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MANILA DOCTORS COLLEGE

EXTENT OF TRANSCULTURAL NURSING PRACTICES IN MANILA


DOCTORS HOSPITAL

A Research Paper
Presented to
The Faculty of the College of Nursing
MANILA DOCTORS COLLEGE
Pasay City

In Partial Fulfilment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING

Christy Ann S. Camballa


Joshua D. Flores
Ronalyn S. Guevara
Francis D. Ibase
Niña Rose C. Maderazo
Kristine Mae D. Mejia
Yessa P. Ortega

24-1

October 2009

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APPROVAL SHEET

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF


SCIENCE IN NURSING, this research paper entitled “EXTENT OF
TRANSCULTURAL NURSING PRACTICES IN MANILA DOCTORS
HOSPITAL ” has been prepared and submitted by CHRISTY ANNE S.
CAMBALLA, JOSHUA ANDREW D. FLORES, RONALYN S. GUEVARRA,
FRANCIS D. IBASE, NINA ROSE C. MADERAZO, KRISTINE MAE D.
MEJIA, YESSA P. ORTEGA, who are hereby recommended for Oral
Examination.

_________________________________
ARMEL B. GONZALEZ, RN MHA
Adviser

Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with the grade of


______.

_______________________________ _______________________
MICHAEL LEOCADIO, RN MAN NORA NARON, RN MAN
Member Member

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the


degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING.

_______________________________
EMILIE M. LOPEZ, RN MAN
Officer-in-Charge, College of Nursing
Date: October 2009

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our deepest gratitude to the following to help and

support us to make this research possible:

To Mrs. Armel Gonzalez our thesis adviser for her unselfish time, effort,

encouragement that give us the strength to pursue this study and for sharing her

knpwledge, for guiding us and being patient with us despite her busy schedule.

To Ms. Emervic Gargoles, our statistician for her assistance in making this

research possible

To Ms. Rosie De Leon (Chief Nurse), Manila Doctors Hospital, for granting

us the permission to counduct our study in the respective areas.

To Mrs. Julita Fiesta, Mr. Demetrio Gamayon, Mr. Gregorio Mendoza III,

for imparting their knowledge and expertise in the validation of our questionnaires.

We would like to extent our warm thanks to our families and friends for

giving us a hand in all our difficulities and for giving their all-out support.

Above all, we would like to thank our Lord Almighty for his unconditional

love and guidance and making everything possible.

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Dedication

We have conducted this study for eight (8) months. We went to different

hardships, we exerted effort, and time to make this study feasible.

This study is heartfully dedicated to all the people whose unwavering

support, belief and guidance ensured that we would be able to graduate for this

esteemed College. We would also like to dedicate this to our parents, guardians

who never failed us to give financial support in conducting this study. This is also

dedicated to the Lord Our God for his everyday blessing to us, and lastly, to our

friends for their time and motivation.

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RESEARCH ABSTRACT

Research Title : EXTENT OF TRANSCULTURAL NURSING


PRACTICES IN MANILA DOCTORS HOSPITAL

Researchers : CAMBALLA, CHRISTY ANN S.


FLORES, JOSHUA ANDREW D.
GUEVARA, RONALYN S.
IBASE, FRANCIS D.
MADERAZO, NIÑA ROSE C.
MEJIA, KRISTINE MAE D.
ORTEGA, YESSA P.

Adviser : MRS. ARMEL GONZALEZ, RN MHN MAN

School : MANILA DOCTORS COLLEGE

Degree Conferred : BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING

Date Completed : October 2009

No. of pages : 138 pages

This quantitative analytical research assessed the Extent of Transcultural

Nursing Practice in Manila Doctors Hospital. The study was conducted last May

2009.

A purposive sampling technique was used in distributing the questionnaire

to a total of thirty (30) nurses from selected floors at Manila Doctors Hospital

participated as respondents to this survey. The quantitative data obtained were

tabulated and presented using frequency tables with the use of Statistical Packaged

for Social Science (SPSS) software.

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The demographic data gathered for respondents were the following: age,

gender, and number of patients handled. To assess the extent of transcultural

nursing practice of the staff nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital, researchers used

chosen Sunrise Model (environmental, communication and space) from Madeleine

Leininger.

Majority of the nurses belongs to age 21-29 years old and have handled 1-2

foreign patients.

As result, the study shows that there is no significant difference in the

extent of transcultural nursing practice based on the given factors according to the

profile.

In the light of the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations

are hereby offered. Firstly, for the staff nurses of Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH),

to continue to develop the caring attitudes and provide the best quality nursing care

as possible t their patient in spite of culture indifferences. Secondly, to the College

of Nursing to suggest and encourage Commission on Higher Education to include

Transcultural Nursing Practices patterned according to Leininger’s Sunrise Model

in the curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Nursing to help nurses prepare

themselves as they have a greater chance and possibility of working abroad.

Thirdly, to the students wherein they can read cultures of other country to update

themselves regarding different cultures needed to consider before giving care.

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Fourthly, to Nursing Service that they should monitor the knowledge of staff nurses

not only in terms of different nursing procedures they can perform or intervention

but also include in their training on providing care for foreign patients. Lastly, to

the future researchers, we recommend that they explore other data gathering

techniques for them to find the different result between the profiles of the

respondents. And test other factors like religion, economic status and others;

included in the umbrella of Sunrise Model of Leininger. Furthermore, they could

increase the number of respondents, if possible, all the nurses in the said institution.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Approval Sheet ii
Acknowledgment iii
Dedication v
Research Abstract vi
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables x
List of Figures xi
List of Appendices xiii

CHAPTER PAGE

1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction 1

Background of the Study 3

Conceptual Framework 6

Conceptual Paradigm 9

Statement of the Problem 10

Statement of Hypothesis 11

Significance of the Study 11

Scope and Delimitation of the Study 14

Definition of Terms 15

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

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Local Literature 17

Foreign Literature 19

Local Studies 37

ix
Foreign Studies 38

Relevance to the Present Study 40

3 METHOD AND PROCEDURE

Research Method/Design 43

Research Locale 43

Sample and Sampling Technique 43

Research Instrument 43

Validation of the Instrument 45

Test for Reliability of the Instrument 46

Data Gathering Procedure 46

Statistical Treatment of Data 47

4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND

INTERPRETATION OF DATA 51

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5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS

AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings 73

Conclusions 76

Recommendations 77

REFERENCES 79

APPENDICES 82

LIST OF TABLES

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TABLE PAGE
A Four Point Likert Scale 49
1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of 51
Staff Nurse According to Age
2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of 53
Staff Nurses According to Gender

3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of 54


Staff Nurses According to Number Patients
Handle

4 Extent of transcultural Nursing Practices in 56


Manila Doctors Hospital Based on
Communication

5 Extent of transcultural Nursing Practices in 58


Manila Doctors Hospital Based on Space

6 Extent of transcultural Nursing Practices in 61


Manila Doctors Hospital Based on
Environment

7 Summary of Categories 63
8 Difference in the Extent of Transcultural 64
Nursing Practices Grouped According to Age

9 Difference in the Extent of Transculural 66


Nursing Practices Grouped According to
Gender

10 Difference in the Extent of Transculural 69


Nursing Practices Grouped According to
Number of Foreign Patient Handled

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LIST OF FIGURE

FIGURE PAGE

1 Conceptual Paradigm 9

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LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix PAGE

A Recommendations and Suggestions of the Panel 83


B Methods 85

C Statistical Analysis 93
D Communication Letters 103
E Certifications 110
F Gantt chart and Line Item Budget 117
G Photographic Documentations 119
H Curriculum Vitae 121

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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

"..I will serve mankind with love and compassion, recognizing their dignity

and rights irrespective of color, caste, creed, religion and nationality.” - Florence

Nightingale.

Pain is experienced by people of all cultures, communities and economic

strata. It is the fifth vital signs that nurses included in assessing their patients every

day. Nurse handles different people every day holding different beliefs, practices,

values, religion, and cultures of clients, thus nurses have to face, accept, and must

do their job in giving, providing, and fulfilling the needs of every client they have.

It is like nurses wearing a mask in every time they are going to attend to the needs

of their patients every day. No matter how kind or cruel the patient is, nurses

should smile, show goodness, and understand the condition of their client.

Different cultures of client is not a simple task for nurses, there are things to

consider in providing an optimum care in each client.

In year 2005, according to a senior Taiwanese Department of Health (DOH)

official in Taipei said that there would be a self-payment ratio hike for out-patient

and emergency patients. Increase in payment in medical services will be effective

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on 16th of July in the same year. Taiwanese as well as other nationalities come to

the Philippines for medical professional help because aside from lower rates; they

can avail wellness not mentioning the global competitiveness of medical

practitioners and equipment available. Nurse prepares their selves in handling

patients with different culture patterned to their client’s culture, beliefs, values,

practices, and even with their superstitious beliefs.

Visiting one place from another dictates a big adjustment on the part of

foreigners which, sometimes they cannot cope with changes around them affecting

their health. There are a lot of factors that can affect the health of foreigners such

as, weather, environment, food, water, hygiene, and presence of communicable

disease like pulmonary tuberculosis.

As nurses and future professional nurse, taking care not only the health of

Filipinos but as well as foreigners is a major responsibility. Nurse’s profound

knowledge and skills in giving care and practicing nursing skills will be used as a

guide in assisting health needs of foreign clients. It will also support nurse’s duties

in maintaining care and in preventing both local and foreign clients from acquiring

any kind of diseases present in the environment.

Each nationality deserves to have an adequate service and care that is

patterned according to their cultural beliefs and practices that each professional

nurses and future nurses should have knowledge of. Studying their culture and

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practices, understanding their culture, and applying what the nurse’s learn will help

nurses to be equipped and to be an effective nurse here and in abroad. To be

globally competitive is the aim of each nurse who is planning to practice their

profession outside the Philippines.

As a response to these conditions, it is essential to study the extent of

transcultural nursing practices of nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital.

Background of the Study

In the last four decades, understanding and acceptance of the need to

prepare nurses and other practitioners to provide culturally competent care has

grown around the world.

In year 2005, a senior Taiwanese Department of Health (DOH) official in

Taipei said that a self-payment ratio hike for out-patient and emergency patients

will be announced. DOH Secretary-General Lai Chin-Hosing also said that hike is

expected to be put into effect July 16, 2005. According to the fee hike plan

envisaged by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI), the self-payment

amount for outpatients as well as amount for emergency patients for district,

regional and national hospitals will be raised. Based on the information, their fees

are visibly higher than medical fees in our co untry. In relation to that,

Taiwanese as well as other nationality come to our country for medical professional

help because aside for lower rates; they can achieve wellness not mentioning the

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global competitiveness of our medical practitioners and the equipment available.

Nurses should be prepared of handling patients according to their culture without

violating anything from their beliefs, values, practices, or even to their superstitious

beliefs. Nurses should respect their attitudes towards dealing with nurses, and

nurses should understand that cultures should consider in giving care to foreign

patients and know their limitations in giving care.

In 2008, based on medical Tourism Monitoring Sheet of Manila Doctors

Hospital (MDH), there were foreign patients coming from different countries who

seek for medical assistance. With this record, it is evidently seen that nurses of

Manila Doctors Hospital handled foreign clients who needs medical assistance.

A student nurse experienced handling a Japanese patient in Manila Doctors

Hospital and had a problem in communication. He needs an interpreter in order for

him to understand the student nurse and vice versa. But unfortunately, there was

no interpreter to relay and interpret the message to client. Action is the only means

of communication similar to pantomime in order for client to understand different

instructions, and answer questions given to client; and for client to ask questions as

well. Even though actions were performed still there is a delay of understanding

instructions and questions. On the brighter side, putting the words into actions is

helpful compared to no total no means of communication.

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Manila Doctors Hospital is the base hospital of students from Manila

Doctors College. In relation to hospital’s location, there is a hotel and game

amusement near the area where a lot of foreigners visit and stay. In mentioning

that situation, there is a high probability that Manila Doctors Hospital might have

foreign patients who might ask and consult for medical services once they need

medical assistance. Students from Manila Doctors College has a high probability

of handling a foreign patients as well since the aforementioned hospital serve as

their training hospital in developing their skills and molding students to a

professional nurse some day.

Handling different nationalities in the hospital is not an easy task. There are

a lot of things to consider especially when culture comes in the process of giving

care. Soon, student nurses will become professional nurse and will be facing

different people not only coming from different provinces but from other country

as well who have a different culture from Filipino nurses. Culture especially

transcultural nursing is very important to nurses as nurses’ service will be evaluated

and will be assessed by any patients as they leave the hospital. if nurses did not

satisfied the standards of every culture in receiving care it will only reflect that

nurses of Manila Doctors Hospital is short in terms of providing optimum care

which is the primary goal of nursing profession as well as any hospital institution.

In relation to this, this study was conceived in order to further assess the nursing

practices of nurses of the said hospital in handling foreign clients. It is important to

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know how wide is the practice of nurses in handling foreign clients in order to

serve as a guide and a model for future nurses in Manila Doctors College. In

addition, to gain knowledge of what is missing in terms of nursing practices in

handling foreign client who has different culture to nurses in said hospital. This

will be helpful for both registered nurses and future nurses. With this, the author

would like to know the extent of transcultural nursing practices in Manila Doctors

Hospital.

Conceptual Framework

Big responsibilities are on the shoulder of nurses since nurses serve as the

front liner in facing different client every day. Interventions that every nurse

employs are very important to help client improve and achieve optimum health as

well. Thus, nursing practice should be considered in dealing with different client

especially with foreign patients or clients.

The study was based on Madeleine Leininger’s theory patterned in her

Sunrise Model of Transcultural Nursing, the author would like to investigate the

factors suggested by Leininger namely, communication, space, and environmental

control that can affect the extent of delivery of care for foreign patients.

Transcultural nursing is a humanistic and scientific area of formal study and

practice in nursing which focused upon differences and similarities among cultures

with respect to human care, health, and illness based upon the people’s cultural

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values, beliefs, and practices, and to use this knowledge to provide cultural specific

or culturally congruent nursing to people. Leininger noted the main goal of

transcultural nursing in her study is to discover and explain diverse and universal

culturally based care factors influencing the health, well-being, illness or death of

individuals or groups. Leininger theorized that every culture had access to some

form of folk indigenous health care system and that some, but not all, had access to

a professional health care system.

According to Leininger, sunrise model provide a valuable guide to obtain

data to gain cultural knowledge and understanding. Moreover, it can help

transcultural visitor like the author to discover data about specific individuals,

groups, families, communities or institutions, and can be used in diverse settings

(Leininger, 1997).

The author focuses on communication, space and environmental control.

The extent of transcultural nursing practices in Manila Doctors Hospital is based on

Sunrise Model. Sunrise Model will help the author to assess the extent of

transcultural practices that every nurse performs in handling foreign patients. The

factors chosen by the author are part of environmental context, language and

ethnohistory. Under communication, language spoken, voice quality,

pronunciation, and nonverbal communication; while under space were the

following: degree of confront observed (conservation), proximity to others, body

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movement and perception of space; and lastly in environmental, cultural health

practices efficacious neutral dysfunctional uncertain, values, and definition of

health illness were part of the author’s study.

