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DayOneJuly16,2014

hypotheticalcase#1academicintegritypolicy
hypotheticalcase#2keylogger/cellphoneintestingsituation

GeneralAdvicefromMarkKlein
touchofthetism
Inthevastmajorityofschoolcasesincourts,mostoftentheywilldefertotheschool
becausetheytrusteducatorsandtheydontwanttobethearbiterofwhatisrightor
wrong.

LegalTermsIlearnedinthecourse

plaintiffaperson(s)orpartywhobringsacase/suit/legalactionagainstanotherina
courtoflaw
indemnitysecurityorprotectionagainstlegalactionorfinancialburden
summaryjudgementadecisionmadebyacourtoflawwithoutafulltrial.The
judgementismadebasedonclearlyonesidedfactsinthecase.
crossmotionswhenbothparties(plaintiffanddefendant)makeamotion
clickwrapagreementtheonlineuseragreementmanywebsitesputontheirsiteand
usersneedtoagree.
copyrightthesameconceptasapatent,butitprotectsanideaI.Pintellectual
property
injunctionanorderfromthecourtstoppinganactionorforcingthemtodosomething
enjoiningsuspended,stoppedwhenonegetsaninjunction,thepersonreceivingthe
injunctionisenjoinedforexample,ifacourtrulesthatthepersonplayingloudmusic
cant,thenthe
guardianadlitemcourtappointedlegalcounseltorepresentinfants,theunborn,or
incompetent.ex)VergaraCase
demurrerisapleadinginalawsuitthatobjectstoorchallengesapleadingfiledbyan
opposingparty.
Enbancwhenallthejudgesofacourthearthecase(teamjudging)
certiorariahighercourtordersalowercourttosendalldocumentsofacasesothey
canreviewthem
remandtosendback
mootnessthereisnosubjectmattertodecideclassiccaseisbringingacasetocourt
ifnothinghashappenedyet
staredecisiscourtswilltrytorelyonpreviouscasesdecisionsandapplythese
rulingsletthedecisionstandtrytoleavethingsdecidedandnotdenovo
dictacourtpontificatingwhatmighthavehappenedifthecasewouldhavebeen
different
ripenessthecaseisnotready...yetex)inReesecase,theycouldnotbringittocourt
untilaftertheBoardhearing
standingtheplaintiffmusthaveadefinitiveinterestinthecontroversyex)parentsneed
tofileforthestudents

Copyright
FairUse
thelifeoftheauthorplus27years
thereisnopercentageofdeterminingfairusewithpartialuseofwork
Areyoutryingtoavoidpaymenttotheauthororpublisher?

1)purposeandcharacter(commercialadvantage)Aretheymakingmoneyoffofthework?
2)natureofcopyrightedmaterialhowareyouusingtheworkandisitthesamethingasthe
author
3)amountused
4)impactonthemarketvalueofthepieceofwork

BerneConventionaninternationalagreement(Switzerland1896)protectingintellectual
property/copyrightstartedbyViktorHugo167countrieshavesignedtheagreement

SupremeCourt/USCourtSystem
currentsupremecourtis54conservativeRobertstheChiefJusticisbecomingmoreofa
centristScalia/ThurmondconservativeKagen/Sotomayorliberalaskedto5,000cases,butonly
about2030casespickthehighestneedtoberesolved

EthicsfortheSchoolAdministrator

StarTrekwasessentiallyaboutethicaldecisions(theprimedirective).CaptainKirkisagood
exampleofethicalleadershipashewasnottheexpertofanything,butgotallofthemtogether
andmadetheethicaldecisionsthatneededtobemade.

ethics
abranchofphilosophygoverningtheconductofanindividual
therearepersonalandprofessionalcodesofethics

EthicofJustice(Rules)
laws,regulations,policiesfairness
balancesethicalissuessuchasdueprocessandprivacyrights(individual)againsttheneed
forcivilityandthegoodofthemajority(community)
Isthereapolicythatrelatestothematter,isitenforcedequallyorshoulditbe?
balancingtherightsoftheindividualversusthecommunity

EthicofCritique(Power)
powerandinfluence(notonlypositionbutinfluenceforgoodorbad)
autocraticleaderwhomakestherules,whobenefitswhohasthepowerwhoissilenced
marginalizedgroupsareoutofpowerchallengesstatusquo,rulesresistsabuseofauthority

EthicofCare(People)
personalconnectionsandrelationshipscompassion
focusesonfeelingsandindividualrelationships
Howcanwepromoteanurturing,positive,organizationalclimate?

