Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

26 tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Alexandria ACM SC | Introduction to Genetic Algorithms
- Tutorial 2
- EIL
- jeas_0511_492
- Genetic Algorithms in Optimization
- Reactive Power شرح مهم.pdf By. Tariq Taneeb
- Genetic Algorithm ClassNotes(All in ONE)
- 6_AC
- 05460073
- J3 - Elsevier JOCS - a New Population Seeding Technique for Permutation-Coded Genetic Algorithm
- Ladley
- An Introduction to Differential Evolution
- e 31034043
- Reactive Power Mangament-A Resource Handbook- Jan 2012 .Pdfxhrb0978575529b486abca7eb68e0e44469xhr
- Fuzzy Classifier
- 04218767
- 04 Jennifer
- 08_Fundamentals_of_Genetic_Algorithms.pdf
- Self Excitation Capatance for Induction Generator
- ga

Anda di halaman 1dari 4

using Genetic Algorithms

Luis Rojas, Rodolfo Garcia, and Luis Roa

reasonable amount of computational time. In this paper, GA

has been successfully tested on various radial distribution

systems. The model proposed was implemented on a

Microsoft Excel program. The rest of this paper is organized

as follows. In section II, we provide the structure of genetic

algorithms. We then show an example for optimal reactive

compensation using the software in section III explaining the

implementation of the test circuit and the results, and we

conclude in section IV with a brief discussion and suggestions

for further work.

selection. Basically, a GA makes a population that evolves

Index Terms— Capacitor placement, genetic algorithms,

learning algorithms, optimal power flows. through time using reproduction and mutation process [1].

Only individuals representing good solutions of the capacitor

I. INTRODUCTION placement problem will survive longer, and their genetic

information will be present in the next generation. At the end,

O NE of the usual techniques to reduce energy losses for

radial distribution systems is the location of capacitors on

one or more nodes of the system. An ideal reactive

after several generations, the interaction between these high

quality individuals will produce a final population which

represent the best solutions set of the problem.

compensation requires that all the inductive currents be zero,

but this just can be possible placing capacitors of the required A. Fixed capacitor encoding

kVAr on every node, and it is impractical due to the excessive Before of the genetic algorithm procedure, the real

cost and the load variation. The model for the optimal parameters of the problem must be represented in genetic

capacitor placement is a combinatorial problem. Solution must algorithm language. It means that location and size of the

be one which reduces the most possible energy losses and capacitors used are codified as a chromosome. The

needs the less money investment considering maintenance and representation chosen for this application is a chromosome

capacitors costs. Based on it, power and energy losses were divided in two parts [2]. First part indexes location of the

determined by some example simulations using “Fast capacitors. It is represented as binary values, where 1

decoupled Newton-Raphson method”. After it, optimal indicates the presence of one capacitor on a specific node and

capacitor placement was developed by use of Genetic 0 the absence. The second part indicates the size of the

Algorithms (GAs). GAs are the key to find the optimal capacitors used. It is composed by integer values, where each

solution for these types of problems because they are one symbolizes one type of capacitor size in kVAr. Fig. 1(a).

evolutionary algorithms very well known to be robust shows a simple schematic diagram of a chromosome encoding

methods due to their ability for exploring all possible for a radial distribution system with seven nodes and five

different types of capacitors size: 200,400,600,800 and 1000

All authors are Electrical Engineers from Universidad Nacional de kVAr. It is possible to see that nodes 2 and 7 have capacitors

Colombia.

R. Garcia works at the electrical distribution company “CODENSA “,

of 400 kVAr (type 2) and 200 kVAr (type 1). The total

Bogotá, Colombia. (e-mail: rgarcia@codensa.com.co) chromosome structure that models this particular situation in

L. Roa works at the electrical distribution company “CODENSA “, the example is illustrated in Fig.1 (b). The binary structure has

Bogotá, Colombia. (e-mail: f3roa@icqmail.com)

the value equals 1 in second and seventh position. For integer

L. Rojas is professor at Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas,

Bogotá, Colombia. (e-mail:larojasc@udistrital.edu.co) part, the sequence that follows is indifferent because the other

values of the first part of the chromosome are 0.In such cases,

1-4244-0288-3/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE

2

B. Algorithm Methodology 2 3

4 6

The overall procedure is summarized as follows:

1) Create the genetic reserve at random

2) For each chromosome, evaluate objective function and 5 7

determine if technical restrictions are satisfied. If

chromosomes population has converged, capacitor 1

400 kVAr

results are printed. Unless go to the next step.

3) Recombine individuals based on reproduction 200 kVAr

mechanism.

4) Mutate some of new individuals (10%).

5) Evaluate objective function with individuals from the

previous step. Go to step 2.