Communication is very important not only in transcultural nursing because

communication is a way for people to express their selves and in order to maintain

peace due to comprehending ideas, thoughts, instructions, and procedures to each

and everyone especially between nurses and foreign patients. Leininger stated that

to ensure a mutually respectful relationship between foreign patients and nurses,

nurse should introduce her or himself and indicate to the foreign patients on how he

or she wants to be address by his or her nurse, it can either be by name, last name,

and or title. Nurse should elicit from the foreign client because this enables the

nurse to address the foreign clients in a manner that is culturally appropriate.

According to Leininger cited by Andrew and Boyle space is significant in

cross-cultural communication. Space and distance from the client will help nurses

to avoid conflict with foreign patients they handle. It is included in Leininger’s

Sunrise Model because there are culture that give values to space and distance like

for instance those from Latin America, Japan, and Middle East which they need the

least amount of space and feel comfortable standing close to others.

Lastly, environmental control which has a significant influence upon

client’s healthcare practices (Leininger cited by McFarland, 2008). Different

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cultures might have different beliefs in relation to environment. Foreign patient’s

belief and attitude towards his treatment and prognosis might be influenced by his

or she believes which can control over events or whether he or she is more fatalistic

and believes that chance and luck determine what will happen to him or her.

Patients may cooperate with health regimens and can see the benefit of developing

behavior that could improve his or her health. Some American Indians and Asian

Americans believe in this category. With these factors to consider, it will help the

author to assess the extent of transcultural nursing practices in Manila Doctors

Hospital.

Conceptual Paradigm
Profile: Extent of Transcultural
Nursing Practices:
 Gender
 Age  Communication
 Number of Foreign  Space
Patients Handled  Environmental
Control

Figure 1 Conceptual Paradigm

Figure 1 shows the interplay of the variables chosen. The independent

variable which is profile includes the age, gender, and the number of foreign

patients handled of staff nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital while the extent of

transcultural nursing practices is the dependent variable which refers to

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communication, environmental control, and space that could affect nursing

practices in performing different interventions in giving care.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to answer the following question:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age,

1.2 Gender,

1.3 Number of foreign patients handled?

2. What is the extent of transcultural nursing practices of respondents in

terms of:

2.1. Communication,

2.2. Space,

2.3. Environmental Control?

3. Is there a significant difference in the extent of transcultural nursing

practices of Manila Doctors Hospital when grouped according to the profile?

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Statement of Hypothesis

The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance.

There is a no significant difference in the extent of transcultural nursing

practices in Manila Doctors Hospital when grouped according to the profile.

Significance of the Study

The study was designed to overview the extent of transcultural nursing

practices of staff nurses in providing care to foreign patients. The study will

benefit to the following:

For the Staff Nurses of MDH, The study will help the staff nurses in Manila

Doctors Hospital to realize how important is considering their patients culture.

They can foster also cooperation to achieve an effective nursing care. Expertise in

their medical profession is not enough because having and maintaining a

harmonious relationship with different patients is very important so that patients

will trust the nurse who is attending and providing to their needs. It will train them

on how to become more effective staff nurse in dealing with foreign patients.

Knowing the extent of transcultural nursing will help staff nurses to identify what is

missing and needs improvement of providing care to foreign patients. And for

nurses to be globally competitive who has plan of and planning to go back abroad

to practice their profession. So that nurses will be independent in rendering care

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and services to different patients of providing quality care. It can help nurses to

have an effective care if they will consider different practices and cultures of each

patient they encounter and handle regardless of their culture and country they come

from.

For the College of Nursing, since many staff nurses in Manila Doctors

Hospital are products of the College, this study will help and guide the College of

Nursing (CON) in Manila Doctors College to know how profound the knowledge

of students regarding transcultural nursing. They will be aware that transcultural

nursing practices should be given emphasis in their curriculum since there is an

evidence of foreign patients comes to the Philippines to seek for medical help.

There is a greater probability that students would handle foreign patients. Having

the background of the extent of transcultural nursing practices of staff nurses will

help the faculty to determine the focus of learning that faculty should focus on as

well as to determine the other factors of transcultural nursing that students needs to

know in order to develop their skills of providing care to different patients

regardless of different cultures and country they come from. CON can lead their

students to practice and become an effective student nurse and eventually

professional nurse in providing an effective care to foreigners.

For the Nursing Students, as this early stage, it is important for student

nurses to value the importance of considering their patients culture before

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administering care in order to encourage cooperation, and to have an effective care.

It might be the source for students to have the knowledge regarding the appropriate

knows approach or style to use in dealing with foreign patients. Handling foreign

patients in different hospitals will train students from Manila Doctors College who

have plans of practicing their profession as nurses, once they pass the nursing board

examination, outside the country and be globally competitive. And lastly, to

address the students of mentioned institution the importance of transcultural

nursing practice to their future profession and to inform the students regarding the

importance of learning different transcultural nursing practices that are necessary in

giving care and dealing with different patients.

Nursing Service, with this study, it will help the nursing service to

determine if they have the need to further develop their staff nurses in handling

foreign patients by giving seminars, trainings or even refreshment courses that can

develop the skills of staff nurses in facing, handling, and improve nursing practices

to facilitate cooperation and fast recovery of foreign client.

Future Researchers, with this study, future researcher will help determine

the coverage of their future study if they want to continue studying transcultural

nursing practices here in the Philippines. This study only covers the extent of

transcultural nursing practices. Future researchers can study the different indicators

that can affect staff nurses of providing care to foreign patients. They can also

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study the different factors that can affect transcultural nursing practices like if

politics, economics, and technological factors can affect staff nurses in giving and

providing care to foreign patients.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

The scope of the study was delimited to the extent of transcultural nursing

practices of staff nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH). The research does not

focus on the relationship among staff nurses and their employer rather on the extent

of staff nurses of practicing transcultural nursing to their patients.

This study focused only to staff nurses of Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH)

who are working in different floors of the said hospital such as from 3rd up to 5th

floor of the old building, and from 3rd up to 11th floor of the new building.

Respondents are registered nurses who has experienced of handling foreign

patients, and with at least 20 years of age. .

The respondents of this research are representatives of the whole Manila

Doctors Hospital (MDH). There are 11 floors in the new building and 5 floors in

the old building but the researcher focused on 30 staff nurses of private wards of

the said hospital due to limited time of the study. It would be difficult and

impractical to give questionnaires with all nurses of all floors of both building.

Thus, the findings may only hold true based on the results of interviews and

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questionnaire given to staff nurses of private wards that would obtain from the

respondents who was selected by convenience.

The study was a non-experimental, quantitative, descriptive design on the

extent of transcultural nursing practices in Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH). In

addition, a purposive sample technique utilized in this study based on the author’s

criteria mentioned above. The author used a surveyed questionnaire with a format

of closed-ended questions which was use to statically measure the extent of

transcultural nursing practice in Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH). Lastly,

questionnaires are answerable with adjectival ratings as follows: fullest extent

(FlE), full extent (FE), moderate extent (ME), lesser extent (LE), and least extent

(LtE); which was used as basis of the degree of extent transcultural nursing

practices corresponding to each questions of each category.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined as used in this study in order to provide

clarity of term used.

Communication it refers to exchange of information and instructions

between client and nurse that includes use of verbal and nonverbal communication.

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Environmental Control refers to the totality of an event, situation, or

particular experience that gives meaning to people’s expression, interpretations,

and social interactions, and technologic factors in specific cultural settings.

Extent it is the measurement or the degree of nursing practices render by

nurses to their foreign patients.

Foreign Patient A person who is from other country or a non Filipino or

alien to the Philippines who seek help regarding their health problems.

Space refers to the distance between individuals (client and nurse), body

movement, degree of confront observed or conservation when they (client and

nurse) interact.

Staff Nurses in this study, refers to a registered nurses employed at Manila

Doctors Hospital.

Transcultural Nursing Practices different nursing practices that nurse’s

implements and practice in facing, dealing, and handling foreign patients. Nursing

practices like certain distance they implement when caring for patients which is

included in the factors of space in transcultural nursing.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents information from articles and studies conducted by

local and foreign researchers, which gave the researchers a wider grasp and full

understand of the study. This summarizes the literature and studies that have

significant bearings on the study.

Local Literature

Culture is not genetically inherited, it is acquired but once learned and

internalize, cultural ways became forms of rationality. Culture provides the

individual and the group to which he belongs with common point and reference for

behavior, enhancing the sharing values, norms, believes and practices. When held

in common the mention elements of behavior becomes establish into pattern that

form the basis of peoples ways of listening, feeling and acting as emphasized by

Linda Jocano(1999).

However Sociological perspective in clinical pastoral care underscores the

sociocultutral context that qualifies a person life, consequently, the context or the

climate when it stifles human life will demand a qualitative change for authentic

human development to happen. It takes the whole social reality economic, politic,

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religion-cultural in order to humanize this for it to sustain people’s total human

development efforts and objective. (Dulnalagan 1997)

According to Mercado, (2002), she said that “the purpose of nursing is to

assist in people attaining a level of health and well being which enable them to live

socially and economically productive life. To achieve this breadth of nursing is

wide from curative to palliative to preventive to promotive. It also function, not in a

vacuum, but increasingly in a socioeconomic political environment, through which

nursing must find its way but do so in maturing independent way.

In the special report of Fabon, Julia. M., (2006) he stated, in this area of

practice the nurse uses her knowledge of the dynamic of human behavior. He is

called upon to make “for purposeful use of the self”. Relationship between the

nurse and the patient is established through therapeutic communication and

interpersonal processes. Communication between two human beings can be

difficult and challenging. The nurse can be guided by the human behavior the

patient exhibits. She need to be sensitive not only to the verbal messages of the

patient but to the nonverbal expression of his abstract thought and feeling that

means he or she must know how to read the body language and hear the nuances of

speech and voice infection.

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Foreign Literature

The ever-increasing multicultural population in the Unite States poses a

significant challenge to nurses providing individualized and holistic care to their

patients (Lorentz, 2008). It requires nurses to recognize and appreciate cultural

differences in healthcare values, beliefs, and customs. Nurses must acquire the

necessary knowledge and skills in cultural competency. Culturally competent

nursing care helps ensure patient satisfaction and positive outcomes. From the

transcultural point of view, healthcare providers must deliver a service that is

culturally sensitive and appropriate. However, for a variety of reasons, there is

growing concern that the cultural healthcare needs of minority ethnic group are not

met adequately (Narayanasamy, 2003).

The extent of transcultural nursing has many determinants or it can cause by

many factors. These determinants can either be verbal or nonverbal factors. The

profile of staff nurses can affect the extent of transcultural nursing practices in

rendering quality care to foreign patients.

According to Leininger, transcultural is defined as the beliefs and

definitions in which cultural groups are compared and contrasted. The theoretical

principle of transcultural nursing guides nurses in providing meaningful and

appropriate care to people of diverse and similar cultures. Transcultural nurses

are academically prepared to serve many cultures by respecting the worth, dignity

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and rights of individuals, families, groups and communities. Most important,

transcultural nurse are prepared to assess the cultural care needs of people and to

skillfully integrate the values, beliefs and lifeways of cultures for the health and

well-being of those served as human rights imperative. Moreover, transcultural

nurse shows compassion and humanistic caring to alleviate cultural conflicts,

cultural imposition, and cultural pain to people of diverse cultures. Knowledge of

nurses of transcultural nursing provides creative ways to maintain, accommodate,

and/or restructure care in meaningful and beneficial ways for people of the world.

Transcultural nursing society believes that nurses and other health care

practitioners should provide and maintain humanistic care for people worldwide.

Focus of care of nurses is on preserving and maintaining the human right of all

people. Theses human rights should not be denied neglected or violated and

deserve protection from acts of injustice. Healthcare practitioners especially

transcultural healthcare practitioner should influence healthcare policy and

practices by individuals and institutions to enhance the care for people worldwide.

Regardless of race, ethnicity, national origin, religious and philosophical beliefs,

gender, sexual orientation, cultural values, age, and other diversities, people have

the following universal human rights. Transcultural nursing society named name

human rights that every person must achieve in providing a holistic care, this were

the following: Access to quality care including qualified healthcare professionals,

organizations and resources; Access to culturally and linguistically competent

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healthcare providers; Respectful care with recognition for personal dignity,

privacy and confidentiality; inform participation in ones’ own healthcare;

Involvement of family members and significant others in healthcare delivery and

decision making if desired by the care recipient; Accept or refuse care and

negotiate with healthcare providers to achieve culturally congruent care; Freedom

form healthcare treatments that involve coercion, bribery, and illicit activities that

place one’s well being at risk; Receive care in an environment in which physical,

psychological, spiritual and cultural safety is assured for the person and his or her

family, and significant others; and Receive care without putting one’s self or

loved ones in jeopardy or harm’s way. In relation to this, foreign patients receive

appropriate care even if they seek medical help outside their country. We as

Filipino nurses, is responsible to provide care that they deserve in order to achieve

optimum health.

Care is the heart of nursing; care is essential to healing or well being; care is

curing; care is or should be the central and dominant focus of nursing and

transcultural nursing decisions and actions. Transcultural nursing promotes and

upholds these ideas because human beings are born, live, work and die within a

culture care context and viewpoint. To neglect cultural factors such as one’s

religion, family ties, and economical, political, educational and technological

factors can lead to non-caring and cultural negligence with often non-beneficial

outcome (Leininger, 1998).

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Culture has a powerful influence on one’s interpretation of and responses to

health and everyone has the right to be respected for his or her uniqueness and

cultural heritage. Caregivers need both general and specific cultural information

to provide sensitive and culturally competent care. Cultural awareness improves

the caregiver’s self-awareness (Purnell, 2002).

To provide culturally congruent care is to provide care that is meaningful

and fits with cultural beliefs and life ways of the client. It refers to the use of

(local cultural knowledge and life ways) in meaningful and tailored ways that fits

with ethic (largely professional outsiders’ knowledge) to help specific cultures,

whether ill, disabled, facing death or other human conditions (Leininger, 1999).

Currently, there are inadequate numbers of health care providers worldwide

who are prepared to provide culturally congruent care. Many providers neither

recognize nor acknowledge the existence of variety of healing and caring

paradigms that are widely valued and used. In addition, health providers are

frequently unwilling or unable to accommodate ways of knowing and healing that

do not fit into their own cultural frameworks of knowledge and experience.

Instead, they impose practices of care on people that are ineffective or harmful,

rather than working collaboratively across paradigms and care systems. Actions

related to ethnocentrism, lack of awareness and moral blindness perpetuate and

exacerbation healthcare inequities (Lauderdale, 2005). Moreover, the inequities,

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discriminations and sufferings must not continue given available resources,

healthcare providers throughout the world have the ability to address and redress

the inequities. Nurses in particular, have the potential to bridge gaps in cultural

knowledge about health and caring that will significantly reduce the impact of

intolerance, in full access, and decrease health inequities locally and globally.

Most of all, collective political action is needed to channel resources into

education and preparation of nurses and other health care provides in order to

systematically address crisis (Lauderdale, 2005).

Culturally competent care is care that is sensitive to the differences

individuals may have in their experiences and responses due to their heritage,

sexual orientation, socioeconomic situation, ethnicity, and cultural background. It

is care that is based on understanding how those differences may inform the

responses of people and the processes of caring for them (Meleis, 1999).

There are seven components of nursing that were identified as the essence

of Native American Nursing Practice at a Summit of Native American Nurses in

1997. The essence was described as being synonymous with nature, core, gist,

substance, spirit, heart, or principle. The following themes were identified as an

essence of Native American Nursing is the following: caring, traditions, respect,

connection, holism or holistic, trust, and spirituality. There is a need to leg go of

the rational mind to bring transformation energy into all aspects of work of nurses.

