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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW

By: Amando Virgil D. Ligutan


First Semester 2014-2015
I.

INTRODUCTION
A. Readings
International Bureau of WIPO: General Introduction to Intellectual Property
Rights(http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/en/wipo_ip_mct_apr_04/wipo_i
p_mct_apr_04_2.pdf)
Justin Hughes, The Philosophy of Intellectual Property, 77 Geo. L.J. 287 (1988)
(pages 1-5)
Thomas G. Field, Jr., Intellectual Property: The Practical and Legal Fundamentals,
35 Idea, at 79-128 (1994) (updated version)
B. International Conventions
1. BERNE CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF LITERARY AND ARTISTIC
WORKS
2. PARIS CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
RIGHTS
3. INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF PERFORMERS,
PRODUCERS OF PHONOGRAMS AND BROADCASTING ORGANIZATIONS
4. CONVENTION ESTABLISHING
ORGANIZATION

THE

WORLD

INTELLECTUAL

PROPERTY

5. BUDAPEST TREATY ON THE INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OF THE


DEPOSIT OF MICROORGANISMS FOR THE PURPOSES OF PATENT
PROCEDURE
6. AGREEMENT ON TRADE RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY,
INCLUDING TRADE IN COUNTERFEIT GOODS OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT
ON TARIFFS AND TRADE. (Articles 1-14, 40-73)
7. PATENT COOPERATION TREATY
C. Constitutional Basis
Article XII, Sec 6
Article VII, Sec 14
Article XIV, Sec 10-18
D. Civil Code Provisions

Article 712
Article 721-724
Article 520-522
E. Jurisprudence
Differences among copyright, trademark and patent
Ching v. Salinas, et al, G.R. No. 161295, 29 June 2005
Kho v. Court of Appeals, 379 SCRA 410 (2002)

II. COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS


A. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF THE LAW OF COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Spanish Law on Intellectual Property of 1879


United States of America Copyright Law
Act No. 3134 or the Copyright Law
Presidential Decree No. 49 (took effect on 27 December 1972)
Presidential Decree No. 1988 (as amended by PD 49 by inserting Section 56)
Intellectual Property Code (took effect on 1 January 1998)

B. LAW ON COPYRIGHT
Sec 241, Intellectual Property Code (IPC)
Sec 239.3, IPC
Sec 236, IPC
1. Definition of Copyright
Sec 177, IPC
Rule 2, Copyright Safeguards and Regulations
Rules 11-12, Copyright Safeguards and Regulations
Ching v. Salinas, et al, G.R. No. 161295 (29 June 2005)
2. Standard for Copyright Protection
Sec 172.1, IPC
Sec 172.2, IPC
Ching Kian Chuan v. CA, 363 SCRA 142 (2001)
Sambar v. Levi Strauss, 378 SCRA 364 (2002)
3. Vesting of Copyright
Santos v. McCullough Printing Co., 12 SCRA 321 (1964)
Filipino Society of Composers v. Benjamin Tan, 148 SCRA 461 (1987)

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Unilever Philippines (PRC) v. CA, GR No. 119280, 10 August 2006


Sec 2, PD 49
Art 5 (2), Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
Section 172 and 172.2 IPC
Rule 7,Sec 2-4, Copyright Safeguards and Regulations
4. Scope of Copyright
Art 2, Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
Sec 172, 172.2, 173, 173.2, 174 IPC
Sec 175, IPC
Sec 176, IPC
Joaquin v. Drilon, 302 SCRA 225 (1999)
United Feature Syndicate v. Munsingwear, 179 SCRA 260 (1989)
Felst Publications, Inc. v. Rural Tel. Service Co., 499 U.S. 340
5. Ownership of Copyright
Sec 178 and subparagraphs, IPC
Sec 179, Sec 174 IPC
Art 722 and 723, Civil Code
Art 520, Civil Code
6. Duration of Copyright
Art 7 and 7bis, Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
Sec 213 and subparagraphs, Sec 214, IPC
7. Limitations on Copyright
Sec 176 and subparagraphs, 171.11, 184-188 IPC
Sec 189, IPC
Sec 190, IPC
Rule 14, Copyright Safeguards and Regulations
ABS-CBN v. PMS, Inc., G.R. No. 175769-70, 19 January 2009
Habana, et al v. Robles, G.R. No. 131522, 19 July 1999
Filipino Society of Composers v. Benjamin Tan, 148 SCRA 461 (1987)
Philippine Education Co. v. Sotto, 52 Phil. 580
Sony Corp. v. Universal City Studios, 464 U.S. 417, 104 S. Ct. 774, 78 L. Ed. 2d.
574
Harper & Row v. Nation Enterprises, 471 U.S. 539, 105 S. Ct. 2218, 85 L. Ed. 2d.
588
8. Transfer of Copyright
Sec 180 and subparagraphs, 181-183 IPC
Sec 4.2 in relation to Sec 87-88 IPC
Sec 92 IPC
Sec 237 IPC

