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Sample Question Paper for 9210-100

Graduate Diploma in Engineering


Engineering mathematics
Duration: three hours

You should have the
following for this examination
one answer book
drawing instruments
non-programmable calculator
The following data are attached
percentage points of the
chi-squared distribution
percentage points of the
t-distribution
table of the standard Normal
probability distribution
The City and Guilds of London Institute
General instructions
This paper consists of nine questions in three sections A, B and C.
Answer five questions, at least one from each section.
An electronic calculator may be used but candidates must show sufficient steps to
justify their answers.
Drawings should be clear, in good proportion and in pencil.
All questions carry equal marks. The maximum marks for each section within a
question are shown.
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2


Section A
1 a Function u(x, y) is such that 0
2
2
2
2

y
u
x
u
. (4 marks)
If
2 2
t s x
and st y 2 ,
find
2
2
2
2
t
u
s
u

.

b The cost ) , ( y x C of making a single unit of product in a production facility is given by

2 3
3 12 8 ) , ( y xy x y x C
where x and y are the material and labor costs respectively, required to make a
single unit.

i Locate the stationary points of C (4 marks)

ii Determine their nature. (4 marks)


c A plate with the measurements shown in Figure Q1c is to be constructed (8 marks)
so that the outer perimeter has a length of 30 cm. Use the Lagrange multiplier
method to find lengths for x, y and z in order that the area of the plate is the
maximum possible.































z
z
z z
y
y
x
Figure Q1c




For a vector function F
F

i S (2 marks)

ii Using the above t (6 marks)
2


iii Hence evaluate (6 marks)
where S is the surface on a c


b If
current-free electro-magnetic field in free space, then it is known that they satisfy the
equations,









i and (3 marks)

ii
2
(3 marks)

















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Function u(x, y) is such that 0 (4 marks)
If
2

and s
find
2


The cost )

2

where x and y are the material and labor costs respectively, required to make a
single unit.

i Locate the stationary points of C (4 marks)

ii Determine their nature. (4 marks)


c A plate with the (8 marks)

method to find lengths for x, y and z in order that the area of the plate is
maximum possible.










































2 a For a vector function F and a scalar function it is given that
F F F . ). ( ) .(

i Show that 3 . r where zk yj xi r (2 marks)

ii Using the above two equations show that (6 marks)
2 2
5 ) .( r r r

iii Hence evaluate

s
r r ) (
2
. n ds , (6 marks)
where S is the surface on a cylinder x
2
+ y
2
=
2
, 0 z .


b If E and H are respectively the electrical and magnetic field vectors in a charge-free,
current-free electro-magnetic field in free space, then it is known that they satisfy the
equations,
. 0 E
. 0 H
x
t
H
c
E


1

x
t
E
c
H

1

where c is the velocity of light in free space.


Show that

i x
2
2
1
t
E
c t
H

and (3 marks)

ii
2
2
2
1
t
E
c
xE x

(3 marks)

















Hence evaluate

s
(r
2
r) . n ds ,




For a vector function F


i S (2 marks)

ii Using the above t (6 marks)
2


iii Hence evaluate (6 marks)
where S is the surface on a


b If
current-free electro-magnetic field in free space, then it is known that they satisfy the
equations,









i (3 marks)

ii
2
(3 marks)

















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4


3 a i State the Cauchy-Riemann equations for an analytic function f(z) (2 marks)
where
) , ( ) , ( ) ( y x jv y x u z f , jy x z

ii Given that x y x u ) , ( ) sin( x y y ) cosh( ) cos(x ) sinh( y (2 marks)

x y x v ) , ( ) cos(x y y ) sinh( ) sin( x ) cosh( y

Find such that
) , ( ) , ( ) ( y x jv y x u z f
is an analytic function in the z-plane.


