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Volume: 03 Special Issue: 03 | May-2014 | NCRIET-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 843

FATIGUE LIFE OPTIMIZATION OF WIND TURBINE BLADE

Satishkumar V Tawade

1

, Sachin B Todkar

2

, Ashwinikumar S Hade

3

1

Asst. Professor, Mechanical Engineering, NESGOI, Faculty of Engineering, Maharashtra, India.

2

Asst. Professor, Mechanical Engineering, NESGOI, Faculty of Engineering, Maharashtra, India.

3

Asst. Professor, Mechanical Engineering, NESGOI, Faculty of Engineering, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Wind Turbine is one of the most useful non-conventional energy sources in todays energy crisis scenario. But the initial cost of the

Wind Turbine plant is very high. The manufacturing cost of the Wind Turbine blade is about 15-20% of the Wind Turbine plant cost.

So it is likely to reduce the investment cost of the Wind Turbine blade by maximizing the service life of the Wind Turbine blades.

Different types of loads acting on the Wind Turbine blade and consequential stresses developed in blade are studied. The Finite

Element model of Wind Turbine blade is analyzed by using ANSYS software. Fatigue stresses are developed on the Wind Turbine

blade due to change in wind speed. The maximum wind speed range (from cut-in to cut-out wind speed) is considered for design of

blade as well as predicting the fatigue life of the blade. Morrows equation is used for calculating the fatigue life of wind turbine

blade. The parameters which govern the fatigue life of the blade are the chord length; blade length and the twist angle. For optimizing

the fatigue life of the Wing Turbine blade, the length of blade, the chord length and the twist angle, these parameters are varied.

Constrained Gradient (Steepest ascent method) method is used for fatigue life optimization of the blade. The twist angle is very

sensitive to the fatigue life of the blade than the chord length and the blade length. The fatigue life increases exponentially with the

increase in twist angle, while there is parabolic relation between the fatigue life of the blade and the chord length. The fatigue life

decreases with increase in the blade length linearly. Due to increase in fatigue life of the blade, the cost of the wind turbine plant gets

reduced with more reliability.

Keywords: Fatigue life, Optimization, Wind turbine blade

-----------------------------------------------------------------------***-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1. INTRODUCTION

Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are

typically used to produce electrical power from the wind.

These large rotating machines indicate that their rotating

components (primarily blades and blade joints) were failing at

unexpected high rates, which led the wind turbine community

to develop fatigue analysis capabilities for wind turbines.

Hence the prediction of service lifetime is becoming an

essential part of the design process. Wind is a form of solar

energy. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the

atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface,

and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are modified by

the earth's terrain, bodies of water, and vegetation. Humans

use this wind flow, or motion energy, for many purposes:

sailing, flying a kite, and even generating electricity. The

terms wind energy or wind power describes the process by

which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or

electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the

wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be

used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping

water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into

electricity. So how do wind turbines make electricity? Simply

stated, a wind turbine works the opposite of a fan. Instead of

using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use

wind to make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which

spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes

electricity. This aerial view of a wind power plant shows how

a group of wind turbines can make electricity for the utility

grid. The electricity is sent through transmission and

distribution lines to homes, businesses, schools, and so on.

The work is divided into two major parts: The stress analysis

of the wind turbine blade & the optimization of the wind

turbine blade for maximum fatigue life.

2. DESIGN OF WIND TURBINE BLADE

Literature survey for structural analysis for wind turbine blade

is carried out. It is found that wind turbine blade is treated as

cantilever to find out various stresses acting on it. Blades are

subjected to various stresses developed due to various static

forces and moments. Stresses acting on the wind turbine blade

are varying in nature as turbine blade rotates. Design of wind

turbine blades involves static, dynamic as well as fatigue

analysis. The static forces are thrust, tangential forces and

gravity force. Due to these static forces mentioned above,

moments are generated. Aerodynamic moments are also acting

on the wind turbine blade. The fatigue stresses are developed

due to variation in wind speed and wind properties. The

fatigue analysis causes of the fatigue stresses, the relation of

these fatigue stresses with the fatigue life of the blade. The

dynamic analysis of wind turbine involves the effect of the

gyroscopic forces on the wind turbine blade and the study of

the modal analysis of the wind turbine blade.

