
the second movement, and is also the first tone heard in
that movement. The indication attacca is found at the end
of this linking section.
second M9vement
The second movement is titled l\llegrettg; the metro-
nome setting is J':: 108, this tempo holding throughout the
The movement is in ternary form, its f:eneral outline
presented graphically as follows:
Graph I.
This movement is a model of simrlicity. Extensive
use is made of two and three-part writing; although ;:1ore
line enter occasionally, these consist of tones re-
lated to the busic harmony of the accompanir:1ent or to one
of the melodic lines. There are no ce:ses of the use of two
scales with different tonic notes at the same time, c.1s in
the first movement; in the second movement, however, the
moving or melody line can be found employing tones from one
portion of the scJle or selected tones from the while
the accompaniment makes use of the remaininr tones, or ano-
ther selection of tones, or even :_;ll of tl1e tones of t..ds
sa me s c. i le
evidenced by Graph I, the material found at the
outset of the movement of Grnph I) returns in all sections
except the contrasting middle section (.P. /1 study of the
manner in which this mDterial is used in the following sec-
tions will give a clear idea of the form of the movement.
The theme of the movement is begun without intr-o-
duction in the violas. :3ee t;x. 17. Its first tone (.fl) is
the upper boundary of the melody for four measures. TLe
first and second measures are repeated in the third ana
fourth me"'tsures with the only change found in the accompa-
niment. 'l'he bassoon tone (.-flat) is found in a different
part of the meosuret
The leaps of a sixth in the fifth measure of 17
are related to the third (gl-fl) of the sixth measure in a
scalewise manner. If the sixths are given in inversion,
the following series of interlinked thirds develops:
,!2-flat - Q, - Q - l
In the sixth measure of Ex. 17 the line is extended
into a lower range (to ,5!), but it immediately swings bc\Ck
in a leap of a minor tenth (to .2) to balance this. The
lower tone (A) is repeated in the next me.c:lsure by the accom-
paniment which resolves to Qflat to form the cadence of
the phrase.
lThe simple accompaniment of the bassoon nnd cellos is gra-
dually expanded in the first section from Fig. 29 to Fi
32. The b.::tssoon in:t:roduces sixteenth notes to the line,
and finally becomes the only accompanying vioce in the se-
cond measure after .F'ig. 31.

17 (II - Fig. 29)
-r--rr f
- -- - - ,...__
-- -. ". . .. - -
In the section from Fig. 30 to Fig. 31 the mater-ial
from the latter part of the first p.hrase group (final three
measures of Ex. 17) is extended and developed. The section
from Fig. 31 to the fifth me:::.sure after Fig. 31 makes use
of the melodic material found in the first four measures of
Ex. 17, again extended and developed.
In the fifth measure after Fig. 31, the line of the
melody and accompaniment come together on a unison (gl).
'I'he violins continue from this ,gl with members of the D m1-
jor chord, the chord members (root, third, and fifth) orna-
mented by upper neighboring tones.
This D major chord does not anticipate the true to-
nality of the next section stnrting after Fig. 32. / s
in Ex. 18, the tonality is changed to D minor in the first
measure after Fig. 32.
The section from Fig. 3? to Fig. 33 is a dialoeue
between the clarinet and the violins. In the first measure
of Ex. 18 the tones of a . minor triad, plus ]1-fl<.::t <-<nd !-
natural, are heard in the melody line of the clarinet; the
violins re-state the clc...rinet phrase in the second measure
with one tone altered. During this section the notes of the
accompc.niment played by the cellos are members of the .,.b;!. minor
triad. In the sixth me(;sure of Ex. 18, the violins .::mswer
the clarinet statement of the fifth me:-,sure with a three-
note fragment which, combined with the accomp<:miment note,
suggests a dominant function in an F scale. The new F scale
enters in the first measure after Fig. 33.
Example 18. (II - Fig. 32)
[!) VL..NS. L:UJ

:J!=,-i f
10 F >
The section in D minor found in Ex. 18 has thus
served in another "enclosed-third., modulation. The keys
employed in the sections after Figs. 31, 32, and 33 give
the following series of tonic notes; L
The section from Fig. 33 to Fig. 34 employs a com-
plex SC21le, its pola.ri ty establishing .E as the tonic note.
In its use of the two thirds of the sc:..;le flut and fl-
natural), the toncdity created is neither major nor minor,
but a combination of both. The melodic found in
Ex. 17 is re-stated in this section using this F scale.
In the first measure after Fie. 34 new material en-
ters (section. in Graph I). See Ex. 19. The flute has
mEny repetitions of and strengthens the feeling for
F minor ns the tonality. The melody line in the clerinet
in the four measures ofter Fig. 34 employs the .::-flat r'lso.
J\ re-stntement of material from the :first st: tement
of the theme in the F [JS found after :fig. 33, i;:;
found in the bu.ssoon line in the first four measures after
Fig. 35, In the fifth after Fig. :35 the clari:1et
re-st_,tes in F major the melody found in the first me' :oure
plus one beat in the second measure of Ex. 17. This ere-
ates .::m emphasis in the two examples on the two thirds (6-
flat :,;_nd ;i-natural) of the F scale of this section, .. dnce
the tone used in the first portion of the motive
(the first four measures after Fig. 35) is and the
lowest tone found in the second series (in the fifth meu-
sure) is .,6-natural.
In the first me:;sure after .B'ig. 36 the bassoon
gives the theme in the major-minor form (descending to JJ.-
flat) found after Fig. 33. This is the fourth return of
Sl material of the graph in the first lHrge of
movement. The section is brought to a cadence in the first
meDsure o.fter :F'ig. 37 by an E minor chord. The third of
this chord is supplied by the flute, and violins
Pizzacato, and the next section continues from this roint.
The flute once again stresses ,8-flat in this return of
section s of the graph. In the section after Fig. 37 the
clarinet line is altered slightly in order to empha;;.:;ize
the off-beats. It follows the same outline of the earlier
line as found in Ex. 19. In the fourth bar after Fig.
the bassoon makes another entrance using section !! as it
did after Fig. 35 in the first statement of section
This line continues with an extension through the first
measure after Fig. 38; the violins continue on alone in
the second me<lsure to close the large setion fl on :Q-fl;,t

The next three measures the bridge to
the middle section (.12). With the exception of the firGt
pedal tone in the cellos and basses, this section
is a re-statement of the first three mensures after E'ig.
28 in the link between the first and second movements.
The diyisi strings are employed in both instances.
:-he entrance of material g in Graph I is found in
the first me -'.sure after Fig. 39. The ostinato Of the cel-
los and basses expresses the tonality of the section (G
minor); the upper strings are found in another ostinato
implying an a minor chord, which produces a polychordal
effect. The detailed description of this ostinato will be
found in the section at the close of this chapter.
The ;, . ..;:lody is i:i ven to the clarinet, which lw s a
straight chromHtic series in sharp stuccc:lto fro:n g up to
g-flat in the second and third measures of Ex. 20.
Ex. 20.

- Fig. 39)
cL. L.!NC.
c, F, cr,A II
This ascending chromatic line found in the clarinet seems
to have a rel2tion to the main theme of the second movement.
In the first statement of the main theme, the descendin,e::
chrome:J.tic line from ,t:
to gl occurred. :Jee Ex. 17. The
ascending line in the second and third measures of Ex. 20
starts on g; it then proceeds upward a total of two minor
thirds, or twice the span of the theme as found in the first
four measures of Ex. 17. The clarinet series is
in the fourth and fifth me:sure after Fig. 39, extends
here fro:n 9. to g. This .series is repe:;ted in i ._e sixth and
seventh measures by the clarinet and b<- ::>soon.
The quiet ostinato of the strines continues <";lone
for the first two measures after Fig. 40. In the tlh.ird mea-
sure the flute enters with em ornate subject wldch contuins
the primary motive of the first movement. The line exidts
in two rDnges, one having the tones and !2,, c,nd the hi.rher
one U3inL !i-fl,[jt and The motivE.! is found in two
more series t.h;:,t occur in the flute line in the third c::nd
fourth measure of Ex. 22; therefore, this appearance
seems more than coincidental. The flute line in the first
instance is shown in Ex. 21.
Example 21. (II - l measures sfter Fig. 40)
In the fourth chro:nD, t..ic
series from g up is found in the clarinet 5lone. :n
the fifth and sixth measures, this series is supplieo. '.lith
its first tone (gl) by the upper strings; it is continued
in the cl.f'l.rinet and bc:,saoon.
In the first measure of Ex. 22 the flute begins a
line descending on chord tones. It leads into the remain-
ing two figures which include the reference to the mot5_ ve
from the first movement.
Example 22. (II - Fig. 41)
In the next section the ostinato continues alone nnd the
scale is changed from G minor to G major. i'ter Fig. 43
the strines again return to G minor. In the first me .. sure
the bassoon has an ascending ctu-omatic series from ,!i-nc:;tu-
ral to .s,-natural, and back to .s-flat. In the second
it h<:;s a shorter series from f. to g-natur1:1l and again Q-
flat. This _s-flat is adopted by the string ostin<.lto in the
third mee:>sure <::fter Fig. 43 and, in combin::1tion with ]2.-flat,
g-flatl, and fl, creates a scc<le shift to B-flr:Jt minor.
This modification of the scale center indicates the entrance
of section of the 11 portion of the movement.
Example 23. (II - Fig. 43)
The theme of section g is found in the clarinet. in
the third and fourth measures after F'ig. 43. tile first
measure of Ex. 24. In the second me. sure of the ex<':l;::;le
this statement is imitated a minor third lower; tllis form
is used in a stretto in the fourth and fifth me:.,sures of the
example. the conclusion of the first statement of tj1e
theme of section g in the third measure of the example, the
flute ha3 an uscending line; this line is composed of :nem-
bers of the !!-flat major triad plus , and is found lc .. ter
introducing a new section.
Example 24. (II - 3 measures after
The flute sustains the final note (t_3) of the third
of its ascending line through the fourth :ne .Jure
after li'ig. 44. .i'tt the end of this measure the b<.tssoon leaps
a fourth :from ,g,l to ,tl, and the flute and bassoon
materie.l from the melodic line as found in Ex.l7. The CJ.C-
companiment is a passage. See Zx. ?5.
The fntrance of the solo cello on in the
third measure after Fig. 45 changes the scale from B-fl<.t
major to B-flat minor. See upbeat to the first measure of
Ex. 26. The cello line continues in the first measur-e of
the example with the motive of section , found in the
clarinet in the first und second measures of 2x. :4.
'l'his cello line is developed in the following measures,
and is found in stretto in the fifth measure of Ex. :::'6.
The last three me<-::sures of the example make use of derived
forms of the line, and overlap in the final mec,sure v.i"Lh
the beginnin of large section
In the first mec:: sure o.fter Fig. 47 the violo.:c; <:re
heard in u recapitulation of the main theme (,6
theme, found from Fig. 29 to one me.cisure before Fig.
is repeated note for note until the lust note before
end of the entire section at Fig. 50, where an .fl is s,.lb-
stituted for a g_l.
The important addition to the is the
flute line in thirty-second notes. It is usually bdsed on
chords of B-flat major, but occasionully a scale line is
found, or a group of repeBted tones.
In the second measure of this florid line, the pri-
mary motive of the first movement makes another appear:mce.
The link to the bridging materiDl after Fig. 50 is
the final note of the flute pL.lssc;ge (g3). The tone lit/ of
the first three measures of the bridge is D major, and the
stringed instruments are used exclusivelJ only in these
first three mensures. In the fourth measure the strin,ed
instrurnent,s shift to an .-flat chord which lws noi conrnon
tone in the previous chordJ the second horn enters at tilis
point on the lowest tone of the cLord, ;:na . ustc:.ins
this tone into the next measure without the strin;:s. In the
measure before Fig. 51 and the first measure after Fig. 51,
.c1ll the rest of the winds make entr:mces.
The sustained chords continue in E-fL1t ma.J or until
the third meDsure Fig. 51 where the key becomer) ...
flot mBj or. At this point a pl: ;gal cadence in B-fl;:;t ma,_! or
begins which reaches its resolution chord in the next :::e,,-
sure. The lower strinrs enter alone on a major chord
in the last me:::sure, ana are joined by the upper ntrin,;,:s
and the clarinet in the same chord repeated as the fin<:il
chord of the movement.
Tb;trd Movement
The third movement is titled Con Moto with a metro-
nome setting at J = 160. For the contrasting part (section
in Graph II below), a IeWQQ is indicated; the
metronome setting is .J : 100 for this section. /,t it.s com-
pletion +,e.:npQ I is found, and the original tempo is kept
from that point on to the end.
The movement is a five port Rondo; the outline of
the movement in graph form is ns follows:
Graph II.
Cl' a "L I Fvr,u .... s.i t I a
c A
I a"'
I CooA I
The winds are predominant in the bulk of this move-
ment. The strings are found as accompnniment in all of the
sections except one, i. e., in Graph II.
At the outset the movement employs a seven-tone se-
ries bnsed on the E-flat major scale. The movement besins
in the brisk manner of a :3panish march. The main them is
found as n continuous line in the horns and bassoon from
the beginning through the seventh measure of 28. . t
this point an u-sharp breaks the ostinato of the basse.::;,
and a new scale resembling G minor is introduced.
v Ntf. ................
,,A!r, P

