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# Physics Final Notes

## Chapter 20 Travelling Waves

Sinusoidal Waves
v=f
velocity=wavelength frequency
=2f
angular frequency=2 frequency
k=

wave number = 2/wavelength
=vk
Displacement of a Wave
D=Asin(kx-t+

)
Displacement = Amplitude sin(wave number(position)-angular frequency(time)+initial
phase constant)
Wave Motion on a String

Tstring=Tension

Waves in Two and Three Dimensions
By replacing displacement x with displacement r, the distance measured outward from the
source and not just the position we can use the equation for multidimensional waves
D=Asin(kr-t+

)
Displacement = Amplitude sin(wave number(distance)-angular frequency(time)+initial
phase constant)
Intensity
I=

Intensity = power/area
Doppler Effect for Light
Doppler Effect for receding source
=

Doppler Effect for approaching source
=

## =speed of the source relative to the observer

c = speed of light

## = wavelength emitted by the source

Chapter 21 Superposition
Principle of Superposition
If waves are laid on top of one another you find their superposition by adding them together
Net Displacement = Displacement 1 + Displacement 2..
Standing Waves
Antinodes
Points of maximum displacement
Nodes
Points of no displacement or points that do not move
Constructive Interference (in phase)
Points where Displacement 1 = Displacement 2, superposition is a wave with 2x the
amplitude
Destructive Interference (out of phase)
Points where Displacement 1 = -Displacement 2, superposition is a wave with no amplitude
Displacement of Standing Waves
D= (2a sin(kx)) cos(t)
Interference in One Dimension
Maximum Constructive Interference
= 2

=m2
x = m
Example: phase difference coming out of source (

## ) is 0 but the distance between

sources (x) is multiples of wavelength
Perfect Destructive Interference
= 2

= (m + )2
x = (m + )
Example: phase difference coming out of source (

## ) is 0 but the distance between

sources (x) is multiples of wavelength
Amplitude of Two Superimposed waves
A = abs value(2a cos

)
Interference in Two and Three Dimensions
Maximum Constructive Interference
= 2

= m2
Chapter 22 Wave Optics
The Interference of Light
Position of Bright Fringes

Position of Dark Fringes

Fringe Spacing
y = L/d
Intensity of Double Slit Interference

Single Slit Diffraction
Angles of Dark Fringes
=p/a
P = the dark fringe (1,2,3), a = slit width
Positions of Dark Fringes

Width of Central Max
W =

Chapter 23 Ray Optics
Refraction
When light changes from one medium to another it is refracted at a certain angle
Snells Law of Refraction

Cmedium = the speed of light in the medium, n = index of refraction

Sprime= object distance, s = image distance
Chapter 26 Electric Forces and Charges
Force on Charges

K = electrostatic constant, q = charge on particle, r = distance between charges

Epsilon naught or the permittivity constant
Study Examples on Pages 803-804
Electric Field

Electric Field of a point charge

Chapter 27 The Electric Field
Alexis is the shit
Continuous Charge Distribution
Linear Charge Density

Surface Charge Density

Volume Charge Density

Examples on Pages 827-830
E Field of Capacitor

Motion in a Uniform Field
Acceleration= qE/m
Chapter 28 Gausss Law
Electric Flux and Gausss Law

(Uniform)

(non-uniform)
See examples pages 867-869
Chapter 29 The Electric Potential
Potential of a Point Charge
V=

Scalar, not a Vector, no direction
See examples pages 900-901
Potential inside a Parallel Plate Capacitor
V=Es
Electric Potential Energy
U=qV=qEs
Potential Energy = charge x uniform electric field x distance

Chapter 30 Potential and Field
Finding Potential from Electric Field

Electric field = the derivative of potential with respect to direction
Kirchhoffs Loop Law

Chapter 31 Current and Resistance
Current
Drift Speed

Drift speed=(charge of electron x mean time between collisions/mass of electron)E Field
Electron Current

Electron current = (electron density x charge x mean time/mass electron)E Field
Conventional Current (I)

Current moves in the opposite direction of electron current
Current Density (J)

Kirchhoffs Junction Law

Conductivity and Resistivity

=Conductivity
Resisitivity

Resistance and Ohms Law
Resistance

(Ohms Law)

Chapter 33 The Magnetic Field
Moving Charges
Magnetic Field of Point Charge

V = velocity of charged particle, =angle between v and r, r = distance to the point you want
to find the B field
Magnetic Field of Wire

Only Moving Charges create magnetic fields
Superposition

Magnetic Field of a Current

Magnetic field of a very short segment of current
See pages 1007-1009 for examples
Amperes Law

## Where A is area of entire wire

Solenoid

N = Number of turns in solenoid, I = current

Chapter 34 Electromagnetic Induction
Magnetic Flux
Uniform Field
ABcos
Nonuniform field