(a)

The main parameters to determinate if a chromosome is a

very good solution depends of two factors: The objective

function and technical restrictions [3]. Equation (1) is the

objective function. It includes a sum of capacitors and

system’s losses costs (15 years). The less value subject to 0100001

restrictions must be found by GA.

01000013425211

Objectivefunction 8760 * S * E * 15 C 1 3425211

represents energy costs (USD$/KWh) and C represents

capacitor costs (b)

We have considered 15 years as duty life of capacitors. It is in a radial system and (b) Codification

the capital recovery period respect to the initial cost of

capacitors [4].Energy cost used was the sum of generation

and transmission costs. nodes can not be higher than Qt. It implies that never will

Technical restrictions embrace all possible solutions that be a current flowing toward feeder at peak load.

even having a good value for objective function involve an We now describe briefly how the mechanisms of

unacceptable increase or decrease of some parameters of reproduction and mutation are simulated by GA. In

the system. The most important parameters can be reproduction process, firstly we randomly select a pair of

characterized as follows. chromosomes, with the same structure as we have shown in

Fig.1. In the next step, chromosomes are treated separately;

one for binary part and another for integer part.

1) Magnitudes of the voltage on system’s nodes: Nodal In binary part, for a given position, if two parents share

voltages must be in a range between 0.98 and 1.02 pu. It value, the chromosome produced by reproduction will keep

means that for all transformers connected to the nodes will it. If values are different, the result for new chromosome is

be at least a minimal value that assures a good voltage selected at random. In integer part, for a given position,

value in secondary network. This range can be fixed if the result will be the average of values found in the parents. If

system does not require a tolerance too close respect to result is not an integer value it will be approximated until

feeder voltage. closer value at random.

In mutation process, chromosome structure is modified.

2) Current flow by conductors: Given a capacitor This change is performed at random, but there is a

placement structure by GA, none of the branches current difference between binary and integer part. First one, is

circulating around system can be higher than maximal modified by choosing a position of individual at random

current supported by conductors. and changing the value for its opposite (1 by 0 and 0 by

1).Second part acts on integer values by adding or

3) Maximum reactive power provided by capacitors: Let’s subtracting a unity from its value. Fig. 2(a) and 2(b) shows

total reactive power demand of the distribution system be two examples from reproduction and mutation.

Qt. Then the result of sum of every capacitor connected on

3

11100013241521

TABLE I

+ RADIAL SYSTEM PROBLEM FORMULATION

I (KV) (DEGREE) DEMANDED DEMANDED

PD(KW) QD(KVAR)

= 1 11.4 0 ? ?

01110013242421 2 ? ? 385 288.75

3 ? ? 485 363.66

(a) 4 ? ? 302.5 226.82

5 ? ? 170 127.47

6 ? ? 86 54.85

11100013241521 7 ? ? 230 137

+

MUTATION

=

10001014132412

(b)

chromosomes and (b) Mutation for a given chromosome.

A. Load Flow

decoupled Newton-Raphson method [5] and implemented

as a program in Microsoft Excel. The selection of this

method between many others [6] was motivated because

this is the only than consider the actualization of voltage (a)

and angle simultaneously. Respect to the program

interface, this flexible tool allows set parameters as

topology, current capacity, reactance, resistance,

susceptance, gauge and material of conductors, variable

load, energy cost, branch length, tolerance, base power,

base voltage, and others.

Once we can select the conductor of the distribution

system (in our case 397.5 MCM) and the selection of the

circuit’s topology (similar structure than Fig. 1, but without

capacitors) we can simulate the behavior of a circuit given

in table I. The aim of the computational algorithm is to find

voltage and angles for every node, given active and

reactive power for each one. Also we know the feeder

voltage (in our case we take this value as 11.4 kV) and the

conductors impedance (0, 1609 + J 0, 3847 ohms per

Km).Fig. 3(a) and 3(b) show program results. In Fig. 3(a),

we can see voltage and angle for every node as real value. (b)

Fig.3. Final software results in load flow: (a) Voltage and angle for every

Also we can see the power generated by feeder. In node and (b) System’s losses per hour.

Fig.3(b), system losses (MW) and maximal drop of voltage

are shown for each one of twenty four hours. From analysis B. Test case with Genetic Algorithms

made to example system, it is possible to conclude that Proposed method was implemented in software to find the

system losses in one day were 0, 21528 MWh and all the optimal capacitor placement for topology of Fig. 1 with

voltages are very close to 11,4kV, minimal was 11,263 kV variable load on each one of the 6 nodes during a twenty four

(node 7) and maximal was 11,335 kV (node 2). Then, it is hours period. Parameters of simulation were: base voltage

possible to conclude that this configuration system is 11.4kV, base power 1 MVA, maximum admissible tolerance

working under normal operation conditions.