From Fig. 54 to Fig. 56 the previous section (:;X.
28) is repeated vvi th some al (section "i'he
first part in major is essentially the same; hov:ever,
the G minor portion is altered considerably. This
effects a modulBtion to the key of the third state::tent of
the motive in the section after Fig. 56 (section
In the passage from Fig. 56 to Fig. 57, the section
found in Ex, 28 from the first to the eighth measure i;;
given in a series based on the G-flat major scale. In the
measure before Ii'ig, 57, the modulatory leading-tone (here
an iu\-natural) occurs in the basses to indicate a modula-
tion up a major third. See the seventh measure of Ex.
The modulution to a Bflat minor series occurs in the ;aea-
sure after l''ig. 57, but the original melodic material, used
in the previous section from Fig. 56 to Fig. 57, is found
here once again on the same pitches. The dynamic indica-
tion for the section found after Fig. 57 is Forte to.
At the conclusion of' this Forte passage, the first
statement of the fugue subject evolved from the main tl1eme
makes its appearance. The first half is begun in the tldrd
measure after Fig. 57 in the horns alone; all parts re-
enter in the fifth measure to mark the cadence of t:i1is
tion. The horns continue in the sixth measure wi til the se-
cond part of the fugue subject, which again is brought to a
close by the rest of the ensemble.
'l'he f'ugue subject is quite closely rel<..<ted to tile
main theme. It can be discovered in any of the statements
of the main theme as the voice below the top voice in tile
texture. 'l'he first note is an extra tone which ru-:u:ne:::; the
scale of the subject; the part evolved from the main theme
begins on the second tone, which is a fifth Clbove the first.
'l'he bassoon line from the third to the fifth me
sures after Fig. 56 is a perfect fifth distant from the
first statement of the subject found from t.l1e third through
the fifth after Fie. 57.
Example 29, (III- 3 measures after Fig. 56 [bassoon]; 3
measures after Fig. 57 [horns))
'l'he second portion of the fugue subject also hus
relntion to this same melodic fragment of the bassoon z>ound
in the section after Fig. 56. The line, as found in til.e
second horn part in the sixth meesure after Fig. 57, begins
with a leap of a major seventh; this is actuallJ the rdnor
second Rflat) of the bassoon line in inversion.
The three notes at the beginning of the second horn portion
correspond to the second, third, and fourth tones in the
bassoon line above,
In the first measure c.:fter Fig. 58, the clarinet
repeats the first six tones found in the second horn line
in the two measures before Fig. 58 (second horn passage in
Example 29). On the fourth tone (g-flatl), the flute and
bassoon enter with the second statement of the fugue sub-
ject in the key of F minor. The clarinet continues its
line in counterpoint to this second stzJternent. The cl::::lri-
net part in the second and third measures after Fig. 58
is found in the bassoon part in the second and third mea-
sures after Fig. 59; it is used there as the contrapunt.;,l
Dosociate for the second st,tement of the fugo.l sub(.ject in
F minor.
In the fifth me<:;sure after Fig. 58, the bassoon be-
gins n stotement of the fugue subject in B-flat minor; this
statement of the complete subject and the contrapuntc:.l <w-
sociate is the longest single stfltement, employing only re-
cognizable fugal material, found in the fugue section. The
second horn enters in the first me<sure after Fig. 58 with
the subject in F minor. On the last beat of the third mea-
sure after Fig. 59, this portion of the fugue is ended by
the same materia.l which introduced it; the three mea:Jure
section which follows at this point is an
ment of the first appearance of this material in the sec-
tion following Fig. 57.
The section after Fig. 60 serves to introduce the
next section of the fugue found after Fig. 61. The line in
the first violins after Fig. 60 is the retrograde form of
the flute and first horn line in the fourth and fifth .:ne -
sures after Fig. 59. See Ex. 30 below.
30. (III - 3 measures before Fig. 60 [horn]; S'ig.
60 violilj)
The line LJ continued in the violins n.nd extends
The scale simpler in the fourth L1ea:.mre after /:L:.J
60, Emd the \Jay is prepared for the final fugal section
which begins in the first me&sure after Fig. 61.
The fugue subject is be[:un in augmented for::1 in the
first horn, cellos, and bassoon in the key of D-fl<Jt ;lLJ or
(lst mec:1sure of 31). The first horn line takes trli3
state:nent through the second portion of the fugue ancJ . .:.
complete stD.tement of the contrapuntul associate. 'l'L.e :>e-
cond entrance of the fugue subject is found in the seco.1d
horn line stBrting in the second measure of Ex. 31. '1:.ii .. s
subject is in inversion, and extends through both .sections
of the subject to the first beat of the fourth me surE:.
The tonality of the second sti::itement in inversion is :--flat
minor. The violins and viol:::.s begin the third of
the subject on the final note of the second subject in the
fourth mec:..sure of Ex. 31. This new stutement is in I.-Zlc:.:t
major, extends to the end of the fifth me sure. ..
fourth and final statement is found in the fifth r.1ec,;:;ure of
Ex. 31 in the cellos and basses. It is a complete .st t.e-
ment of the in F minor, and extends throu.::)l t0 the
end of the sixth measure.
Example 31.
In the section after Fig. 63, two scales Gre
at the same time. They are major and L-flat majorl.
'I'he melodic line of the section bears a strong rese.:nbl.J..:.-1ce
to the main theme of the movement. See Ex. 32.
lThe relation of these two scales will be studied in t1 ,e
chapter on and 3cales.
(III - Fig. 63)
In the section after Fig. 64 the melodic
becomes prectically ststic. Example 33 includes entire
section from Fig. 64 to Fig. 65. The mec-,sure of this
section was not included in the pocket edition of the .Jcore.
It is performed in the recording, hmnever.
Example 33. (III - Fig. 64)
17:'71 Ab .ScA'-f, ut"PeR.srAF,::
l!e.:!J - - .......
' I"'
'l'he entire section fro.::n Fig. 65 to Fig. 08 will be
considered in detail in the next section on Ostinoto. The
large section from Fig. 63 to Fig. 68 is the Retr3nsition
to section Q in Grnph II.
The section from Fig. 68 to tvvo before Fi,.:. 70
is c. of the material found in Ex. 28; tL.e ::1<1-
teriul in thi.s section is a minor third higher, <:lnd uses
the scale of the earlier section transposed up to G-fle.t.
'rhe two measures before Fig. 70 are an extension Lmd aug-
ment.:::tion of the previous figure found in the fourth :ne
sure after Fig. 69 (tenth me::sure of Ex. 28). This aug-
mented portion serves to slow the pace for the
which follows.
':he first and second violins are found in a duet .:1t
the beginning of the Poco Meno section after Fig. 70. .he
key of the section from Fig. 70 to Fig. 72 is C minor, '.nd
the simple accompaniment chords of the other instrur:1en ... s
are composed of members of the C minor triad. Exam_ple 3<i
shows the beginning of this section.
Example 34. (III - Fig. 70)
11dJ ?oGo Mb_"
'- - -l.-:_---_-----._ ;--
The next section after Fig. 72 begins as a re-state-
ment, in the new key of Bflat minor, of the material found
in Ex. 34; in the third measure after Fig. 74 (lst measure
of Ex. 35), strettos are found using this melodic material.
Example 35. (III - 3 measures after Fig. 72)
The material of the stretto is extended in the first
two measures after Fig. 73; this leads to a section of sus-
tained chords, which recalls the linkint_; material found in
the closing portions of the first and second movements. This
extends from the third measure after Fig. 73 to Fig. 74 and
:f'emQO 1 again ...
In the section found after Fig. 74, a third deriva-
tion (a3 in Graph II) is found. The six-measure section
from Fig. 74 to i g ~ 75 represents the entire first state-
ment of the theme as found in Ex. 28. In the next section
from Fig. 75 to Fig. 77, the second portion of the m;:Jin
theme, as found from the eighth tr.LI'ough the eleventh mea-
sures of Ex. 28, is developed. (This section from 75
to Fig. 77 is repeated in the recording of the Concerto.)
The bridge to section of Graph II starts in the
first measure after 77. Two scales of 11 minor and
major exist in the section from Fig. 77 to Fig. 79; in each
of the scales the theme of section g is developing. When
the theme makes its appearance in the first after
Fig. 79, the A scalest\dropped, and n new scc:\le on D is u.dop-
ted. In the section from Fig. 79 to Fig. 81 the new theme
is given one complete exposition. This is its only
ance in the entire movement. 'I'he horn begins the theme :J.nd
carries it into the fourth me:.:sure after Fig. 79. .t this
point the flute continues with a Coda to the theme, and
completes the statement in the bar before .J:i'ig. 81. ..lee
Ex. 36 for the horn portion of this
Example 36. (III - Fig. 79)
D, F; A, '-, ob
f L.
In the first measure after Fig. 81 the fourth ver-
sion of the main theme Cs4 of Graph II) appeats; it is found
with a more LiCti ve accompaniment figure, an ostinato of two
beats duration in eighth notes. See Ex. 37.
37. (III - Fig. 81)
uuu ,
This section resembles the first statement of the
theme, as found in Ex. 28, in a sense; however, the
second section does not modulate to G minor, but
in the E-flat scale of the firot portion of this altered
In the section after Fig. 83, the t:neme is
c,ltered further. It is extended upward throughout tHis
section by consecutive scule steps. This section from ?ig.
83 to the end is the Coda of the movement; it consists en-
tirelJ of alterntions of the main theme. See Ex. 45.
From F'ig. 85 to the end of the movement the SC';le
employed is an E-flc:t ma,jor scale with two leading tones
(.Q-flat and 12-naturo.l). In the section from Fig. 90 to the
end, the S!-flat major chord is used repeatedly with the '-ld-
ded tone, 12 This .seemd to be one final usa[;e of the pri-
mary motive of the first movement (]2-flat, Q,
Since the motive was detected in second movement also,
it would indicate that the entire composition is cyclical
to this extent.
In the composition of the Durnbarton Oaks Concerto,
Stravinsky has made frequent use of the ostinato. .3ince the
device has been a basic part of his compositional technique
from the beginning, this usage is to be expected. He has
devised some new applications for the ostinato, which .:-:re
outlined in the next section.
His literal ostim.1ti (several exact repetitions of
a figure) are used in this composition as a block of the
form. They usually tend to hold the melodic elements to o.
specific range, or to a limited group of chord tones. The
rhythmic ostinato (several exact repetitions of a rhythmic
pattern while using various intervals) is also used.
The other group of ostinati, if this term is .::.:pplaed
in the freest sense, is made up of the pedal ostinati. The
pedo.l ostinato can be found as a sustained tone (pedal tone),
::1 sustained chord (pedal chord), or the rhythmically free
linear movement of a part which outlines the tones of a sin-
gle chord against the melodic line. The first two of these
pedul will be discussed in the chapter on Harmony
and Scales; the last one .;ill be considered in the follow-
ing section.
The ostinato is used extensively in the first c:tnd
third movements. It is found mainly in section of the
second movement. The use in this section is continuous,
since no measure from :B'ig. 39 to Fig. 47 is found without
some form of an ostinato, and usually two are present at
the same time. There is one other usage in the movement,
found in the accompaniment of the section material.
Since there are numerous instances of ostinato usage
in the Concert9, the following discussion will consider each
movement separately in order that conclusion about os-
tinato usage for each may be drawn. In order to
facilitate this, mention will also be made of the ostinato
passages discussed in the previous portion of this chspter.
In the fifth me<:Jsure after Fig. s, a literal osti-
nato is found in the first violo. line; this ostinato wus
included in Ex. 4 as a part of the diminishing motive se-
ries. There are five repetitions of this form of the mo-
tive, and these repetitions are literal in the sequence of
tones chosen for the ostinnto; ho-wever, the rhythm is
slightly altered in the first two series, as shown in Ex.
38 below.
Example 38. (I - - 5 measures c;_fter- Fig. 5)
In the first measure after Fig. 6 there is a two-note (E,
.Q) literal ostinato in sixteenths in the lower strings;
this is indicated in 5.
The next example is another literal ostin,,to found
in the first four measures after Fig. 10. The discussion
of this basscfn ostinEtto in fourths is found in the fir3t
section of this chapter; the application of the ostinato
is shown in Ex. 8.
The ostinati found in the lower strint_ ,_ in the sec-
tions after Fig&. 12 and 13 are literal. They bear strong
resemblance to one another in the manner in which they
initiated. In the measure before F'ig. 12 the two notE: se-
ries .fl) occurs in the cellos and basses; this se-
ries is extended in the first measure after Fig. 12 (;-fL,t,
,g, ,E), and is repented in the next measure. In the fourth
me0.sure the ostinato is found with one tone (Q) missing;
the leap (-flo.t, E) remains, however, to identify the fi-
gure as a member of the ostinato.
The next series after Fig. 13 is begun with the Q
of the lower strings in the measure before Fig. 13. As in
the previous series found after Fig. 12, the ostin_,.to has
only two members present at first (.Q, followed by .6-flat in
the first measure after Fig. 13). In the second and third
measures the ostinato is given for the first time in its
complete form (Q, See Ex. This
note series is repe<?.ted with minor rhythmic variations un-
til the end of the third bar after Fig. 14 (five repetitions
occur). In the fourth and fifth measures after Fig. 10,
the ostinato is broken by a descending series
(., .6-flat) which leads to the next statement of
the fugue subject in the key of C minor (Q, ,
and continuing in a normal statement of the fugue).
The next example found is classified as a pedal
ostinato. In the two before Fig. 18, the lovJer
' \;:\
strillbs present three members of a
chord g,, and ,a-flat). In the two measures that
follow Fig. 18 these particular tones are used in a rlv-
th.mically free manner to outline the chord. The portion
of the fugue subject used in this section is restricted to
the first six tones because of this ostinato. . ,ee
.2x. 14.
In the sections found from .F'ig. 21 to 22 and from
Fig. 23 to 24, examples of rhythmic ostinoto, which he1ve
characteristics of pedal are found. The ostinoto
in Ex. 39 is from the first section after Fig. 21. The
second, after Fig. 23, is li.Uite similar in tree1tment, with
minor chcnges occurrin,in the double bass line.
Example 39. (I - Fig. 20)
In the four measure section after Fig. ?1, the bns-
soon line consists of a pedal ostinato which is nenrly liter-
al. 'l'his ostinato is componed of the four members of the
!a-flat major-minor seventh chord. An extra !-fl,t is c:dded
to the ostineto in the third measure, which labels it .:1s a
pedal ostinato instead of a literal one.
The ostinati found in the Codc.'t of the movement ex-
tend through its entire length form Fig. 25 to Fig. :?8.
There are two ostinati present nere. One is composed of
seven tones, and ia literal. The second one is composed
of three chords and is rhythmic. The note values of e ~ h
chord member of this second ostinato are double the note
values employed in the seven-tone figure. 'l'his is an exam-
ple of polyrhythm in the combination of the two ostin::ti.
See Ex. 40 which follows.
From this consideration of the ostinato us;.1ge in
the first movement, it will be noted that the use of liter-
al ostinati is more extensive than any other kind. iome
of these literal examr;les are found altered slirhtly, but
they remain more literal than anything else.
In the second movement the first use of an ostinGto
is found in the bassoon line in the last measure of 17;
the members of the major chord are outlined here. A
rhyth.1nicully-free linear usaee continues until the fourth
meosure after Fig. 30, at which point a ,-naturul L3
duced which breaks the ostinato. The same ped::1l ostinato
enters <;gain in the first measure after fi'ig. 31, and conti-
nues until ... the fifth measure. In the return of this pc.:ss<:.<ge
from Fig. 47 to li'ig. 50, this ostinato is repeated exactly
with the exception of the last note (gl) for which a puuse
in all lines is substituted.
The important use of the ostinato is found in ec- .
tion ,g of the movement. There are thirteen examples of os-
tinato used in this section; since the entire section is
based on the ostinato, a full accounting of the method in
which it is employed in the section is nt:cessary. _;orne
of the ostinati have alreco1dy been mfmtioned in the section
describing the second movement.
Example 20 contains all elements of the two ostinu-
ti used without break from Fig. 39 to the meosure before Fi>
42. At this point the three-note ostinato of the lower
strings has a substituted for the in the
chordal outline on Q in use since the first measure ,;.fter
Fig. 39; the upper strings continue in the usual un-
til the second measure after Fig. 42. this point they
break the original ostinato t and extend their r, nge upwurd
in the implied key of D major from to
The upper strings return to a two chord ostin:to in
the first measure after Fig. 43. See :Sx. 23. The lower
strings again adopt the G minor chordal series.- In the
third measure after Fig. 43, the upper strings be;in new
two-chord ostinato. See Ex. 23. It has already been in-
dicuted that this change in ostinato marks the beginning of
section in the second movement. This new ostinato in B-
flat minor in the upper strings continues until the fifth
measure ;.;.fter Fig. 44. It is accompanied throughout this
section by a pedal ostinoto in the lower strinrs. ,:;ee i!:x.
The strict two-chord ostinato of the upper strings,
:ss found in Ex. 24, is chenged to the rhythm.ic ostimi.tO on
the .[ moj or cho.:d as found in Ex. 25. This is an le
of polyrhyth:nic ostin.:;to us<:tge corn.11on in the third movement.
The pedal ostinato becomes a sustained ped:.:l tone (2.-:f'lat)
in the first measure of Ex. 25. Immediately followinr, this
in the fourth measure after Fig. 45, the ostinato of
the lower strings becomes a strict ostinato, of
Em-flat and !}-flat alternating on every second beat. The
upper strings return to a two-chord ostinato at this sa:-.1e
point; the chordDl use1ge in this line becomes quite free
following this in the second mec:.sure of ::.:x.
The final ostinato used in this section is a rhy-
thmic one; it is indic8ted in Ex. 41.
Example 41. (II - 4 measures after Fig. 46)
"F -.;F , (r= -.WJ (A')