iii By assigning the values of obtained in part ii above to ) , ( y x u , show (4 marks)
that ) (z f can be expressed as z z f ) ( ) sin( z .
[Note: ) cos( ) cosh( jy y and j ) sin( ) sinh( jy y ]


b Cis the closed curve obtained by joining points ( -1, 0) and (1, 0) along the x- axis
with the semi circle 1 z and with y > 0. Given jy x z and with integration
carried out in the counter-clock wise sense,

i evaluate


C
dz
z
z z
) 1 (
) sin(
4
. (6 marks)
ii Hence evaluate



dx
x
x x
) 1 (
) sin(
4
. (6 marks)





























C (2 marks)

b Calculate the (6 marks)

)


c Determine the Laplace Transform ) (2
m
1
d In the flight of a helicopter, the pitch angle
angle

Also

o (5 marks)

ii Hence determine (5 marks)



(6 marks)
0

O (6 marks)

2



at time t



i Show by the use of the variables

(4 marks)


ii By taking ) (4 marks)






8
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S (
where


ii Given that x (2 marks)

x

Find
)
is an analytic function in the z-plane.


iii B (4 marks)
that )
[Note: )


b C
with the s
carried out in the counter-clock wise sense,

i evaluate (6 marks)
ii Hence evaluate (6 marks)





























4 a Calculate the Laplace Transform of t
2
sin . (2 marks)

b Calculate the inverse Laplace Transform of (6 marks)

) 9 )( 1 (
3
2 2
+ + S S


c Determine the Laplace Transform )} ( { t u L of the unit step function ) (t u with (2
marks)
1 ) ( = t u , 0 > t and 0 ) ( = t u , 0 < t .
d In the flight of a helicopter, the pitch angle u is controlled by adjusting the rotor
angle o , where u and o satisfy the differential equation,
o
u u
6 4 . 0
2
2
+ =
dt
d
dt
d

with 0 = u and 0 =
dt
du
, at 0 = t . Also taking ) (t u = o , as defined in part c,

i obtain the equation satisfied by | , where )} ( { t L u | = . (5 marks)

ii Hence determine u as a function of t . (5 marks)



5 a Solve using the Z Transform method, the difference equation (6 marks)
0 4
2
=
+ n n
y y , 1
0
= y , 0
1
= y

b Obtain the half range Fourier sine series expansion for (6 marks)

2
) ( 4
) (
t
t x x
x f

= , t s s x 0 .

c The temperature ) , ( t x u of a rod of length t at a point distance x from one end
at time t, satisfies the differential equation

2
2
2
dx
d
c
dt
d u u
= , t s s x 0 , 0 > t ,
with 0 ) , 0 ( = t u , and 0 ) , ( = t t u , for all 0 > t .

i Show by the use of the variables separable method that the solution for

is (4 marks)

=
1
) sin( ) , (
2 2
n
n
t n c
nx B e t x u

ii By taking ) ( ) 0 , ( x f x = u as defined in part b find the solution for ) , ( t x u . (4 marks)







(2 marks)
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Figure Q6a Figure Q6c

Circular currents together with the resistances and voltage in the circuit
shown in Figure Q6a satisfy the equations,

0 ) (
0 ) ( ) (
) (
3 3 2 3 2
3 2 2 1 2 1
2 1 1



i R i i R
i i R i i R
V i i R


i By taking R
1
= 1 , R
2
= 4 , R
3
= 2 and V = 1 volt, write down (2 marks)
the system of equations as
A b i , where ] , , [
3 2 1
i i i i
T
.
and with the matrix A , having positive diagonal terms.

ii Use a matrix factorization method to evaluate the currents i
1
, i
2
and i
3
. (6 marks)


b Starting from point (1, 1) obtain the next iteration point in a search for (6 marks)
the minimum point of the function 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 2
2 2
xy y x by use of
the steepest gradient method.

