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Present Simple

Estructura
Afrmativa: el Presente Simple se construye con el infnitivo del verbo sin to. La forma verbal es la misma para
todas las personas excepto para la 3 del singular (he she it! en la "ue se a#ade una $s al fnal.
Ejemplo: to believe I believe he believes
Reglas ortogrfcas para la formaci%n de la tercera persona del singular:
&. Si el verbo acaba en $o 's 'ss 'sh 'ch 'x se a#ade 'es.
Ejemplos: do does focus focuses
discuss discusses push pushes
catch catches fax faxes
(. Si el verbo acaba en 'y precedida de vocal se a#ade una 's.
Ejemplos: enjoy enjoys pay pays
3. Si el verbo acaba en 'y precedida de consonante la 'y se convierte en ') y se a#ade una 's.
Ejemplos: study studies fy fies
*. +ay verbos "ue no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores. Son excepciones "ue hay "ue memori,ar.
Ejemplos: have has be is
Negativa: la forma negativa se construye colocando los auxiliares dont, doesnt delante del verbo principal
(doesntt para la 3 persona del singular dont para el resto de las personas!.
Ejemplos: I dont remember Jane doesnt like jazz
Interrogativa: se construye colocando los auxiliares do, does delante del su-eto (does para la 3 persona del
singular do para el resto! al "ue sigue el infnitivo del verbo sin to
Ejemplos: !o you believe in "hosts# !oes he understand En"lish#
Usos
.l presente simple se utili,a para hablar de
h/bitos y actividades "ue se reali,an con regularidad. Ejemplo: I play tennis evey summer
afrmaciones sobre hechos "ue se consideran ciertos. Ejemplo: $ater boils at %&&'(
acontecimientos programados para el futuro. Ejemplo: )er train arrives at %%*&
Present Continuous
Estructura
Afrmativa: el Present 0ontinuous se construye con el presente del verbo to be seguido de la forma en $ing del
verbo principal.
Ejemplo: to think I am thinkin" )e is thinkin"
Reglas ortogrfcas relativas a las formas en 'ing:
&. Si el verbo acaba en consonante 1 e la vocal fnal desaparece antes de a#adir $ing.
Ejemplos: hide hidin" shine shinin"
(. Si el verbo acaba en $y esta se mantiene delante de $ing.
Ejemplos: enjoy enjoyin" pay payin"
3. Si el verbo acaba en $ie estas dos vocales se transforman en una $y antes de a#adir $ing.
Ejemplos: die dyin" lie lyin"
*. Si el verbo es monos2labo y acaba en vocal 1 consonante la consonante fnal se duplica
antes de a#adir $ing.
Ejemplos: "et "ettin" plan plannin"
3. Si el verbo tiene m/s de dos s2labas y acaba en vocal acentuada 1 consonante la
consonante fnal se duplica antes de a#adir $ing.
Ejemplos: for"et for"ettin" admit admittin"
4. Si el verbo acaba en $l esta consonante se duplica antes de a#adir $ing.
Ejemplo: travel travellin"
Negativa: la forma negativa se construye con el presente del verbo to be seguido de not y la forma en +in" del
verbo principal.
Ejemplos: I am not ,Im not- listenin" to you .ouis is not ,isnt- /atchin" 01
Interrogativa: se construye colocando el presente del verbo to be al comien,o de la frase seguido del su-eto y
la forma en +in" del verbo principal.
Ejemplos: 2re you learnin" 3erman# Is he /orkin" hard#
Usos
.l Present 0ontinuous se utili,a para hablar de
acciones "ue est/n sucediendo en el momento en "ue se habla. Ejemplo: )es havin" breakfast in
the kitchen
situaciones transitorias. Ejemplo: $ere stayin" /ith friends for a
/eeek
planes de futuro. Ejemplo: $ere leavin" at 4*&
VERBOS DE ESADO !un"erstan"# $no%# li$e# &'
Estructura ( usos
+ay verbos "ue casi nunca se utili,an en present continuous , present perfect continuous or past continuous. Son
los llamados 5verbos de estado6 o state verbs. Los m/s comunes son los siguientes:
7erbos "ue expresan pensamientos y opiniones: understand, kno/, remember, believe, for"et
7erbos "ue expresan gustos y preferencias: like, love, prefer, hate.
7erbos "ue expresan estado y posesi%n: be, o/n.
)* BAC+I,,ERAO- . PRESEN ENSES
&. 8r 0ooper al9ays::::::::::..a pound of sugar. (buy!
(. ;he shop assistant:::::::::::::::.the door no9. (<P.=!
3. >evin and ?lan:::::::::::::::::::: live 9ith their aunt this month. (live!
*. Loo@A Breddy:::::::::::::::::::t9o bas@ets. (carry!