In the second movement twelve different
used. Of this total, five were strict, one WQS a strict
rhythmic ostinato (Ex. 41), and the other six were vari-
ous types of pedal ostinati.
The third movement opens with an ostinato in the
lower strings. This is in groups of four chords, ::::i::iilsr
to the ostinato of the previous movement shown in Ex. <:5.
The plan of this ostinato is shown in Ex. 28; thi.s
tJpe of ostinbto is found in the sections efter Figs. 56,
57, und 68; it is an example of a strict rhythmic ostinQto.
The next section to make use of the ostinato is
from Fig. 65 to three Fig. 68. In this brief
section ten ostinati are found; the section is made ur
entirely of ostinato material. See Ex. 42.
Example 42. (III Fig. 65)
3 ... 1---1
T!1e violin duet after Fig. 70 is accompanied by
two forms of ostinato. See Ex .:.34. 1'he continuous eighth
note pc:ttern would be n strict two-beat ostinato, except
for the that two sixteenths enter occasionally in the
place of one of the eighth notes; therefore, it must be
clnssed as a ped:Jl ostinato. 'I'he chords in the bass are
definitely classified as pedal ostinato; they occur ,:Jt ir-
regulnr intervals, and consist of members of the Q minor
triad. This Sc::me procedure is repeo.ted exactly in the sec-
tion following Fig. 72 in B-flat minor.
At the end of the B- flat minor section after Jig.
72, chords in the key of B-flat II13.jor create a two-beat os-
tinato in the it is a strict ostinato, and accom-
panies the bassoon which outlines tones of the mnjor
triad. :;ee 1st and 2nd measures of Ex. 43.
t.;xample 43. (III - 3 measures after Fig. 73)
In the third and flute ndopts
n ostinato which implies the g major chord; the bas-
soon outlines the major chord in another ped .. ,l ostinc.<.to.
The melOdJ line of this portion is in the key of G or.
The next ostinato is found in the section from
l',ig. 75 to Fig. 77; it is a rhythmic ostinato vdth two forms
as shown in Bx. 44. The section from Fig. 76 to Fig. 77 is
a repetition of the form of the mensures of this exam-
ple, on a new scale a fourth than the first.
Example 44. (III - 1fg 75)
17]) G- t.

J:i .... ., -.. ..... ae.. I I r _'li' ...