EthicofCommunity(Group)
community/organizationalstandardstensionbetweendemocraticdecisionsofcommunity
versusdecisionsmadebytheexperts
whendoweformacommitteeandwhendowejustdecidelisteningtoparentsandlocal
culture

Itisgoodtohaveamixofpeopleontheadminteamthatarestrongerintheseareasortohave
peopletaketheserolesiftheyarenotthere.IcanplacepeopleIworkwithineachofthese
areas.

Whyisethicssoimportant?ItisthefundamentalbridgetoTRUST.And,withoutTRUST,you
cannotLEAD.

Whenyoutrytopleaseeveryoneallthetime,youwillnotgetthetrust.Youhavetolearntosay
noandyouwillticksomepeopleoffattimes.

Herecommends7HabitsofHighlyEffectivePeople(1989)andTheSpeedofTrust(2006)by
StevenCovey.

CouncilRockSchoolDistrictlivefeedandarchiveforBoardMeetingsonYoutube.

EthicalDecisionAfteraverydifficultyearwithateacherinyourschool,youhavecounseled
herawayfromyourschool.Theteacherhassubmittedherresignationinlieuofterminationin
April.InMay,youreceiveanemailfromtheschoolheadofaprivateschoolintheUSrequesting
aletterofreferenceforthisteacher.Whatdoyoudo?

Whatif,insteadoftheschoolheadsinvitation,thedepartingteacherasksyouforaletterof
reference?

Whatif,insteadofarequestofyou,theteacherapproachesacolleaguewhowantstosenda
letterofrecommendationonschoolletterheadtothisprivateschool.
letterofrecbycolleagueonschoolletterhead(Headcontrolsmessageoftheschool)
passthetrash
egregiousact(goaftercertification)
teacherfiredforlookingatrealestatewebsites

BackgroundChecks
Wediscussedthisatlengthintheclass.CouncilRockrequiresanFBIClearance,StatePolice
Clearance,andPublicWelfareCheck(SocialServicessometimescalleda51AinMass)

MarkrecommendsonlyanFBIclearanceforinternationalhires.Thispagehasinformationfrom
theStateDepartmentonhowtogetit.

http://www.jamievollmer.com/

publicschoolshavetodosomuchmorethanbefore,everyprobleminsociety,theschoolsget
askedtosolvetheseproblems

inthebeginningofthe60s,thefederalgovernmentstartstogetinvolvedineducationtriggered
bythesputnik

Thepurposeoflawcanbechannelingofsocialchange

lawwantmoneyequityorderex)aneighbormovehisfence5feet
districtcourtmajorityofcasestriedhere

ContractLaw

commonlawthecodificationofwhathappenedforyears
defnanenforceablepromiselegalagreement
createanobligationtodoconsiderationpayment
paybysalarynotpaidbythehourthisisforateacher,notforclerical

needtobecarefulifyouhaveadeadlineandanoffercomesinlate,becarefuldonot
letterofintentbothpartiessignoffonit

Beingtenuredinaschoolmeansyouneedtodefineregardingincompetence,ineffectiveness,
immorality,etc.

Whytenure?
Hireateacherbasedoncredentialsandinterview,butyouneedtoseeateacherinthe
classroomforaperiodoftime.
Teacherswillhaveupsanddownsintheir35yearcareer,especiallywithkids,death,
divorce,health,etc.Keepthisinmind...
Toprotectstabilityofcivilservantsduetopoliticalchanges.
Yougettenurebetweenschooldistrictswithinthestate.
Youcandemonstratebadteaching,applyingtheDanielsonmodel,isthejobofa
principal.Someteacherswithgoodtestscores,arenottouchy,feelybuttheyaregood
withthecontent.
aspeciesofpropertycreatedbylaw,andgrantingtotheholderbasicdueprocess
rightsbeforethepropertyrightcanberevoked.

