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Commission of the European Communities

physical s c i e n c e s
ADVANCED STEAM TURBINE POWER
PLANT TECHNOLOGIES
AND THE MATERIALS IMPLICATIONS
Commission of the European Communities
physical s c i e n c e s
ADVANCED STEAM TURBINE POWER
PLANT TECHNOLOGIES
AND THE MATERIALS IMPLICATIONS
P.R. Sahm, E. Fiender
Foundry-Institute
Aachen Institute of Technology
DG XII JRC, Petten Establishment
Directorate-General
Science, Research and Development
1985 EUR 10040 EN
Publ i s h e d by th e
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Di reet o ra te -G e n e ra I
In forma ti on Ma rke t a n d In n ova ti on
Bti me n t Je a n Mon n e t
LUXEMBOURG
LEGAL NOTICE
N either the Commission of the European Communities nor any person
acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might
be made of the following information
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1985
ISBN 92-825-5549-6 Catalogue number:
ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels Luxembourg, 1985
Printed in the Netherlands
CONTENTS
SUMMARY
1. DEFINITIONS ANS SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.1 SUBJECT OVERVIEW
1.2 OUTLINE OF SCOPE
2. STATE OF THE ART TRENDS
2.1 THE POWER CONVERSION SYSTEMS
2.2 PLANTS AND EFFICIENCIES
2.3 NATIONAL EFFORTS
2.4 MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES
3. FUTURE R&D
3.1 ECONOMY OF STEAM POWER PLANT
3.2 TURBINE DESIGN AND ENGINEERING
3.3 MATERIALS AND COMPONENT MANUFACTURE TECHNOLOGIES
3.4 TECHNOLOGY MIX (R & D IN MATERIALS PROCESSING)
4. CONCLUSIONS
5. REFERENCES
PREFACE
The Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities, Petten Establishment,
is executing a High Temperature Materials Programme. It provides a scietific service to European
industry, being concerned with materials information, data handling and direct research projects
for relevant areas in energy and industry, including power generation and utilisation, which
require materials for long term service in high temperature aggressive environments. The
programme, through its Information Centre project promotes, coordinates and conducts studies
to evaluate materials behaviour in critical areas of industrial processes.
During the past half century, European power producing industries have made a large investment
in materials research to improve the efficiency and reliability of steam turbine plant. However
many problems remain which will be intensified by the continuing drive towards these twin
objectives. The present study was therfore commissioned as part of a data gathering exercise for
the planned further review of the technological requirements for high temperature materials
R&D. Its aim was to evaluate the potential for improving the effiency of steam power plant by
operating with higher steam inlet temperatures, to assess the associated technical problems and
to identify R&D requirements. Specific objectives were to:
- examine the current status of knowledge on the thermodynamic and engineering concepts for
a high effiency steam turbine to operate at 700C or higher, probably with supercritical steam
at ca. 30 MPa,
- assess the incentive for an Advanced Steam Turbine, for instance in respect of the cost
benefits which would arise from the succesful use of these conditions,
- identify the problem areas where critical material R&D is needed to enable the target
conditions to be used reliably and safety for a design life of 250 000 h.
The HTM programme acknowledges the scientific input made by the authors and wishes to take
this opportunity to express its grateful thanks to them for the conscientious and industrious
manner in which they tackled the study and responded positively to the objectives.
M. Van de Voorde
Programme Manager
J.B. Marriott
Technical Coordinator for the study
Commission of the European Communities
Joint Research Centre
Petten Establishment
CEC Contract No. 320046
This report was prepared by Prof. P.R. Sahm and Mr. E. Fiender, R.W.T.H., Aachen, Germany,
under contract to the Commission of the European Communities (Joint Research Centre, Petten).
Copyright remains exclusively with the Commission of the European Communities.
No extracts from this report may be reproduced without the prior written consent of the Director
of the Petten Establishment of the Commission of the European Communities.
The source must be Acknowledged.
SUMMARY
Assuming the background of a relatively conventional scenario of
steadily rising energy costs and increasing environmental constraints
steam turbine cycles employing primary and reheat temperatures in the range of
750 to 800C at pressures of 500 to 600 bar appear to be reasonable to thrive
for as thermal efficiency gains of at least 5% may be realized. In terms of
feasible cost increases of plant both with respect to invested per kWh and
tolerance limits for R & D money expendable over a period of about 10 years,
R & D towards this goal seems interesting.
Befor: starting out on a conscious effort in "materials and technologies for
post-next-step steam power plant" (the "next step" is currently well underway
on a national effort basis at least in two economic world regions: USA and
J apan) , another 3 year period of more detailed preparatory studies seems appro-
piate.
The "next.step-steam-power-plant", underway within US and Japanese national
efforts, does not lean on substantial technological breakthrough (except possibly
for the steam raising process in J apan) . It thrives for temperature and pressure
ranges about 560C and 240 bar, but not more than 650C and 350 bar) that have
been utilized for a number of years in smaller, industrial type power plants.
While the problems here may be characterized by
transfer of experiences with medium size units (50 to 150 MW)
to large units (800 to 1300 MW)
the problems of "post-next-step-steam-power-plants" are
entering fully a class of materials, i.e. austenitic steels, with
which little or no large scale experience has been collected so far.
Simultaneously, this may mean entering looking for new materials technologies
or switching from one to another class of materials processing or, in effect,
taking on new processing sequences ("technology mix") not heretofore practiced.
The advent of CAD-CAM makes computer simulation and modelling an important
partner of this R & D effort.
1. DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Consumer preference for electricity as a clean, versatile energy source has
been clearly demonstrated in recent years, and increased electrification of
industry is inevitable. Electricity has unequalled ability to speed automa-
tion and increase productivity, and new microprocessor technology will increase
that ability further. The competitiveness of industry will thus depend in
some measure on the price of electric power. Whilst a number of ways of
raising steam are available, e.g. by burning coal or oil, by the fissioning
of uranium in reactors cooled by water or COp the steam turbine/generator
remains the most widely used vehicle for turning heat into electricity.
Efficient steam turbines are therefore a cornerstone of prosperous economies.
1.1 SUBJECT OVERVIEW
Figure 1.1 a indicates the importance of the steam turbine in terms of conver-
ting the world's energy resources into electricity. It illustrates its unique
significance for both the entire earth's and the individual nations' economies.
Because coal appears to be particularly suitable as a fossil fuel source for
the steam plant energy conversion process, Western Europe as one of the world's
four coal rich regions, figure 1.1 b , must be concerned with more efficient
future technologies.
In simplest terms, figures 1.2 a to 1.2 d present the water steam cycle of a
steam turbine power plant including an overall view of the entire process with
auxiliaries in figure 1.2 d. The theoretical basis for this energy conversion
process was laid down by Carnot in 1824. It yields a theoretical efficiency which,
in practice, can only be asymptotically approached due to various losses along
the technical process loop and the non-useable heat content of the liquid. Fi-
gures 1.3 a to 1.3 c illustrate these loops and simultaneously indicate the
essential terminology utilized in the description of the technical process.
Figure 1.4 expands on the definition of the Carnot efficiency.
... quoted from COST statement, 1981
Distribution of coal resources
Western
Europe
Middle East
/ 8
NDrth Atnco
Japan
SouthAfncaf
production consumption
^ ^
Energy production and consumption
U. Renz 1982
2:
5i 100