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However, the literature suggests that Native American Nursing Practice might view

cultural competence on a continuum which is described unconscious incompetence

meaning no awareness that one is lacking cultural knowledge; conscious

incompetence means there is knowledge but still not know how to use it; conscious

competence meaning intentional act of learning about a patient’s culture and

providing culturally responsive nursing interventions; and lastly, unconscious

competence meaning the ability to spontaneously provide culturally responsive care

to individuals from divers cultural backgrounds. The literature suggests that in

order for nurses to become culturally competent, they must identify their personal

values, clarify values of self and client and integrate those values into their own

professional practice. The nurse’s competence can be the basis on the extent of

transcultural nursing practices they perform and provide to their patients.

Purnell model for cultural competence is really built on Leininger’s model

with minor exceptions. Purnell states that a culturally competent healthcare

provider develops the following: an awareness of his or her existence, sensation,

thoughts, and environment; those does not let these factors have an undue effect on

those for whom care is provided. While the major assumptions of the model were

the following: all healthcare providers needs similar information about cultural

diversity; all share the mataparadigm concepts of global society, community,

family, person and health; one culture is not better than another culture; all cultures

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share core similarities; differences exist among, between and within cultures; and

cultures change slowly over time in a stable society.

Transcultural nursing theory is incorporated in the Sunrise Model of Culture

Care of Madeleine Leininger. Nurses who use this theory in nursing care often

referred to us providing culturally competent care, although this term is gaining

popularity outside this framework as well. According to sunrise model, culture

care and similarities between patients and nurses exist in all human cultures

worldwide. Culturally congruent nursing care occur when individual, group,

family, community, or institutional care values, expressions or patterns are known

and use explicitly in appropriate and meaningful ways. The model avoids focus on

medical problems, and fragmenting client and looking at many important variables

affecting client. Giving care is the essence of nursing and distinct, central, and

unifying force.

In addition, Sunrise Model provides a valuable guide to obtain data on

culture to gain cultural knowledge and understanding. In relation, sunrise model

can help a transcultural visitor to discover data about specific individuals, groups,

families, communities or institutions, and can be used in diverse settings (Larson,

2004). It provide an ideal format for building trust in a transcultural context and

offered this observer a comprehensive and holistic view of health through the

examination of cultural and social structures, and care expressions. Each

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dimension of Sunrise Model can readily observe in terms of the present and ancient

culture.

Theory of Culture Care and Sunrise Model were the conceptual and

theoretical guides used to discover the worldview, lifeways, and cultural values.

The Sunrise Model depicts the components of a culture which include worldview,

cultural and environment context, and seven social structure factors (Lee, 1996).

This social factor emphasizes social structure dimensions that include:

Technological Factors, Religious and Philosophical Factors, Kinship and Social

Factors, Cultural Values and Lifeways, Political and Legal Factors, Economic

Factors and Educational Factors (Larson, 2004). Based on the Sunrise Model, the

seven social factors mentioned in under the influences care expression, patterns and

practices. The researcher chose communication, environmental control, and space

that can affect transcultural nursing. Among the three, communication is the most

important since communication is a medium for other people to understand each

other; followed by environmental control and space that could affect the culture of

foreigner whenever they seek medical assistance in the Philippines which nurses

should consider before rendering care.

Establishing an environment where cultural differences are respected begins

with effective communication. Communication is the means by which culture is

transmitted and preserved. In addition, communication can be language spoken;

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voice quality, pronunciation, and use of nonverbal communication not purely rely

on spoken language. Both verbal and nonverbal communications are learned in

one’s culture (Davidhizar and Giger, 1994). Verbal and nonverbal patterns of

communication vary across cultures, and if nurses do not understand the patient’s

cultural rules in communication, the patient’s acceptance of treatment regimen may

be jeopardized (Davidhizar and Giger, 1994). This occurs not just from speaking

the same language, but also through body language and other cues, such as voice,

tone, and loudness. According to Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare

Organizations (JCAHO) they require facilities to have interpreters available. At

times nurses will be on their own interacting with patients and families who do not

speak English tips were provided in order to avoid barriers of communication. To

name a few were greet the patient using his or her last name or complete name;

avoid being to casual or familiar; point to yourself (nurse) say your name and

smile; nurses should proceed in an unhurried manner and pay attention to any effort

the patient or his or her family makes to communicate; speak in a low, moderate

voice and avoid talking loudly because there is a tendency to raise the volume and

pitch of our voice when a listener appears not to understand. In result patient may

think that nurse is angry and shouting. Use short, simple sentences and speak in the

active voice. Use simple words, such as “pain” rather than “discomfort.” Avoid

medical jargon, idioms, and slang. Give instruction in the proper sequence like for

instance, rather than saying, “Before you take the medicine, get into bed,” you

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should say, “Get into your bed, then take your medicine. And lastly, the nurse

should check and see if the patient has another language in common. For instance,

many Indo-Chinese people speak French, and many Europeans know three or four

languages. Try Latin words or phases that if the nurse is familiar with the

language.

To ensure that a mutually respectful relationship is established, nurse should

introduce her self or his self and indicate to the client how they prefer to be called

either by first name, last name, and or title. Nurse should elicit the same formation

from the client because this enables the nurse to address in a manner that is

culturally appropriate (Andrew and Boyle, 2007).

Nonverbal communication pattern vary widely across cultures, nurses must

be alert for cues that convey cultural differences in the use of silence, eye contact,

touch and space distance and facial expression. Wide cultural variation exists in

interpretation of silence. Some individuals find silence extremely uncomfortable

and make every effort to fill conversational lags with words. In contrast, many

native North American consider silence essential to understanding and respecting

the other person (Andrew and Boyle, 2007).

Accurate diagnosis and treatment is impossible if the healthcare

professional cannot understand the patient. When the provider is not understood,

he or she often avoids verbal communication and does not realize the effect of

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nonverbal communication, which is all too often the painful isolation of patients

who do not speak the dominant language and who are in an unfamiliar

environment. Consequently, the patient experiences cultural shock and may react

by withdrawing, becoming hostile or belligerent, or being uncooperative (Spector,

2000). Culture not only determines the appropriateness of the message but also

influences all the components of communication.

The concept of space and distance are significant in cross-cultural

communication. Such behavior by theses clients is probably an attempt to bring

nurse’s close into the space that is comfortable with close physical proximity to

theses client, they are perplexed by nurses distancing behavior and may perceive

nurses as aloof and unfriendly.

Space refers to the distance between individuals when they interact. All

communication occurs in the context of space (Giger and Davidhizar, 2002). Space

includes degree of confront observed (conservation), proximity to others, body

movement, and perception of space. According to Spector, there are four distinct

zones of interpersonal space: inmate zone (extends up to 1 ½ feet), personal

distance (extends from 1 ½ to 4 feet), social distance (extends from 4 to 12 feet),

and public distance (extends 12 feet or more). In relation, rules concerning

personal distance vary from culture to culture. The extreme modesty practiced by

members of some cultural groups may prevent members from seeking preventive

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health care (Spector, 2000). For instance, some Afghans prefer closeness in space

with others and particularly with the same sex. When comfortable with others,

these individuals prefer to be in close proximity to build trusting relationships

(Giger and Davidhizar, 2002). Giger and Davidhizar stated that comfort level is

related to personal space like comfort in conversation, proximity to others, body

movement, perception of space. Eye contact, space, and touch practices may be

very different from one’s sphere of reference.

People tend to regard the space immediately around them as an extension of

themselves. The amount of space they prefer between themselves and others to feel

comfortable are a culturally determined phenomenon. Most people aren't conscious

of their personal space requirements - it's just a feeling about what's comfortable for

them - and you may be unaware of what people from another culture expect. For

example, one patient may perceive your sitting close to him as an expression of

warmth and caring; another may feel that you're invading his personal space.

Research reveals that people from the United States, Canada, and Great

Britain require the most personal space between themselves and others. Those from

Latin America, Japan, and the Middle East need the least amount of space and feel

comfortable standing close to others. Keep these general trends in mind if a patient

tends to position himself unusually close or far from you and be sensitive to his

preference when giving nursing care.

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Touch is a body movement that is culturally determined to a great degree.

For instance, in Hispanic and Arab cultures, male health care providers may be

prohibited from touching or examining certain parts of the female body; similarly,

females may be prohibited from caring for males. While among many Asian

Americans, touching a person's head may be impolite because that's where they

believe the spirit resides. Before assessing an Asian American patient's head or

evaluating a head injury, you may need to clearly explain what you're doing and

why.

As nurses, always consider a patient's culturally defined sense of modesty

when giving nursing care. For example, some Jewish and Islamic women believe

that modesty requires covering their head, arms, and legs with clothing. Respect

their tradition and help them remain covered while in your care.

Various cultural groups have wide-ranging beliefs about man’s relationship

with the environment. A patient’s attitude toward his treatment and prognosis is

influenced by whether he generally believes that man has some control over events

or whether he is more fatalistic and believes that chance and luck determine what

will happen. If your patient holds the former view, you are likely to see good

cooperation with health care regiments; he will see the benefit of developing

behavior that could improve his health. Some American Indians and Asian

Americans are likely to fall into this category. In contrast, Hispanic and

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Appalachian patients tend to be more fatalistic about nature, health, and death,

feeling that they cannot control these things. Patients who believe that they cannot

do much to improve their health through their actions may need more teaching and

reinforcement about how diet and medications can affect their health. Provide

information in a nonjudgmental way and respect their fatalistic beliefs.

Environmental control refers to the ability of the person to control and to

plan and direct factors in the environment. It includes cultural health practices

efficacious neutral dysfunctional uncertain, values, and definition of health and

illness. Some groups perceive man as having mastery over nature; others perceive

humans to be dominated by nature, while others see harmonious relationships

between humans and nature (Giger and Davidhizar, 2002). This particular cultural

phenomenon plays an important role in the way patients respond to health-related

experiences, including the ways in which they define an illness and seek and use

health-care resources and social supports. For instance, Asians and Native

Americans may perceive that illness is a disharmony with other forces and that

medicine is only capable of relieving the symptoms rather that curing the disease.

Theses groups are likely to look for naturalistic solutions, such as herbs and hot and

cold treatments to resolve or cure a cancerous condition (Degazon, 1996).

In addition, environmental context also has significant influence upon the client’s

healthcare practices. Environmental context refers to the totality of an event,

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situation, or particular experience that gives meaning to people’s expression,

interpretations, and social interactions, and technologic factors in specific settings

(Leininger, 2006). In relation, that statement holds significance for nurse’s

practitioners in primary care contexts. For instance, the setting of the office such as

are, literature, ambience or decor, client flow design or user friendliness, type or

content of magazines and teaching literature; languaging of forms, staff

composition or posture or language or tone, and means of meeting and greeting all

lend to the totality of the primary care experience of the client. The nurse’s

practitioner’s body language, listening skills, approach to assessment and sharing

of information, flexibility towards modifying professional practices advised, and

attention to privacy and confidentiality during the encounter contribute to the

particular experiences of the patient within the environmental context of the

primary care settings. These contributing factors in interactive totality influence

the client’s perspective of the nurse practitioner, the healthcare encounter, and

indeed, the healthcare system, and significantly affect the individual’s willingness

and ability to use the modalities of care mutually chosen as the plan of care

(McFarland and Eipperie, 2008).

According to Leininger, man is a social being within a culture. Needs are

holistic, and include needs for both care and cure. Health equates to caring and

harmony within culture. It is state of well-being that culturally defined. World

views, social structures, and cultural beliefs cannot be separated from the concepts

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of health, wellness and illness. The environment in which an individual participates

is key in maintaining optimal health. Moreover, Leininger’s broad view of the

environment includes technological, religious, philosophical, kinship, cultural,

political, legal, economical, and educational systems. The disharmony between

each area is causing further stress to optimum level of functioning.

According to Rasmussen (2009), the nurse must place patient in best

possible condition for healing to occur. The environment is all external conditions

and influences affecting the life and development of organisms and capable of

preventing, suppressing, or contributing to disease or death. Florence Nightingale

stated that the art of nursing is to provide an environment in which the patient is in

the best position for nature to act upon, and Martha Rogers, in turn, emphasized

that one part in nursing is to pattern the environment into a place where healing

conditions are optimal.

Caring is the essence of nursing. Nursing care that is not congruent with the

beliefs and values of a patient’s culture will lead to noncompliance and stress. The

healthcare professional therefore has to take into consideration all of the factors that

pertain to each domain. The overall goal is to maintain equilibrium between the

individual’s external stimuli as well as balancing the internal stimuli.

The review of related literature indicates the facts on how culture influences

nursing care. We nurses need to recognize, appreciate and respect cultural

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differences in healthcare values, beliefs, and customs. The study helps us

understand aspects of cultural differences and extent of transcultural nursing

practices that have been studied by different person who studied transcultural

nursing. Also it leads nurses to render appropriate care for certain individuals and

their beliefs for the client's maximum satisfaction. Leininger (1991) notes the main

goal of transcultural nursing is to discover and explain diverse and universal

culturally based care factors influencing the health, well-being, illness or death of

individuals as groups. But before transcultural nursing can be adequately

understood, there must be a basic knowledge of key terminology such as culture,

cultural values, culturally diverse nursing care, ethnocentrism, race, and

ethnography. To be able to attain these goals, we need to treat each client as a

unique individual with unique beliefs and traditions and this promotes nurse-client

interaction, which is the best way to find out his cultural preferences.

This study gives knowledge to the healthcare providers on how to react and

deal when confronted by a situation which deals with the client's cultural

preferences. This is important because some cultures have rigid codes of behavior

that need to be strictly followed whatever the reason may be.

It is said that the main goal of transcultural nursing “is to provide culturally

specific care.” The relevance of that statement reverberates more in our society

more than in any other period in the past. As the world increasingly becomes more

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globalized labor and services consequently become more and more flexible in

terms of location. Economically speaking, countries now ascribe to the “more for

less” maxim; they are now more open and more aggressive in terms of sourcing out

the cheapest labor and services, from any other country, just so long as they could

maintain a competitive advantage. This is very much apparent in the field of

nursing, since nurses can work anywhere and everywhere—their labor and service

is not location-bound. In the Philippines, most nursing graduates aim to land a job

in other countries for the promised higher wages; and the countries that hire them,

in turn, see nurses as better investments as compared to those who trained locally,

for they demand higher salaries. As nurses, it is the conscientious route to take into

account the cultural differences in the country that they work in. It is ideal to have

knowledge of what specific nursing approaches one should employ in a certain

situation, in a certain culture, for them to be able to deliver the most efficient and

effective healthcare possible, one that is in line with the culture that is in place. A

nurse who intends to pursue a job overseas should be aware of the ideas embedded

in the study of transcultural nursing, as this will help him or her acclimatize better

to the work environment of a new culture, and to better provide quality healthcare

services for patients. A good grasp of extent of transcultural nursing practice and

what transcultural nursing entails will go a long the way in terms of nurses being

more capable of providing better services, and in the long run, in fostering a more

comprehensive idea of how certain nursing approaches, applied to the right

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scenarios, can improve the atmosphere in the workplace and the overall satisfaction

with the work done.

Local Study

According to the study of Chit Estella, (2004), the national institute of

health warns that because of migrating nurse are usually the one with training

experiencing and skill, patient in hospital and other health institution in the

Philippines can expect a higher incidence of cross-infection. With the best among

nursing student often leaving as soon as they graduated, the less skilled are taking

the place of senior or relatively more experienced nurses who have also left for

other shores. In a year or two they too would be gone the void could be filled once

more by fresh graduates who would repeat the same cycle: get a few experienced in

a local hospital, apply for work abroad and then leave.