AtuniversitiesintheUSA,lesspeoplearegoingintoeducationbecauseitishardertogetjobsin
education,especiallyinthepublicschools.Theimplicationsofthiswillbeateachershortagefor
lowperformingschools.

EmploymentandEmployeeRights

14thAmendmentDUEPROCESSCamearoundattimeofReconstructionaftertheCivilWar,
whenUSAwastryingtostaytogetherandintegrateslavesandsouthernstatesintooursociety.
Righttoappeal,documentation,hearing,legalhelp,timeline..

EmployeeRightsaredefinedby:
contractsteachers/school
statutes
caselaw

TeacherRightsandResponsibilities
Acolleaguewithagreatreputationinyourschoolhasrevealedtoyouarelationshipthatheis
havingwithaparentintheschool.Yourcolleagueismarriedasistheparent.Herevealstoyou
thatheisreadytoleavehiswifeandasksforyourcompleteconfidentiality.

Ateacherneedstoreporttoasupervisor.PrincipalinPennsylvaniamakesareporttoSocial
ServicesandsendsdocumenttoSuperintendent.

Schoolsareareportingagency,notaninvestigatoryagency.Doyoureport?

TeacherCivilRights
SubstantiveRights:
SpeechPolitical,Curricular,Symbolic
AssociationFreedom

EmployeeSpeechisprotectedwhenthatteacherspeaksonamatterofPublicConcernunless
therighttospeechisoutweighedbytheschoolsneedtoavoidmaterialdisruption.

inclassroomnotmuchfreespeechneedtofollowthecurriculumifastudentasksyour
opinionofsomething,youcangoaheadandgivethemtoit.dontpontificate,ifyoubringitup
dontbringupbeliefs

restorativecounseling

KleinsViewsonCameras
Theyactasadeterrentandtheyputlarge,oldcamerasinthereceptionarea.InCouncilRock
SchoolsDistrict,theyhave250inelementaryschooland450inhighschools.Theyareonlyin
commonareas,likecorridors,problempointslikecafeteria,stairwells,etc.Formostoftheyear,
theyarebackgroundnoisebutthose5instancestheyreallyhelpout.Theyhavea7daystorage
andalladministratorshavethemontheiriPad.

SupremeCourtCases
Tinker
WeareinconservativeIowainthe1960sandseveralstudentswantstowearblack
armbandsinprotestofVietnamWar.Theprincipalgotwindofthisandpreventedthem
fromcomingtoschoolandsuspended.
Thequestionisdostudentshaverightsoffreespeechatschoolifitisnotdisturbingto
theschoolenvironment?Thecourtsaidthattheydoandtheyweresilentlywearing
armbandsandiftheywereincitingariot,thentheywouldhavenotbeenallowedtodo
this.Theminoritydissentsaidthecourtshouldnotoverruletheprincipal.
Thisisthelandmarkcaseinestablishingconstitutionalrightsforstudentsandteachers
inschool.
Amoderndayapplicationwouldbeschooldresscode.Courtscanbackenforcementof
adresscodeifgangsareinvolved.

Morse(Principal)vs.Frederick(Student)
Thistookplace2002Juneau,AlaskaandtheOlympicTorch(SLC)waspassingthrough
thetown.Theschoolhadthestudentslinethestreetswhenthetorchwentbytheschool
building.ThestudentdidnotattendschoolandunfurledabannerwithBongHitsfor
Jesusandhewassuspendedforlessthan10days.Hewantedmediaattentionandthe
statementdidnotpromoteanycause.
Thequestionisdoesthestudenthavefreespeechrights,ifitisnotlewdoroffensive.
Wastheresubstantialdisruption?Nobecausetherewere2000cheeringstudents.
TheSupremeCourtruledinfavoroftheschool,becausethebannerdisruptsthemission
oftheschool.Thebannermentionsdrugsandtheschoolhasadrugpolicywhichgave
reasonablegroundsfortheprincipaltoaskthestudentstotakethebannerdown.

SaffordversusReddingSchoolDistrict
ThiscasewasinArizona,andtheschoolconductedastripsearchandthecourtruled
therewasnotenoughprobablecause.Theyshouldhavestoppedatherpockets,waist
band,locker,bag,butdonthavethemtakeoffclothes.
Dontstripsearchkids.