BC
6 G
0
20).
O water
O coal
O lignite
+ mi neral oil
gas
nuclear
V y

0
; >


* * $

$ ^
$
o o
o o o o o o
o o o o O
i i a Q a Q o o o o Q o o Q Q n o o o a n O n n o o o p ) ! ;
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 J' >
o
* .
C
B c
E*
a m
Ha
/
1950 1954 1958 1962
year
1966 1970 1974
c
'
3
Th. Bhm et al. 1977
100
so
20
10 -
st-nm turbine
gas turbine
hydroelectric
11%
13%
all other
_l
1 %
1960 1965 1970
year
1975 1980
USA electric power generation
installed capacity
W G . Steltz 1980
Figure 1.1: In terms of
energy conversion pro-
cesses the steam turbine
power plant is based
mostly on coal combustion
( a ) ; for countries having
to import most of the ener-
gy resources ( b) high
efficiency processes are
particularly relevant; for
countries well equipped with
coal resources high effi-
ciencies are mandatory due
to cost comparison with other
energy conversion forms.
generator
S tedin rai s ing uni t
(SIW)
(a)
Schroeder
1962
y/7777 V///' 777? electrostatic '//// '
J
'/////
coal yard pul veri zers preci pi t at or i . d. fans SO2 absorbers
stack
>)//// R.I. Jaffee
1979
Figure 1.2: The principle of a steam turbine electricity generating plant
stems from the ability of superheated water vapor to perform work. The steam
cycle, illustrated in (a) and (b) requires a series of engineering designs and
materials (c) that have to cope with extreme mechanical stresses and environ-
mental attack (e.g. corrosion) while being exposed to elevated temperatures,
but also, in turn, burdening the environment (atmosphere and water) with non-
natural emanations like NO and SO, see also figure 1.2 d.
Figure 1.2 d: T he flow chart of the lignite steam power plant at Miederau en of RWE illustrates complex ities
of interconnections.
8
condensate
pump
5.000 1.250
. 5 ..ooo
c