In the relevance to the study of Chit Estella, Soon student nurses will

become professional nurse and will be facing different people not only coming

from different provinces but from other country as well who have a different

culture from Filipino nurses. And for nurses to be globally competitive who has

plan of and planning to go back abroad to practice their profession.

The study of Gadut, Ma. Carmelita et.Al (2006), in every institution there

are values in providing nursing care for their patient, in pursuing the Course of

Bachelor of Science. There are factors that may posses for better understanding

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what nursing is all about, most student took nursing because of other countries

demand for competitive advantage, creative, caring, cultural adapted, competent

and committed nurses.

Foreign Study

According to Youqing Peng, et.al., in recent years, with the deepening of

China’s reform and opening as well as the increasing of international exchanges the

number of foreign patients in Pudong New District in Shanghai is growing

persistently. Nurses face more and more patients from different countries, nations,

with different languages, complexion and cultural background, whose transcultural

needs are obviously upgrading. Because of different social environment and

cultural background, foreign patients’ knowledge, beliefs, values, customs and

habits are also different, it is a tendency to understand comprehension of

transcultural and provide transcultural nursing .The purpose of this study is to

understand the transcultural nursing needs of the foreign patients in Pudong New

District to provide a basis for the implementation of transcultural nursing.

Under the conditions of modern society, transcultural nursing is the

inevitable trend of nursing development. It means that, according to different

patients’ world outlook, value. Religion belief, living habits, nurse should take

different nursing measures to satisfy health care demands with different cultural

background. Madeleine Leininger pointed out that the culture care needs of people

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in the world will be met by nurses prepared in transcultural nursing. She considered

that the culture care is the essence and the central idea of nursing, the motivity of

cultural activities and it is the basic on which nurses provide patients nursing in line

with their cultural background.

Researcher documented an investigation and analysis of transcultural

nursing needs of the foreign patients. It shows there is a lot needs of the nursing

service (the nurse’s English translating service, privacy protection and so on).

Researcher’s data suggest that health care providers and nursing managers should

be improved in the nurse’s spoken English, transcultural nursing theory. And the

training of transcultural nursing application capacity for nurses needs to be

strengthened. The implementation plans need to be formulated and carried out

including the policy of privacy protection and aspect of customs and taboos,

optimized nursing service flow, so as to improve the quality of transcultural nursing

service. The development of the above-mentioned scheme, regulations and process

needs patient's participation. During the implementation, nurses should

continuously listen to the foreign patients’ feedback, so as to make transcultural

nursing measures to satisfy patients’ needs and improve the service quality of

transcultural nursing.

According to Synder (2004), although most nurses are women, there is no

biological reason to assume that women are the only gender suited to the nursing

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profession. Rather, women are nurses because nursing has been socially

constructed and institutionalized as a feminine occupation. In fact, historically

nursing was a male-dominated occupation in many cultures. Nursing, which until

the late nineteenth century was a strictly male occupation, was opened up, albeit

reluctantly, to females largely as a result of Florence Nightingale and her work

during the Crimean War. Men let Florence do her thing, thus turning over to

women hospital dirty work to make it women’s work. Regarded at that time to be a

radical departure from the accepted norm, nursing as a feminine role has acquired

an historical weight. The role of the nurse has been accepted as being especially

congruent with the traditional role of the female in western culture (Etkowitz 1971:

432). Today, nursing is considered to be a nurturing and caring profession -

attributes associated more with women than men.

In relevance to the study of Synder (2004), the researcher wanted to prove

that there is no significant difference in extent of transcultural nursing practices in

Manila Doctors Hospital when grouped according to gender. In fact, historically

nursing is male dominated, in contrast to the population at Manila Doctors Hospital

that the dominated staff nurses are female.

Relevance to the Present Study

From the related literature gathered, the authors were able to derive

variables influencing extent of transcultural nursing practices in Manila Doctors

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Hospital such as communication, space and environmental control. The variables

mentioned will serve as a tool for measuring the extent of transcultural nursing

practices of these staff nurses. The related literature and studies are arranged in

such a way that given the subject matter, this will support author’s study based on

evidence collected from the related literature.

These variables will also serve as a comparison to the author’s study.

Therefore, there is a reason to conduct this study having cited literature as proof

that there is existence of problems related to extent of trancultural nursing

practices.

The studies can be closely related to the topic under investigation. Local

studies will be focused on the demographical data of the population being studied.

The facts gathered clarified the extent of transcultural nursing practices of staff

nurses regarding transcultural nursing. The said studies had an associate

significance with the current study since it gives support to the extent of

transcultural nursing practices.

Lastly, with the help of Madeleine Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing

Theory, the author can relate the extent of transcultural nursing practices in terms

of staff nurses communication, space and environmental control with their foreign

patients. Then, the extent of transcultural nursing practices determines individual’s

adaptation towards existing problems like proper handling of caring for a foreign

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patient. Through this the author can determine measure of significance of their

study.

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CHAPTER III

METHOD AND P ROCEDURE

This chapter discussed the methodologies and procedures used by the

researchers in answering the specific problems stated. It also tackled the research

design, the subject of the study, the instruments used in gathering the data, and the

statistical method used to check relevance of the data gathered.

Research Method/ Design

The research study is a non-experimental, quantitative, descriptive design. It

was aimed to determine the extent of transcultural nursing practices perform by

staff nurses in providing and giving care to foreign patients. The reasons for extent

of transcultural nursing practice has been described, analyzed, and summarized.

Research Locale

Staff nurses from private floors of Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH) are the

locale of study. Thirty (30) registered staff nurses from different private floors of

old and new building was the area of study. Entry in this hospital is possible

because Manila Doctors Hospital is the base hospital of Manila Doctors College.

Sample and Sampling Technique

A purposive sample technique utilized in this study based on the author’s

criteria. Registered staff nurses selected based on the following criteria: nurses

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should be a registered nurse, should have experienced handling foreign patients,

and at least 20 years of age. Thirty (30) registered staff nurses respondent of

Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH) were the target population, since it was the

permitted number of respondents given by the chief nurse. Thirty registered staff

nurses’ working in private wards of both old and new building of the hospital was

selected in different floors namely, 3rd up to 5th floor of the old building, and from

3rd up to 11th floor of the new building. Using a survey in a form of questionnaire

was distributed to thirty registered staff nurses covering all morning and afternoon

shift nurses on duty during the day.

Questionnaire was divided into three categories namely communication,

space, and environmental control. The sample questionnaire is included in our

appendix (appendix B).

Research Instrument

The author made use of survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire

used a closed-ended question format, which was use to statistically measure the

extent of transcultural nursing practice in Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH). The

survey questionnaire is composed of two (2) parts, one, profile of respondents; and

second, survey proper with three (3) categories to cover. The profile part is

composed of name which is optional, age, gender, and number of patient handled

by a nurse. The first category of the second part is Communication which

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comprises of language spoken, voice quality, pronunciation, and use of nonverbal

communication. Followed by space which comprises of degree of confront

observed (conservation), proximity to others, body movement, and perception of

space. Lastly, environmental control which comprises of cultural health practices

efficacious neutral dysfunctional uncertain, values, and definition of health and

illness.

Questions from the survey are written in English since a registered nurse is

capable of comprehending different questions ask written in universal language.

Questions are answerable with adjectival ratings based on the degree of extent of

transcultural nursing practices corresponding to each questions of each category.

Adjectival rating is the following: fullest extent (FlE), full extent (FE), moderate

extent (ME), lesser extent (LE), and least extent (LtE).

Validation of the instrument

In preparation of the research questionnaire, the researchers submitted the

first draft to the thesis adviser and lecturer for comments and suggestions. The

researchers considered the comments and suggestions to improve the

questionnaires.

The final draft was prepared with the suggestions integrated. The final draft was

then under validation from experts of the chosen field of study.

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These experts are those who have a mastered degree in arts of nursing

(MAN), a registered nurse who became supervisor in other country, and a professor

who has a profound knowledge in transcultural nursing. Those experts have

examined whether each item of question falls in appropriate category. The

questions had modified incorporating the expert’s comments.

Test for Reliability of Instrument

The instrument had subject to a pilot study in a sample population (n-30) of

registered nurse in mentioned hospital use for the stability reliability analyses.

Results have been computed and interpret by the experts using a Crobach’s Alpha

which gave us a result of .958 with a total pilot population of 30 respondents. With

this result, it supported a high reliability test using the survey questionnaire

presented during pilot study. Respondent from the pilot study have the same

criteria of respondents involved in the actual giving of survey questionnaire. Same

questionnaire had been given to respondents in pilot study but they will not be

included in the respondents of proper implementation of the study to avoid

duplication of answer.

Data Gathering Procedure

A letter of request together with a copy of questionnaire has been sent to the

Nursing Service Office of Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH). Topic and objective of

the study are all stated in the letter. The Nursing Service of the said hospital gave

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an approval for research to conduct the study. A face-to-face contact between the

registered staff nurses and researchers was done in explaining the purpose of the

study and shown permit to head nurse of approved area to certain floors to conduct

survey questionnaire coming from their superior in Nursing Service. The

questionnaire have randomly distributed to those staff nurses on duty during

morning and afternoon shift that pass the criteria set by the author to all private

floors of the hospital. Each respondent asked to self administer the questionnaire.

Nurses answered the questionnaire by themselves. The author gathered and

collected the data after 24 hours or less. The data immediately collated and entered

into statistical software for analysis.

Statistical Treatment of Data

This study has determined the extent of transcultural nursing practices in

Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH) in which it had been resolute by the survey

questionnaire.

In seeking answers to the specific problems, the author used the following

statistical tools with the use of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)

software which validated the findings of the study:

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Frequency and Percentage is the statistical treatment applied to answer the

statement of the problem number one (1) which is about the general profile in terms

of age, gender, and number of foreign patients handled by nurses at Manila Doctors
n x 100
Hospital (MDH). P = was the formula used to answer the
N
statement problem number one where in P represents the percentage, n represents

the number of responses falling under a particular category and lastly, N

corresponds to the total number of respondents. On the other hand, to answer the

problem statement number two (2) which is the extent of transcultural nursing

practices of respondents in terms of communication, space and environmental

control weighted mean is applied. The author used this statistical treatment to

present the answers of the respondent based on the questionnaire. Simple

tabulation is easy to interpret by the readers, and it is simple to crack down codes.

The weighted mean of the response was computed using the formula
X = Efx/N.

Wherein X corresponds to arithmetic mean, f represents the frequency and

N is the total respondents.

The result of respondent’s answer to the questionnaire has been analyzed

based on the adjectival rating which is fullest extent (FlE), full extent (FE),

moderate extent (ME), lesser extent (LE), and least extent (LtE). Each adjectival

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rating has corresponding mean score, range, and interpretation which are presented

on the next page.

Table A
5 Point Likert Scale

Scale Range Interpretation Adjectival


Rating
5 5 and above Always Fullest Extent
(FlE)
4 4.0 to 4.99 Often Full Extent (FE)

3 3.0 to 3.99 Sometimes Moderate Extent


(ME)
2 2.0 to 2.99 Rarely Lesser Extent
(LE)
1 1.0 and below Never Least Extent
(LtE)
However t-test is the statistical tool employed to answer the statement of the

problem number three (3) which was to compare the significant differences in the

extent of transcultural nursing practices when they are grouped according to profile

such as age, gender, and number of foreign patients handled. The formula was

presented below wherein X1= the Mean of sample, X2= Mean of the 2nd sample,

S1= Standard deviation of the 1st sample, S2 = Standard deviation of the 2nd sample,

N1 = Number of items in the 1st sample, and N2 = Number of items in the 2nd

sample; was used to answer statement number three (3).

t=

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Further more, analysis of variance or ANOVA which refers to a comparison
test determined the difference of two or more groups. This study, ANOVA was
used to determine the significant difference in extent of transcultural nursing
practices when respondents are grouped according to number of patients handled
based on communication, space, and environmental control. The equation for
F = MSb
ANOVA test is MSw
where F is the Fisher’s ratio; MS b is mean of squared
variation between groups; and MSw is square variation within group.
The decision criteria of the study were based on the 0.05 level of

significant. If the result of the study is close or lesser than 0.05 level of significant

the study can be rejected. While if the result is greater than 0.05 level of significant,

the study can be accepted by the author.

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CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter answers the query in the statement of the problem by

classifying and tabulating the data gathered and analyzing the results. The findings

of the study was presented figuratively in manner of numerical values and rated

adjectively as well.

1. Profile of the Respondents

1.1 Age

Table 1 shows the frequency distribution and percentage distribution of

staff nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH) in matters of age. This table was

the initial profiling of the respondents. This table merely represents the age

background of the respondents simplified into two which are the 20-29 and the 30-

39.

Table 1
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Staff Nurses According to Age
Age Frequency (f) Percentage (%)

21-29 25 83

30-39 5 17

Total 30 100

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Table 1 shows that based on the thirty (30) total number of respondents,

there were five (5) respondents who belongs to age of 30-39 years old while there

were twenty-five (25) respondents belongs to 21-29 years old.

Table 1 shows the profile of the respondents based on age. Majority (83%)

of the respondents belongs to the nurses with the age of 21-29 years of age, while

minority (17%) of the respondents belongs to the 30-39 years of age.

Based on findings from the 2004 National Sample Survey of Registered

(NSSR) nurses (RN) in U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

particularly Health Resources and Service Administration (HRSA), the average age

of the RN continuous to climb, increasing to years of age in 2004, compared to

45.2 years in 2000, and 44.3 years in 1996. In relation to the result of the study, the

average age of nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH) was not under the age of

44.4 rather, it belongs to the younger age which is 21-29 years old. According to

the study, only nine percent (9%) of all registered nurses were under the age of 30

in 2000, while, the percent of nurses over fifty-four (54) years of age increased to

25.4 percent in 2004 which if it is going to compare with the result of nurse

respondent according to profile of age nurses from Manila Doctors hospital were

younger. Only seventeen percent (17%) from the 30 nurse respondents represent

the age of 30-39 years old who is working as staff nurses in the said

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hospital.Therefore, majority of staff nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital are age 21-

29 years old

1.2 Gender

Table 2 shows the frequency distribution and percentage distribution of staff

nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH) in terms of gender. This was the second

profiling of the respondents.

Table 2
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Staff Nurses According to Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage


Male 12 40

Female 18 60

Total 30 100

Table 2 shows that out of thirty (30) respondents there were eighteen (18)

female respondents, while there were twelve (12) male respondents.

Table 2 shows the profile of the respondents based on gender. Majority

(60%) of the respondents belong to the female group, while minority (40%) of the

respondents belongs to male group.

Same with the study done by Health Resources and Services Administration

(HRSA), male still comprise a very small percentage of total number of registered

nurses working in their hospital, although according to HRSA number of male

registered nurse is continuously growing.

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Therefore, majority of staff nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital are female.

1.3 Number of Patients Handled

Table 3 shows the frequency distribution and percentage distribution of

staff nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH) in terms of number of foreign

patients handled. This was the third profiling of the respondents.

Table 3
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Staff Nurses According to Number
of Foreign Patients Handled

Number of
Frequency Percentage
patient
1-2 11 37
3-4 10 33
5 and above 9 30
Total 30 100

Table 3 shows that out of thirty (30) respondents there were nine (9)

respondents who handled 5 and above foreign patients; ten (10) respondents who

have handled 3-4 foreign patients, and eleven (11) respondents who have handled

1-2 foreign patients.