Searches
expectationofprivacyinschools
lockershandledinStudentParentHandbook
CouncilRockusestrainedsniffingdogs(privatecompany,notpolice)forlockersand
carsex)ofPennSt.tailgateparentsleftalcoholincar
metaldetectorsnoteffectivebecausekidsputgunonwindowsillorinanotherareathat
theycanreach
astudenthasa1in17millionchanceindyinginpublicschools

FreedomofSpeech
curricularspeech(studentnewspaper,theatre)courtruledforschool(Hazelwood)and
theyhavesomediscretion

Decorumhatsinsidepoormanners,butnowthatisgonekidscanwearhatsatCouncilRock
SchoolDistrict

PrivateSchoolshavemuchmorefreedomregardingDueProcess.Theyareundersome
federallaws(race,sex)andmorestrictwhenschoolsarereceivingfederalfunds.
SubstantiveDueProcess
Gossvs.Lopez(1975)
suspensionof03daysnoticeandopportunitytobeheard
suspensionof310daysaboveandinformalhearing
suspensionofover10daysimpartialtribunal,righttopresentevidence,publichearing,
counsel,hearingrecord/appeal

InhighschoolatCastleRock,about20timesperyear,a510daysuspensionisgivenafew
timesperyear,alcohol/marijuanathenBoard

Itisalwayslegaltolookatafacultymembersemails,andwebsitesvisited,especiallyifyou
haveparentconcernsandinformalvisits.

Whengroupworkisgoingon,aprincipalshouldseeanagendaortask.

wazeanappthatgivesyoutrafficandpolicelocationswhicharecrowdsourced

ExploringtheBoundariesoftheInternetStudentandSchoolConductinCyberspace:
LawandPractice
InternetLawandPractice
Knowyouracceptableusepolicy,copyrightlaw,laptophandbook,socialmediapolicy.

Internetcommunicationsareprotectedspeech(FirstAmendment)Renovs.ACLU97
Dealingwithchildren,schoolsneedtofilterandmonitorinternetschoolsaremovingto
blockingcellphone4Gincertainareas,likebathroomsandlockerrooms
socialmedia,cybersecurity,mobiledevicesinternetaccess,cyberbullying,sextingand
inappropriateimages
CouncilRockbringsinFBIpublicoutreachforcybersecuritytheytargetmiddlelevel
(grades7and8)bythetimestudentsareingrade11,theygettiredofitandtheyknow
howtodealwithit.
Withgrade78,itistheirfirstexperiencewithFacebook,phones,etc.FBIrecommends
parentstochecktheirFacebookpagesdaily
Youalsohavetotrainthestaffonthistopicdocumentandsendtoadministrator

AcceptableUse
MakesureschoolhasyearlyclickwrapagreementforAcceptableUse
clearlanguagethatstudentandstaffaccesstoschool/districtcomputernetworkisNOT
CONFIDENTIALandthedistrictdoesmonitorthatuse
prohibitionofinappropriateuse
onlybeinterestedinIPaddressesteachersaccesswhilewithstudents
CouncilRockstatesnottostreammusicbecauseitsucksbandwith
defineinappropriateusewellnudity,sexualconduct,offensive,notsuitableforminors,
lacksseriousliterary,artisitc,political,orscientificvalue
definehacking
prohibitioncomputergamingbandwidth(warcraft)ifyouhaveadoubt,senditto
administrator
clearstatementonemail
phoneconversationsareconfidentialandnotrecorded
processforchangingpasswordsstatementwhenaccessprioritiesend
WhenyougetintoFacebookandtextingthereisalineofdemarcationthatusually
showswhereitshouldhavestopped
socialmediahassurpassedemail/phoneforcommunication
schoolalternativetosocialmediauseNING,etc.
CouncilRockasksteacherstouseNINGteacherscannotfriendstudents,parents,
administrator

1:1laptopprogramKleinsphilosophyisinanuppermiddleclassschooldistrict,itisnot
feasiblebecauseitisveryexpensive,andmostkidscangettheirowncomputers
thepromiseoftechnologybeingapanaceaforeducationandtheflippedclassroommodel
doesnotworkbecausetheyareteenagers!