Q)
-

r>
cr

-3. 000

Q.
1/1
"
C
ZJ

.
- 2. 000

=3
1/1
1/1
CX
1.000
=51.000
:
c

-
-C

11
&


)
CD

1

CU
-J
a
a

E
Q'
-*-
750
500
250
reheater
1 el ectri c
Lrtfi generator
i
boiler feed
pump
1
I
low
pressure condenser
turbi ne
1.000
W. Hossli 1969
Figure 1.3 a: Steam temperature, pressure and volume are the critical factors
in the design of a steam power plant. The curves show how these three factors
vary throughout a typical system. Pressure is highest at the exit of the feed-
water pump leading to the boiler. At the entrance to the-high-pressure turbine
the pressure has dropped somewhat to around 2,400 lbs/in in this example. There-
after it falls rapidly as it passes through the turbine cascade. The steam
temperature is raised to 1,000 F in the superheater and again in the reheater,
finally plunging to about 80 F as it leaves the low pressure-turbine. The spe-
cific volume of the steam varies over the greatest range and is therefore plot-
ted on a logarithmic scale. At eh inlet to the high-pressure turbine one pound
of steam occupies about 0.3 cubic foot. When the steam leaves the turbine cas-
cade, it occupies about 300 cubic feet.
Iff g? g
O 1 3 L 5 6 7
s . kJ/ kg K
q.j heat into economizer
q2 heat into vaporizer
q3 latent heatot evaporation
into vaporizer
q, superheat into superheater
(b)
3 L 5 6 7
s. kJ/kg K
q
T
usable energy
q non usable heat content
of liquid
Figure 1.3 b and c: T he steam turbine cycle delivers energy by an efficiency which
is determined by that amount of heat which is being cycled above ambient tempera-
ture T
a
( b ) . T he sk etch in ( c) indicates the various heat inputs and outputs along
the cycle.
10

\
\ \
0
QT

* = constant
\V\
"12 = VX} ,

^ \V3

\

^ \ " ^ J i = const.
\
S
O \ q 3 4 = 0 ^
/ J V .. _ Ju = const.
qjl at Tu = const\
T)th,
g l
q
nl
l^ i i l

1 2 compress, adiabatically (q
12
= 0) from p, to p
2
temperature rises from T
TT
to T
T
2 ^ 3 expand, isothermally (Tj = const) from p~ to p
3
;
heat qjis added
3 ^ 4 expand, adiabatically (q
34
= 0) from p
3
to p.
temperature decreases from T, to Try
4 compress, isothermally (TJ T = const) from p, to p,
heat qrj is extracted
1.4: The pV diagram illustrates the theoretical Carnot effi
to be arrived at from comparing heat input and output by
ng through a cycle of pressure and volume changes (Carnot
Figure
ciency
fol lowi
cycle).
The history of steam plant electricity through its approximately 80 years of
existence, figures 1.5 a and b, reflects a relatively steady rise in tempera
tures and pressures of the working fluid. It is particularly noteworthy that
much of the progress made with respect to rising efficicencies was closely
linked to improved materials and their technologies. Figure 1.6 exemplifies
the development of alloyed steels for turbine parts, in particular blades,
rotors, and casings.
11
K
During t hi s period European power producing i ndustri es have made a large i n-
vestment i n materials research to improve the ef f i ci ency and r el i abi l i t y of
steam turbi ne pl ant . However, many problems remain. Some of these are associated
wi t h the steady growth i n uni t size of turbines which, f or example, leads to
requirements f or l arger forgings and castings wi th associated problems of
qual i t y and properti es. Furthermore, the use of high output uni ts leads t o
very high costs of outages (pl ant shut-down) which resul ts from unplanned re-
pairs when component f ai l ur e occurs. For the same reason there i s pressure
from the u t i l i t i e s to increase times between scheduled maintenance periods.
The need to minimise losses due to outages has led to increased ef f or t s t o
improve component r el i abi l i t y and thereby to reduce di rect operating costs.
Other problems ari se as a consequence of the changing circumstances i n which
the el ect r i ci t y generating i ndustri es i n many i ndust ri al i sed countries now
operate. For example, el derl y pl ant or i gi nal l y designed f or base-load operation
has frequentl y to be used f or peak-lopping wi th rapid st art -up and shut-down
which can be hi ghl y damaging to cr i t i cal components. The l i f et i me of pl ant
working i n t hi s way cannot readi l y be estimated. Al so, benefi ts i n increased
ef f i ci ency resul t i ng from higher operating temperatures, par t i cul ar l y i n the
smaller i ndust r i al t urbi nes, place new demands on t r adi t i onal materials and
provide the i ncenti ve f or the development of improved al l oys*
Besides such a strai ghtforward house-keeping act i vi t i es ( r el i abi l i t y , remnant
l i f e , maintai nance) f ut ure R&D has to center on improving today's technical
status both on the level of the
simple evolutionary scale ( i . e. improvements made on l ocal and small scale)
and, i f at al l possi bl e, even more so on the
more-than-evolutionary scal e, i . e. preparing f or the next generation(s)
of steam turbi ne el ect r i ci t y production.