. ..
ft ..
' < _,_ , ,.
---- --




-t '
. .I. .
:; ;


l-. 1 -l l.,

---- r---
... t.
-- ----

r-. .......
;.,; ,.,
. ... u- ...

... I 7, ., ..

".,-! -

s i
't t 'I
- r =t --
.l. Ia
.. - -\- -+ -- +r -.

. --f-
1 i ..
.L . - ..

- -
'lhe next ostinDto a strict rhythrnic one; it is
found in the bassoon trills and cello pizzacalco not.cs in
the section following Fig. 79. See Ex. 36. These triJls
continue to the second me_,sure before the next section,
which begins after Fig. 81, for a total of nine
In the section fro:n Fig. 81 to Fig. 83, a .strict
ostinato is found in the accompaniment to last rre-
sentationof tbe principal theme (.s4 of Graph II); tl!L; is
shown in Ex. 37. The section following t!lis after Fig. 83
employs a rhythmic ostinato, :;"tg.:,in of tao-beats duration in
eighth notes. This outlines mony different chords u.sea in
the melodic structure; this continues until the fifth mea-
sure nfter Fig. 87. In combination with its predecesaor,
the strict ostinato found after I<,ig. 81, it comprizes the
largest block in the structure employing continuous
nato measures). See Ex.
Example 45, (III - Fig. 83)
;, very short strict ostine .. to is found in the section
in the first two me,.tsures after Fig. 90; this employ;3 F)n nn-
ticir.;ation of the final cadence chord c;u the beginning of
each ostinc:1to group. :3ee. Ex. 4&
Example 46. ,,.,.._.,.

1'he final movement of the Concerto made the
extensive use of ostinato. In all there were twenty-one
different ostinati; nine of these were literal, eig:;l .. t t,ere
of the pedal group, and four were rhytrunic types.
In the formation of a musicnl composition, the pro-
blem of ending one idea and beginning another continually
presents itself to the composer. The methods used to ac-
complish this are personal with every important composer;
in his solution of this compositional problem, Str<:lvinsky
makes use of certain basic formulas wLich will be consi-
dered in the following discussion.
The only three possible ways of handling the end
of one idea and the beginning of another are defined and
diagramed below:
1. Bring the first idea to a complete close be-
fore beginning the second idea.
2. Bring the first idea to a close and at the same
time begin the second idea (momentary elision).
3. Before bringing the first ide:. to a close, enter
the second idea (overlap or elision).
The second and third types e.bove produce the most
continuity, ond are favored strongly by 3travinsky. The
first type, if used often, would create a section8liz<Jtion
of ideas.
The next problem to be considered in a Cddence is
the harmonic one; the relation of the penultimDte and finr:.Il
sonorities is tne prime factor in this problem. The compo-
ser must be aware of all the possibilities inherent in the
immediate vicinity of his cadence so that his use of t.Lis
material will create a convincing cadence.
'l'he discussion of cadences of the Concerto will be
approached from the standpoints of continuity and J:larmonic
and motion. Typical examples have been extr:"cted
from the score, and discussed in the order of their
peurance. The examples will contain the h:r:nonic scheme of
the codence, and will be diagramed to show the particular
method employed in the ending of one idea and the beginning
of the next. Following the example, other features of the
cadence will be discussed.
Example 47. (I - 2 measures before Fig. 4)
This cadence occurs at the end of the introductory
.rn<.::.terial. The two cta'ds used concurrently are the -fl.,t
major triad and the Q minor triad. The major line
resolves into the accompaniment line, the g minor line
is resolved in the first solo statement of the primc,ry motive.
It will be noted that all three members of the main motive
cun be found in this combination of chords which occurs be-
for Fig. 4.
Example 48. (I - 1 measure before Fig. 7)
.. .
0, E," F:ll, G,Grtl, C:.ff
The .@-fl<.lt in the lower strinrs is carried over into
the next section as an E-sharp. The !2-flat und _g-fl2t found
in the clarinet line are resolved after Fig. 4 to the enclo-
sed tone, _s-naturc:d, by the second horn and bassoon. 1'iLis
is nn example of the shift of orchestro.tion principle,
which is a favorite device of StrC1vinsky. In this shift,
an important principle of the orchestr.:1tor' s technique is
disregarded, namely, the ideD that old and new orchestr.l
colors must overlap by at least a quarter of n
Example 49. (I - 2 measures 11)
In this example the b;::..ssoon line plays an important
pnrt in the shift of In the fow
.ne;:sures 1.:;.::1.e-
div.tely following Fig. 10, the bassoon a six-tone
ostin .. to in a D SC<lle. See Ex. 8. The tones employed in
this ostinato are .;, g, g, and g_l. If this series of
fourths is continued upward, r.>n E., B-flFtt, and E-flat
I - 7
occur as the next three tones. There ure no E-naturals
found in the texture until the descending series of the
bossoon in the second measure of E.x. 49; therfore this
i-natural is to be considered the actual link between the
two sec.-des on D and E-flat. '1'he chord found immedic:,tely
after Fig. 11 includes the same members found in the chord
after Fig. 2; in both places these chords function <:ts long
suspended dominants. Of the two this one founo after .?ig.
11 is the longer, for with its extensions it does not
reach a tonic resolution until Fig. 13, the beginning of
the fugue in C minor.
Example 50. (I - 1 me.:-.sure
The chromatic passing tone, in the basses,
Gerves as the connecting link in this cadence. The !Ili.'te-
rail to this point has employed members of a scGle which
basically resembles F minor. The g-flat resolves in two
directions chromatically to introduce members of the two
scales used in the three-measure passage after Fig. 16.
It resoves to g-naturc-:.1 in its own line, the dominant of
the scale of C major. It is resolved downward in the vio-
la line to .t:-natural, the tonic of the SC<.1le of F major.
It is, therefore, the reverse of the procedure found in
Ex. 48.
Example 51. (I - 2 measures before Fig. 20)
- -

.. .-
- ---- . -
2. -
-""l ...
c-.u .:hJ ....... -
J .,




, ...
--p- - ...


.. .....
- u

.. ,.
- ; -
In this example, preceding the recapitulation found
after Fig. 20, the lower striDES repeat the procedure of Ex.
48; they are found here enclosing the third (Q) of the new
E-flat major scale. 1;11 of the other line have resolved to
!!-flat, the fifth of the sce11e, prior to this.
Example 52. (I - 1 measure Fig. 25)
----""-------- -------- .
b ..
In this example, the E-flat major scale is used in
contrary motion. The final resolution of the sco:.ile lines
is suspended during the rest for dramatic effect. All lines
then resolve to chord tones of the E-flat major tonic chord,
with the exception of Q-flat
which resolves to 2, an ndded
chord tone.
Example 53. (I - 5 measures before Fig. 29)
The cadence of the linking material is bosicC\ll.f
plagal. In the first two measure$of the example three chro-
matic lines are employed which lead to important chord tones
in the third measure. These are as follows: in the
first chord of the example to in the second chord
with its resolution, E, already present in the lower strines;
g-naturall in the first chord to g-flatl in the second chord,
resolving in the third measure to the added tone, ,-naturall;
and, finally, the bass line itself, to ;E. The third,
a-nc:ttural, of the tonic E major chord in the third rne:.:<.sure is
found enclosed in the previous beat by g and Q-flct. This
chord is reduced to an ! which is used as the first tone of
the second movement.
Example 54. (II - 2 measures before Fig. 32)

The final tone of the ascending chord
line, gl, is emphasized by the violin figure, and becomes
the tonic note of the new D scale found after Fig. 32. This
scale is not D major, however, for the !-naturall of the
clarinet in the third measure changes it to D minor.
Example 55. (II - Fig. 3. 8)
[su .. u)
) .... ,
f /'L Tofll S'A&.f.
The material
third measure of the example is the broken chromatic line
g-flat3, 3, flat3, this final Q-flat
is adop-
ted as the fifth of the scale of the linking section. The
B-flat in the bass is the actual governing harmonic note of
the three measures of bridge material. The next section
is announced by the dissonant .-n:.:.tura1
which leads toward
the third, !!-flat, of the next scale (basicdlly G minor).
This s.-naturol
definitely establishes the polarity of the
,12-flat as the tonic note of the series.
Example 56. (II - 3 measures before 51)
[.Sc H ""ej

