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CCMkLSSI8ILI1

CI SCILS
CU1LINL 1
1. ln18CuuC1lCn
2. CCn1AC1 8LSSu8L Anu SL11LLMLn1 8CllLL
3. 8LLA1lCnS lC8 LLAS1lC SL11LLMLn1
CALCuLA1lCn
4. lunuAMLn1ALS Cl CCnSCLluA1lCn
3. CnL-ulMLn1lCnAL LA8. CCnSCLluA1lCn 1LS1
6. nC8MALL? CCnSCLluA1Lu Anu
CvL8CCnSCLluA1Lu CLA?S
IN1kCDUC1ICN
- SLress lncrease caused by consLrucuon of
foundauons or oLher loads compresses soll
layers.
CAuSLS
a. ueformauon of soll parucles.
b. 8elocauons of soll parucles.
c. Lxpulslon of waLer or alr from Lhe vold spaces.
Categor|es of |oads:
1. Llasuc seulemenL (lmmedlaLe seulemenL),
whlch ls caused by Lhe elasuc deformauon of
dry soll and molsL and saLuraLed solls wlLhouL
change ln Lhe molsLure conLenL.
2. rlmary consolldauon seulemenL, whlch ls Lhe
resulL of a volume change ln saLuraLed coheslve
solls because of expulslon of Lhe waLer LhaL
occuples Lhe vold spaces.
3. Secondary consolldauon seulemenL, whlch ls
observed ln saLuraLed coheslve solls and ls Lhe
resulL of Lhe plasuc ad[usLmenL of soll fabrlcs.
CCN1AC1 kLSSUkL AND SL11LLMLN1 kCIILL
Llasuc, or lmmedlaLe, seulemenL of foundauons (S
e
)
occurs dlrecLly aer Lhe appllcauon of a load wlLhouL
a change ln Lhe molsLure conLenL of Lhe soll.

lor perfecLly exlble foundauon resung on a elasuc
maLerlal such as saLuraLed clay, Lhe foundauon ls
sub[ecLed Lo a unlform dlsLrlbuLed load, Lhe conLacL
pressure wlll be unlform and Lhe foundauon wlll
experlence a sagglng prole.
A perfecLly rlgld foundauon resung on Lhe ground
surface sub[ecLed Lo a unlformly dlsLrlbuLed load, Lhe
foundauon wlll undergo a unlform seulemenL and
Lhe conLacL pressure wlll be redlsLrlbuLed.
ICk ICUNDA1ICN kLS1ING CN SAND:
kLLA1ICNS ICk LLAS1IC SL11LLMLN1
CALCULA1ICNS
CLN1Lk:
CCkNLk:
LLAS1IC SL11LLMLN1 CI A kIGID ICUNDA1ICN
uue Lo Lhe nonhomogeneous naLure of soll deposlLs,
Lhe magnlLude of L
s
may vary wlLh depLh.
LkAMLL 1
A rlgld shallow foundauon 1m x 2m ls as shown,
calculaLe Lhe elasuc seulemenL aL Lhe cenLer of
Lhe foundauon.
IUNDAMLN1ALS CI CCNSCLIDA1ICN
When saLuraLed soll layer ls sub[ecLed Lo a sLress
lncrease, Lhe pore waLer pressure ls lncreased suddenly.

ore waLer dralnage ls accompanled by a reducuon ln
Lhe volume of Lhe soll mass, whlch resulL ln seulemenL.

ln sandy solls, elasuc seulemenL and consolldauon
occur slmulLaneously.

When a saLuraLed compresslble clay layer ls sub[ecLed
Lo sLress l ncrease, el asuc seul emenL occurs
lmmedlaLely.
1|me-dependent deformanon of saturated c|ayey so||
CNL-DIMLNSICNAL LA8. CCNSCLIDA1ICN 1LS1
*llrsL suggesLed by 1erzaghl, performed ln a
consolldomeLer (oedomeLer).
*1he speclmens are usually 64mm ln dlameLer and
23mm Lhlck.
*1he load on Lhe speclmen ls applled Lhrough a lever
arm, and compresslon ls measured by a mlcromeLer dlal
gauge.
*1he speclmen ls kepL under waLer durlng Lhe LesL.
*Lach load ls usually kepL for 24hrs.
*AL Lhe end of Lhe LesL, Lhe dry welghL of Lhe LesL
speclmen ls deLermlned.
*VCID kA1IC - kLSSUkL LC1S
S1LS:
1. CalculaLe Lhe helgLh of sollds, P
s
, ln Lhe soll speclmen
uslng Lhe equauon:
2. CalculaLe Lhe lnlual helghL of volds as:
3. CalculaLe Lhe lnlual vold rauo, e
0
, of Lhe speclmen,
uslng Lhe equauon:
4. lor Lhe rsL lncremenLal loadlng, o
1
(LoLal load/unlL
area of speclmen) whlch causes a deformauon AP
1
,
calculaLe Lhe change ln vold rauo as:
3. CalculaLe Lhe new vold rauo aer consolldauon
caused by Lhe pressure lncremenL as:
6. lor Lhe nexL loadlng, o2, whlch causes addluonal
deformauon AP2, Lhe vold rauo aL Lhe end of
consolldauon can be calculaLed as:
LkAMLL 2
1he followlng are Lhe resulLs of a laboraLory
consolldauon LesL on a soll speclmen obLalned from Lhe
eld: ury mass of speclmen = 128g, helghL of speclmen
aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe LesL = 2.34cm, C
s
= 2.73, and area
of Lhe speclmen = 30.68cm
2
. uraw an e versus log o'
curve.
NCkMALL CCNSCLIDA1LD AND
CVLkCCNSCLIDA1LD CLAS
A soll ln Lhe eld aL some depLh has been sub[ecLed Lo a
cerLaln maxlmum eecuve pasL pressure ln lLs geologlc
hlsLory.

uurlng Lhe soll sampllng, Lhe exlsung eecuve
overburden pressure ls released, whlch resulLs ln some
expanslon.
1wo bas|c dehn|nons of c|ay based on stress h|story:
1. normally consolldaLed, whose presenL eecuve
overburden pressure ls Lhe maxlmum pressure LhaL
Lhe soll was sub[ecLed Lo ln Lhe pasL.
2. Cverconsol l daLed, whose presenL eecuve
overburden pressure ls less Lhan LhaL whlch Lhe soll
experlenced ln Lhe pasL. 1he maxlmum eecuve
pasL pressure ls called Lhe preconsolldauon
pressure.
Determ|n|ng the preconso||danon pressure o'
c
from the
|aboratory e-|ong o' p|ot.
1. 8y vlsual observauon, esLabllsh polnL a, aL whlch Lhe
e-log o' ploL has a mlnlmum radlus of curvaLure.
2. uraw a horlzonLal llne ab.
3. uraw Lhe llbe ac LangenL aL a.
4. uraw llne ad, whlch ls Lhe blsecLor of Lhe angle bac.
3. ro[ecL Lhe sLralghL-llne poruon gh of Lhe e-log o'
ploL back Lo lnLersecL llne ad aL f. 1he absclssa of
polnL f ls Lhe preconsolldauon pressure.
1he overconsolldauon rauo (CC8) can be calculaLed as:
Some emp|r|ca| re|anonsh|ps:
nagara[ and MurLy
SLas and kulhawy
Pansbo