* quoted from COST 505-statement, 1981
12

% C bar
r
300
rcast
iron
250 h
600
550
40I500
30
20r
3 5 0
101300
h i gh l y al l oyed steels
p
pioneer pl ant s '
average"pTats

'y.
thermal ef f i ci ency
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
year
^adopt ed and extrapol ated from data by K. Sch roeder 1962 and K.J. Irvi ne 1975
Figure 1.5 a: Since steam turbines came i nt o use around 1900 a rapid development
of higher power and ef f i ci ency uni ts took place. When 1300 MW uni ts were i nt r o
duced ef f i ci ency was less emphasized f or the sake of keeping components under
bearable operating condi t i ons, i ncl udi ng the low temperature steam nuclear
power pl ant s.
13
IM
cx
U 3
t.
.

C
L. -
. e
tu c
<-
<>
3 5
01 C
Ol o
'a:
WO ]SX
mo mo ;;:

\ ^ 1 au s ten i tes
= l ow a l l o y ^ s ^
j creep
ow al l oy s t e e l ^ ^ s i s u n ^
chemical softening
chemical prepuri fi cati on xj ei oni sat i on
and evaporation
v
^
V
N
V
radi ant t ype ?^
\
b O l e r
t
f lo w b o i le r
f
,, . v ve r t i c a l t u b e
full s i z e \ b o i le r s
b o i le r
s
piston steam engine

^

number of turbine cyl i nder: one . , ,


t w0 t 0
three

t hree t o four
i.
Ol u kW/m
5
mo mo
s o o t
: : : : .
__ hard coal.
brown
__ coal
hard coal , high _ oi l ,
_ash content __Z
ga s ,
1910
m
y..
nx
'.: ,.;
: .
. Sc hr o e de r 1962
Fi gu r e 1.5 b : The de ve lo pme nt of steam t u r b i ne po w e r plant resulted i n an
i nterplay of va r i o u s e le me nt s such as s ys t e ms , c o ns t r u c t i o n, ma t e r i a l, feed
w a t e r qu a li t y and steam rai si ng u ni t s .
14
heat resistant steel high temperature
resistant steels
I
C

o
o
o
o
o
400 500 600 700
temperature, C
1.CoCr20Ni20W
2: X40CoCrN2120
3:GX8CrNiNb1613
800
(NI
E
E
eh
_*
a
D
".
O
-
.