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 03 | May-2014 | NCRIET-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 844

2.1 Static Forces acting on wt Blade

It is found that wind turbine blade is treated as a cantilever to

find out various forces acting on it. Blades are subjected to

various static forces and moments. Forces acting on the

turbine blade are varying in nature as turbine blade rotates.

The aerodynamic forces are of varying in nature, as the wind

speed is not constant in lateral as well as in longitudinal

direction. Design of wind turbine blade involves static,

dynamic as well as fatigue analysis. The static forces are,

Thrust or Normal force (FN), Tangential force (FT),

Gravitational force. (FG), Centrifugal force. (FC), Reaction

forces. Thrust force and the gravitational forces create

bending stresses in the wind turbine blade in edge wise

direction while the tangential forces create the bending

stresses in the wind turbine blade in flap wise direction.

Centrifugal forces create direct stresses in the wind turbine

blade [6].

Fig-1: Resolved forces acting on wind turbine blade

3. FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF THE WIND TURBINE

BLADE

The fatigue phenomenon occurs on the wind turbine blade due

to number of factors. These factors are divided into major and

minor parameters [1]. The primary parameters of the wind

property affect the fatigue life dominantly while there is not

such affect of the secondary parameter on the fatigue life.

Therefore here only the mean wind speed and the turbulence

of the wind speed are considered while studying the fatigue of

the wind turbine blade [5].

3.1 Fatigue

If the loading is of varying nature in terms of mean as well as

the amplitude then there is progressive damage to the

mechanical components which results in much more earlier

failure of component well before its ultimate or yield strength.

Such mode of loading is called fatigue loading and the failure

is termed as fatigue failure. Machine parts can withstand static

stresses of high magnitude but will fail if these stresses

fluctuate. Fatigue limit is used for analysis of machine parts

under fluctuating loads. Fatigue strength is well below the

yield point and the ultimate strength of metal. The lower the

magnitude of the load cycle, the greater will be the number of

cycles that the material can withstand.

3.2 Causes of Fatigue in Wind Turbines

Cyclic loadings produce progressive damage [7] that can

ultimately results in Wind Turbine structural failure. Wind

turbines are subject to fluctuating wind and hence fluctuating

forces are acting on the blades. Components, which are subject

to repeated bending, such as rotor blades, may eventually

develop cracks, which ultimately may make the component,

break. Thus Wind Turbine is a Fatigue critical machine.

Components, which are subject to repeated bending, such as

rotor blades, may eventually develop cracks, which ultimately

may make the component, break. A historical example is the

huge German Growian machine (100 m rotor diameter), which

had to be taken out of service after less than three weeks of

operation.

3.3 Sources of Wind Turbine Fatigue Loads:

The actual loads that, contribute to fatigue of a wind turbine

originate from a variety of sources. These include steady loads

from high winds, periodic loads from rotations and gravity,

fatigue loads from variations in wind speed, transient loads

from such events as gusts, starts and stops etc; and the

resonance induced loads from vibrations of the structure. As

the wind turbine blade is rotating in vertical plane, the steady

and periodic fatigue loads are acting on the wind turbine blade

due to gravity effect. The fatigue load is the function of the

azimuth angle (). The exercise is carried out for finding out

the gravity effect on the stress amplitude of the wind turbine

blade. The stress amplitude is very less around 0.324mpa with

respect to the mean stress value of 141.025mpa. Thus the

effect of the gravity on the fatigue life of the blade is very

negligible. As the wind speed is varying from time to time, the

loads acting on the wind turbine blade are also varying and

ultimately the stresses acting on the wind turbine blade are

also changing, this lead to the fatigue of the wind turbine

blade. The stresses developed in the wind turbine blade are

minimum when the wind speed is cut-in wind speed, while the

stresses developed in the wind turbine blade are maximum

when the wind speed is cut-out wind speed. So for safer

design purpose, the maximum stress amplitude is considered.