In this example the relation of the first me:;;;:mre
to the second is that of tone to its tonic. lt re-
sembles to this extent the contrasting section in the first
movement based on a D major SC3.le, which resolved in tLe
next section to E-flat major. It is interesting to note
that there are no common tones found in the two chords;
threfore, the stepwise motion of the bass pt:trt must be con-
sidered c:s the most important single factor in this C<i.-
dence. The final portion of this linking section will be
considered in the chapter on Harmony and 3cales.
Example 57.
This occurs in the first section of tLe
third movement, and contains a high concentration of' dis-
sonant intervals. The scale employed in the first me,, sure
of the example is a complex scale in which the polarity of
Q has already been eatablished. The emphasis given :-sharp
by association with :-natural and .Q creates the irnpres;:don
that this tone is of more than ordinary import: .. mce. '::.'he .Q-
flat found in the following serlies is the equi-
valent of this tone, and its polarity the new tonic cen-
ter is quickly established.
Example 58. (III - 2 mensures before .::'ig. 63)
J) .. P, I F, Q.
D, F; ",j-, A, c..
Two elements hold the key to this c,:.-:dence, anc1 these
Lre found in the first two meesures of the example. doth
nre SC<.1le lines, the first from :Q-flat
down to in
the upper strings, and the second one from Q-flat up to s.,
found in the lower strings. The first one leaa...; to g,-flut2
in the clarinet line which starts in the third measure.
1'he second one le,_;.ds from . to the g-:flat o:f the bassoon
Example 59. (III - 3 meosurES before It,ie. 68)
___ r-,b
f t. ,. .
1 I l ;J:. + 1- J- '
., I
- tLtL
- _. _L I
'2 - ... .....
This cetdence has one active element, ,_tnd that 1.s
the descending scale line. rrhe sustcdned chord i3 lleld o-
ver froo the harmonies of the previous section; the
is the melodic form of C minor, and descends from tl1e i.igh
point found in the three me:sures of Ex. 42. 'l'his
high point wa.s attained by an ascending scule of C or.
The end of the scale line in this exemple emphasize;.;, i in
association with its lower neighbor, ,!iflat. This f is in
leadin,g-tone relation to ,W- flat, found in the next
tion. The polarity of this tone as the center of the series
is estoblished in the l8st measure of the example.
In this cadence all elements of the cr.orc in
t.he first measure, except . and 1, are in hRlf-ct,er rel.::;-
tion to some element in the first chord in the second : 8 : ~
sure. The g is held over as a common tone; the 1 is
cropped from the texture.
LXumple 61. 3 measures o.fter Fig. 90)
The final cadence of the third movement is a
repetition of the !Qflat major chord with the adGed tune,
g,l. It has already been indicated that this g
is a
of the motive series 12-flat - 12 - E-flat. There is one o-
ther application, however; this could be an example of e
compressed cadence, the ];!-f'l1.:1t and g
serving as a partial
V chord to the I chord of E-flat major.
Throughout the Dumbarton Oaks Concerto, harmons is
of second.:::ry importance and the line becomes ell
'l'his is shown in the soloistic style of writing which is so
characteristic of this composition. The harmonies he:.rd
are nl .. 'IJc::ys found as the result of the interweaving of lines
of equal interest. The purpose of this chapter is to uis-
cover wh:;t meterials are employed in the construction uf
these lines.
The most lo,sical approach to an understandir.g of
the contrapunt21l style of writine is in study of the scale
or series of tones employed in each import:::mt section.
This will include a study of .3travinsky 's method for '..:re-
ating a more complex scale series, and, conversely, n..: .. _,
method of' simplification of the comrlex scales. In L. .. "is
the relation of tJ.1e growtL of co;nplexity in p;..;t-
tern of scales to the development of tension tow,.rd c ud-
j or cadence will be noted when it occurs. 'I'his is one of
the composer's favored methods for moving from one plane,
or compositional block, to the next.
The important developments in the scale serie3 ';Jill
be considered here, in addition to certain of
the tonic center or tone in one series to the tonic center
of one or more other scales found in the vicinity. The se-
cond movement sho'.'IS a surprising <:lmount of relation in this
L::st respect. 'I'he examples included in this section ,dll
contcdn a list of scale tones used in a section; the first
tone indic;:,ted is to be considered the tonic, unless it is
st<.ted otherwise in the discussion.
The bosic tonality of the first movement is found
in a seven-tone series composed of the tones of the E-flat
major scale; the polarity of is established :.::t the
very beginning of the movement. The first import:nt change
in the scale is found in the section after Fig. 2; thiL
section is a bridge between the Eflat series and the C
minor tonality found after Fig. 3. In the first measure
of Ex. 62 the and s.-naturall found in the fir:;t
beat are the first two tones which are not a part of tJ:Le
E-flat major series. On the second be <:it of this meL. sure,
the Qnaturc:ll is found with .s,-f'lat2; this method of em-
phasizine the new tones added to a series by its
relative tone a half-step distant is used throughout the
entire Concerto. The tones found in this series in the:
first measure of the example ure nine in number, and L,re
based on the root of this dominant chord structure. In
the second men_sure of the example the SC3le is simplified
and only seven tones are used, still based on Q; however,
this series employs the tones of the ascending melodic rni-
nor on c, which is the tonality of the third measure of the
exa:nple. In the third measure, is estr.blished us the new
tonic center, and the sce:;le becomes C harmonic minor. In the
following mee1sure the Qnatural
becomes 12-f'latl, ;::;nd the
scale once ng .. ,in becomes an E-f'lat major series. This atonol
passage is best explained in :.3trvinsky's own words in his
discussion of this term:
The negating prefix indicates a state of in-
difference in regard to the term negating without en-
tirell renouncing it. Understoo! in this way, the word
9tQna ity hardly corresponds to what those who use it
have in mind. If it were said that my music is atonal,
that would be tantomount to saying that I had become
deaf' to tonality. Now it may well be that I remain for
a considerable time within the bounds of the strict
order of tonality, even though I may quite consciously
break up this order for the purposes of' a
new one. In that case I am not
I am not trying to argue pointlessly over words; ir is
essential to know what we deny and what we affirm.
62. (I- 3 measurmafter Fig. 2)
_________ __.L-fill,___ ___ ..__.--::-- --- -- .
E, F.# F Hjf4oN c
(S, MEL.MINtl)
lst.ravinsky, Poetic .2.f. 11yaic
(Cambridge, J\!ass.:
Harvard Press, 1947), P
The E-fl:1t major serie!3 continues until the :7Jodula-
tion to em F minor series indicoted in Ex. 2. In the beat
preceding the first measure of Ex. 63, the new tones, f-
sharp and 2-natural, which are derived chromatically from
their own lines, introduce the twelve-tone chromatic series
which follows; the -flat major triad outlined in the first
bent determines the tonic harmony of this section.
Example 63. (I - 6 measures after
(IZ o ~ Sc:A&.E)
The same cr.LI'omatic series is continued in the section which
follows after Fig. s, but here two notes are missing, i.e.,
and -sharp. ;\fter two measures of this scale a still
shorter series (eight tones) is found: Eb ,F ,F#,G,f,b ,Bb ,c ,D.
In the fifth measure after Fig. 5 a seven-tone B-flat major
scale series is found; however, the tonic element of this
series is determined by the major chord given in
the bass line. See Ex. 38. This B-flat major series hes
four additions in the three me<:lsures after Fig. 6; the
scale lacks only one tone, 12,, to be a complete chromatic
series (This tone is not used until the contrasting sec-
tion after Fig. 7). In the final three measures of tllis
section before 7, the only scale members employed in
the texture constitute a chromatic line;
continues as the tonic of the series. See Ex. 48.
The two important series employed in the contras-
ting section of the first movement are quite similar to one
another. The.relation of these scales is shown in the fol-
lowing insert:
D, Bb, B, C#
G, G#, A, A#, B, C, C#, D,
1' t
E, F#
variable fourths
The variable fourths of the two scales is an ele-
ment of similarity. 1$ch sc.9.le is equally import<::nt in the
f'orm of the contrasting section.
These two scales are identical if the of the
D scale and the Q-sharp of the G scale are eliminated from
the two series. These tones occur only in the last me .. sure
of each of the two sections which employ these scales (The
D scale is found from Fig. 7 through the first measure after
Fig. 8; the G scale begins in the third measure after .i?ig.
8 and continues to Fig. 9). In these final measures of the
two sections the new tones Dre introduced with their rela-
tive half-steps pre;:Jent (the li-flet with ;:md the
.Qsharp with g-natural); these new tones serve in the mo-
clulntions to the following sections.
In an earlier section, mention was of the
that the modulation from one scale to the other at tLi;:. point
was through the enclosed third of the two scales. ':I'LL- is
another exnmple of use. The ncventh
chord is employed in the second me<J.sure after F'it;. 8 to
break up the :U major harmony, and to pass the tonic center
from a D scale to a G scale.
In the eleven-tone series found in the five mec:.sures
before Fig. 1:3, the single tone, !1-flat, is avoided;

section is part of the extended dominant v-1hich lend.J to the
fugue of the first movement. The Ja-flat is used in tLc sec-
tion v1hich follows after F'ig. 13 in the fugue subject .. ad
the ostinato accompaniment. ..::ee. Ex. 10.
The next important development is found in the ca-
dence shown in Ex. 50. In this example a ten-tone series
on the F major scale moves to two separate scc:le.s;
i.e., a new ten-tone F major series, and an eleven-tone
series based on C major. The C major series is the s::t;ne
one found in Ex. 10 plus one new tone, 12 In the fourth
measure after Fig. 16 a modulation to an A-flat major se-
ries occurs; this is the enclowed third between the two
previous scale. The scale consists of all but one of the
tones (an .) found in the previous F scale.
. i
1'his ,'-flr,t sco.le is used t.hrough the fourth mec.sure
after I;'ig. 17; in the fifth me.:tsure .-:::fter Fig. 17 two new
scales are ini ti&ted. The fugal material employs a sj_x-tone
gap scale with as its center; the ecole of tLe <:'.C-
comp:_:niment is a ten-tone series based on /:.-flat. The six-
tone scale continues until the end of the first mec:::n.1re J.n
Ex. 64. :I'be scale continues through the first beot
in the tltdrd me.:.sure of this example. The new :.s
found in the horns which employ a different A-flat .':.ica:.e
for their re-statement of the fu;ue subject. :i:I:FtCh of t.Le
two l1flat scales employs a totc:'l of ten tones, with two
tones differing in each sce.le. In comparing the Nitr1
the first, the second adds r-tle.t and (both tones
necessary to a st;tement of the fugue subject in J,-fl t),
and drops .. and Q All lines adopt this new t;c.,le
in the last measure of the example
:xample 64. (I- 4 mec:sures Fig.
A". c, D, e'IJ, F, G- L
b- "'"" C OIJ- F, G-v, Go
.C:nl 1
1 I
The polnrity of ,6-flat in this section shown in '-'X
64 is broken in the second meDsure after Fig. 19 by the en-
try of fugue materinl in a series in which !a-flat is the
center. ;.Jee Ex. 15. These two scales are quite sir1.ilar as
the insert below indicGtes:
original A-f'lc.t: l}b, .b, .Qb, c, ]2b, ];lb, Eb, ,E, Qb, g
New Bflat:
It is apparent that the B-flat scale is extracted
from the previous l\-flat scale, since only one new tone is
added; i.e., the leading tone, !t necessary to a
of the fugue subject based on _&.flat.
The scale on used in the final section of
the fugue (shown in Ex. 15) is the last scc\le found before
the entrance after Fig. 20 of the seven-tone E-flat major
series which is used until the end of the Coda at Fig. 28.
The scales are in obvious V - I relation, but the two
scales are not similar (the Bflat scale is minor). It
does contain two elements, found in a statement of the fugue
subject in B-flat minor, that have relation to an element in
the Eflnt major scDle; these are the tones 1-flat and Q-flat
which enclose the third, of the E-flat seal-. See Ex. 51.
The first movement is based on the scale of E-flat
major; this is shown in the amount of material which occurs
in this sC<J.le, Qnci in the relation of the other scales to
this bDsic tonality. The pc:.ttern of the scales used in the
major portions of the movement is given in the insert be-
low. Every member of the Eflat major scale ho.s at
one appearance in this series.
.. v
v I
' llb
(;Q, ., 12)
, b
' .Q,