ai
(_


_c






50
40
30
20
10
^^
O "
^ ^ ~ -
. ^ +
^
o
rj i
u
>. O
D
C
3
^-
>
o
. i . rvi
^ t _
M
550C
K. Roesch and K.Zimmermann 1966
Fi gure 1.6: An i nt er est i ng example of th e sequent i al improvement of low
al l oy st eel s' creep r upt ur e beh avi or f or el evat ed temperature use i n
steam t ur bi nes has been gi ven by K. Roesch and K. Zimmermann. Higher
temperatures r equi r e h i gh er al l oyed st eel s.
bearings
r ot or s AEG Publ i cat i on 1963
Fi gur e 1.7 a: T h i s "opened machine" view present s t h e main t ur bi ne components
of concern i n t h i s st udy.
15
It a p p e a r s a s if, p r e s e n t l y , b o t h t h e p o l it ic a l a n d e c o n o m ic s c e n a r io s h a v e
s e t t h e s t a g e fo r a n e x t m o r e - t h a n - e v o l u t io n a r y s t e p ( s e e s e c t io n 2 . 1) .
1.2 OUTLINE OF SCOPE
In the l i ght of the aforesai d, an overal l obj ecti ve f or f ut ure R&D should be
to improve the ef f i ci ency and r el i abi l i t y of steam turbines by better knowledge
of materials behavior i n conditions relevant f or servi ce. The speci f i c technical
objectives should then be:
- to improve the ef f i ci ency by better or new desiqns \ ,

3
future
of turbi ne components \
\ o r ie n t e d
- to e n s u r e t h a t m a t e r ia l s w it h a de q u a t e p e r fo r m a n c e { . . ^.
\ o b je c t iv e s !
a r e a v a il a b l e to m e e t n e w de m a n ds J
- t o p r o v ide an im p r o v e d b a s is fo r t h e e s t im a t io n o f r e m a in in g \ h o u s e
l ife in c o n s e r v a t iv e l y de s ig n e d t u r b in e e q u ip m e n t * > k e e p in g
' o b je c t iv e s
In p a r t ic u l a r , t h e fu t u r e o r ie n t e d o b je c t iv e s de m a n d t h a t t h e s t u dy is a im e d t o -
w a r ds e v a l u a t in g t h e p o t e n t ia l fo r im p r o v in g t h e e ffic ie n c y o f s t e a m p o w e r p l a n t
by o p e r a t in g a t h ig h e r s t e a m in l e t t e m p e r a t u r e s a n d p r e s s u r e s a n d t o w a r ds a s s e s -
s in g t h e a s s o c ia t e d t e c h n ic a l p r o b l e m s fo r t h e s a k e o f ide n t ify in g R & D r e q u ir e -
m e n t s . S p e c ific o b je c t iv e s a r e t o :
- e x a m in e t h e c u r r e n t s t a t u s o f k n o w l e dg e o n t h e t h e r m o dy n a m ic a n d
e n g in e e r in g c o n c e p t s fo r a h ig h e ffic ie n c y s t e a m t u r b in e t o o p e r a t e
a t > 6 50 C w it h s u p e r c r it ic a l s t e a m a t ^ 2 4 MPa ,
- a s s e s s t h e in c e n t iv e fo r a n " a dv a n c e d s t e a m t u r b in e " , fo r in s t a n c e
w it h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o s t b e n e fit s ,
- ide n t ify t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s w h e r e c r it ic a l m a t e r ia l t e c h n o l o g y R & D
is n e e de d t o e n a b l e t h e t a r g e t c o n dit io n s t o b e u s e d r e l ia b l y a n d
s a fe l y fo r a de s ig n l ife o f > 2 50 0 0 0 h .
T h e s t u dy is c o n c e r n e d w it h all im p o r t a n t a r e a s c o n n e c t e d w it h t h e t u r b in e c o m -
p o n e n t s in t h e s t e a m p a t h , fig u r e 1.7 a . T h e s e in c l u de m a in p ip in g a n d v a l v e s ,
c y l in de r c a s in g s a n d r o t o r s , m o v in g a n d s t a t ic b l a de s , s e a l s . T h e c o n de n s o r ,
a da p t e d fr o m C O S T 50 5- s t a t e m e n t , 1981
16
feed heaters and the like have been excluded from detailed consideration, as
has the generator. The steam raising unit (SRU) may be a conventional pul-
verised fuel boiler (PFB) , a fluidised bed combustor (FBC) , or an integral
coal gasifier (ICG ) , figure 1.7 c. In all cases coal derived fuels are used.
The study will also refer to the combined gas/steam cycle, where it appears
to be relevant to the steam inlet conditions given for the "advanced stage".
The SRU itself, figure 1.7 b, is not being considered, although attention will
be paid to superheater areas, both on the fire side and the steam side.
2. ST AT E OF T HE ART T RE NDS
The present state of development in steam turbine power conversion systems is
rather diversified depending on the local (national, political, economic etc.)
scenario. The fundamentals of the steam power-electricity cycle have been pre-
sented in chapter 1.1. Here, a short comparison of different national scenes
will be given in order to gain a "3-dimensional" viewpoint. Before this, however,
a more generalised look at the various power conversion systems, in the final
consequence all relying on the steam turbine process, appears to be in order.
2.1 THE POWER CONVERSION SYSTEMS
Taking into account that for high overall efficiencies, see figure 1.3, the
absolute temperature difference must be as high as possible, numerous non-
conventional schemes have been proposed. Figure 2.1 indicates the wide varia-
bility of efficiency-to-cost interactions. A detailed evaluation of the data
of figure 2.1 is claimed to suggest the following systems worthy of further
R & D-pursuit (L.H.Th. Rietjens 1982) :
- combined gas turbine - steam turbine cycle,
- magnetohydrodynamic steam cycle,
- liquid metal Rankine cycle,
- high temperature fuel cells.
Presently these processes show relatively high costs - due to the early stage of
their development. Costs are likely to be lowered with progressive stages of R & D.
Further cycles worthy of consideration are the
- high temperature reactor (see figure 2.2)
17
RWE p u b l i c at i on 1967
1 ec onom i z er
y ev ap orat or
3 J II
4 HP s u p erheat er
5 wall s u p erheat er II
6 wall s u p erheat er III
7 b u l k head
8 final s u p erheat er
9
10J
reheat er
I
II
11 L j u ng s t r m air p reheat er
F i g u re 1.7 b : T hi s cut t hrou g h a p res ent s t at e of the art p u l v eri s ed fuel
" onc e- t hrou g h- b oi l er" ( system Su l z e r ) i nd i c at es m ai n c om p one nt s . T he p i p i ng
of c onc ern in this s t u d y has b een s p ec i fi c al l y narked by .
18
C o nve nt i o na l
St e a m R a i s i ng
U ni t ( SR U )
Flu i di z e d Bed
C o mb u s t i o n SRU
for Atmospheric
Pressure
Flu i di z e d Bed
C o mb u s t i o n SRU
f o r 16 b a r
Figure 1.7 c: The t ot al size of
the steam rai si ng uni t decreases
subst ant i al l y wi th more modern
processes of coal energi zati on.
Therefore, improvements i n the
process are h i gh l y desi rabl e.
The example presupposes a 660
MW uni t .
K.H. Krieb and W. Ratzeburg 1978
50m
90
80
70
60
50
40 7i
- ^ N Supercritical CO, V \ / h / s .
\ (LBTU integrated
S
V f S\ \
30
2 0
Lowtemperat ure
fuel cells (HBTU fuel)
I ^^LMMHD/ st eam
r* (coal fired)
I
I
I
I
^v ^Supercritical CO,
I \ (coal AFB)
I \
I . CCMHD steam
7 (coal firedl