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9. Deposit of Copyrightable Materials


Sec 191-192 IPC
Sec 227-229 IPC
Rule 5, Copyright Safeguards and Regulations
10. Infringement
a. Definition
b. Remedies
Sec 221-224 IPC
Sec 3 IPC
Sec 10.2 IPC
Sec 216-220 IPC
Sec 225 & 226 IPC
Sec 231 IPC
Rule on Search and Seizure in Civil Actions for Infringement of Intellectual
Property Rights (A.M. No. 02-1-06-SC)
20th Century Fox v. CA, 164 SCRA 655 (1988)
Columbia Pictures, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 237 SCRA 367 (1994)
Columbia Pictures v. Court of Appeals, 261 SCRA 144 (1996)
People v. Ramos, 83 SCRA 1 (1978)
Serrano Laktaw v. Paglinawan, 44 Phil. 855
Habana v. Robles, 310 SCRA 511 (1999)
Joaquin v. Drilon, 302 SCRA 225 (1999)
Pearl & Dean v. Shoemart, 409 SCRA 231 (2003)
C. RELATED RIGHTS
1. Moral Rights
Art 6bis, Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
Sec 193-199 IPC

2. Right to Proceeds in Subsequent Transfers (Droit de Suite or Follow Up


Rights)
Sec 200 and 201 IPC
3. Neighboring Rights
Sec 202 IPC
Sec 212 IPC
a. Rights of Performers
Sec 203-207 IPC
Sec 215 IPC

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b. Rights of Producers of Sound Recording


Sec 208-210 IPC
Sec 215 IPC
c.Rights of Broadcasting Corporations
Sec 211 IPC
Sec 215.2 IPC
D. P.D. No. 285 in relation to Sec 239 IPC
III LAW ON TRADEMARKS, TRADENAMES AND SERVICE MARKS
A. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY
Republic Act No. 166
Sec 239.2 IPC
Sec 235.2 IPC
Sec 236 IPC
Sec 241 IPC
Sec 239 IPC
B. LAW ON TRADEMARKS
1. Definition of Trademarks
Sec 121.1 IPC
Distillera Washington v. CA, 263 SCRA 303
2. Functions of Trademarks
Ang v. Teodoro, 74 Phil 50
Etepha v. Director of Patents, 16 SCRA 495
Mirpurl v. Court of Appeals, 318 SCRA 516 (1999)
3. Acquisition of Marks
Sec 122 IPC in contrast with Sec 2-A of R.A. 166 and the cases decided under
R.A. 166:
Unno Commercial Enterprises v. General Milling Corp., 120 SCRA 904
Kabushi Kaisha Isetan v. IAC, 203 SCRA 583
Philip Morris v. CA, 224 SCRA 576
Philip Morris v. Fortune Tobacco, GR No. 158589, 27 June 2006
Shangrila v. DCCI, GR No. 159938, 31 March 2006
Shangrila v. DCCI, GR No. 159938, 22 January 2007

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4. Standard for Registrability


5. Marks that Can be Registered
Sec 123 and subparagraphs IPC
Etepha v. Director of Patents, 16 SCRA 495
Baxter v. Zuasua, 5 Phil 160
Compania Gral de Tabacco v. Alhambra Cigar, 33 Phil 485
Ang v. Teodoro, 74 Phil 50
Arce Sons v. Selecta Biscuits, 1 SCRA 253
Kabushi Kaisha Isetan v. IAC, 203 SCRA 583
Asia Brewery v. CA, 224 SCRA 437 (1993)
Emerald Garment Manufacturing v. CA, 251 SCRA 600
Tanduay Distillers v. Ginebra San Miguel, G.R. No. 164324, 14 August 2009
6. Application for Registration
a. Application
Sec 3 IPC
Sec 124 and sub-paragraphs, 125-126, 128, 130 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 124.2 IPC
Sec 131 and sub-paragraphs IPC (Claim of Priority Right)
Sec 239.2 IPC
b. Assignment of Application Number and Filing Date
Sec 127 IPC
Sec 132 and sub-paragraphs IPC
c. Examination
Sec 133 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 126 IPC
Sec 129 IPC
d. Publication
Sec 133.2 IPC
e. Opposition
Sec 134-135 IPC
Bata Industries v. CA, 114 SCRA 318
Mirpuri v. Court of Appeals, 318 SCRA 516 (1999)
f.