3.4 Fatigue Life Calculator

The stresses acting on the wind turbine blade are obtained

from the Finite Element Analysis software (ANSYS). The

maximum stress is obtained when the blade is rotating at cut-

out wind speed while the minimum stress is obtained when the

turbine is rotating at the cut-in wind speed. These obtained

stresses are used to calculate the stress amplitude (a). The

stress based fatigue analysis criteria is used for determining

the fatigue life of the wind turbine blade. The fatigue life of

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 03 | May-2014 | NCRIET-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 845

the wind turbine blade is obtained by using the Morrows

equation. Morrow suggested that the monotonic yield and

ultimate strength are not appropriate for describing the fatigue

behavior of a material. Morrow suggested that the stress

amplitude plus mean stress could never exceed the fatigue

strength coefficient Sf. The fatigue strength coefficient is the

fatigue strength of the material at one reversal. The b is the

slop of the line joining the endurance strength on amplitude

axis to fatigue strength coefficient on the mean stress axis. The

value of b varies from -0.04 to -0.15 for metals [3].

'

( ) (2 )

b

a f m f

N

3.5 Mechanical Power Extracted from wt Blade

As the basic criteria of the optimization in this project work is

that there should not be the compromise between the fatigue

life of the wind turbine blade and the power extracted from the

wind turbine blade, the power factor plays important role in

the constraint of optimization program. The power obtained

from the wind turbine blade is due to the torque developed

along the blade. The elemental torque produced due to the

normal forces is given by The total power extracted from the

wind turbine blade from length zero to the length of blade is

given by the integration of the above equation

2

0 0

(1/ 2). . .( ) [ sin cos ]( . . )

R R

rel

P dP B U Cl Cd c r dr

3.6 Dynamic Analysis of the Wind Turbine Blade

Dynamic analysis of the wind turbine deals with the study of

the gyroscopic effect on the wind turbine blade and the modal

analysis of the wind turbine blade. Other than static and

fatigue analysis, the study has been done on the dynamic

analysis of the wt blade. In the dynamic analysis, the

gyroscopic force is considered along with the fatigue forces.

When the turbine turns to face the wind, the rotating blades

acts like a gyroscope. As it is pivot, gyroscopic precession

tries to twist the turbine into a forward or backward

somersault. This places a limit on how fast the rotor may be

pivoted about a vertical axis. . This yaw rate is limited by the

strength of materials; therefore, the blades, shafts, and

bearings must be designed with this requirement in mind.

When the rotor is spinning, on the other hand, as this same

pivoting is started from eastwest to northsouth, the bearings

of the vertical axis have to exert a strong torque about the

northsouth direction. This torque must be transmitted through

the horizontal axle and its bearings, the blades, and also by the

roots of the blades near the hub to the main mass of the blades.

This cyclic twisting can quickly fatigue and crack the blade

roots, hub and axel of the wind turbine. For this and other

reasons, all those members must be strong. It is helpful to have

the blades made of a light yet sturdy material. The lighter the

gyroscope spinning at a certain speed, the easier it is to pivot

it. The detail study of the gyroscopic effect is out of the scope

of this project work. Dynamic analysis deals with the study of

the natural frequency of the material and to take the corrective

actions to avoid to matching of this natural frequency with the

frequency of the excitation forces. This is because as these two

frequencies match, the material vibrates with large amplitude

resulting in catastrophic failure of the material.

The excitation force come from the wind speed, change in the

wind speed and wind direction, gravitational force as well as

gyroscopic force. The natural frequency of the blade is kept as

low as possible. The twisting of the blade tip affects the free

vibration of the blade in such a way to decrease Eigen values.

This means that twisting decreases the probability of reaching

the resonant frequency.