JSvs.Bethlehem,PA1998PASupremeCourt
StudentcreatedwebsitecalledTeacherSuxwithcrude,derogatory,violent,comments,
especiallydirectedtowardsmathteacherandprincipal.TherewasoneHitmansection,
requestingdonationstopayahitmantokillthemathteacherandshowtheteacher
decapitated.
TeachertookaLeaveofAbsencefor1and1/2yearformentaldistress.
TheschoolhadpoliceandFBIinvestigateandtheschoolstayedoutoftheinvestigation.
Thecourtdecidedinfavoroftheschool.ThefamilysuedbecauseJSwasexpelledfrom
theschool,claimingitwasviolationofFirstAmendment.Therewasenoughdisruptionto
thelearningenvironmenttowarrantitbeingoncampusspeechinsteadofoffcampus
speech.
Thecourtruleditwasnotatruethreatbecause

Gossvs.Lopezcansuspendforthreedaystogivetimefortheschooltoinvestigateandget
documentationtogetherbeforeexpellingthestudent.Thisisthestandardoperationprocedure
beforegettingridofastudentafterthesuspension,youcalltheparentsinandhaveaninformal
hearing

Onceyouareinfrontofstudentsthentheschoolhasavestedinterestinyourpersonallife.

Insomecases,apunchinthenose,achangeinthebalanceofpower,helpsthesituationat
times.

StudentTeaching
ManyyoungpeoplecannotPlanningDeliveringAdjustingtoStudentsdoaninternship
(studentteachingisantiquated)
Whenyoupayyouruniversityforstudentteachingthecooperatingteachergetsa
stipend/3credits,etc.
likearesidencyforadoctor
1/3todoublemorecertifiedteachersinPAthantherearejobsveryrichstateincertified
teachers

EducatingStudentsWithSpecialNeeds

IDEA,Gifted,andotherArtifactsofUSLaw

IDEAIndividualswithDisabilitiesEducationAct

BackgroundInthe1960s,astudentwithsignificantdisabilitywasrarelywereseenintypical
publicschools.AcoalitionofparentsinPennsylvaniapushedlegislatorstoeventuallypassin
PublicLaw94142,whichforcedschoolstotakeinspecialneedsstudentsandsetupprograms
forthem,bothphysicalandcurriculum.Beforethis,thestudentswereputinstateinstitution
homes.Therewereaseriesoflawsenactedthroughthe1970supthroughthe2000s.Thiswas
partofthecivilrightsmovementintheUSA.

Thisalsoaddressedthosestudentsintheschoolwithmildspecialneeds,andinthe1960s,no
onereallycaredtoidentifyandsupportthosekindsofstudents.From19721985,itwasatough
struggletogetschoolstofindtrainedpeopleandsetupprogram.TheprincipleofCHILDFIND
requiresaschooldistricttoidentifyALLstudentseligibleforservices.Aparentsfailureto
requestidentificationorservicesdoesnotrelievetheschoolfromChildFind.2/3ofallschoollaw
casesaredealingwithIDEA.

EligibilitiesCategoriesforIDEAcoverslotsofdifferentphysicalandmentaldisabilities,
exceptforADD.ForspecificstudentswithADD,therightmedicinetakescareofthis.

Processpublicschoolsmustfindstudentswithspecialneeds
1)Identify/ChildFindResponseToIntervention(RtI)
2)Evaluation(ER)psychologists,aMultidisciplinaryEvaluationProcess(MDE)isateamof
differentspecialists(ReadingSpecialist,ClassroomTeachers,Emotional,SpeechTherapist,
Parents,ParentAdvocates),abatteryofteststherearespecifictimelines,documentation
parentshaverightforIndependentEducationalEvaluation(IEE),whichschoolscantakeor
challengeandschoolswilldotheirownevaluatio
3)Program(IEP)