Issuance and Publication of Certificate


Sec 136-137 IPC

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Sec 138 IPC


Sec 139 IPC
Sec 144 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 4.2 IPC
g. Duration of Certificate
Sec 145 IPC
h. Voluntary Cancellation of Certificate
i.

Sec 140 IPC


Correction of Mistakes
Sec 142-143 IPC

j.

Renewal
Sec 146 and sub-paragraphs IPC

7. Rights Conferred
Sec 147 and sub-paragraphs IPC as amended by R.A. 9502 (Universally
Accessible Cheaper and Quality Medicines Act of 2008)
Sec 148 IPC
Sec 4.2 in relation to Sec 87, 88 and 92 IPC
Sec 149 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 150 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 231 IPC
Infringement when goods are non-competing
Ang Tibay v. Teodoro, 74 Phil 50
Chua Che v. Philippine Patent Office, 13 SCRA 67 (1965)
Sta. Ana v. Mallwat, 24 SCRA 108
Philippine Refining Company v. Ng Sam, 115 SCRA 472
Esso Standard Eastern, Inc. v. CA, 116 SCRA 336
Hickok Manufacturing Co. v. CA, 116 SCRA 387
Faberge v. IAC, 215 SCRA 316
Canon Kabushiki v. CA, 336 SCRA 256 (2000)
Pearl & Dean v. Shoemart, 409 SCRA 231 (2003)
246 Corporation v. Daway, 416 SCRA 315 (2003)
Societe Des Produits Nestle v. CA, 356 SCRA 207 (2001)
Levi Strauss v. Clinton Aparelle, GR. No. 138900, 20 September 2005
Sec 20, R.A. 166 as compared to Sec 138 IPC
Issue of Parallel Importation
Yu v. CA, 217 SCRA 328

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8. Remedies
Sec 3 IPC
Sec 160 IPC
Sec 231 IPC
Leviton Industries v. Salvador, 114 SCRA 420
Puma v. IAC, 158 SCRA 233
La Chemise Lacoste v. Fernandez, 129 SCRA 373
a. Administrative
i. Cancellation Proceedings
Sec 151 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 152 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 153 and 154 IPC
Sec 230 IPC
Sec 232.2 IPC
Romero v. Maiden Form, 10 SCRA 556
Philippine Nut Industry v. Standard Brands Inc., 65 SCRA 575
Anchor Trading Co. v. Director of Patents, 99 Phil. 1040
Clorox Company v. Director of Patents, 20 SCRA 965 (1967)
Wolverine Worldwide, Inc. v. CA, 169 SCRA 627 (1989)
Shangrila vs. CA, 359 SCRA 273 (1999)
ii. Intellectual Property Rights Violations
Sec 10 (2) and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 232 IPC
Sec 232.2 IPC
IN-N-Out Burger v. Sehwani, G.R. No. 179127, 24 December 2008
iii. Prohibition of Importation
Sec 166 IPC
b. Civil
i.

Infringement
Sec 155 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 156 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 157 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 158 IPC
Sec 159 and sub-paragraphs IPC as amended by R.A. 9502 (Universally
Accessible Cheaper and Quality Medicines Act of 2008)
Sec 161 IPC