4

a specific reactive compensation plan. Then is a powerful tool

in the design of an electrical distribution system.

This method has a better performance than an expert system

because it can explore more than 100.000 solutions in a very

short computational time. So, the work presented is possible,

cheap and reliable to find the optimal capacitor placement in a

radial system.

V. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to thank D. Rairan for comments

that improved the presentation of this work.

VI. REFERENCES

[1] A. Mendes et al, “An evolutionary approach for capacitor placement in

distribution networks,” Brazil, Electrical Engineering Faculty

UNICAMP, 2001.

[2] K. Nara. et al , "Implementation of Genetic Algorithm for Distribution

System Loss Minimum Reconfiguration," IEEE Trans. Power System,

vol. 7, pp. 1044-1051, 1992.

[3] A. Merlin and H. Back, "Search for a minimal loss operation spanning

tree configuration for an urban power distribution system," in Proc of

Fig.4. List of chromosomes generated for the test case the power systems computation conference 1992, Cambridge.

[4] K. Aoki, H. Kuwabara, P. Kanezashi and T. Sato, "Voltage drop

for load flow error 0.00001, maximum admissible tolerance constrained restoration of supply by switch operation in distribution

for regulation (increase or decrease of need voltage respect systems," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 3, pp. 1267-1274, 1988.

[5] B. Stott, "Decoupled Newton load flows," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery,

feeder voltage) 5 % and energy cost 20.5 U$/MWh. There vol. PAS-913, pp. 1955-1957, 1972.

were five options of capacitors with different costs: 0.2, 0.4, [6] D. Conner, "Representative bibliography on load-flow analysis and

0.6, 0.8 and 1 MVAr with respectively process of related topics," paper C73-104-7 presented at the 1973 IEEE Winter

Power Meetings, New York, USA.

5000,2500,1200,1200 and 400 U$/MVAr. Solutions given by [7] H. Dommel. et al, “Optimal power flow solutions,” IEEE Power. App.

GA are listed in Fig.4. The results of energy losses for a System, vol. PAS-87, pp. 1866-1876, 1968.

period of 15 years without compensation were 1.736.265

dollars. VI. BIOGRAPHIES

These results are the different chromosomes produced in

master’s degree from the Universidad Nacional de

order to solve capacitor placement in test case. There are Colombia in 2005. Also he received the electrical

solutions that produce a drastic reduction of energy losses. engineering degree from the same university in 2002.

Best of these one was the capacitors location with sizes of Since 2002, he has been a professor at Universidad

Distrital Francisco José de Cáldas, Facultad

800 kVAr, 400 kVAr, and 400 kVAr on the nodes 3, 5 and 6, Tecnológica. Actually he is still working there and his

respectively. It has a decrease of 23.77% in energy losses work is related in fields as Electrical machines and

respect to the case without compensation. It means that economics engineering.

objective function has the value of 1.323.490 U$ versus

1.736.265 U$. It implies a significant economic saving, Rodolfo Garcia received the electrical engineering

because even including capacitor investment the objective degree from Universidad Nacional de Colombia in

2002. Now he is student in economics master’s degree

function has a less value than cost of energy losses without at Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

compensation. In this condition we can say that GA in Since 2001, he is working at the electrical distribution

capacitor placement produces the optimal power flow solution company CODENSA in Bogotá, Colombia in

[7]. different fields as electrical planning, distribution

networks and telecommunications work.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, a new method for solving capacitor

placement problem was described. It can provide specific Luis Fernando Roa received the electrical

location of fixed capacitors in order to reduce energy system’s engineering degree from Universidad Nacional de

losses. The load variation, the energy cost and capacitors sizes Colombia in 2003. Now he is student in economics

master’s degree at Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá,

easily found in market were considered in the model. The Colombia.

program developed can be used in radial systems with Since 2002, he is working at the electrical

different topologies and load variation because it has flexible distribution company CODENSA in Bogotá,