3.7 Environmental Factors Affecting the Blade Life

Dust circulation in open fields such as those found in the

project area comes from airflow over loose dust particles on

open ground. Wind turbines extract energy from the wind

through the aerodynamics of the blades. The rotors would be

located between 65 feet to 115 feet (under the lower end

scenario) above ground level and ground level airflow

disturbance would be negligible. Furthermore, the wind speed

downwind of the rotor is slower than wind speed upwind of

the rotor, meaning that dust circulation in the area would

possibly even decrease. Hence it is assumed that the wind is

clean and clear in this project work. In case of gust or

disturbed air flow, the wind turbine blade faces the impact of

dust particles, results in damage of the blade surface. This

would ultimately results in decrease in fatigue life of the blade

and decrease in power extracted from the wind turbine. But,

Todays wind turbine blades have sufficient surface strength

to withstand the effect of dust particles. The moisture content

in the environment reacts with the metal and corrodes metal,

resulting in decrease in the strength of material. The aluminum

is a good corrosion resistant material. The large wind turbine

blades are made up of composite material. The stresses

developed in the composite materials due to moisture and the

temperature, are very negligible. Hence the effect of the

moisture in the wind does not affect on the fatigue life of the

wind turbine blade. Studying these environmental parameters,

the standard properties of the clean wind are considered in this

project work.

4. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The finite element method is used for calculating the structural

analysis, modal analysis, thermal analysis of the engineering

component. ANSYS is a Finite Element Tool (software),

which is used in this project to calculate the stresses. The wind

turbine blade is considered as a cantilever. As the thickness of

the wind turbine blade is very less than the length and the

cross section of the blade the plane stress condition is

assumed. For that, the shell-63 which is a 4-noded element is

used. The centrifugal forces, the gravity force, the

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 03 | May-2014 | NCRIET-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 846

aerodynamic normal force and tangential forces are applied to

the blade. The displacement of all the nodes at the root of the

blade is fixed. The total number of nodes generated is 8686,

while the total number of elements generated is 8600.The

structural error is 5.4875% while up to 15% structural error is

allowable for better results. The equivalent stresses are

considered for design considerations as the material used for

the blade is Aluminum. The material properties are Modulus

of elasticity is 71000 N/mm & Poissons ratio is 0.33. The

element used for meshing of the FE model is SHELL 63. It is

the 4-noded 2-D element. The finite element model is

parametrically defined in terms of the chord length (C), the

length of the blade (L) and the twist angle (). The loading of

the aerodynamic loads are also applied to the model

parametrically depending upon the chord length (C), the

length of blade (L), the twist angle (), and the wind velocity

(V). As the material is ductile material, the equivalent stress is

considered for design purpose. In my project work, the

stresses obtained from the Beam Element Method (BEM

theory) theory are applied to the Finite Element model instead

of the pressure coefficient method. The geometrical model is

examined for the same wind speed of 50m/s. The number of

nodes generated 8686. The number of the elements generated

8600. The structural error generated 5.4875%.

Fig-2: Compressive stress pattern on upper surface of wind

turbine

Fig-3: Tensile stress pattern on lower surface of wind turbine

5. FATIGUE LIFE OPTIMIZATION OF WIND

TURBINE BLADE.

Maximize the fatigue life (N) of the wind turbine blade which

is under the fatigue stresses due to change in wind speed.

Create a model of wind turbine blade such that the fatigue life

of the wind turbine blade is optimum without affecting the

power (P) extracted from the wind turbine plant. Before we

precede for fatigue life optimization of the wind turbine blade

by varying the three parameters simultaneously, the effect of

individual parameter on the fatigue life of the wind turbine

blade is studied

5.1 Effect of Variation of Chord Length on Fatigue

Life of Wind Turbine Blade:

The length of blade is 8000 mm, the twist angle is 15 , Blade

material: aluminum, Cut-in wind speed is 5 m/s, Cut-out wind

speed is 25 m/s

chord length variation

3.00E+06

4.00E+06

5.00E+06

6.00E+06

7.00E+06

8.00E+06

9.00E+06

1.00E+07

1400 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 1470 1480 1490 1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560

chord length (mm)

f

a

t

i

g

u

e

l

i

f

e

(

i

n

c

y

c

l

e

s

)

twist angle = 15

length of blade = 8000 mm

Fig-4: Graph of chord length variation

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 03 | May-2014 | NCRIET-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 847

The fatigue life increases with increase in chord length

parabolic ally. There is a second order relationship between

the fatigue life and the chord length.