Two masses each of mass M (6 marks)


displacements x





Ta
shown that the system of equations can be written as


R







































Figure Q6a Figure Q6c


s


i By taking R
1
(2 marks)
the system of equations as

and with the matrix A , having positive diagonal terms.

ii Use a matrix factorization method to evaluate the currents i (6 marks)


Starting f (6 marks)
by use of


Two masses each of mass M (6 marks)


displacements x



) (
) ( ) (
) (
2 3 2 3
2 3 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 1
x x K x M
x x K x x K x M
x x K x M








Taking 2
1
M , 1 M , 1
2 1
K K and
i i
x x
2
, i = 1, 2, 3, it can be
shown that the system of equations can be written as
A x x
2
,

R












Section B

6 a






















Figure Q6a Figure Q6c





R
1
R
2

R
3
i
1

i
2
i
3

V

x
1
x
2

x
3

M
1

M M
K
1
K
2


c Two masses each of mass M coupled with two springs of spring constants (6 marks)
K
1
and K
2
can move on a smooth trolley of mass M
1
which also can move
on a smooth horizontal table. If the trolley and the two masses have
displacements x
1
, x
2
and x
3
as show n in Figure Q6c, then it is known
that the displacements satisfy the equations of motion.






]

G
frequency of vibrations












































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Figure Q6a Figure Q6c


s


i By taking R
1
(2 marks)
the system of equations as

and with the matrix A , having positive diagonal terms.

ii Use a matrix factorization method to evaluate the currents i (6 marks)


Starting f (6 marks)



Two masses each of mass M (6 marks)


displacements x





Ta
shown that the system of equations can be written as


R







































Figure Q6a Figure Q6c


s


i By taking R
1
(2 marks)
the system of equations as

and with the matrix A , having positive diagonal terms.

ii Use a matrix factorization method to evaluate the currents i (6 marks)


Starting f (6 marks)



Two masses each of mass M (6 marks)


displacements x





Ta
shown that the system of equations can be written as


R





































F


















where
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|



=
1 1 0
1 2 1
0
2
1
2
1
A

] , , [
3 2 1
x x x x
T
= and eis the frequency of oscillations of the system.

Given ] 1 0 1 [ ] [
) 0 (
=
T
x , perform two iterations to determine the maximum
frequency of vibrations e.












































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Section C

7 a Liquid is poured into a cylindrical tank of uniform cross section A at a rate Q.
The tank has an orifice at the base, causing the level of liquid in the tank x(t) to
satisfy the differential equation
] [
1
2
1
x Q
A dt
dx

where is a constant.

Taking Q = 0.3, A = 1, and = 0.01, with x(0) = 0.5. Determine x

i at t = 0.1, 0.2, by the use of the Euler Method, (6 marks)

ii at t = 0.1, by the use of the second order Runge-Kutta (RK2) method. (6 marks)
[For the equation ) , ( x t f
dt
dx
, at ) , (
0 0
x t , the RK2 method is given by

)] ( * 5 . 0
,
), , (
), , (
2 1 0 1
0 1
1 0 0 2
0 0 1
k k x x
h t t
k x h t f h k
x t f h k




b The temperature ) , ( t x u in a rod at distance x along the rod and time t satisfies (8 marks)
the differential equation
,
2
2
x
u
t
u

, 1 1 x 0 t
with, U(X, 0) = 3( 1 - | x | ) 1 1 x ,
and where the two ends of the rod are kept at , 0 ) , 1 ( t u 0 t
Find, ) , (
j i
t x u for ,
3
1
i x
i
,
27
1
j t
j

, 0 i , 1 2
, 1 j , 2 3
by the use of a suitable scheme.

















A factory has utilized two machines A and B to produce pistons for engines
with an intended diameter of 10.00 cm. A sample of pistons produced by each
machine gives the results in Table Q8a.




























Table Q8a

i Examine statistically whether there is a significant difference between t (6
diameters
[Assume that diameters of items produced both machines are normally
distributed with equal variances.]

ii Find t (2 marks)
the two samples.

iii The factory also produces cylinders with internal diameter 10.03 cm and (6 marks)
standard deviation 0.02 cm.
Calculate the percentage of pistons that can fit to the cylinders.
A
distributed and the mean and standard deviation of diameters of the
pistons are those found in part ii.

The effort in person-months(E) required to complete a number of software
development projects with Lines of Code i
below in Table Q8b.



