3. 8rs Cingham:::::::::::::::::::::..shopping every Saturday. (go!
4. 8r Doot al9ays::::::::::::::::::::a box of eggs before buying them. (open!
E. 8um often::::::::::::::::::::her change. (forget!
F. ListenA ;he manager:::::::::::::::::::.to a customer. (tal@!
G. ) thin@ )::::::::::::::::::::.."uite hard this term. (study!
&H. .very Sunday they::::::::::::::::::tennis. (play!
C/oose t/e correct option0
&. IeJJJJJJJJJJJJof buying a ne9 car. a! are thin@ing b! thin@
(. ;he 9aiter JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJthe 9ine and it seems it is good. a! 9ill taste b! tastes c! is
tasting
3. ? coKee JJJJJJJJJJJJgood after a meal. a! tastes b! is tasting c! has tasted
*. )JJJJJJJJJJJJJJyou very much. ) 9ant to be your boyfriend a! am li@ing b! li@e c! 9ill li@e
3. 8ary JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJa ne9 boy at the moment. +e is Polish. a! is seeing b! see c! has seen
4. LonMt tal@ to me no9. )JJJJJJJJJJJJJto the radio. a! am listening b! listen c!
have listened
E. +o9 JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJtoday N 8uch better really. a! are you feeling b! do you feel c! did
you feel
F. )JJJJJJJJJJJJJthe best 9ay to travel is on foot. a! thin@ b! am thin@ing
&! Dight no9 ) (9atch!::::::::::::::::.a movie. ) (9atch!:::::::::::::::::..a lot of
movies.
(! Dic@ie (be!::::.my friend. Ie (li@e!::::::::to tal@ together. Dight no9 9e (tal@!
::::::::::::::::..about school.
3! ;he police oOcer (9ear!::::::::::::::..a badge and a gun to 9or@ every day.
*! Paime usually (eat!::::::::::.cereal for brea@fast but today he (eat!:::::::::::::::::
oatmeal instead.
3! ?lison and ) (study!:::::::::::::::..for the exam. Ie (not 9ant!
::::::::::::::::..to fail itA
4! Ponas (sing!:::::::::::::in the band. 7eda (play!:::::::::::::.the guitar.
E! 8y uncle (live!:::::::::::.in ;ennessee. ) (live!::::::::::::::..in =orth 0arolina.
F! 8y mom (coo@!::::::::::::::.dinner tonight. (Qou 9ant!:::::::::::::::::to eat
9ith usN
G! ;iKany and 8ar@ (travel!:::::::::::::::::::..to Spain this summer.
&H! Ie (read!::::::::::::::::.the ne9spaper every morning.
A re$$ing 1ournal
=ovember &( &GGE
;oday (be!:::::::::the second day of my tre@ around 8ount ?nnapurna. ) am exhausted and my legs
(sha@e!::::::.:::::..R ) -ust hope ) am able to complete the tre@. 8y feet (@ill really!
:::::::::::::::::.me and my toes (bleed!::::::::::::::: but ) (9ant still!
::::::::::::::::.to continue.
=epal is a fascinating country but ) have a great deal to learn. .verything (be!:::::::::..so diKerent and
) (try!::::::::::::..to adapt to the ne9 9ay of life here. ) (learn!:::::::::::::..a little bit of
the language to ma@e communication easierR unfortunately ) (learn not!::::::::::::::::foreign
languages "uic@ly. ?lthough ) (understand not!:::::::::::::::much yet ) believe that ) (improve
gradually!:::::::::::::::::::.
) (travel currently!:::::::::::::::.9ith Liam a student from Leeds Sniversity in .ngland. +e (be!
:::::::::::.a nice guy but impatient. +e (9al@ al9ays!:::::::::::::..ahead of me and
(complain!::::::::::::.that ) am too slo9. ) (do!::::::::::::..my best to @eep up 9ith him
but he is younger and stronger than ) am. 8aybe ) am -ust feeling sorry for myself because ) am getting old.
Dight no9 Liam (sit!:::::::::::::::..9ith the o9ner of the inn. ;hey (discuss!
:::::::::::::::..the diKerences bet9een life in .ngland and life in =epal. ) (@no9 not!
::::::::::::::..the real name of the o9ner but everybody (call -ust!::::::::::::.him
;am. ;am (spea@!:::::::::::::...nglish very 9ell and he (try!::::::::::::..to teach Liam
some 9ords in =epali. .very time ;am (say!:::::::::::::::.a ne9 9ord Liam (try!
::::::::::::::to repeat it. Snfortunately Liam (seem also!::::::::::::to have diOculty
learning foreign languages. ) -ust hope 9e donMt get lost and have to as@ for directions.