5.2 Effect of Variation of Blade Length on Fatigue

Life of Wind Turbine Blade:

The chord length is 1400 mm, the twist angle is 15, Blade

material is aluminum, Cut-in wind speed is 5 m/s, Cut-out

wind speed is 25 m/s

blade length variation

3.50E+06

4.00E+06

4.50E+06

5.00E+06

7900 7910 7920 7930 7940 7950 7960 7970 7980 7990 8000 8010 8020

blade length(mm)

f

a

t

i

g

u

e

l

i

f

e

(

i

n

c

y

c

l

e

s

)

chord length : 1400 mm

twist angle : 15

Fig-5: Graph of blade length variation

The fatigue life of blade is inversely proportional to the blade

length. There is a linear relationship between the fatigue life of

the blade and the blade length.

5.3 Effect of Variation of Twist Angle on Fatigue Life

of Wind Turbine Blade

The chord length is 1400 mm, the blade length is 8000 mm,

Blade material is aluminum, Cut-in wind speed is 5 m/s, Cut-

out wind speed is 25 m/s

twist angle variation

6.2000

9.2000

12.2000

15.2000

18.2000

21.2000

24.2000

2.3000 2.4000 2.5000 2.6000 2.7000 2.8000 2.9000 3.0000 3.1000 3.2000

log ( twist angle)

l

o

g

(

f

a

t

i

g

u

e

l

i

f

e

)

chord length : 1400 mm

blade length : 8000 mm

Fig-6: Graph of twist angle variation

The graph of log (twist angle) verses log (fatigue life) gives a

straight line indicates that the fatigue life varies exponentially

with the twist angle. The twist angle plays an important role in

design of fatigue life as well as the power extracted from the

wind. There is an optimum value of twist angle at which both

the fatigue life and the power extracted satisfies the design.

5.4 Effect of Variation in RPM on the Fatigue Life of

the Wind Turbine Blade

The rotation of the wind turbine blade generates the

centrifugal forces which act racially outward. The axial

stresses are developed due to this force. The effect of change

in the RPM of the wind turbine blade on fatigue life of the

blade is studied.

fatigue life variation

3.79E+06

3.79E+06

3.79E+06

3.79E+06

3.80E+06

3.80E+06

3.80E+06

3.80E+06

3.80E+06

3.81E+06

3.81E+06

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

RPMof blade

f

a

t

i

g

u

e

l

i

f

e

(

i

n

c

y

c

l

e

s

)

fatigue life

Poly. (fatigue life)

length of blade :8000 mm

chord length :1400 mm

twist angle : 15

Fig-7: Graph of RPM variation

The graph shows the fatigue life decreases with increase in the

RPM of the blade parabolic ally.

5.5 Results and Discussion

The twist angle is an important parameter which governs the

fatigue life of the blade as well as the power extracted from

the wind turbine. The fatigue life increases with increase in

chord length linearly while the fatigue life decreases with

increase in the blade length parabolic ally. The effect of

change in RPM of blade on fatigue life is negligible. The

fatigue life decreases from 3.81e6 to 3.79e6 with wide change

(from 55 RPM to 5 RPM) in RPM of blade.

5.6 Optimization of Fatigue Life of Wind Turbine

Blade

The main constraint of this optimization is the power output

obtained from the modified blade dimensions should not be

less than the specified power output P*. The ANSYS software

is used for calculating the stresses on the blade while fatigue

life calculator is used for calculating the fatigue life of the

blade. The Gradient based (steepest ascent) optimization

program is used for redesigning the parameters of the blade

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 03 | May-2014 | NCRIET-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 848

such that the fatigue life of the blade goes to maximum [10].

The initial dimensions of the blade are The blade length

(L):8000mm,The chord length (C):1500mm,The twist angle

():12 The wind properties are Cut-in wind velocity: 5 m/s,

Cut-out wind velocity: 25m/s, Rated wind velocity: 22m/s,

Density of clean air: 1.2 kg/m3 , RPM of the wind turbine

blade: 45 rpm. The batch program is run up to 19 iterations.