Table Q8b






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7 Liquid is p A at a rate Q.
The tank has an orifice at the base, causing the level of liquid i
satisfy the differential equation



Taking Q = 0.3, A = 1, and

i at t (6 marks)

ii at t (6 marks)
[For the equation )


b The temperature ) (
the differential equation

with, U(X, 0) = 3( 1 - | x | ) 1
a
Find, )


by the use of a suitable scheme.

















8 a A factory has utilized two machines A and B to produce pistons for engines
with an intended diameter of 10.00 cm. A sample of pistons produced by each
machine gives the results in Table Q8a.

Machine
Number
of
Items
Mean
Diameter
(cm)
Standard
Deviation
(cm)

A

9

10.02

0.02

B

9

10.01

0.01

Table Q8a

i Examine statistically whether there is a significant difference between the (6 marks)
diameters of the pistons produced by the two machines ;
[Assume that diameters of items produced both machines are normally
distributed with equal variances.]

ii Find the mean and standard deviation of the 18 items obtained by combining (2 marks)
the two samples.

iii The factory also produces cylinders with internal diameter 10.03 cm and (6 marks)
standard deviation 0.02 cm.
Calculate the percentage of pistons that can fit to the cylinders.
Assume that diameters of cylinders and also of pistons are normally
distributed and the mean and standard deviation of diameters of the
pistons are those found in part ii.

b The effort in person-months(E) required to complete a number of software
development projects with Lines of Code in units of 1000 (KLOC) is shown
below in Table Q8b.


KLOC
(x)

1.0

1.4

2.1

2.5

3.1

E (y)

0.6

2.0

2.4

2.8

3.2

Table Q8b






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Given that
0 . 2 x
2 . 2 y

14 . 3 ) )( ( y y x x
i i

828 . 2 ) (
2
x x
i

0 . 4 ) (
2
y y
i


i Find the correlation coefficient between x and y values. (4 marks)

ii If the equation bx a y , has been obtained by the use of (2 marks)
Least Squares Curve Fitting to the set of results for x and y, and
given that 043 . 0 a , find the value of b.


9 a A machine in a production unit has to be shut down in the event of a mechanical
failure or an electrical failure. These occur at an average of 1 mechanical failure
and 2 electrical failures per month. Given that the failures are described by Poisson
distributions, find the probabilities that in a month there will be,
i no shut downs (3 marks)

ii at least one shut down. (3 marks)

iii If each shut down costs the company 10 000 units of currency, estimate (4 marks)
the average monthly cost incurred by the shut downs.

b Daily conditions regarding rainfall at a hydroelectric power station has been (4 marks)
classified as dry, showery and heavy rain and the Table Q9b summarises the
changes in conditions over a period of 50 days.
Current day
status
Following day Status

Dry Showery Heavy Rain

Dry 14 4 2
Showery 6 12 2
Heavy Rain 2 6 2
Table Q9b

Determine the probability transition matrix for a Markov chain model of the weather
conditions.

c Using the results from part (b) and given that the current conditions are showery,
find the probabilities of having different conditions after
i 1 day (3 marks)
ii 2 days. (3 marks)










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0





i Find the correlation coefficient between x and y values. (4 marks)

ii If the equation b (2 marks)
Least Squares Curve Fitting to the set of results for x
given that 0


a A machine in a production unit has to be shut down in the event of a mechanical
failure or an electrical failure. These occur at an average of 1 mechanical failure
and 2 electrical failures per month. Given that the failures are described by Poisson
distributions, find the probabilities that in a month there will be,
i no shut downs (3 marks)

ii at least one shut down. (3 marks)

iii If each shut down costs the company 10 000 units of currency, estimate (4 marks)
the average monthly cost incurred by the shut downs.

b Daily conditions regarding rainfall at a hydroelectric power station has been (
classified as dry, showery and heavy rain and the Table Q9b summarises the
changes in conditions over a period of 50 days.
C








Table Q9b

Determine the probability transition matrix for a Markov chain model of the weather
conditions.

c Using the results from part (b) and given that the current conditions are showery,
find the probabilities of having different conditions after
i 1 day (3 marks)
ii 2 days. (3 marks)






Data Attachments
9210-100


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