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C5b Electrolysis

Electrolysis of Molten Compounds


A compound is heated until it ____________ and an ____________________
_______________ is passed through it.
For the circuit to be complete _______________ must flow.
The ________________ electrode (anode) attracts _____________ ions
(anions) and takes electrons away from them.
These flow through the external circuit to the ________________ electrode.
The _____________________ electrode (cathode) gives electrons to the
___________________ ions (cations) that it has attracted.
As ions gain or lose electrons they become ________ or ________________
and are discharged from the solution.
Metal ions are always __________________________
e.g.
!
"i
!
#a
!
$
!
%b
!
what do the last 4 have in common?
&b
'!
Fe
'!
(g
'!
)a
'!
*r
'!
what do the last 3 have in common?
Non-metal ions e!cept hydrogen" #
$
% are ______________
e.g. F
+
)l
+
,r
+
-
+
what do these 4 ions have in common?
.
'+
*
'+

/lectrolysing (olten )ompounds
0hat type of compounds electrolyse1
/lectrolysis is the ______________________ of a li2uid by the passing an
electric current through it.
This can only happen if the compound decomposes to produce _______ (charged
particles) i.e. ionic compounds made from a metal and __________________ part.
The ions are then attracted to the ___________ (positive electrode) and the
_______________ (negative electrode).
-onic compounds are usually solids. /lectrolysis will &N'( take place when ionic
compounds are molten because the ions must ________________ to the electrodes.
/xample 3 4 )onsider *odium )hloride5 )athode5
(etal ions __________ electrons to
become metal atoms
Anode5
#on+metal ions ___________ electrons to
become atoms or molecules.
0e call this type of e2uation a ______________.
&redict the products of electrolytic decomposition of the following molten electrolytes5
Electrolyte positive ions cations% negative ions anions%
sodium chloride #a)l sodium chloride
Al
'
.
6
&b,r
'
&b-
'
$)l
#alf e)uations5 Cathode *node
Al
'
.
6
Al
6!
! __e
+
Al .
'+
.
'
! __e
+
&b,r
'
&b-
'
+
$)l
Molten
sodium
chloride
indicator paper
small test tube
electrode
power
supply
crocodile
clip
+

)onsider a sodium chloride


solution (salty water)
Electrolysis of *)ueous +olutions
0hat difference does dissolving a compound in water make1
+ometimes the ions from water are more attracted to the electrodes than
the ions from the solute dissolved compound%
-n the solution above7 the ____________ ions are attracted to the anode (!)7
_____________ electrons and become _____________________________
The ________________ ions from water are attracted to the cathode (+) and
form _____________________ molecules7
'
.
)athode5
Anode5
E!ample , -otassium sulfate" $
'
*.
8(a2)
)athode5
Anode5
E!ample 3 $#.
6(a2)
)athode5
Anode5
+ummary
The following 6 solutions all produce hydrogen and oxygen when electrolysed5
#a)l
(a2)
sodium chloride
$
'
*.
8(a2)
potassium sulfate oxygen ! hydrogen
$#.
6(a2)
potassium nitrate
-urifying Copper using Electrolysis
*ummary5
9escribe the changes in mass of the
copper electrodes
The cathode (negative electrode)
__________ mass
The positive electrode (anode)
___________ mass
The gain in mass of the negative
electrode is ______________ the loss
in mass of the positive electrode.
alf /2uations5
&ositive electrode (anode)5
#egative electrode (cathode)5
0hat factors affect the amount of copper produced during electrolysis1
The amount of product made depends on the number of ______________ transferred
*o the ______________the current the more electrons there are. Also7 the _______
the time the greater the number of electrons transferred.
more time and higher current : _______________ mass of pure copper
copper (--) sulfate
solution
cardboard
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