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Sec 163 IPC


Sec 164 IPC
Sec 232 IPC
Rule on Search and Seizure in Civil Actions for Infringement of
Intellectual Property Rights (A.M. No. 02-1-06-SC)
Etepha v. Director of Patents, 16 SCRA 495 (1966)
Esso Standard Eastern, Inc. v. CA, 116 SCRA 338
Fruit of the Loom v. CA, 133 SCRA 405 (1984)
Del Monte Corporation v. CA, 181 SCRA 410
Asia Brewery v. CA, 224 SCRA 437
Conrad vs. CA, 246 SCRA 691
Emerald Garment Manufacturing v. CA, 251 SCRA 600
Amigo v. Cluett Peabody, 354 SCRA 434 (2001)
Societe Des Produits Nestle v. CA, 356 SCRA 207 (2001)
Mighty Corporation v. E. & J. Gallo-Winery, GR. No. 154342, 14 July
2004
McDonalds Corp v. L.C. Big Mak, GR 143993 dated 18 August 2004
McDonalds Corp v. Macjoy Fastfood Corp., GR No. 166115, 2 February
2007
Prosource Int., Inc. v. Horphag Research, G.R.. No. 180073, 25 Nov.
2009
Societe Des Produits Nestle v. Dy, G.R. No. 172276, 8 August 2010
Bottles and Containers
Cagayan Valley Enterprises v. CA, 179 SCRA 218
Distilleria Washington v. CA, 263 SCRA 303
Distilleria Washington v. La Tondena, 280 SCRA 116
Twin Ace Holdings v. CA, 280 SCRA 884
ii. Unfair Competition
Sec 168 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 232 IPC
Difference between Infringement and Unfair Competition
Del Monte Corporation v. CA, 181 SCRA 410
Pro Line Sports Center v. CA, 281 SCRA 162
Universal Rubber Products v. CA, 130 SCRA 104
Converse Rubber Corp. v. Jacinto Rubber and Plastic Co., 97 SCRA 158
Asia Brewery v. CA, 224 SCRA 437 (1993)
Solid Triangle v. Sheriff, 370 SCRA 491 (2001)
Sony Computer v. Supergreen, Inc., GR No. 161823, 22 March 2007
Sehwani, Inc. and Benitas Frites, Inc. vs. IN-N-Out Burger, Inc., 536
SCRA 255 (2007)
Coca Cola v. Gomez, G.R. No. 154491, 14 November 2008
iii

Action for False or Fraudulent Declaration

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Sec 162 IPC


Sec 163 IPC
Sec 164 IPC
Sec 232 IPC
Iv

Action for False Designation of Origin


Sec 169 and sub-paragraphs IPC
Sec 232 IPC

v. Criminal
Sec 170 IPC
Sy v. Court of Appeals, 113 SCRA 334
Samson v. Judge Daway, GR Nos. 160054-55, July 21, 2004
C. TRADENAMES
1. Definition
Sec 121.3 IPC
Converse Rubber Corp. v. Jacinto Rubber and Plastic Co., 117 SCRA 154
2. Prohibited Tradename
Sec 165.1 IPC
3. Rights of the Tradename Owner
Sec 165.2 IPC
Sec 165.3 IPC
Sec 165.4 IPC
Philips Export v. CA, 206 SCRA 457
Armco Steel Corporation v. SEC, 158 SCRA 822
Western Equipments & Supply Co. v. Reyes, 51 Phil 115
D. COLLECTIVE MARKS
1. Definition
Sec 121.2 IPC
Sec 167 and sub-paragraphs IPC
IV LAW ON PATENTS
A. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

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1. R.A. 165
2. R.A. 8293 (IPC)
Sec 239.1 IPC
Sec 235.1 IPC
Sec 236 IPC
3. R.A. 9502 (Universally Accessible Cheaper and Quality Medicines Act of 2008)
B. LAW ON PATENTS
1. Definition
2. Purpose
Manzano v. CA, 278 SCRA 688
Pearl & Dean v. Shoemart, 409 SCRA 231 (2003)
3. Patentable Matters
a. Inventions
Sec 21 IPC
Standards
i. Novelty
Sec 23-25 IPC
Maguan v. CA, 146 SCRA 107
Vargas v. F.M. Yaptico & Co., 40 Phil 195
Vargas v. Chua, 57 Phil 206
Frank v. Kosuyama, 59 Phil. 206
ii. Inventiveness
Sec 26 IPC as amended by R.A. 9502 (Universally Accessible
Cheaper and Quality Medicines Act of 2008)
Aguas v. De Leon, 111 SCRA 238
Manzano v. CA, 278 SCRA 688
iii Industrial Application
Sec 27 IPC
b. Utility Model
Sec 109.1 IPC
c. Industrial Designs

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Sec 112, 113, 119.1 IPC


d. Lay-out Designs
R.A. 9150 amending IPC
Layout Designs (Topographies) of Integrated Circuits Regulations
4. Non-Patentable Matters
Sec 22 IPC as amended by R.A. 9502 (Universally Accessible Cheaper and
Quality Medicines Act of 2008)
Sec 8-9, R.A. 165
Sec 74, R.A. 165
Art. 27, Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS)
Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303, 100 S. Ct. 2204
R.A. 9168 (Plant Variety Protection Act)
Sec 32 and 34 of R.A. 8371 (IPRA Law)
5. Ownership of Patent
Sec 28 IPC
Sec 29 IPC
Sec 30 IPC
Sec 67-70 IPC
Sec 236 IPC
6. Regular Application for Patent
a. Party to apply
Sec 28-30 IPC
Sec 68 IPC
Sec 3 IPC
Sec 231 IPC
Sec 235 IPC
b. Application
Sec 32-37 IPC
Sec 38 IPC
Sec 39 IPC
Sec 8 IPC
Sec 108, 109.2 IPC (Utility Models)
Sec 114-115 IPC (Industrial Design)
c. Priority Date
Sec 31 IPC