Table 3 shows the profile of the respondents based on number of patients

handled. Majority (37%) of the respondents handled 1-2 foreign patients, while

minority (30%) of the respondents belongs to 5 and above handled foreign patients.

Based on Leininger’s Transcultural theory, number of patients is not

important in handling foreign patients. Nurses develop their skills in handling

patients with different cultures or even foreign patients as nurses each day deals

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and faces different patients. They are equipped and well-versed on proper handling

in caring of patients different to their cultures. With the nature of work of nurses

which they are the one who is with the patient most of the time, they are used to

with dealing and facing different patients while their wok as nurses in providing

and giving optimum care is not at risk but instead, they can still do their job

regardless of number of foreign patients they have handled. Their experiences in

handling local patients which are different with their culture help them to manage

and provide a care that deserves and rightfully should be given to both local and

foreign patients.

2. The Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices:

2.1 Communication

Table 4 shows the Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices in terms of

Communication wherein the following 10 items of queries implemented in the

instrument.

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Table 4
Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices in Manila Doctors Hospital Based
on Communication

Interpretatio Adjectival
Communication Mean
n Description
1. I greet my foreign patient and his/her family 4.59 Often FE
before doing any procedure.
2. I establish rapport to my foreign patient 4.50 Often FE
3. If my foreign patient could not speak nor 4.60 Often FE
understand English I performed simple action
while verbalizing the instructions.
4. I speak softly and clearly when talking to 4.73 Often FE
my foreign patient.
5. I speak softly and clearly when talking to 4.67 Often FE
my foreign patient.
6. I perform simple action like sign languages 4.27 Often FE
or pantomime whenever my foreign patient
could not understand my instructions.
7. I use simple words rather than complicated 4.57 Often FE
words when talking to my foreign patient.
8. I courteously listen to concerns of my 4.53 Often FE
foreign patient.
9. I courteously listen to concerns of my 4.53 Often FE
foreign patient.
10. I use terminating words upon leaving the 4.13 Often FE
room of my foreign patient.
Composite Mean 4.51 Often FE
Legend: 5 and above Fullest Extent (FlE); 4.0-4.99 Full Extent (FE); 3.0-3.99 Moderate Extent (ME); 2.0-2.99 Lesser Extent
(LE); 1.0 and below Least Extent (LtE)

Table 4 shows that question number ten has a mean of almost four and

quarter (4.13) followed by question number six with a mean above four and

quarter (4.27), question number two with four and half (4.50), same mean of more

than four and half (4.53) in questions number eight and nine, question number five

with 4.57, question number one with 4.59, question number three with 4.60,

question number 5 with 4.67, and last but not the least, question number four with

4.73; with the overall mean of 4.51in which all have the values above four and half.

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In their rating and interpretation, all questions were in category of full extent and

often respectively including the overall mean or composite mean.

Table 4 shows out of 10 questions in communication 10th question got the

lowest mean of less than four and quarters (4.13) on the contrary, 4th question got

the highest mean of higher than four and half (4.73) with the overall mean of four

and half (4.51).

The above data shows that the staff nurses at Manila Doctors Hospital

always speak softly and clearly to their foreign patients in relation according to

Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO), it is necessary

for the nurses to speak in a low, moderate and avoid talking loudly because there is

tendency to raise the volume and pitch of their voice when a listener appears not to

understand in result patient may think that nurse is angry and shouting. According

to Davidhizar and Giger (1994), verbal and nonverbal patterns in communication

vary across cultures, and if nurses do not understand the patients cultural rules in

communication, the patient’s acceptance of treatment regimen may be jeopardize.

This occurs not just from speaking the same languages, but also through body

language and other cues, such as voice tone, and loudness. In contrary question

number 10 got the lowest mean which states that most of the staff nurses at Manila

Doctors Hospital do not use terminating words upon leaving the room of their

patient.

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Therefore majority of staff nurses practice transcultural nursing practice

according to communication in the fullest extent.

2.2 Space

Table 5 shows the Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices in terms of

Space wherein the following 10 items of queries implemented in the instrument.

Table 5
Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices in Manila Doctors Hospital Based
on Space

Adjectival
Space Mean Interpretation
Description
1. I recognize cultural difference of my foreign patients 4.17 Often FE
before providing care.
2. I talk to my foreign patient with a distance of three (3) 4.10 Often FE
feet away from patient’s bed.
3. I make sure that my foreign patient is relaxed when I 4.40 Often FE
am attending to his or her need.
4. As a nurse, I am aware that touching my foreign 4.40 Often FE
patient without permission is an indicator and can causes
an embarrassment or anger to him or her.
5. I avoid too much body movement when my facing 4.17 Often FE
foreign patients.
6. I avoid too much body movement when my facing 4.47 Often FE
foreign patients.
7. I maximize time and effort when I give care to my 4.60 Often FE
foreign patient.
8. I respect the time according to my foreign patient’s 4.37 Often FE
cultural practices if he or she has preferred time of
receiving care like in providing hygiene care.
9. I secure my foreign patient’s comfort when he or she 4.67 Often FE
is isolated.
10. I rarely touch my foreign patients as an indicator of 4.30 Often FE
respect to him or her.
Composite Mean 4.36 Often FE
Legend: 5 and above Fullest Extent (FlE); 4.0-4.99 Full Extent (FE); 3.0-3.99 Moderate Extent (ME); 2.0-2.99
Lesser Extent (LE); 1.0 and below Least Extent (LtE)

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In this table, question number two with a mean of above four (4.10)

followed by questions number one and five with a common mean of almost four

and quarters (4.17), questions number four and ten have a again the same mean of

more than four and quarters (4.30), question number eight with a mean also more

than four and quarters (4.37), questions number three and four with the same mean

of almosr four and half 4.40 as well, question number seven with a mean of more

than four and half 4.60, question number six and number nine with a mean almost

four and half respectively, (4.47 and 4.67) with an overall mean of greater than

four and quarters (4.36). All of queries in this category with its adjectival rating

and interpretation including the composite mean have the same result of full extent

and often, respectively.

In table 5 out of 10 questions in space category, 2nd question got the lowest

mean of lower than four and quarters (4.10) while 9th question got the highest

mean of more than four and half (4.67) with the overall mean of more than four

and quarters (4.36).

Data shows that the staff nurses at Manila Doctors Hospital practice the

extent of transcultural nursing according to spaces. However out of 10 questions,

the second question got the lowest mean, in relation according to the study of

Davidhizar and Giger (2002), most people aren’t conscious of their personal space

requirements-it’s just a feeling about what is comfortable for them and maybe

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unaware of what people from other culture expected. When comfortable with

others, these individuals prefer to be in close proximity to build trusting

relationship. In connection, according to Spector (2000), there are four distinct

zone of interpersonal space namely inmate zone, personal distance, social distance

and public distance. In relation, rules concerning personal distance vary from

culture to culture. The extreme modesty practiced by members of some cultural

groups may prevent members from seeking preventive care. This implicates nurses

in Manila Doctor’s Hospital observe proper decorum upon maintaining space

appropriateness towards foreign patients.

Therefore majority of staff nurses practice transcultural nursing practice

according to space in the fullest extent.

2.3 Environmental Control

Table 6 shows the Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices in terms of

Environmental Control wherein the following 10 items of queries implemented in

the instrument.

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Table 6
Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices in Manila Doctors Hospital Based
on Environmental Control

Adjectival
Environmental Control Mean Interpretation
Rating
1. I orient my foreign patient regarding the time, date 4.47 Often FE
even though he / she is unconscious.
2. I give needs of my foreign patient based on their 4.40 Often FE
preference pattern according to his or her culture.
3. I make sure that my foreign patient’s environment is 4.67 Often FE
contributing to his fast recovery by maintaining his room
clean and in order.
4. I make sure that my foreign patient feels comfortable 4.67 Often FE
with his or her room.
5. I assist my foreign patient and his family in all 4.70 Often FE
procedure needed to be done.
6. I explain the illness or health condition of my foreign 4.57 Often FE
patients to him or her as well as to his or her family
members.
7. I explain to my foreign patient the doctor’s order in 4.40 Often FE
order for him or her to have self control.
8. I ensure my foreign patient to maintain a quiet and 4.70 Often FE
peaceful environment.
9. I explain to my foreign patient’s and visitors regarding 4.60 Often FE
visiting hours.
10. I maintain room temperature appropriate for my 4.40 Often FE
foreign patient’s health condition.
Composite Mean 4.56 Often FE
Legend: 5 and above Fullest Extent (FlE); 4.0-4.99 Full Extent (FE); 3.0-3.99 Moderate Extent (ME); 2.0-2.99
Lesser Extent (LE); 1.0 and below Least Extent (LtE)

Table 6 shows that question number two, seven and ten has the same mean

of almost four and half (4.40) followed by question number one with a mean of

approximately nearly four anf half (4.47), question number six greater than four

and half (4.57), question number nine greater than four and half (4.60), questions

number three and four also with the same mean of greater than four and half 4.67,

and last but not the least, questions number five and eight with the same mean of

approximately five (4.70). The overall mean of table seven is slightly above four

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and half 4.56. The result of adjectival rating and interpretation in this category

were all the same including the composite mean such as full extent and often,

respectively.

Out of all the questions in environmental control, question number two;

seven and ten got the lowest mean of nearly four and half while question number

eight got the highest mean of greater than four and half respectively, (4.40 and

4.70).

According to Rasmussen (2009), the nurse must place patient in best

possible condition for healing to occur. The environment is all external conditions

and influences affecting the life and development of organisms and capable of

preventing, suppressing, or contributing to disease or death. Florence Nightingale

stated that the art of nursing is to provide an environment in which the patient is in

the best position for nature to act upon, and Martha Rogers, in turn, emphasized

that one part in nursing is to pattern the environment into a place where healing

conditions are optimal. Thus, nurses in Manila Doctor’s Hospital provide amicable

environment for recovery to foreign patients.

Therefore majority of staff nurses practice transcultural nursing practice

according to environment in the fullest extent.

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Table 7
Summary of Categories

Adjectival
Practices Mean Interpretation
Rating
Communication 4.51 Often FE

Space 4.36 Often FE


Environmental 4.56 Often FE
Control
Overall 4.48 Often FE
Legend: 5 and above Fullest Extent (FlE); 4.0-4.99 Full Extent (FE); 3.0-3.99 Moderate Extent (ME); 2.0-2.99
Lesser Extent (LE); 1.0 and below Least Extent (LtE)

Table seven (7) shows that space has a mean of above four and quarters

(4.36), followed by communication with a mean of four and half (4.51), and

environmental control with a mean of above four and half (4.56). The overall

mean was almost four and half (4.48). Based on the result of mean in terms of

communication, space, and environment they have an adjectival rating of full

extent with corresponding interpretation of often.

Table seven (7) shows the extent of transcultural nursing practice based on

communication, space, and environment. Environmenal controlt has the greatest

mean with above four and half (4.56) compared to other practices, followed by

communication with four and half (4.51), and lastly, space with above four and

quarters (4.36).

In Leininger’s theory of Sunrise model, nurses should practice all the

factors under the umbrella of her theory in order to provide a competent care.

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Based on the result of extent of transcultural nursing practices environment got the

highest mean though space and communication have the same adjectival rating, full

extent, still can be observe that nurses in MDH practicing more on environmental

factor. Communication, space and environment should at least have the same mean

in order to prove that Leininger’s Sunrise model in terms of communication, space,

and environment were all practice adequately by staff nurses in MDH.

3. Significant difference in the Extent of Transcultural Nursing Pratice when

grouped according to their profile:

3.1 Age

Table eight (8) shows the significant difference Extent of Transcultural

Nursing Practices when grouped according to age.

Table 8
Difference in the Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices Grouped
According to Age
Std. t- Decision
Category Age Mean Sig. Interpretation
Deviation value on HO
20-29 4.51 0.42
Communication -0.02 0.99 Accepted Not Significant
30-39 4.52 0.52
20-29 4.35 0.57
Space -0.32 0.75 Accepted Not Significant
30-39 4.44 0.69
Environmental 20-29 4.60 0.41
1.13 0.27 Accepted Not Significant
Control 30-39 4.36 0.54
20-29 4.49 0.42
Overall 30-39 4.44 0.57 0.21 0.83 Accepted Not Significant

(α) Level of Significance = 0.05

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Table eight (8) shows that communication in age 20-29 has a mean of four

and half (4.51); and one point increased of mean with age 30-39 years old. On the

other hand, space with age 20-29 years old has a mean of four and quarters (4.35)

and close to four and half (4.44) under 30-39 years old. In environmental control

with a mean of above four and half (4.60) under 20-29 years old and above four

and quarters (4.36) in 30-39 years old. In overall those who belong to age 21-29

years old has a mean of approximately four and half (4.49) with adjectival rating

of full extent, while, those who belong to 30-39 years old has a mean of closer to

four and half (4.44) with adjectival rating same with 21-29 years of age.

Table eight (8) shows that the difference extent of transcultural nursing

practices based on age in over-all mean age 20-29 years old has a higher mean of

almost four and half (4.49) while those who belong to 30-39 years old with a mean

of closer to four and half (4.44). In terms of standard deviation, 30-39 years old

has a higher value of almost one (0.57) while 20-29 has a lower standard deviation

of closer to half of one (0.42). In t-value environmental control in terms of age has

a higer value of greater than one (1.13) while space in terms of age has a lower t-

value with less than one (-0.32). In level of significance, communication has a

highest value with approximately one (0.99) while environmental control in terms

of age has the lowest value with less than one (0.27). The overllall t-value lessens

than one (0.21) with the corresponding significant value of closer to one (0.83) is

not significant at 0.05 level of significance.

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Based on the result of the study, it shows that age does not affect the

transcultural nursing practices of staff nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH) in

terms of communication, space, and environment. Both ages belongs to 21-29 and

30-39 years old practice the three factors (communication, space, and environment)

covered in this study adequately. Difference in age does not affect their

performance in giving care to foreign patients using communication, space, and

environment.

3.2 Gender

Table nine (9) shows the significant difference Extent of Transcultural

Nursing Practices when grouped according to age.

Table 9
Difference in the Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices Grouped
According to Gender

Std. Decision on
Extents Gender Mean t-value Sig. Interpretation
Deviation HO
Communicatio Male 4.49 0.46
-0.21 0.83 Accepted Not Significant
n Female 4.52 0.42
Male 4.31 0.71
Space -0. 42 0.68 Accepted Not Significant
Female 4.40 0.49
Environmental Male 4.52 0.47
-0.41 0.69 Accepted Not Significant
Control Female 4.58 0.41
Male 4.44 0.52 Not
Oveall -0.39 0.70 Accepted
Female 4.50 0.40 Significant
(α) Level of significance = 0.05

In table nine (9) shows that communication in terms of gender in female has

a mean of four and half (4.52); and almost four and half (4.49) in male. On the

other hand, space in male has a mean of four and quarters (4.31) and close to four

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and half (4.40) under female. In environmental control, both male and female with

a mean of above four and half (4.52 and 4.58), respectively. In overall those who

belong to male a mean of approximately close to four and half (4.44) with

adjectival rating of full extent, while, those who belong to female has a mean of

four and half (4.50) with adjectival rating same male.

Table nine (9) shows that difference in extent of transcultural nursing

practices based on gender in over-all mean, female has a higher mean of four and

half (4.50) while those who belong to male with a mean of closer to four and half

(4.44). In terms of standard deviation, male has a higher value of closer to one

(0.52) while female has a lower standard deviation of lower than half of one (0.40).