The movement of tonalities in the last portion (I, II
or IV, v, I) has the appe.s.r.:;mce of a standard phrase har.,.
The linking section :.:::.fter Fig. can not be iden-
tified with any one scale; it is a bridging acent
between the old scc . le of Eflat major and the one on B-
flat in the second movement. In relation to the old seven-
tone scale of E-flat major, the new tones introduced in this
eight-measure passage are lh J2':'flat, and Q-flat.
The violins and violas seem to be preparing to the
more natural scale of F major with the introduction of the
.naturall (third measure after Fig. 28) and .-naturz_,l (in
the fifth measure). The lower strings lead towara the flat-
ter key of B-flat minor with the introduction of Q-fL1t in
the fourth measure after Fig. 28. Immediately after this g.-
flat the upper strings turn back toward the flat keys with
a new tone, g-flatl. See second measure of Ex. 53. Both
lines then converge on ft at first with its third and then
alone; it is the dominant scale step of the key of B-flat,
and is the first tone used in the next movement.
The basic scale of the second movement is expressed
in the theme and accompaniment from Fig. 29 to one me .. .:mre
before Fig. 32; it is a nine-tone Bflat series which is
clearly .!Illijor in character. The series as found in this
section is as follows;
The one measure in D major before Fig. 32 is not
intended to express the mode of the next section. The D
major measure simply calls attention to the fact that the
polarity of is to be established; the section after
Fig. 32 is in D minor. See Ex. 54.
The scale of the D minor section Fig, 32 (see
Ex. 18) is a gap scale consisting of the following tones;
Its relative major scale on E i2 used
in the next section after Fig. 33; this is a doubtful major,
however, since both the major and minor thirds are present;
The section in D was the link be-
tween the Bflat major scale of the first section and the
F scale of this section; i.e., a link by the enclosed third
of the two scales (Bb- D- F).
- - -
The section after Fig. 34 employs a complete twelve
tone chromatic series based on l See Ex. 19. The
of this scnle is dressed to such an extent thct the scale
becomes definitely minor in character. In the next two sec-
tions after Fig.36 and 37 the two F scales found after Fig.
33 and 34 are repeated in the same order with similar m:Jte-
rial, which leads to the linking materiel between setion h
and section of the movement.
The scale of the linking material found in the third
measure <=1fter Fig. 38 (see Ex. 55) is a series with 1-flo.t
as its center. It consists of the B-flat major sctlle tones
with an added seventh, This ,6-flat is hear6. first
at the beginning of the third measure of Ex. 55, and it is
still heard when the A-natural is introduced to the series
in the fifth me<)sure; it is, then, another example of the
introduction of a new tone to a series in association with
its relative half-step. 'rhe A-n::.tural is also the link to
the scale of the section which follows in the sixth mea-
sure; it is found in the new scale as the second step of a
series in which the note g is established as the tonic.
In this movement there are no instances of two dif-
ferent scales, or series of tones, being employed ct the
same time; however, an approximation of this idee:;, when on-
ly one scale is avo.ilable, is found in the section follow-
ing Fig. 39. In this case the melody line uses one portion
of the scale, and accompanying elements use another portion.
Examf'le 20 shows that the ostinato accompaniment employs the
tones the first statement of the clarinet
in the second and third measures of this example cont::ins
all of the tones found in the basic melodic element fron1
this point to Fig. 41. These tones constitute 'the upper
portion of the G minor scale plus one tone which
is found only in the first statement; the other four state-
ments which follow span the perfect fourth from to g.
After a short section in G major after Fig. 4?, the
scale returns (after Fig. 43) to a series quite similar to
that found in the first measure of Ex. The scule used
in this section (see Ex. 23) lacks only the fourth step,,
of the scale found after Fig. 39.
The scale of the following section (theme in
Graph I) is shown in Ex. 24. This scale centers on the
third step of the previous scale, and lacks its
fourth step, does its predecessor in Ex. 23; the ne\:
scale is clearly a B-flat minor series.
A good example of (simultaneous use
of two or more tonalities) is found in Ex. 25. The outer
parts (bass and melody) imply the scale of Bflat ffi.i:l ior ..,
found at the beginning of the movement; the inner
move in the key of F major, emphasizing the tonic chord
of that key.
'rhe next scale alteration eccurs in the fourth
mensure after Fig. 45; the compositional technique here is
quite similnr to the procedure found after Fig. 39. :>ee
Ex. 20. This particular usage is shown in Ex. 26. The
melody employs tones in the perfect fifth from to
[; the accompaniment, a series with as its tonic
center, uses all twelve tones of the chromatic scale.
This combination of scale patters is used until the return
of material in the measure following Fig. 47.
The major climax of the movement, which occurs in
this section from Fig. 46 to 47, makes use of the most com-
plex scale possibile, a complete chromatic series. SLe in-
traduction of the two tones which complete the series oc-
curs in the fifth mensure of Ex. 26. These two tones occur
with their relative half'-steps present at the same time.
(Q with ,!2-flat, with This is the focal point of
the climax which has been developing from the begifnning of
section .12
In the section from Fig. 47 to 50 the scale used by
the melody and its accompaniment is the same as the
found at the beginning of the movement. In this section
flat is substituted for -sharp in every case, but it does
not alter the sound of any of the lines. The new ele::-.ent,
the flute counterpoint, employs c-::11 twelve tones of the chro-
matic scale based on the tonic (.!}-flat) of the primarJ scale.
See Ex. 27.
The scales found in the linking section are clearly
related. The series based on the D major scale, found
Fig. 50 for three measures, is a repetition and development
of the ll major triad found at the end of the first phrase
group of section !J. See Ex. 54. This D major aerie;:; .noves
to a similar scale one-half step higher with a tonic center
on The insert below shows a comparison of the two
scales, both of which contain eight tones. See Ex. b6.
Eb, F, G.Ab, Bb, c,Db.zD
:r ,- /"_,_ - !' .. /'-
D, E, Fti,G)', C#
---- ...... --
Except two tones <a-sharp and foreign to the
* *
basic major pattern, each step of the D scale moves to its
parallel member in the E-flat scale by half step.
The first measure in the new E-flat sco.le occurs
two measures before Fig. 51; the winds continue in the mea-
sure before Fig. 51 in a re-statement of the material found
in the linking section at the end of the first movement.
The rhythm is altered only slightly in the measure before
Fig. 51; this re-statement occurs on tones a perfect fifth
below the first example, in order to place it in V-I rela-
tion to the last movement in E-flat. In this re-statement
the final chord is supplied with its third; in the earlier
case only the tonic member was present. See Ex. 53.
Again in the second movement the pattern of the
principal notes of the important sections provides an inter-
esting conmination of tones. See insert below:
A B A'
,_c(_e,_l ... ... l m
]b-P-F--Ab- G-- 6b--O EJ,-P-EJ,
- J- J_
The pattern of principal notes from the beginning to section
12 gives a complete }a-flat major-minor seventh chord; the
combination of notes found from section I} through tbe first
portion of the linking material to the third movement gives
a g minor triad; and, finally, the tonic notes founo at the
end of the linking material and the beginning of the third
movement give an empty fifth, -flat - ]a-flat. This is ano-
ther example of modulation through the enclosed t.hird; the
first tones of these chord series are !a-flat, .Q, and -flnt.
The beginning of the third movement employs the same
seven-tone E-flat major series which was found at the begin-
ning of the first movement; this series, however, does
not stress the tonic chord, but the polarity of as
the center is established in the b:_iss line. i\s shown in
Ex. 28, a new sc.::::.le on the third (.Q) of the E-flat sc<.:ile
enters in the seventh measure; this sc[de employs tvJO
thirds, two fourths, and two sevenths. In the repetition
of this portion which follows after Fig. 55, this scnle on
makes use of two seconds, two thirds, two sixths, :no two
seventh steps of the scale. The doubled fourth of the eCJ.r-
lier section is dropped, and the doubled second and seventh
steps of the scale are added.
In the next scale shift the tonic note of tni3 g
scale is dropped a half-step for the new scale; this new
scale, found in the section after Fig. 56, is the scule
found at the beginning of the movement (E-flat major se-
ries) transposed up a minor third to a G-flat major series.
The melodic and textural content of the G-flat section is
a re-statement of the content of the first seven measures
of Ex. 28, which shows the Eflat section. The scale on
B-flat which follows in the section after Fig. 57 resembles
the scale used in the second portion of Ex. 28.; it con-
tains only two of the variable, or doubled, steps (second
and seventh steps of the B-flat scale after Fig. 57).
The fugal material which follows, as shown in
29 employs a normal Bflat minor scale with two leading
tones !); this scale continues until the fourth
measure after Fig. 58 where a twelve tone chromatic series
is employed for two This chromatic series is en-
ded b.Y the next entrance of' the subject at the end of the
fifth measure after Fig. 58; here the B-:f'lat minor scnle
returns, now employing doubled sixth and seventh steps of
the scale.
In the third measure before Fig. 60 a statement of
the primary motive of the movement occurs which adds .Q-flat
to the B-flat{minor series which has been in use since the
sixth measure after Fig. 58. This new series continues
through the third bar after .r'ig. 60 In the fourth b<:r af-
ter Fig. 60 an eight-tone D-flat major series with doubled
fourths enters after a rest in all parts at the beginning
of the measure; this series was extracted from the ten-tone
B-flat minor series which began three bars before Fig. 60.
It serves as introductory material to the double-scsle usage
found in the section after Fig. 61. See Ex. 31. 1'hese
scales are two different series with the comnon tonic note
of R-flat. The one which presents the fugue subject in aug-
mentation is a IJ-flat major scale with variable fifths;
the accompaniment to this employs a D-flat major scale with
variable second and fourth steps of the scale. These two
scales continue until the second before Fig. 63.
See Ex. 58. 1\t this point the scales combine, and the two
tones which were missing from both scales and are
added to cre: .. te a complete twelve tone series. In this
case the concentration of scale tones has been built up to
its highest point; after this the scale series can only be-
come simpler, <:tnd this occurs in the third measure of the
example. A D-flat major series with variable fourths is
established in the lower voices; in the higher voices a pa-
rallel series is found based on A-flat major. These two
scales are so employed in the section after Fig. 63 that a
definite feeling of polytonality results. This movement
from a complete chromatic scale to two scales in a new block
of the form is another example of the connection of scales
with the form of the composition. This change serves here
to break off any further development of the fugue; com-
pletely new material has entered.
In the section which follows this after Fig. 64
the Dflat scale moves to a new scale based on E, and the
A-flat scale moves to a new combination of tones based on
the same tonic note, [1-flat. See Ex. 33. A comparison of
these two scales is given in the insert below:
8 tones
9 tones
The combined scales lack only to be a complete twelve tone
series; this is supplied in the section after Fig. 65.
From Fig. 65 to the fourth measure after Fig. 66
the only elements employed in the texture are two chords:
one is a major triad, and supplies the missing tone in
the previous series; the other is a major triad. Jee Ex.
42. This is the best example of polychord treatment found
in the composition. The monopoly of .Ufte the triads i.s bro-
ken in the eighth measure of the example by the risin," line
employing the C :naj or scale. , t the end of thd s line the
12 m2j or triad is dropped, and a new chord series
based on the following tones: .Qb, !!b, Jab, basicallJ E-
flat minor; the major triad continues through this section.
In Ex. 58 the close of this section is shown; n de-
scending scale line leads to the final statement of theme
in the first setion of the movement. The scales used in this
appearance are the scales of the first section (Ex. 23) trans-
posed up a minor third. the end of this section (one mea-
sure before Fig. 70) a D-natural is introduced to the 'texture
with its half-step associate, !1-flat, also present; this
leads to the scale of C minor used in section 12
The members of the C minor series after Fig. 70 are
shown in Ex. 34. The scale of the next section found after
Fig. hBs the same scale Ds the first transposed dovm to
B-flat. The second section contains the same melodic ele-
ments found in the first, here developed and extended. /,t
the end of this second section the B-flat minor series be-
comes B-flat major. See Ex. 43; the series shown here em-
ploys only five tones: Q, Q, E In the last t'NO
measures of the example there is a shift to two scele pat-
terns in a polytonal relation; one is based on the G m.=-,.ior
scale, <.:.nci the other is based on the & major chord. In
combinat,ion, these two tonalities produce a complete seven-
tone scale of C major. The third, , of the C major chord
line moves to in the next section after Fig. 74;
this is the tonic note of the section which con-
tinues to Fig. 75.
'I'he section after Fig. 75 employs a complete
twelve-tone series based on i-f'lat. See Ex. 44. The five
measures in the section which continues after
this example employ a twelve-tone series based on !2-fldt,
a fourth higher; the A-flat scale continues in this sec-
tion in a less complex form, as follows:
.[,Qb. The close of this section is shown in Ex. 60; the
modulation over the cadence is to a remote scale;i.e.,
from to
Both scales in the section after Fig. 77 are based
on ! There is no apparent relation to anything in previous
portions of the movement, either in a melodic or scalevdse
sense. These scales based on introduce the basic scale of
the section after Fig. 79 which is aD minor series.(see Ex.
60 for .!::. scales.) Here is another case of the melody making
use of one scalt, and ahe accompaniment another scale with
the same tonic in the section after Fig. 79. If the t;Jo
scales are combined the one tone lacking in the eleven-tone
accompaniment &cale (a is supplied from the scale
used by the melody. This section ends with an [shar-p in
the melody line leading to in the next section after Fig.
81. This g is the third of the scale of nwj or which
js used in the next section.
The scale of the section after Fig. 81 employs dou-
bled third scale step in a basic E-flat major series. This
is necessary because of the melodic elements emploJed; the
entire melodic element of Ex. 28, which occurs at the be-
ginning of the movement, is found here. The accompc:;ni:;.ent
is altered in this example, and the scale remains the :Jame
in both of the phrases presented, instead of modulating up
a major third, as in the seventh measure of Ex. 28.
In the measure before Fig. 83 the introduction of
E-flat in association with i-flat a half-step indi-
cates the next scale shift. In the form of the composition
a new development and extension of the previous theme occurs
in this section. See Ex. 45. The introduction of the new
tones (1}-flat and is accomplished by the usual associa-
tion with a relative half-step. The combi-
nation preceding Fig. 83 was actually the first appee:rance
of in its enharmonic equivalent.
This scale continues in this development of the
theme until Fig. 85; from t.his point on to the end of' the
movement the scale is E-flat major with two seventh steps
of the scale, Q-flat and ll The final development anct
extension of the primary theme is found in the section from
Jl-.ig. 85 to Fig. 90. /.;fter a brief plagal cadence in ti1e
measure after Fig. 90 (see Ex. 46), this final cadence
chord is emphasized by repetition <md the composition is
completed. 'I'he V - I relationship of the chord members in
these last two measures hns ::dreo.dy been explained in t.he
cllapted devoted to Cadences.
The ht:::rmonic and scale rel;',tion in the third :nove-
i t ~ n t is not of vi tal importance; the element which 'IJvelJs
the movement into a whole is the rhythmic drive founct ir,.
the develol)ment of material from section fl ':'his is .:ds-
cus,ed in the section concerned. with meter and rhyth.m.
The melodies found in the Concerto will be considered
from three general classifications: 1. the method of line
construction; 2. type of intervallic motion, that is, either
conjunct or disjunct; and 3. the general tendency of the line
to remein neutral, or to move upward or downward. Cnder the
first of these, method of line construction, five types of
melodies will be considered, as follows:
1. melodies built on the repetition of a figure
2. melodies built on the repetition of un
3. melodies built on a chord.:.,l outline
4. r.hythmic melodies (monotonal, chant-like)
5. melodies that are not built on any specific in-
tervals, figures, etc., but may be developed from figures,
or motives.
The closing portion of this section on ::lelody will
consist of a discussion of Stravinsky's method of achieving
a musical climax.
,Melodies built .sm .2t, 1a ;(ig\are
The melody in the violins shown in Ex. 2 is composed
of three repetitions of the primDry motive t in a combincltion
of conjunct and disjunct motion. The line direction is
The melody in the violas in Ex. 17 is bused on a
repetition of the first two measures, and also the repeti-
tion within these two measures of the minor second figure,