parameters. Also it can be used as an analysis tool to make Colombia

- Alexandria ACM SC | Introduction to Genetic AlgorithmsDiunggah olehAlex ACM SC Library
- Tutorial 2Diunggah olehHilman Abdullah
- EILDiunggah olehVijay Moka
- jeas_0511_492Diunggah olehSrivaishnavi Kalahasthi
- Genetic Algorithms in OptimizationDiunggah olehssbhonsale
- Reactive Power شرح مهم.pdf By. Tariq TaneebDiunggah olehEng Tariq Taneeb
- Genetic Algorithm ClassNotes(All in ONE)Diunggah olehKishore Chand
- 6_ACDiunggah olehkay
- 05460073Diunggah olehPradeep Vunnam
- J3 - Elsevier JOCS - a New Population Seeding Technique for Permutation-Coded Genetic AlgorithmDiunggah olehRajakumar Ramalingam
- LadleyDiunggah olehPhuong Hoang
- An Introduction to Differential EvolutionDiunggah olehdimitrioschr
- e 31034043Diunggah olehAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Reactive Power Mangament-A Resource Handbook- Jan 2012 .Pdfxhrb0978575529b486abca7eb68e0e44469xhrDiunggah olehbalwant_negi7520
- Fuzzy ClassifierDiunggah olehdravee
- 04218767Diunggah olehthavaselvan
- 04 JenniferDiunggah olehTaimoor Shakeel
- 08_Fundamentals_of_Genetic_Algorithms.pdfDiunggah olehNeeraj Tripathy
- Self Excitation Capatance for Induction GeneratorDiunggah olehSantosh Thapa
- gaDiunggah olehIrina Alexandra
- Alternating Voltages and Currents (AC)Diunggah olehVv4H
- A Genetic Algorithm for the Routing and Carrier Selection ProblemDiunggah olehJozef Kratica
- PaperDiunggah olehrajapandiya
- e Akumalla2015Diunggah olehKarthik Nagarajan
- esDiunggah olehБайдарские Лотфи
- Transmission Line LoadabilityDiunggah olehgagan
- pspm2_c2Diunggah olehIain Choong WK
- 98JoGeroAIEDAMDiunggah olehMilky
- 3.2_RCL_circuits.pdfDiunggah olehJun Yamamoto
- paperDiunggah olehDaniel Callupe

- Optimal capacitor allocation in distribution systems using a genetic algorithm and a fast energy loss computation techniqueDiunggah olehapi-26622648
- josecita01Diunggah olehapi-26622648
- p225Diunggah olehapi-26622648
- GavasheliOtarMScDiunggah olehcircuitoled
- An Intelligent Voltage Controller for Static VAR torsDiunggah olehapi-27465568
- baran01aDiunggah olehapi-26622648
- 1vol3no4Diunggah olehapi-26622648
- xxxEnglish ConferencesxxxOptimal Capacitor Placement for Loss ReductionDiunggah olehapi-26622648
- Basic Kanji Book Vol 1 & 2Diunggah olehapi-3700050
- Remembering the Kana - Part 1 - HiraganaDiunggah olehapi-26622648
- RelayDiunggah olehapi-26622648

- PFMC bocaccio and darkblotched rockfish press releaseDiunggah olehDeckboss
- UDC Law Year in Review 2016-2017Diunggah olehUDC Law
- chapter3aDiunggah olehBenjamin Leung
- MAP Milk Ladder Additional Recipes Oct 2015Diunggah olehNicoleta Butuc
- Bar CodeDiunggah olehlani_concepcion
- eng- debate 2Diunggah olehapi-300098221
- NI- questions and answers.pdfDiunggah olehRohyt Singh
- SEBF8013-03 Transsmission Clutch Sintered Bronze parte 1.pdfDiunggah olehLuis Enrique Chavez Garay
- 2017 Largest EmployersDiunggah olehAnn Dwyer
- MinutesDiunggah olehEdenFiel
- Eva And AdanDiunggah olehJanssen Gaite
- Vujacic Danilo - Confirmation Page (1)Diunggah olehДанило Вујачић
- Linen and Laundry StaffDiunggah olehFlordelis Blanco Lisao
- Ocean State Physicians Health Plan, Inc. v. Blue Cross & Blue Shield of Rhode Island, 883 F.2d 1101, 1st Cir. (1989)Diunggah olehScribd Government Docs
- 2100(Aug15) Tutorials_Complete SetDiunggah olehLim Weng Seong
- List of Massacres in the Bosnian WarDiunggah olehpipanator
- The HIV Care Continuum No Partial Credit GivenDiunggah olehJulia Michalow
- Pak NavyDiunggah olehZeeshan Ameen
- 38815 1st Proof PDFDiunggah olehUmer Jamal
- asmathlessonDiunggah olehapi-200263539
- RECTO READER - FIlipinism_Nationalism_IndustrializationDiunggah olehBert M Drona
- Reg Reader Assembly InstructionsDiunggah olehSara NewStein
- Public International LawDiunggah olehKevin Hernandez
- CSC 425 – Chapter 2editedDiunggah olehAtie Iekah
- Dhammika Broken BuddhaDiunggah olehTharaka Nadeeshan
- Illumination on the True Thought (Gongpa Rabsel)Diunggah olehAisha
- PG 3Diunggah olehAljeane Torres
- Helespont Swim Copy.pdfDiunggah olehAutumn James
- SiliconesDiunggah olehJim Livingston
- Cu Qms Sto 009 Engine Shipboard Training Performance Evaluation (For Engine Cadets)Diunggah olehSto Cu