In t-value communicationl in terms of gender has a higer value of closer to one (-

0.41) while environmental control in terms of gender has a lower t-value with less

than half of one (-0.21). In level of significance, communication has a highest

value with approximately closer to one (0.83) while space in terms of gender has

the lowest value with less than one (0.68). The overllall t-value lessens than one (-

0.39) with the corresponding significant value of closer to one (0.70) is not

significant at 0.05 level of significance.

In Leininger’s transcultural theory, gender is not an issue in giving

competent care. According to Leininger, both male and female should enjoy equal

rights in giving competent care with patients especially with foreign patients except

if it is contraindicated with their culture like for instance, United Arab of Emirates

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wherein male nurse can only take care of male patients which same rule applies

with female nurses. But if male or female nurses are needed by the patients

whether it is male or female, male or female nurse should attend to their needs.

The rule in giving care is they should ask permission to the patient and as much as

possible avoid closed distance, approximately should be at least 3 feet away from

the patients if it is opposite to the nurses gender, in giving competent care. Males

and females should have been treated with equal respect, rights, and role

opportunities in work place or anywhere. In addition, Leininger also mentioned

that discrimination of task between male and female nurses should be avoided. In

relation to the study, both female and male nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital can

practice transcultural nursing in giving competent care in terms of communication,

space, and environment. Gender does not affect the extent of transcultural nursing

practices. Although based on the result of the study, male nurses have the small

population compared to female nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH) still they

can practice and perform transcultural nursing practices. Discrimination of doing a

task is not an issue for argumentation as it does not have a significant relationship

with transcultural nursing practices in terms of communication, space, and

environment.

3.3 Number of Foreign Patients Handled

Table ten (10) shows the significant difference Extent of Transcultural

Nursing Practices when grouped according to number of foreign patients handled.

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Table 10
Difference in the Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices Grouped
According to Number of Foreign Patient Handled

No. of Std.
F- Decision
Category Patients Mean Deviatio Sig. Interpretation
Value on HO
Handled n
1-2 4.33 0.45
3-4 4.50 0.36
Communication 2.78 0.80 Accepted Not Significant
5 and 4.76 0.39
above
1-2 4.21 0.60
3-4 4.40 0.58
Space 0.69 0.51 Accepted Not Significant
5 and 4.51 0.56
above
1-2 4.45 0.50
Environmental 3-4 4.50 0.35
1.47 0.25 Accepted Not Significant
Control 5 and 4.76 0.39
above
1-2 4.33 0.49
3-4 4.47 0.38
Overall 1.60 0.22 Accepted Not Significant
5 and 4.68 0.41
above

Table 10 shows ANOVA test Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practices

when they are grouped according to Number of Foreign Patients Handled. in

Communication in terms of number of foreign patients handled, 1-2 pateints with a

mean of four and quarters (4.33), 3-4 with four and half (4.50) and 5 and above

with greater than four and half (4.76). While in terms of standard deviation,

communication under 1-2 is closer to haf of one (0.45), 3-4 closer to half of one

(o.36), and 5 and above with more closer (0.39) compared to 3-4 number of foreign

patients handled. In space, 1-2 has a standard deviation of closer to one (0.60), 3-4

with more than half of one (0.58), and 5 and above with less closer to one (0.56).

In environmental control, 1-2 has a standard deviation of half of one (0.50), 3-4

with less than half of one (0.35), and 5 and above with much higher value (0.39)

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compared to 3-4 number of foreign patients handled. The overall standard

deviation is approximately half of one (0.49) in 1-2 number of foreign patients

handled, four and quarters (0.38) in 2-3, and closer to half of one (0.41) in 5 and

above number of foreign patients handled. In F-value, communication is closer to

three (2.78), while space is almost one (0.69), and lastly, environmental control

almost one and half (1.47) with an overall F-value of one and more than half

(1.60). Lastly, the significant value of communication is almost one (0.80), space

with half of one (0.51), environmental control with quarter of one (0.25), and with

an overall value of less than quarter (0.22).

In table 10, communication in handling patients of 5 and above has the highest

mean of approximately five (4.75), while 1-2 foreign patients handled has the

lowest mean of above four and quarters (4.33). In space, still 5 and above foreign

patients handled has the highest mean of four and half (4.51) while the lowest is 1-

2 number of foreign patients handled with less than four and quarters (4.21). In

environmwntal control, 5 and above number of foreign patients handled holds the

highest number of mean with greater than four and half (4.76) while 1-2 foreign

patients is the lowest with a mean of almost four and half. On the other hand, 1-2

number of foreign patients handled is the highest interms of standard deviation in

communication with a value of closer to half of one (0.45), while 3-4 is the lowest

with a value of less than half of one (0.36). In space, 3-4 number of foreign

patients handled is the highest with value of greater than half of one (0.60), while

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5 and above got the lowest with a value of slightly above half of one (0.56). In

environmental control, 5 and above number of foreign patients handled got the

highest value of standars deviation with half of one (0.50), while 3-4 got the lowest

with greater than quarters of one (0.35). In terms of F-value, environmental

control got the highest value of almost one and half (1.47), while space got the

lowest with less than one (0.69). In level of significance, communication has a

highest value with approximately closer to one (0.80) while environmental control

in terms of number of foreign patients handled has the lowest value with less than

half of one (0.25). The overllall F-value greater than one and half (1.60) with the

corresponding significant value of closer to quarters of one (0.25) is not significant

at 0.05 level of significance.

Based on the result of the study, though there is no significant difference in

number of foreign patients handled. Number of foreign patients handled does not

affect the extent of transcultural nursing practices of staff nurses in Manila Doctors

Hospital (MDH). But in terms of their mean, patients who handled 5 and above has

the highest mean which means that those nurse respondents who belongs to that

group more or less practice transcultural nursing practices more or much aware of

different transcultural nursing practices needed to apply in handling foreign

patients. But it does not mean that foreign patients handled in group 1-2 and 3-4

does not practice transcultural nursing practices. Those who belong to 1-2 and 3-4

number of foreign patients also practice transcultural nursing practices but the

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degree of giving care was affected as they answer the questionnaire because they

might not practice some items in the survey questionnaire adequately for their own

reasons. It might be that they did not perform the task yet or often do not perform

the task that is why they answer a lower degree of extent in giving transcultural

nursing practices in terms of communication, space, and environment

Regardless of number foreign patients handled, it does not affect the extent

of transcultural nursing practices in terms of communication, space, and

environment. All of the group according number of foreign patients handle can

give adequate and competent care to foreign patients. It does not affect in fulfilling

their task as a staff nurse in Manila Doctors College (MDH).

According to Leininger, as a nurse discover the client’s particular cultural

belief and values, they learn way to provide sensitive, compassionate, and

competent care that is beneficial and satisfying to the foreign patient. At the same

time the nurse discovers many nursing insights about her own cultural background

and how to use knowledge appropriately with clients in hospital.

Therefore the there is no significant difference in the extent of transcultural

nursing at Manila Doctors Hospital.

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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings, the conclusions and the

recommendations that evolved as a result of the study that was conducted to the staff

nurses at the Manila Doctors Hospital.

This research was conducted to determine the difference in the extent of

transcultural nursing practices of Manila Doctors Hospital when grouped according

to the profile such as age, gender, and number of foreign patients handled. It

presents the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations related to the

extent of transcultural nursing care practice rendered by the staff nurses in Manila

Doctors Hospital (MDH).

This study aims to answer the following question:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age,

1.2 Gender,

1.3 Number of foreign patients handled,?

2. What is the extent of transcultural nursing practices of respondents in

terms of:

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2.1. Communication,

2.2. Space,

2.3. Environmental Control,?

3. Is there a significant difference in the extent of transcultural nursing

practices of Manila Doctors Hospital when grouped according to the profile?

Summary of Findings

1. Frequency Distribution and Percentage of Respondents according

to:

1.1 Age

Majority of the 30 nurses’ respondents (83%) of the respondents from

Manila Doctors Hospital belongs to 21-29 years old age groups; while the 17%

belongs to 30-39 years old age group.

1.2 Gender

Majority of the 30 nurses respondents (60%) from Manila Doctors Hospital

are females while the remaining 40% are male.

1.3 Number of Patients handled

Majority of the 30 respondents have handled 1-2 foreign patients with

thirty-seven percent (37%) from Manila Doctors Hospital, while thirty-three

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percent (33%) have handled 3-4 foreign patients, ad lastly, thirty percent (30%)

have handled 5 and above foreign patients.

2. Extent of Transcultural Nursing Practice of Respondents in terms

of

2.1 Communication

In communication, the composite mean value is 4.51. In their adjectival

description and interpretation, all questions were in categorized to full extent and

often, including the composite mean.

2.2 Space

In space, the composite mean value is 4.36. Their adjectival descriptions

and interpretation including the composite mean have the same result of full extent

and often, respectively.

2.3 Environment

In environment, the composite mean value is 4.56. The result of adjectival

rating and interpretation in this category were all the same including the composite

mean such as full extent and often, respectively.

3. Difference in the Extent of Transcultural Nursing practices of

Manila Doctors Hospital when grouped according to their profile

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3.1 Age

The T-test value of 0.213 and the significance of 0.833, accepted the null

hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the extent of transculural

nursing practices when group according to age because the p-value is greater than

0.05 level if significance.

3.2 Gender

The T-test value of 0.386 with the corresponding p-value of 0.702, accepted

the null hypothesis, since the value is greater than 0.05 level of significance,

therefore, there is no significant difference in extent of transcultural nursing

practices in Manila Doctors Hospital when grouped according to gender.

3.3 Number of Foreign Patients Handled

The F-value of 1.600 with the corresponding p-value of 0.221, accepted the

null hypothesis, since the value is greater than 0.05 level of significance, therefore,

there is no significant difference in the extent of transcultural nursing practices I

Manila Doctors Hospital when grouped according to number of foreign patients

handled.

CONCLUSIONS

Generally, Manila Doctors Hospital nurses practices transcultural nursing to

the fullest extent.

Specifically, the following are the

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1. Most of the respondents from manila Doctors Hospital are female, age

21-29 years old and have handled 1-2 foreign patients.

2. Transcultural nursing practice of respondents in terms of

communication, space, and environment is in full extent.

3. Male or female, in any age group and number of foreign patients

handled, the Trancultural Nursing Practices in Manila Doctors Hospital

is in full extent.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings and the conclusions drawn from the findings, the

researchers offer the following recommendations:

1. Staff nurses of Manila Doctors College should continue to develop the

caring attitudes and provide the best quality nursing care as possible to their

patient in spite of culture indifferences. Nurses should explore and read

about different cultures in other country as their additional information and

since the hospital have a greater probability of handling foreign patients.

2. The Nursing Service can provide their own study regarding transcultural

nursing practices that studies other factors like considering the religion,

economic factors, technological factors and others under transcultural

nursing practices for them to know how far and competent their nurses are

in handling foreign patients

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3. Nursing Service can also provide seminars, trainings, symposium, and

exhibit regarding different culture of other countries that they may

encounter.

4. To the future researcher, they can test other factors under the umbrella of

transcultural nursing theory of Leininger particularly the Sunrise model like

economic status, religion and other factors. Since communication, space,

and environment is no significant in this study may be other factors will be

significance. It is also recommended to use a bigger number of respondents

or if possible the total population of nurses in Manila Doctors Hospital to

check the significance of each factor under transcultural nursing practices.

It is also helpful to know the degree of improvement in order to provide a

more competent care not only to local but also to foreign patients. They can

also conduct the same study yearly in order to closely monitor the

knowledge and skills of nurses in said hospital in dealing with both local

and foreign patients.

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REFERENCES

Books

Andrew, M. and Boyle, J. (2007). Transcultural Concept via Nursing Care, 5th
edition.

Erbs and Kozier. Fundamentals of Nursing. vol. 1,

Giger, J. and Davidhizar, R. (1994). Transcultural Nursing: Assessment and


Intervention,

Giger, J. and Davidhizar, R. (1994). Transcultural Nursing: Assessment and


Intervention, 2nd edition.

Lauderdale, Jana. (2005). Transcultural Nursing society, Madomme University

Leininger, M. and Mcfarland. 2006. Theory of Culture Care Diversity and


Universally: a world Wide Nursing Theory.

Leininger, M. and MCfarland. (1978, 1995, 2002).


Transcultural Nursing: Concept, Theories, Research and Practices.

Leukman and Munoz. (2005). Transcultural Communication in Nursing.

Lippincott, W. and Wilkins, Bruner and Sudhart. (2008). Medical Surgical


Nursing, vol. 1, 11th edition

Mcfarland, M. Eippeertte, M. (2008). Contemporary Nurse.

Nieswadomy, R. Fundamentals Nursing Research”, 5th edition, Person


Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Papadopoulos, I. (2006).Transcultural Health and social Care, Development of


culturally competent practitioner, church Hill Living stone.

Purnell, L. and Paulanka, B. (2002). Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally


Competent Approach.

Quimbao-Udan, J. (2004).Fundamentals of Nursing: Concept and Clinical


Application, 2nd edition.

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MANILA DOCTORS COLLEGE

Spector, R. (2000). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness, 4th edition.

Magazines

Atkinson and Hammersely. (2000).Professional and Lay Care in the Tanzanian


Village of Ilembula, chapter 8.

Bellour, R. and Clement, C. Race et Histoire, Paris: Gallimard Revenue


Internationale des Sciences Socials, 23(4).

Juntunen, A. Professional and Lay Care in the Tanzanian Village of ilembula,


Department of Nursing and Health Administration University of Oulu
Finland.

Levi-Strauss, Claude. American Association of Physical Anthropology:


Statement or biological Aspects of Race published.

Maier-Lorentz MM. Transcultural Nursing: its importance in nursing practice,


National University, San Diego, California, USA.

Narayanasamy, Aru. (2003). Transcultural Nursing: How do nurses respond to


cultural Needs?, Vol. 12, issue 3, , page 185-194.

Journals

American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 101, 1996, page 569-570.

Campinha-Bacote. (2003). A Model and Instrument for Addressing Cultural


Competence in health Care, Journal of Nursing Education.

Meleis, A.,(1999). Culturally Competent Care: Journal


of Transcultural Nursing, Washington D.C., American Academy of
Nursing

Leininger, Madeleine. (1999). Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Washington


D.C., American Academy of Nursing.

Lorents-Madeleine. (2008). Home health care Nurse: the Journal for Home |Care
and Hospice professional, vol. 26, page 237-243.

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Electronics Resouces

Chit, Estella. (2004). Nurses Lackhurts Healthcare system.Manila Times.


http//www.manilatimes.net/others/special/2003/may/18/2003

Fernandez, M. and Fernandez, K. (2005). Transcultural nursing: Basic concept


and Case study. http://www.culturediversity.org/

Lippincot, W. and Wilkins. (2008). Understanding Transcultural Nursing


www.nursingcenter.com

Madeleine Leininger. (2008. Transcultural Nursing Society. www.tcns.org

Mercado, Susan Pineda. (2000). MNging Shifts in Nursing Direction


Department of Health. http://www.doh.gov.ph/mmc/issue01/nn.html

Unpublished Materials

Gadut, Ma. Carmelita D. et.al., (2006) 6 C’s as Thrust of Manila Doctors


College: A Basis for Quality Nursing Care

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APPENDIX A

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APPENDIX B

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College of Nursing

Manila Doctors College

Pres. Diosdado Macapagal Blvd., Metropolitan Park, Pasay City

Dear Respondents,

To whom it may concern

Greetings!