The first four measures are disjunct in motion

and the line direction is neutral. In the last three mea-
sures the line is disjunct: the line tends to rise in the
fifth meusure, but returns to its original center; in the
sixth measure the line tends downward, but reverses itself
in the seventh measure in a leap of a tenth upwdrd, and once
again returns to its original center.
In Ex. 28 the melody of the first phrase (lst meG-
sure through the 7th measure) is based on the repetition of
a figure which revolves around !!-flat. The pattern of the
upper neighboring tone, followed by the lower neighboring
tone (after the return to is repeated twice in this
phrase. The motion of the line is conjunct, and the line
direction is neutral.
The fugue subject shown in Ex. 29 is derived from
two repetitions of the first part of the main theme. It is
conjunct in its motion, and the line direction is basically
neutral in the first portion; in the second portion the
leap of a seventh is to be considered a conjunct inversion
o:f the scalewise minor second (Therefore, the second rortion
is also conjunct in its motion, with the line having a
downward tendency at its close).
In Ex, 32 the melody is built on the repetition of
E,n altered form of the main subject of the movement. The
1notion is disjunct; in one statement the motion is upward
a second, then down a major third, down a minor se-
cond, and returning upward a minor third. The tendency is
to return to the
In the first and second measures of Ex. 44, the me-
lody is built on the repetition of a stepwise movement down-
ward on scale tones. In the fourth and fifth measures the
same thing occurs in an upward direction. If the repeated
notes are disregarded, the line is conjunct in itL; motion
in both of its sections.
Melodies built 2n repetition 2i interval
The flute line in Ex, 6 is a repetition of the in-
terval of the minor second from sl to At the end
of the first measure the line makes its only leap, up a
perfect fifth. It drops back a minor sixth to repeat the
figure from the beginning. The minor second is spre<-1d to a
second at the end of the second measure, and continues
in a similar manner. The line tendency is neutral.
The clarinet line in Ex. 20 is based on the repe-
tition of the interval of a minor second, specifically
in a rising chromatic line. The motion is conjunct.
iLelodies bQil!t .Q.!l _s cbord
Ex. 1 includes numerous melodic elements b8sed on
chords. The flute line of second measure outlines the
major chord, in a combination of conJunct and dis-
junct motion with neutral direction until the close, which
moves downward from to t2 The viola line in the
first measure emphasizes the major chord by the use
of each chord tone in combination with its lower neighbor.
The motion is conjunct and disjunct, and the liae direction
is downward.
In Ex. 40 the chordal ostinato descends on tones of
the major chord. The line is a combination of con-
junct and disjunct motion.
In Ex. 18 the melody is built on a 12 minor chord
with the added tones and The motion is disjunct,
and the line direction is generc:,lly downwctrd.
In Ex. 21 the flute outlines two chords in two ranges
at the same time; one is .b in a series ana the other
is a Q, !!, Q, Q series. The motion is disjunct, und the line
direction is upward at first, and then down.
;\ll of the ostinato melodies shown in Ex. 42 are
built on chords. f.1otion in the & major triads is con,_iunct
and disjunct;ynotion in the major triad is conjunct
disjunct, also. The major triad material tends to rise,
and major triad remains in the same range.
Rhythmic melogiee
In Ex. 33 both outer parts (on and 2) are static
melodies. The motion of the line exists only in the dif-
fering lengths given to the melody tones.
r.lelqgies geriveg ~ figure. .Qr. m o t v ~ s
The melody of Ex. 6 is actually two forms of the
primary motive used in succession. The motion is disjunct,
and the line moves upward.
The fugue subject from the first movement, shown
in Ex. 10, is derived from two forms of the primary motive.
Ihe motion is disjunct, and the tendency of the line is
neutral in the first two measures; the line moves downward
in the last two measures.
The subject of section ~ in the third movement is
derived from the minor scale line. See Ex. 34. The line
is conjunct in the first two measures, and disjunct in the
third and fourth. The tendency of the line is upward in
the first portion, and downward in the second part.
'I'he melody found in Ex. 36, from the theme of sec-
tion Q in the third movement, is derived from thematic ele-
ments found in the section immediately preceding it. The
motion is disjunct, and the line direction is neutral.
The melody found in Ex. 45 is the final development
of the basic thematic material of the third movement. The
motion is conjunct for eight measures, and the tendency of
the line is to move upward.
t!:ethods .2! achieving .sa <climax
In achieving a musical climnx, Stravinsky seldom
makes use of his melodic line; the climaxes are achieved
by use of the following special effects:
1. Repetition of the final measures of a melody;
repetition of a motive or chord. (End of the third move-
ment. Ex. 61)
2. Use of an ascending scale line independent of
the melodic line. (Ex. 58, 2 before Fig. 63, bottom line
scale; also Ex. 42, section)
3. By sequential use of an idea. (Ex. 42)
4. By deliberate dynamic contrast. (Two examples
continuous, to piano subito: Exs. ll and 12)
Meter swg RhVtbm
In the Concerto numerous changes of the metric in-
dication occur. These changes are usually in relation to
the large sections in the first and third movements. In
the second movement, the only metric changes are found in
the linking sections before section and at the close of
the movement. In all three movements the time vulue 2llot-
ted to a note remains constant as long as the particular
metronome indication for thDt section is in effect.
In the first section of the first movement (Begin-
ning to Fig. 7) the meter indication is changed twenty-
eight times, and involves seven different signatures, as
follows: 4/4, 3/4, 2/4, 3/8, 2/8
5/16. The section
consists of forty measures.
From Fig. 7 to Fig. 11, the contrasting section of
the first movement, only two signatures are used and these
are 3/4 and 2/4. In the twenty-five measures which comprise
this section, the signature is changed four times.
From Fig. 11 to Fig. 20, the section containing the
fugue of the first movement, the meter indication is cho.nged
forty times in this passage consisting of sixty-two measures.
Jix different time signatures are used, and these are 4/4,
3/4, 2/4, 5/8, 4/8, and 3/8.
The return of material from the first section, found
from Fig. 20 to Fig. 25, also employs seven different time
signatures, as follows: 3/4, 2/4, 3/8, 2/8, 11/16
7/16. This is no1the same series of signatures found in the
first section, however; the 4/4 and 5/16 signatures ure
dropped, and 11/16 and 9/16 are added. In the twenty-three
measures comprising this section, the metric indication is
clwnged sixteen times.
In the Coda from. Fig. 25 to Fig. 28, two time signa-
tures are used, 4/8 and 3/8. /:.ctually, the two 4/8 bars
are found to consist of a 3/8 bur plus an eighth rest, the
only two rests found in the section. In the 19 measures of
this section, there are threetime changes involving these
two signatures.
The linking material at the end of the first !aove-
rnent is in 6/8 time throughout its eight measures from Fig.
28 to Fig. 29. 'I'he relation of this passage to the previ-
ous one will be discussed later in the section devoted to
note values.
The second movement uses onl.J one signature in the
main portions of the movement, and this signature is 3/8.
The only changes of signature occur in the linki!l sections.
See Ex, 55 and Ex. 56. In these examples, the sign .tures
6/8 and 9/8 are employed, and contain, the same factors
found in the linking section at the end of the first Elove-
ment wlich will be discussed later.
In the third movement once ag.;;in\there is a compli-
cated series of signatures used, no more thc:m
seven different indications are found in any one section.
The first section from Fig. 52 to Fig. 70 contains the 011-
ly series of seven signatures four:;.d; these are 3/2,
7/4, 5/4,4/4,3/4, and 2/4. In the 102 which m:;ke
up the first section in Graph II, sixty-four changes of
time signatures accur.
In the slower tempo of (Fig. 70-74),
there are only two different time signatures used (5/4 and
4/4). The basic signature of this section of twenty-four
measures is 4/4. In the second measure from the last in
the section the only appearance of the 5/4 signature occurs;
the last measure is ag:.5n in 4/4 time.
The next return of (Fig. 74-77) employs
three different signatures; 5/4, 4/4, and 3/4. 'Ihe section
consists of twenty-six measures if the repeated section is
included twice. 'Ihere are fifteen changes of signature, if
this repeat is counted.
In section of Graph II (Fig. 77-81) two different
time signatures are used (5/4 and 4/4). The only occurrence
of 5/4 is in the first measure, which is actually a 4/4 bar
plus the one beat rest which separates it from the previous
section !;;; material, This section is eighteen measures in
The final return of section ! in the movement is
from J?ig. 81 to Fig. 83; in this section only two signatures
are found (4/4 and 2/4); however, the ten measures of the
section contain six changes of time signature.
The Coda of Graph II is actually an extension nnd
development of section material; its time signatures con-
sist in a new series, five in number: 3/2,5/4,4/4,3/4,2/4.
The one measure the first signature, 3/2, is con-
ducted in six, giving a signature of 6/4; therefore, every
type of conductor's beat from two to six per measure is em-
ployed in this section. The fifty-eight measures of the
Coda, with the repeated section counted twice, include
thirty-seven changes of time signatures.
In this work there is no indication in the score
for any use of free rhythml; however, Stravinsky makes G
lJ\ccording to Willi Apel, two types of free rhythm exist.
"Free rhythm, i.e., the use of temporary values which have
no metrical unit (beat) Free rhythm is also 3Ctu-
ally present whenever a striking deviation from strict rhythm
is demanded, e.g., by rallentando
accelerando, rube: to." Cf.
article "Rhythm," II, c, Harvard Dictionarv 1. Music, ed
Willi ilpel, (C8mbridge
Mass.: Harvard University 1945).
definite tempo change in the third movement in his recor-