IEP(IndividualEducationPlan)
TheyareusuallyforoneyearCouncilRockstaggerstheseIEPproductionprocess
SpecialEdteachersget2daysoffperyeartowriteIEPdifficulttogetsecondary
teachersfreetobeontheMDEteam.
F.A.P.E.FreeAppropriatePublicEducationyouneedtoputamodicumof
programs(Chevrolet)andnotfullbore(Mercedes)programsthekeytermisshowing
someprogressandmeaningful
SpeciallyDesignedInstruction
PresentLevelsongoingsetoftesting,sometimestoughtoseeharddata
Goals/Objectives
SpecialConsiderations
TransitionServices(whathappenswhengraduates)upuntilage21,thestateagencies
breakdownandthereisnotmuchforadultswithspecialneedsintheir20s,thereareno
IEPsforstudentsolderthan21yearsold
StateandLocalAssessments(whathappenswhenstandardizedtesting)

4)Placement(NOREP)
youhavetoofferacontinuumofservices(mildtosevere)andLeastRestrictive
Environment(LRE)theregularclassroomisthegoalandalleffortsanddocumentionmustbe
done,especiallywithrecalcitrantparents.
costcanneverbeafactorneverdiscussthiswithparents

FinancialImplicationsInCouncilRockSchools,18%ofstudentsarespecialneedsand30%
ofthebudgetgoestothemstoryofseverelyhandicappedstudent,

Kleinisseeingmoremedicallyfragilestudents,andtherearemoreofthem,forexamplewith
epipensforpeanutallergies

DisciplineofSpecialNeedsStudentsYoucanneversuspendstudentsformorethan10
daysforstudentswithI.E.Ps,aManifestationDeterminationHearingmustbedonebeforeyou
cansuspendastudentforexample,anADDstudent,sellsritalin/adderalltootherstudentsifit
isamanifestationoftheirdisability,youcannotsuspendthestudentifitiswith
weapons/drugs/alcohol,thelimitis45days(2007exception)

Remedieswhenthestudentisnotmakingsignificantprogressorparentsarenothappywith
schoolsprogramthisgoestoanofficialhearing(DueProcess)whichthecourtcouldorderthe
studenttogotoaprivateschool,specialprogram,andtheyneedtopayattorney/expertfees

AutismandtheAutisticChildIntheUSAitisanepidemicandschoolsareseeingmore
autism.Istheresomethingoutthere,orisitjustbetterdiagnosis?CouncilRockseesa
relationshipbetweeninvitroandautism.

ConfidentialityofStudentRecordsstorage,dissemination,righttoknow,parentaccess,
pressWhoelseneedstoknow?FERPA(FamilyEducationandRighttoPrivacyAct)

BullyingandDisabilitiesHarassmentdefinebullyingandtryto

504PlanstudentsnotcoveredbyIEP,theseincludeastudentwithbrokenlegconcussions
(sunglasses,noPE)largeprintforvisuallyimpairedepipen

KleinrecommendstotakeaSpecialEducationLawCourseifyouaregoingtopracticeinthe
USA.

ReligioninPublicSchools

LemonTest
ThisoriginatedintheLemonvs.Kurtzmancaseof1971andasksifthegovernmentalactionhas
asecularpurpose,theactiondoesnotpromotenorinhibitreligion,andfinally,doesnotleadto
excessivegovernmentalentanglementwithreligion.SeparationofChurchandState

UseofFacilitiesbyReligiousGroups
Privategroupscanuseyourfacilities,andyoucannotdiscriminateandtheyfityourfacilityuse
policy.Teacherscandoareligiousgroupafterschool,butthereneedstobeabreakfromthe
schoolday.TheconceptofLimitedOpenForumeithernooneusesthefacilitiesoranyonecan
usethem.Privateschoolsarenotunderthisrequirement,andpublicschoolswouldhavea
hardertimedoingthis.CouncilRockmakes$200,000$300,000withfacilityrental.Onegroup
takescareofthefields.Abigmoneymakerareswimmingpoolsandtheyarebusyfrom5:30AM
to10:00PMintheevening.

SchoolscangetholidayforEasterandYomKippur,becausewithmanystudentsgoingto
Synagogueand20%ofstudentswouldbegone.

IntelligentDesigncurriculumcannotbetaught,butitcanbetaughtasaoneofflessonorbased
onastudentquestion.DecidingtoteachtheIDorCreationismisteachingareligiousview.