We, undersigned, 3rd year Nursing Students from Manila Doctors College is
currently conducting our research as a partial requirement in the Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Nursing entitled “Extent of Transcultural Nursing
Practices in Manila Doctors Hospital”, and this study aims to assess the extent
of transcultural nursing practices in your hospital.

We are asking for your cooperation to answer our survey questionnaire base on
your availability for today. We are hoping for your kind consideration. Thank
you very much and God Bless.

Sincerely Yours,

Group 24-1 of Manila Doctors College

Questionnaire

PART I

Instruction: Kindly put a check ( ) on the following data.

Name (Optional):__________________________________________

Age:

20-29 years old


30-39 years old
40 years old and above

Gender

Male
Female

Number of foreign patients handled?

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1-2 patients

3-4 patients

5 or more patients

PART II

Instruction: Check ( ) the box corresponds to your answer.

5 – FlE –Fullest Extent

4 – FE – Full Extent

3- ME – Moderate Extent

2 – LE – Lesser Extent

1 – LtE –Least Extent

A. Communication FlE FE ME LE LtE

5 4 3 2 1

A.1. Greets my foreign patient and


his/her family before doing any
procedure.

A. 2. Establishes rapport to my
foreign patient.
A.3. If my foreign patient could not
speak nor understand English I
perform simple actions, and do sign
language for the patient to
understand me while verbalizing the
instructions.

A.4. Speaks softly and clearly when


talking to my foreign patient.

A.5. Make sure that foreign patient


understands my instructions.

A. 6. Performs simple action like sign


languages or pantomime whenever
foreign patient could not understand
my instructions.

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A.7. Uses simple words rather than
complicated words when talking to
foreign patient.

A.8 Courteously listens to concerns of 88


foreign patient.

A.9. Gives instruction to foreign


patient in proper order.

A.10. Uses terminating words upon


leaving the room of my foreign
patient.

B. Space

B.1. Recognizes cultural difference of


foreign patients before providing care.

B.2. Talks to foreign patient with a


distance of three (3) feet away from
patient’s bed.

B.3. Make sure that my foreign


patient is relaxed when I am
attending to his or her need.

B.4. Aware that touching my foreign


patient without permission can cause
an embarrassment or anger to him or
her.

B.5. Avoids too much body movement


when facing foreign patients.

B.6.Maintains acceptable distance


based on my foreign patient’s culture
preference especially when the he or
she is resting.

B.7. Maximizes time and effort when


giving care to my foreign patient.

B.8. Respects the time according to


foreign patient’s cultural practices if
he or she has a preferred time of
receiving care like in providing
hygiene care.

B.9. Secures my foreign patient’s


comfort when he or she is isolated or

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alone.

B.10. Touches my foreign patients


rarely as an indicator of respect to his
or her privacy.

C. Environmental Control

C.1. Orients my foreign patient


regarding the time, date even though
he / she is unconscious.

C.2. Provides the needs of my foreign


patient based on their preference
89
pattern according to his or her
culture.

C.3. Make sure that my foreign


patient’s environment is contributing
to his fast recovery by maintaining
his room clean and in order.

C.4. Make sure that my foreign


patient feels comfortable with his or
her room.

C.5. Assists my foreign patient and


his family in all procedure needed to
be done.

C.6. Explains the illness or health


condition of my foreign patients to
him or her as well as to his or her
family members.

C.7. Explains to my foreign patient


the doctor’s order in order for him or
her to have self control.

C.8. Ensures my foreign patient to


maintain a quite and peaceful
environment.

C. 9. Explains to my foreign patient’s


and visitors regarding visiting hours.

C.10. Maintains room temperature


appropriate for my foreign patient’s
health condition.

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APPENDIX C

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GROUP 24-1

Frequencies

Statistics

NumberOf
Age Gender Patient
N Valid 30 30 30
Missing 0 0 0

Frequency Table

Age

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 21-29 25 83.3 83.3 83.3
30-39 5 16.7 16.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

Gender

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 12 40.0 40.0 40.0
Female 18 60.0 60.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

NumberOfPatient

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1-2 11 36.7 36.7 36.7
3-4 10 33.3 33.3 70.0
5 and above 9 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

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Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation


Com1 29 3.00 5.00 4.5862 .56803
Com2 30 3.00 5.00 4.5000 .77682
Com3 30 3.00 5.00 4.6000 .56324
Com4 30 4.00 5.00 4.7333 .44978
Com5 30 4.00 5.00 4.6667 .47946
Com6 30 3.00 5.00 4.2667 .73968
Com7 30 4.00 5.00 4.5667 .50401
Com8 30 3.00 5.00 4.5333 .62881
Com9 30 3.00 5.00 4.5333 .57135
Com10 30 2.00 5.00 4.1333 .93710
OverallCommunication 30 3.50 5.00 4.5126 .42921
Valid N (listwise) 29

Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation


Sp1 30 2.00 5.00 4.1667 .79148
Sp2 30 1.00 5.00 4.1000 .99481
Sp3 30 3.00 5.00 4.4000 .77013
Sp4 30 2.00 5.00 4.4000 .89443
Sp5 30 1.00 5.00 4.1667 .98553
Sp6 30 3.00 5.00 4.4667 .57135
Sp7 30 4.00 5.00 4.6000 .49827
Sp8 30 3.00 5.00 4.3667 .71840
Sp9 30 4.00 5.00 4.6667 .47946
Sp10 30 3.00 5.00 4.3000 .74971
OverallSpace 30 3.10 5.00 4.3633 .57684
Valid N (listwise) 30

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Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation


EC1 30 3.00 5.00 4.4667 .68145
EC2 30 3.00 5.00 4.4000 .67466
EC3 30 3.00 5.00 4.6667 .60648
EC4 30 3.00 5.00 4.6667 .54667
EC5 30 4.00 5.00 4.7000 .46609
EC6 30 3.00 5.00 4.5667 .56832
EC7 30 3.00 5.00 4.4000 .67466
EC8 30 3.00 5.00 4.7000 .53498
EC9 30 3.00 5.00 4.6000 .62146
EC10 30 3.00 5.00 4.4000 .62146
OverallEnvironmental 30 3.50 5.00 4.5567 .42966
Valid N (listwise) 30

Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation


Communication 30 3.50 5.00 4.5126 .42921
Space 30 3.10 5.00 4.3633 .57684
Environmental 30 3.50 5.00 4.5567 .42966
OverallTranscultural
30 3.47 5.00 4.4775 .44095
NursingPractices
Valid N (listwise) 30

T-Test

Group Statistics

Std. Error
Gender N Mean Std. Deviation Mean
OverallTranscultural Male 12 4.4389 .51754 .14940
NursingPractices Female 18 4.5033 .39574 .09328

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I n d e p e n d e n t S a m p le s T e s t

L e v e n e 's T e s t fo r
E q u a lity o f V a r ia n c e s t- t e s t f o r E q u a lity o f M e a n s
9 5 % C o n fid e n c e
In t e r v a l o f th e
M e a n S td . E r r o r D iffe r e n c e
F S ig . t df S ig . ( 2 - ta ile dD) if fe r e n c e D iffe r e n c e L o w e r U p p e r
O v e r a llT r a n s c u ltu r a l E q u a l v a r ia n c e s
1 .4 0 1 .2 4 6 - .3 8 6 28 .7 0 2 - .0 6 4 4 3 . 1 6 6 8 0 - .4 0 6 1 0 .2 7 7 2 3
N u r s in g P r a c tic e s a ssu m ed
E q u a l v a r ia n c e s
- .3 6 6 1 9 .3 4 5 .7 1 8 - .0 6 4 4 3 . 1 7 6 1 3 - .4 3 2 6 3 .3 0 3 7 6
n ot a ssu m e d

T-Test

Group Statistics

Std. Error
Age N Mean Std. Deviation Mean
OverallTranscultural 21-29 25 4.4853 .42449 .08490
NursingPractices 30-39 5 4.4386 .57115 .25543

In d e p e n d e n t S a m p le s T e s t

L e v e n e 's T e s t fo r
E q u a lit y o f V a r ia n c e s t- te s t fo r E q u a lity o f M e a n s
9 5 % C o n fid e n c e
In te r v a l o f th e
M ean S td . E r r o r D iffe r e n c e
F S ig . t df S ig . ( 2 - ta ile dD) iffe r e n c e D iffe r e n c e L o w e r Upper
O v e r a llT r a n s c u ltu r a l E q u a l v a r ia n c e s
1 .9 1 2 .1 7 8 .2 1 3 28 .8 3 3 .0 4 6 7 1 .2 1 9 6 6 - .4 0 3 2 5 .4 9 6 6 8
N u r s in g P r a c tic e s a ss u m e d
E q u a l v a r ia n c e s
.1 7 4 4 .9 2 3 .8 6 9 .0 4 6 7 1 .2 6 9 1 7 - .6 4 8 4 8 .7 4 1 9 1
not assum ed

Oneway

D e s c rip t iv e s

O v e r a llT r a n s c u ltu r a lN u r s in g P r a c tic e s


9 5 % C o n fid e n c e In te r v a l fo r
M ean
N M e a n S td . D e v ia tioSntd . E r r o rL o w e r B o u nUd p p e r B o u n M
d in im u m M a x im u m
1 -2 11 4 .3 2 7 3 .4 8 6 4 4 . 1 4 6 6 7 4 .0 0 0 5 4 .6 5 4 1 3 .4 7 4 .9 0
3 -4 10 4 .4 6 6 0 .3 8 3 9 2 . 1 2 1 4 1 4 .1 9 1 3 4 .7 4 0 6 3 .8 7 4 .9 3
5 an d a bo ve 9 4 .6 7 4 1 .4 1 0 5 5 . 1 3 6 8 5 4 .3 5 8 5 4 .9 8 9 6 3 .7 7 5 .0 0
T o ta l 30 4 .4 7 7 5 .4 4 0 9 5 . 0 8 0 5 1 4 .3 1 2 9 4 .6 4 2 2 3 .4 7 5 .0 0

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ANOVA

OverallTransculturalNursingPractices
Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups .597 2 .299 1.600 .221
Within Groups 5.041 27 .187
Total 5.639 29

GROUP 24-1
Frequencies
Frequency Table
Gender

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 12 40.0 40.0 40.0
Female 18 60.0 60.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

NumberOfPatient

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1-2 11 36.7 36.7 36.7
3-4 10 33.3 33.3 70.0
5 and above 9 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

Descriptives

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Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation


Com1 29 3.00 5.00 4.5862 .56803
Com2 30 3.00 5.00 4.5000 .77682
Com3 30 3.00 5.00 4.6000 .56324
Com4 30 4.00 5.00 4.7333 .44978
Com5 30 4.00 5.00 4.6667 .47946
Com6 30 3.00 5.00 4.2667 .73968
Com7 30 4.00 5.00 4.5667 .50401
Com8 30 3.00 5.00 4.5333 .62881
Com9 30 3.00 5.00 4.5333 .57135
Com10 30 2.00 5.00 4.1333 .93710
OverallCommunication 30 3.50 5.00 4.5126 .42921
Valid N (listwise) 29

Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation


Sp1 30 2.00 5.00 4.1667 .79148
Sp2 30 1.00 5.00 4.1000 .99481
Sp3 30 3.00 5.00 4.4000 .77013
Sp4 30 2.00 5.00 4.4000 .89443
Sp5 30 1.00 5.00 4.1667 .98553
Sp6 30 3.00 5.00 4.4667 .57135
Sp7 30 4.00 5.00 4.6000 .49827
Sp8 30 3.00 5.00 4.3667 .71840
Sp9 30 4.00 5.00 4.6667 .47946
Sp10 30 3.00 5.00 4.3000 .74971
OverallSpace 30 3.10 5.00 4.3633 .57684
Valid N (listwise) 30

Descriptives

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Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation


EC1 30 3.00 5.00 4.4667 .68145
EC2 30 3.00 5.00 4.4000 .67466
EC3 30 3.00 5.00 4.6667 .60648
EC4 30 3.00 5.00 4.6667 .54667
EC5 30 4.00 5.00 4.7000 .46609
EC6 30 3.00 5.00 4.5667 .56832
EC7 30 3.00 5.00 4.4000 .67466
EC8 30 3.00 5.00 4.7000 .53498
EC9 30 3.00 5.00 4.6000 .62146
EC10 30 3.00 5.00 4.4000 .62146
OverallEnvironmental 30 3.50 5.00 4.5567 .42966
Valid N (listwise) 30

Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation


Communication 30 3.50 5.00 4.5126 .42921
Space 30 3.10 5.00 4.3633 .57684
Environmental 30 3.50 5.00 4.5567 .42966
OverallTranscultural
30 3.47 5.00 4.4775 .44095
NursingPractices
Valid N (listwise) 30

T-Test

Group Statistics

Std. Error
Gender N Mean Std. Deviation Mean
Communication Male 12 4.4917 .45619 .13169
Female 18 4.5265 .42319 .09975
Space Male 12 4.3083 .70512 .20355
Female 18 4.4000 .49229 .11603
Environmental Male 12 4.5167 .46677 .13475
Female 18 4.5833 .41480 .09777
OverallTranscultural Male 12 4.4389 .51754 .14940
NursingPractices Female 18 4.5033 .39574 .09328

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In d e p e n d en t Sa mp le s T e s t

L even e 's T e st for


Eq u a lity o f Varia n ce s t-te st fo r Eq u ality o f M e a n s
9 5 % Co n fid e n ce
Inte rva l o f th e
M ean Std . Erro r Diffe re n ce
F Sig . t df Sig . (2 -ta ile d) D iffe re n ce Diffe re n ce Lo w e r U p pe r
Co m m u n ica tio n Eq u a l va ria n ce s
.0 1 9 .8 9 0 -.2 1 4 28 .8 3 2 -.0 3 4 88 .1 62 6 5 -.3 6 8 0 6 .2 9 83 1
a ssu m e d
Eq u a l va ria n ce s
-.2 1 1 2 2 .4 5 9 .8 3 5 -.0 3 4 88 .1 65 2 0 -.3 7 7 0 8 .3 0 73 2
n o t a ssu m e d
Sp a ce Eq u a l va ria n ce s
2 .5 8 9 .1 1 9 -.4 2 0 28 .6 7 7 -.0 9 1 67 .2 18 0 9 -.5 3 8 4 1 .3 5 50 8
a ssu m e d
Eq u a l va ria n ce s
-.3 9 1 1 8 .0 7 6 .7 0 0 -.0 9 1 67 .2 34 3 0 -.5 8 3 7 7 .4 0 04 3
n o t a ssu m e d
En viro n m e n ta l Eq u a l va ria n ce s
.1 2 1 .7 3 1 -.4 1 0 28 .6 8 5 -.0 6 6 67 .1 62 4 7 -.3 9 9 4 8 .2 6 61 4
a ssu m e d
Eq u a l va ria n ce s
-.4 0 0 2 1 .7 3 3 .6 9 3 -.0 6 6 67 .1 66 4 8 -.4 1 2 1 7 .2 7 88 4
n o t a ssu m e d
O ve ra llT ra nscultura l Eq u a l va ria n ce s
1 .4 0 1 .2 4 6 -.3 8 6 28 .7 0 2 -.0 6 4 43 .1 66 8 0 -.4 0 6 1 0 .2 7 72 3
Nu rsin g Pra ctice s a ssu m e d
Eq u a l va ria n ce s
-.3 6 6 1 9 .3 4 5 .7 1 8 -.0 6 4 43 .1 76 1 3 -.4 3 2 6 3 .3 0 37 6
n o t a ssu m e d