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Boothe v. Director of Patents, 95 SCRA 446


d. Filing Date
Sec 40-41 IPC
Sec 116 IPC (Industrial Design)
e. Formality Examination
Sec 42 IPC
f.

Classification and Search


Sec 43 IPC

g. Confidentiality before Publication


Sec 45 IPC
h. Publication of Patent Application
Sec 44 IPC
i.

Rights Conferred by a Patent Application after Publication


Sec 46 IPC

j.

Observation by Third Parties


Sec 47 IPC

k. Request for Substantive Examination


Sec 48 IPC
Schuartz v. CA, 335 SCRA 493 (2000)
l.

Amendment
Sec 49 IPC

m. Conversion
Sec 110 and 111 IPC
7. Philippine Rules on PCT Applications (Pursuant to Patent Cooperation Treaty)
8. Issuance or Refusal of Patents
Sec 50 IPC
Sec 51 IPC

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Sec 53 IPC
Sec 117 and 119 IPC (Industrial Design)
Pearl & Dean v. Shoemart, 409 SCRA 231 (2003)
9. Publication upon Grant of Patent
Sec 52 IPC
10. Term of Patent
Sec 54 IPC (Invention Patent)
Sec 109.3 IPC (Utility Model)
Sec 118 IPC (Industrial Design)
11. Annual Fees
Sec 55 IPC
12. Surrender, Correction, Amendment
Sec 56 IPC
Sec 57-60 IPC
13. Cancellation
a. Grounds
Sec 61 IPC
Sec 82 IPC
Sec 109.4 IPC (Utility Model)
Sec 120 IPC
b. Proceedings
Sec 62-66 IPC
Sec 230 IPC
14. Rights of Patentee
a. Sec 71 IPC
Parks Davis & Co. v. Doctors Pharmaceuticals, 124 SCRA 115
i Limitations on the Rights of a Patentee
Sec 72 IPC as amended by R.A. 9502 (Universally Accessible
Cheaper and Quality Medicines Act of 2008)
Sec 73-74 IPC
Sec 231 IPC
ii Issue of Parallel Importation

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Sec 71 IPC
Art. 6 of the TRIPS Agreement: Doctrine of Exhaustion
b. Action for Infringement (Literal and Equivalent)
Vargas v. F.M. Yaptico & Co., 40 Phil 195
Frank v. Benito, 51 Phil.712
Frank v. Kosuyama, 59 Phil. 206
G. Sell v. Yap Jue, 12 Phil. 519
Maguan v. CA, 146 SCRA 107
Godines v. CA, 226 SCRA 338
Del Rosario v. CA, 255 SCRA 152
Smith Kline v. CA, 409 SCRA 33 (2003)
i

Civil Action for Infringement


Sec 76 IPC as amended by R.A. 9502 (Universally Accessible
Cheaper and Quality Medicines Act of 2008)
Sec 75 IPC

ii Criminal Action for Repetition of Infringement


Sec 84 IPC
iv Administrative
Sec 10.2 IPC
v. Party to file
Sec 77 IPC
Creser Precision System, Inc. v. CA, 286 SCRA 13
vi. Presumptions
Sec 78 IPC
vii. Damages
Sec 79-80 IPC
viii. Defenses in Action for Infringement
Sec 81 IPC
ix. Patent Found Invalid Maybe Cancelled
Sec 82 IPC

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x. Assessors
Sec 83 IPC
c. Licensing
i Voluntary
Sec 85-92 IPC
ii. Compulsory
Sec 93-95 IPC as amended by R.A. 9502 (Universally Accessible
Cheaper and Quality Medicines Act of 2008)
Sec 96-102 IPC
Price v. United Laboratories, 166 SCRA 133 (1988)
Smith Kline v. CA, 276 SCRA 224 (1997)
Smith Kline v. CA, 368 SCRA 9
d. Right to Transfer and Assign
Sec 4.2 IPC
Sec 103-107 IPC
Sec 85-92 IPC
Albana v. Director of Patents, 93 Phil. 113

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