The fatigue life is maximized from 3.21472*105 cycles to

4.0458436* 10 7 cycles. The variations of the blade length

(L); chord length (C); and the twist angle () are plotted on

the following graphs. The fatigue life and power extracted

variation are also plotted on the graph. As the Gradient based

optimization has a drawback of finding out local optimum, the

initial values of the parameters must be defined with lot of

care. So, the basic design or the rough design is necessary

before going for the optimum design of any component. The

local maxima obtained by this Gradient method is not

necessary be the global maxima. The solution obtained from

this method is maximum or minimum within the local domain

near the initial guess values.

Table -1: Optimization iterations

Iteratio

ns

C (mm) L(mm)

Theta(i

n

degree)

Fatigue

life(cyc

les)

Power(

kw)

1 1500 8000 12

321472

.2188

996.51

7151

2

1500.1

05713

7999.9

62402

12.415

361

667450

.1875

993.71

5149

3

1500.2

73682

7999.8

78418

12.812

836

125302

1.75

989.54

6387

4

1500.6

74072

7999.7

34863

13.191

434

227225

9.5

984.59

7778

5

1501.3

94043

7999.4

77539

13.548

1

390909

0.75

979.31

2012

6

1502.6

2146

7999.0

37598

13.878

074

637492

8.5

974.15

3442

7

1504.6

04492

7998.3

26172

14.174

754

983353

8

969.60

3577

8

1507.5

90698

7997.2

35352

14.430

28

142660

20

966.12

5732

9

1511.8

76099

7995.6

63086

14.637

288

194126

50

964.17

2058

10

1517.5

49683

7993.5

3125

14.791

011

247024

68

963.98

1689

11

1524.7

35962

7990.8

36914

14.891

914

295272

82

965.69

22

12

1533.2

23022

7987.6

26465

14.945

732

334200

16

969.09

7961

13

1542.8

11523

7984.0

10742

14.962

053

362708

56

973.91

1987

14

1553.1

49414

7980.0

8252

14.951

068

381866

60

979.71

9788

15 1563.9 7975.9 14.921 393182 986.15

24438 4043 722 12 3381

16

1574.9

74854

7971.6

89941

14.881

458

399812

84

992.97

2229

17

1586.0

56152

7967.3

58887

14.834

703

402808

00

999.92

9077

18

1597.2

46582

7963.1

53809

14.784

91

404228

00

1007.0

47852

*19

1608.4

01978

7958.9

30176

14.733

573

404584

36

1014.1

67236

20

1619.4

91577

7954.7

00195

14.681

711

404414

60

1021.2

4762

21

1630.4

06372

7950.4

55078

14.629

831

403440

80

1028.2

06299

*The iteration no. 19 gives the optimum value of fatigue

cycles.

FATIGUE LIFE MAXIMIZATION

2.00E+04

5.02E+06

1.00E+07

1.50E+07

2.00E+07

2.50E+07

3.00E+07

3.50E+07

4.00E+07

4.50E+07

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

no. of iterations

f

a

t

i g

u

e

l i f

e

(

i n

c

y

c

l e

s

)

initial values are

chord length of blade (c) :1500mm

length of blade (L):8000mm

twist angle () :12

Fig-8: Graph of fatigue life variation

CHORD LENGTH VARIATION

1480

1500

1520

1540

1560

1580

1600

1620

1640

1660

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

no. of iterations

c

h

o

r

d

l e

n

g

t

h

(

m

m

)

initial values are

chord length of blade (c) :1500mm

length of blade (L):8000mm

twist angle () :12

Fig-9: Graph of chord length variation 1

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 03 | May-2014 | NCRIET-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 849

TWIST ANGLE VARIATION

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

no. of iterations

t w

i s

t a

n

g

l e

(

i n

d

e

g

r

e

e

s

)

initial values are

chord length of blade (c) :1500mm

length of blade (L):8000mm

twist angle () :12

Fig-10: Graph of twist angle variation1

BLADE LENGTH VARIATION

7940

7950

7960

7970

7980

7990

8000

8010

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

no. of iterations

l e

n

g

t h

o

f b

l a

d

e

(

m

m

)