Oneway

D e s c rip tiv e s

9 5 % C o n fid e n c e In te rva l fo r
M ean
N M e a n S td . D ev ia tio nS td . E rro r L o w e r B o u n dU p p e r B o u n d M in im u m M a xim u m
C o m m u n ica tio n 1 -2 11 4 .3 2 7 3 .4 5 1 8 6 .1 3 6 2 4 4 .0 2 3 7 4 .6 3 0 8 3 .5 0 4 .9 0
3 -4 10 4 .4 9 7 8 .3 6 3 1 8 .1 1 4 8 5 4 .2 3 8 0 4 .7 5 7 6 3 .9 0 5 .0 0
5 and above 9 4 .7 5 5 6 .3 8 7 6 6 .1 2 9 2 2 4 .4 5 7 6 5 .0 5 3 5 4 .0 0 5 .0 0
T o ta l 30 4 .5 1 2 6 .4 2 9 2 1 .0 7 8 3 6 4 .3 5 2 3 4 .6 7 2 9 3 .5 0 5 .0 0
Space 1 -2 11 4 .2 0 9 1 .5 9 9 0 9 .1 8 0 6 3 3 .8 0 6 6 4 .6 1 1 6 3 .1 0 4 .9 0
3 -4 10 4 .4 0 0 0 .5 8 3 1 0 .1 8 4 3 9 3 .9 8 2 9 4 .8 1 7 1 3 .2 0 5 .0 0
5 and above 9 4 .5 1 1 1 .5 6 2 2 4 .1 8 7 4 1 4 .0 7 8 9 4 .9 4 3 3 3 .5 0 5 .0 0
T o ta l 30 4 .3 6 3 3 .5 7 6 8 4 .1 0 5 3 2 4 .1 4 7 9 4 .5 7 8 7 3 .1 0 5 .0 0
E n viro n m e n ta l 1 -2 11 4 .4 4 5 5 .4 9 8 7 3 .1 5 0 3 7 4 .1 1 0 4 4 .7 8 0 5 3 .5 0 5 .0 0
3 -4 10 4 .5 0 0 0 .3 4 9 6 0 .1 1 0 5 5 4 .2 4 9 9 4 .7 5 0 1 3 .8 0 5 .0 0
5 and above 9 4 .7 5 5 6 .3 9 4 0 5 .1 3 1 3 5 4 .4 5 2 7 5 .0 5 8 5 3 .8 0 5 .0 0
T o ta l 30 4 .5 5 6 7 .4 2 9 6 6 .0 7 8 4 5 4 .3 9 6 2 4 .7 1 7 1 3 .5 0 5 .0 0
O v e ra llT ra n s cu ltu ra l 1 -2 11 4 .3 2 7 3 .4 8 6 4 4 .1 4 6 6 7 4 .0 0 0 5 4 .6 5 4 1 3 .4 7 4 .9 0
N u rsin g P ra c tice s 3 -4 10 4 .4 6 6 0 .3 8 3 9 2 .1 2 1 4 1 4 .1 9 1 3 4 .7 4 0 6 3 .8 7 4 .9 3
5 and above 9 4 .6 7 4 1 .4 1 0 5 5 .1 3 6 8 5 4 .3 5 8 5 4 .9 8 9 6 3 .7 7 5 .0 0
T o ta l
30 4 .4 7 7 5 .4 4 0 9 5 .0 8 0 5 1 4 .3 1 2 9 4 .6 4 2 2 3 .4 7 5 .0 0

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ANOVA

Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Communication Between Groups .911 2 .456 2.776 .080
Within Groups 4.431 27 .164
Total 5.342 29
Space Between Groups .472 2 .236 .694 .508
Within Groups 9.178 27 .340
Total 9.650 29
Environmental Between Groups .524 2 .262 1.465 .249
Within Groups 4.829 27 .179
Total 5.354 29
OverallTranscultural Between Groups .597 2 .299 1.600 .221
NursingPractices Within Groups 5.041 27 .187
Total 5.639 29

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APPENDIX D

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APPENDIX E

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COLLEGE OF NURSING
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CERTIFICATE OF REVISION
(PROPOSAL DEFENSE)

This is to certify that Group ______ has revised/modified the final paper
defended last _____________________ according to the suggestions of the
members of the panel.
______________________

Adviser

Date ____________

Noted & Approved:

_____________________ ___________________

Panel Member Panel Member

Date ___________________ Date ______________________

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Research and Publication Department

Pres. Diosdado Macapagal Blvd., Metropolitan Park, Pasay City

CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “Extent of Transcultural Nursing


Practices in Manila Doctors Hospital” of Group 24-1 has been analyzed and treated
statistically using the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software. The
results that were released conformed to the data gathered and research questions
formulated by the concerned group.

This certification is issued upon the request of members of Group 24-1 for
whatever purpose it may serve them best.

Certified by:

Emervic Gargoles
In-house Statistician
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APPENDIX F

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LINE ITEM BUDGET

Research Title: Extent ogf Transcultural Nursing Practices in Manila


Doctors Hospital.

Researchers: CAMBALLA, Christy Ann S.

FLORES, Joshua Andrew D.

GUEVARA, Ronalyn S.

IBASE, Francis D.

MADERAZO, Nina Rose C.

MEJIA, Kristine Mae D.

ORTEGA, Yessa P.

Period Covered: January 4, 2009 – October 28, 2009

Items Amount
Transportation Expenses 1500
Communication Expenses 500
(Cellphone, internet prepaid etc.)
Supplies and Materials Expenses
a. Bond Papers 395
b. Printer inks 1320
c. Pencils, ballpens, erasers 150
d. Transparencies 120
e. Token for respondents 100
f. Survey forms 240
Professional expenses
a. Token for validators 300
b. Token for panel members
Snacks 900
Binding Expenses 450
Statistician 3000
Total 8975

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APPENDIX G

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….after defense…

With our beautiful adviser Mam Armel Gonzalez

121

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Editing after the defense…

from the hard work of each of the members….

122

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APPENDIX H

123

Curriculum Vitae

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CHRISTY ANN S. CAMBALLA

PERSONAL DETAILS:

Address: Blk. 23 Lot 2 Camia St.,Villa de Primarosa, Brgy. Buhay na


Tubig, Imus, Cavite, 4103

Age: 27 years old Date of Birth: December 27, 1981

Civil Status: Single Place of Birth: Manila

Nationality: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic

Email Add.: tyannver@yahoo.com Mobile No.: 0915-3109928

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Primary:
Malate Catholic School 1988-1994
1030 A. Mabini St., Malate, Manila, 1017

Secondary:
Malate Catholic School 1994-1998
1030 A. Mabini St., Malate, Manila, 1017
124
Tertiary:
BSBA Major in Marketing 1998-1999
University of the Philippines – Manila
Claro M. Recto, Manila

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Bachelor of Arts in Development Study 1999-2004
University of the Philippines – Manila
Padre Faura St., Ermita, Manila, 1017

Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) 2006-present


Manila Doctors College
Pres. Diosdado Macapagal Blvd.,
Metropolitan Park, Pasay City

Achievement / Awards / Organization

University of the Philippines – Manila

College Scholar (Deans Lister) 2nd Semester SY 2001-2002


Department of Social Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences
University of the Philippines – Manila

Candidate for Representative at 2nd Sem SY 2001-2002


Large (Rep-at-Large)
Publicity and Documentation
Unyon ng Progresibong Mag-aaral (UPM)
College of Arts and Sciences
University of the Philippines – Manila

Completion Award for Tutorials 1st Semester SY 1999-2000


Ugnayan ng Pahinungod
University of the Philippines - Manila

Member of Committee on SY 2002-2003


Vice-President External
Development Study Society
Department of Arts and Social Sciences
University of the Philippines – Manila

Vice-Chairperson SY 2001-2003
Youth for Nationalism and Democracy
University of the Philippines – Manila 125
Secretary General SY 2000-2001
Youth for Nationalism and Democracy
University of the Philippines – Manila

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Finance Officer SY 1999-2000
Youth for Nationalism and Democracy
University of the Philippines – Manila

University of the East

Achievement Award (Marketing) 2nd Semester SY 1998-1999


Faculty of Business Administration
University of the East – Manila

Malate Catholic School

Loyaty Award 1997-1998


Full Scholar 1996-1997
3rd Honor 1st and 3rd Grading 1995-1996
Biologu Quiz Bee Candidate 1995-1996
Most Obedient of the Class 1995-1996
Consistent Top 10 of the Class 1994-1998
Cheer Dancer 1994-1996

Others

Champion January 1997


Battle of the Brains
Brgy. 805 Zone 87
San Andress Bukid, Manila, 1017

SEMINARS ATTENDED

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious 5th of February 2009


Diseases in the Philippines
College of Nursing
Manila Doctors College

Conference on the Cause of War in Middle East (Iraq) Sept. 2002


University of the Philippines – Diliman
Diliman, Quezon City
126
Leadership Training June 2001
Candidates of Unyon ng Progresibong Mag-aaral
University of the Philippines – Manila

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Acting and Drama Workshop April 2001
Cultural Group of Youth for Nationalism and Democracy
Quezon City
University of the Philippines – Manila

Leadership Training Mar. 31-Apr. 2, ‘01


Candidates of Unyon ng Progresibong Mag-aaral
University of the Philippines – Manila

Tuition Fee Increase Press Conference March 2001


Speaker
Youth for Nationalism and Democracy
Max’s Restaurant, Mandaluyong City
University of the Philippines – Manila

Expectation of GMA Administration March 2001


Symposium Organizer
Youth for Nationalism and Democracy
University of the Philippines – Manila

Photo Exhibit February. 2001


Team Leader
University of the Philippines – Manila

Where to, EDSA 2? January 2001


Symposium Organizer
University of the Philippines – Manila

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JOSHUA ANDREW D. FLORES

PERSONAL DETAILS:
Address: Camella North Springvilee, Molino, Bacoor, Cavite

Age: 19 years old Date Of Birth: December 16, 1989

Civil Status: Single Place Of Birth: Manila City

Nationality: Filipino Religion: Christian

Telephone: (046)5027899 Cell Phone No.: 09155633437

Email Address: tekkentagg@yahoo.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Primary:
Friendship Learning Center 1995-1999
Angeles City
Mother Theresa School 1999-2001
Molino, Bacoor, Cavite

Secondary:
Don Bosco Technical Institute 2001-2002
Makati City

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Nazarene Academy 2002-2005
Salapungan, Angeles City

Tertiary:
Manila Doctors College 2006- Present
Bachelor Of Science In Nursing
Pres. Diosdado Macapagal Blvd.,
Metropolitan Park, Pasay City

Interest:
Bodybuilding, Cooking

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RONALYN S. GUEVARA

PERSONAL DETAILS:

Address: #5 Pili St. Zone 1 Plaza NueveSignal Village Taguig City

Age: 19 years old Date of Birth: January 28, 1990

Civil Status: Single Place of Birth: Gasan, Marinduque

Nationality: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic

Telephone number: none Cellphone number: 09159464340

E-mail address: grabe_u@yahoo.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Primary:
Royal Era Academy 1996-2002
10th Ave. HSG, Sgnal VillageTaguig City,
Metro Manila

Secondary:
Sto. Nino Catholic School 2002-2006
Sampaloc St. Signal Village Taguig City

Tertiary:
Manila Doctors College 2006-present
Bachelor of Science in Nursing 130
President Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard
Metropolitan Park, Pasay City

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AWARDS AND HONORS:
Cape Awardee (Sto. Nino catholicSchool)

INTEREST:
Likes to watch TV and movies. Listening to good music and also spend most of
her time surfing the net and reads books. She loves to draw, sing and hanging out
with friends.

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FRANCIS D. IBASE

PERSONAL DETAILS:

Address: 1665 Zamora Street, Paco, Manila

Age: 20 Years Old Date of Birth: December 10, 1988

Civil Status: Single Place of Birth: Manila

Nationality: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic

Telephone Number: (02) 4675106 Cellphone Number: 0916-7614791

Email Address: francis_ibase@yahoo.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Primary:
Celedonio Salvador Elementary School 1996 - 2001
Merced St, Paco, Manila

Secondary:
Manuel A. Roxas Highschool 2001- 2005
Quirino Ave Ext, Paco, Manila

Tertiary:
Arellano University 2005 – 2006
Bachelor Of Science In Nursing

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Taft Avenue, Gil. Puyat, Manila

Manila Doctors College 2006 - Present


Bachelor Of Science In Nursing
Pres. Diosdado Macapagal Blvd.,
Metropolitan Park, Pasay City

Awards And Honors


Best In Math And Science ( Sy 2003 -2004)
4th Honorable Mention ( Sy 2004 – 2005)
Loyalty Awardee (Sy 2004 – 2005)
Leadership Award (Sy 2002 – 2003)
Mr. Freshmen (Sy 2001– 2002)

Interests
Music, Arts, Watching Movies, Playing Computer Games

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NINA ROSE C. MADERAZO

PERSONAL DETAILS:

Age: 19 Date of Birth: December 21, 1989

Civil Status: Single Place of Birth: Angat, Bulacan

Nationality: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic

Telephone: (044) 671-0919 Cellphone No.: 09165172437

Email Address: ninamaderazo_21@yahoo.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Primary:
Colegio De Sta. Monica De Angat 1996-2002
Poblacion Angat, Bulacan

Secondary:
Colegio De Sta. Monica De Angat 2002-2006
Poblacion Angat, Bulacan

Tertiary:
Manila Doctors College 2006- Present
Bachelor Of Science In Nursing
Pres. Diosdado Macapagal Blvd.,
Metropolitan Park, Pasay City

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Interest:
Singing In Karaoke, Reading Pocket Books, Watching T.V, Eating

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KRISTINE MAE D. MEJIA

PERSONAL DETAILS:

Age: 20 years old Date Of Birth: April 15, 1989

Civil Status: Single Place Of Birth: Quezon City

Nationality: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic

Telephone: (046)9700824 Cell Phone No.: 09164939420

Email Address: Bluecast_15@Yahoo.Com.Ph

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Primary:
Elizabeth Seton-South 1996-2002
Anabu Ii-D Imus, Cavite

Secondary:
Statefields School Inc. 2002-2006
Molino Iii Bacoor, Cavite

Tertiary:
Manila Doctors College 2006- Present
Bachelor Of Science In Nursing
Pres. Diosdado Macapagal Blvd.,
Metropolitan Park, Pasay City

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Interest:
Singing In Karaoke, Reading Pocket Books, Watching T.V, Eating

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YESSA P. ORTEGA

PERSONAL DETAILS:

Age: 19 Date of Birth: February 13, 1990

Civil Status: Single Place of Birth: Lobo, Batangas

Nationality: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic

Telephone: 8541766 Cellphone No.: 09223683883

Email Address: yessablue@yahoo.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Primary:
Baclaran Elementary School Central 1996-2002

Secondary:
Manila High School 2002-2006
Victoria St. Intramuros Manila

Tertiary:
Manila Doctors College 2006-Present
Bachelor of Science in Nursing
Pres. Diosdado Macapagal Blvd.,
Metropolitan Park, Pasay City

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Related Extra-Curricular Activities:


Purple Hearts Club

Interest:
Surfing Net, Cooking and Watching Television

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