ding of the work. This tempo change occurs in the six-mea-
sure section after Fig. 60 which leads to the final section
of the fugue after Fig. 61. The beat employed in this sec-
tion is slower than that of both the section preceding and
the section which follows; this is done, apparently, to give
added emphasis to the last section of the f t ~ u e which follows
immediately in the original tempo (after Fig. 61).
The division of the basic unit ( J) in the first
movement is by multiples of two, the smallest note vulue
being a sixteenth note. There is but one exception, the
thirty-second-note triplet figure which is confined to the
closing portion of the first section of the movement. See
Ex. 5. The general rhythmic effect of the first movement
is one of flexibility; many sections employ combinations of
tied notes which emphasize the off-beats of the measure.
The linking section at the end of the first move-
ment (Fig. 28) is also typical of the linking material found
in the second movement; the 6/8 tempo indication used has
the effect of slowing the tempo of the previous section by
exactly one-half. In the section preceding Fig. 28, the
beat is subdivided, but the basic unit is felt to be u J ;
in the section following Fig. 28, three subdivisions of
the previous beat, the unit (J), become the main beat.
In the third measure of this linking section, a figure which
is described as a dyplet occurs. (The duplet is a group of
two notes to be played in the time of three). By use of
this figure in a 6/8 section, Stravinsky avoids the trip-
let subdivision of the main beat, and also achieves o slow-
ing of the tempo in an exact relation to the preceding sec-
tion. See Ex. 56, first measure, for an example of the use
of this duplet figure in tl!e linking material of the second
In the second movement the basic unit (.r) is again
divided by multiples of two, the smallest division being
thirty-second notes; there are two exceptions to this, how-
ever. Ex. 54 shows a thirty-second-note triplet figure in
the time allotted to one sixteenth; this is similar to the
rapid triplet of the first movement shown in Ex. 5. 'I'he o-
ther use is found in the applicntion of the quintolet in the
ascending line shown in Ex. 24; this is the use of a five-
note figure in a beat which normally includes only tvvo six-
teenths. 'This five-note figure first Bppears as the repe-
tition of a single tone in theme s of section ~ . This is
found in the sections after Figs. 34 and 37. See Ex. 19.
It is found again in the flute line (Examples 21 end ~ ~ 2
in theme g of section ~
This movement has very little emphasis on the off-
beats; the main beat is usually stressed by an upbeDt figure.
An example of this is found in the first measure of the move-
ment. See Ex. 17. The off-beat is stressed by accents in
two places; i.e., the clarinet line in the sections follow-
ing Figs. 34 and 37. See Ex. 19. The general effect of the
:ovement is one of flexibility with the use of a minimum
of rhythmic figures; the sixteenth followed by tv-Jo thirty-
seconds, 'nd the reverse of this; the dotted sixteenth nnd
a thirty-second note; two sixteenths; and four thirty- se-
cond notes are the patterns used throughout the movement.
The basic unit (J) of the third movement is found
subdivided by multiples of two. The section from Fig. 52
to Fig. 66 employs, as its smallest subdivision, eighth
notes. 3ee ostinato Ex. 42. In the fourth measure of the
example, sixteenth notes in an even pattern are introduced
for the first time; the sixteenths are discontinued in the
texture aftGr the descending scale shown in Ex. 59.
'I'he slower section (,!2J makes use of sixteent)ls in
both the melody and accompaniment. The patterns are not
obtrusivef they occur either as a group of four, or an eighth
followed by tv1o sixteenths. See Ex. 34. The onl.'/ apr.-earance
of the quintolet in this movement occurs in this section in
the two meCtsures before Fig. 72; this figure taken part in
the modulcttion from C minor to B-flat minor, the scdle used
in the section after Fig. 72.
The return of section h. after Fig. 74 doe.s not u1, .ke
any use of sixteenths; the eigl:lth note once ag<::in is the
snudlest subdivision of the
'I'he final use of sixteenths in the third mov::cment
is in the rising scole line which is found at the end of
section (one mec:1sure before Fig. 81).
The general effect of this movement is one of motion
toward the fin<:>.l it is slowed somewrwt by the Pogo
(section 12,), but it returns quickly to its oricinal
style. 'I'he section which is be., sed on a
ent scale, tends to stem the forward motion for sbort
while, but the return of section A materi<.::.l etfter I-'ig. 81
marks the beginning of a direct rhythmic treatment le.otding
to the final
::>travinsky uses many rhythmic devices to construction (two or four me,,surej. One of is
the use of' extension, as shown in the first movement in the
long dominant from Fig. 11 to 13. In another case he will
shift accent from a strong to a weak be<:'it, as found in
the clarinet line after :i;'igs. 34 and 37. See Ex. 19. This
is also found in the two measure.Sbefore l',ig. 11. Ex. 49.
These metLods tend to throw the rhytr..m off center for "-' short
_;)eriod of time.
In certain places in the Concerto, .Jtravinsk.., 1mkes
use of In speaking of this term, "'pel inuic;.:.tes
that n. a distinction can be .;..1cde between two types of
polyrhyth.m; contrasting rhythms within the same scheme of
Polyrhytrun may be defined as "the simultaneous use of stri-
kingly contrasting rhytr.uns in different parts of the musicc:tl
fabric, e1lso known as cross-rhythm." C11. Harvard .;Qi9tionary,
P 593.
3Ccents (meter); contrasting r r ~ t m s involving a conflict
of meter or accents. The latter type is sometimes tE:;rmed
t pOlymetriC I ul
Stravinsky's use of polyrhythm is mainly of the
polymetric type. Two examples of polyrhyth:n of this tJpe
deserve to be mentioned here. :::>ee Examples 40 and 4".
1------ Ila;ryard Dictionarv, P 593.
The outstnnding element of the Dumbarton Oaks Con-
certo is the economy of materials used in the develor::-aent
of the work. The first movement was based on one pri;:;ar J
motive which was found in all sections of the movement in
one form or another. This motive was also discovered as
an additional element in the last. two movements and cerves
to tie all three more closely together. The second
ment, of strikingly different character, also had one the-
matic element of importance; this wus found in the tv,o out-
er sections (i;!). Its middle section (Ja) contained tLe only
references in this movement to the primary motive of the
first movement. In the third movement section f:: returns
after each of the two digressions; the movement depends on
the rhythlnic impetus found in the 11 sections to cc1rr J the
feeling of continual movement towara a cadence through
its sections (Ja and
The progression. from one idea to the next is accom-
plished in the cadential movement by the discovery of 3ome
tonul rel&tionship between the two ideas. ;m enharr::1onic
equi v&lent or the extension of a scale line into the next
idea, for example, provide smooth links and good continuity
of material. The cadences between the movements are con-
structed to connect one with the other in an harmonic relc:-
tion. 'l'he fine1l cadence is the only one which is conclusive;
however, this cadence includes the only reference in the
third movement to the motive of the first movement. l.'his
could be an indication that the piece was constructed in a
full circle with the final chord as the introduction to the
first part in a re-hearing of the work.
The rhythmic and literal ostinati are found in the
first and third movements; the second movement makes conti-
nuous use of literal and pedsl ostinati, with only one use
of rhythmic ostinato, in only the section of the movement.
The tempo changes in this work are few, but the me-
tric change is an integral part of the composition in the
first and third movements. The only use of' a tempo wLich
is not in relation to anything else is heard in the rer0on-
al recording by Stravinsky. There is no indication for
this in the score.
Rhythmically, the work is quite clear for this rerl-
son; the infrequent use of polyrhythm stands out all tl1e
more plainly in relation to the other sections.
The derivation of the melodies in this work is from
simple motives or fragments; however, the melodies found
often betr::1y a richness wb.ich is surprising in viev: of the
economy of materials used.
Since the harmony of the composition is secondary
to the linear development of material, the series or scale
becomes the most important harmonic element. All lines
seem to have some melodic importance; even obvious ~ c c o m p a
niments have their own direction and melodic interest.
The analysis of the style of this work in relation
to the music of the present day is given by Ingolf Dahl in
these words:
The affinity of contemporary music to the es-
thetics and techniques of the baroque period in music
has often been noted. The baroque orchestra (Concer-
to Grosso) in particular, with its flexibility of in-
strumentation, its chamber music texture! its cleun
divisions into passages for "tutti" {f'ul ensemble)
and "solo" (individual instrumental groups), its ob-
jectivity of expression and unified dynamic levels
are reflected by our jazz bands and our radio orche-
stras as well as by a large number of' contemporary
concert works. "Dumbarton Oaks," differing in sever-
al ways from the 18th century prototype, could best
be called a oor\raii ~ ~ Concerto Qrosso, painted
by a modern artist.
lNotes on the recording of the Concerto.
Books Stravinskx
Igor. Chronicles. ,g!
Ltd., 1936
London: Victor
3travinsk.y, Igor, Musig. Trans, by .Arthur
Xhodel, Ingolf' a 1. Cambridge, Iifass.: Harvard
University Press, 1947.
Books about Strayinsty
Tansman, Alexandre l3:ttrayink,y : Ill!i. Msn and !.1&
Trans. Therese and Charles B1eefield.
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1949.
White, Eric Walter. Strayinak;y: !i.a JiW-9. Work. New
York: Philosophical Library, 1948.
Gengra;L Sources
J.pel, Willi. Harvard Dict!gnary .Q! Music. Cambridge,
IV'.tass.: Harvard University Press, 1948.
Hull, 11., Eaglefield. Mpde;:n ijarmonv London: Augener,
Ltd,, 1915.
McHose, Allen Irvine. Contrapuntal Harmonic Teghnique
2! lbi la1h New York: F. s. Crofts and
Co., 1947
Prout, Ebenezer. Fugal Ana;J,ysia. London: Augener Ltd., 1892
Slonimsky, Nicolas. Music Siooe le.QQ.. New York: Norton,