initial values are

chord length of blade (c) :1500mm

length of blade (L):8000mm

twist angle () :12

Fig-11: Graph of blade length variation1

Fig-12: Graph of power output variation 1

6. CONCLUSIONS

The 4-noded SHELL 63 element proved to be a successful

finite element in the analysis of the three-dimensional

structures, as it takes into accounts six degrees of freedom at

each element node. For the blade configurations, the

maximum stress occurs at the blade root, fixed to the rotor

hub, so it is the most critical section which must be taken into

consideration when designing a rotor-blade fixation. The

effect of self weight on the fatigue life of the blade is very less

as compared to the effect of change in wind speed on the

fatigue life of the blade. The stresses are seemed to be static

than fatigue. Figure no 4 shows variation of fatigue life of

wind turbine blade due to exclusive change in chord length of

the blade. The fatigue life increases with increase in the chord

length of the blade. There is a second order relationship

between the fatigue life of the blade and the chord length of

the blade. Figure no 5 depicts the effect of change in fatigue

due to exclusive change in the blade length. The fatigue life of

the blade is inversely proportional to the blade length. There is

an exponential relationship between the fatigue life of the

blade and the twist angle of the blade. This is shown in figure

no 6. Figure no.10 shows the variation of twist angle, first

increases from 12 to 14.7335 then decreases to 14.6298.

Thus there is an optimum value of the twist angle at which the

stresses are minimum which gives the maximum fatigue life.

For this particular case, the fatigue life increases from

3.21472e5 to 4.0458436e7 with 7.2% increases in chord

length, 0.51% decrease in length of the blade and 22.75%

increase in twist angle. The figure no. 7 shows the variation of

the fatigue life of wind turbine blade due to exclusive

variation of the RPM of the wind turbine blade. The graph

shows that the increase in RPM of the blade from 5 rpm to 55

rpm results in decrease in fatigue life of the blade from 3.81e6

fatigue cycles to 3.79e6 fatigue cycles. Thus there is very

negligible effect of the change in RPM of the rotation of the

blade on the fatigue life of the wind turbine blade. As the

Gradient Optimization Technique gives the local optimum

solution, the rough design of WT blade is necessary for initial

guess of the governing parameters such as initial values of

chord length (C), length of blade (L) and the twist angle ().

REFERENCES

[1]. H.J.Sutherland Inflow and the Fatigue of the LIST

Wind Turbine ASME/AIAA Journal of WIND

ENERGY 2002. AIAA-2002-0065

[2]. M.D.Pandey and H.J.Sutherland Probabilistic

Analysis Of List Data For The Estimation Of Extreme

Design Loads For Wind Turbine Components AIAA

Journal 2003-0866

[3]. Mehrdad Zoroufi and Ali Fatemi Fatigue Life

Comparisons Of Competing Manufacturing Processes:

A Study Of Steering Knuckle The University of

Toledo, 2003 SAE International.

POWER VARIATION

960

970

980

990

1000

1010

1020

1030

1040

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

no. of iterations

Initial values

Chord length of blade (c):1500mm

Length of blade (L):8000mm

Twist angle ():12

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 03 | May-2014 | NCRIET-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 850

[4]. J. Locke and U. Valencia Design Studies For Twisted

Coupled Wind Turbine Blades, National Institute for

Aviation Research ,Wichita, Kansas, Printed June 2004

[5]. L.D. Nelson H.J. Sutherland Statistical Analysis Of

Inflow And Structural Response Data From The List

Program, Sandia National Laboratories, Texas, AIAA-

2003-0867

[6]. N.M. El.Chazly Static And Dynamic Analysis Of

Wind Turbine Blades Using The Finite Element

Method, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National

Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt (March 1992)

[7]. P.S.Veers and S.R. Winterstein Application Of

Measured Loads To Wind Turbine Fatigue And

Reliability Analysis ASME Wind Energy Symposium

with AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nevada,

Jan 6-9 1997

[8]. I.H. Abbott and A.E. von Doenhoff, Theory of Wing

Section, Dover, New York (1959)

[9]. Spera D.A. Wind turbine Technology: the

fundamental concepts of Wind Turbine Engineering,

ASME Press, New York,1994

[10]. S.S.Rao Engineering Optimization: Theory and

practice III edition New Age International (P) ltd,

publishers.

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