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Respiratory Systems (ANIMALS)

Definitions
I. The release of energy from nutrients as in the process of cellular respiration:
Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP
II. The gas exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide between the organism and
the environment.
Requirements of a Respiratory Surface:
Must be thin walled so that diffusion can occur rapidly
Must be moist
Must be in contact with a source of O2 that exists in the surroundings
Must be in contact with the transport system (circulatory system) to carry O2
to the cells and CO2 from the cells. (does not exist in single cell organisms)
Reparation in Plants
Gases enter via the Stamata, usually in the lower surface of the leaf
Guard cells (open and close the holes) can swell up and reduce H2O loss from
transportation
Gases diffuse into the leaf, and due to photosynthesis by mesophyll cells
during daylight condition the (O2) increases and the (CO2) concentration
decreases. Thus CO2 is always highest outside the mesophyll cells and will
diffuse into the cells.
Adaptations of respiratory systems in animals for the exchange of gases
1. Amoeba
Protists such as amoeba and paramecium and chiderians like Hydra are
aquatic organisms and not require specialized respiratory structures.
Rely on diffusion of gases w/ environment
O2 moves from (high) (low) from the environment into the organisms
CO2 moves from (high) (low) from the organism into the exteroior
environment
Hydra 2 cell layers thick
2. Earthworm
Skin respiratory surface for annelids
Skin secretes mucus facilictitates the diffusion of gases into out of the
blood
Blood hoemoglobin pigmented protein increase O2 carrying capacity
of erythrocytes
3. Grasshopper
Air enters (spiracles) travels down (tracheal tunes)
Tracheal tubes branch into smaller tranceoles all grasshopepers cells
O2 diffuses into the cells CO2 diffuses from the cells
Expiration by muscle moves air out through tracheal system
Blood DONT carry oxygen t the cells
No Homoglobin present
4. Fish, oysters, lobsters, amphibians
Respratory surface gills (10x-6x fish volume)
Gills thin filments supplied w/ blood vessels provide surface area
for gas exchange
Fish draws H20 mouth (gills are covered). H20 flows over the gills
The blood in the gill capillaries travels opposite direction
countercurrent flow maximize O2 transfer
Fishs blood is absorbing more and more oxygen
Blood reachesend of the lamella and is 80% or so saturated w/oxygen, it
is flowing past water wich is at the beginning of the lamella and is 90 or
100% O2 saturated.
O2diffuses into the gill capillaries and moves body cells to do gas
exchange dorsal artery. Deoxygenated blood returns heart and
pumped back to the gills.