--' 7\
\ i v
' I CCMHD/steam
SRC luel
LMR steam (coal fired (AFBI)
I
\ !
\
j \ (Lb integrated
* gasifierl \ f . I
V / High-temperature \ '
"* fuel cells
1
(LBTU) V
CGT (HBTU fuel) N I J.
N. ,- \ ^
' 7~i
"GT (coal fired (AFB)) ( , \
Low t emperat ure, ""^^/ " / *1
A V
CCMHD/steam
v ' (coal fired)
\
\
V. OCMHO/steam
l_ / . (coal and SRC fuel)
./ ;
fuel cells
(hydrogen fuel) I
\
V
Pressurized
s \ combustor
LMR/steam (coal fired (PEB))
^CGT/organic
f ^^l coal lired(AFB))
N \ > ' / f ^ l c o a l lired(AFBI)
\ \ ) * 1 _ ~ / / Advanced steam (coal fired)

' _ If ' V - - . ' I t rr


(HBTU fuell / >
/
OGT/organic
T'
I
I
10
Combined cycle
(clean fuels)
LMR/5Ieam (coal (PFB) and
LBTU integrated gasifier
350Opsl/1O00F/10OO'
Steam system (conven-
tional furnace)

Combined cycle
(LBTU integrated
gasifier)
10 20 30 40
Overall energy efficiency
(a) General Electric results.
50 60
241 bar
537C
Figure 2. 1: A summary
of resul t s obtained from
ECAS- study shows a large
vari et y of power conver-
sion systems to be consi -
dered when designing f u-
t ure scenarios.
L. H. Th. Rietjens 1982
19
and, of course, the
- high temperature conventional boiler steam turbine,
obj ect of this study. In most of these cases the very high temperature steam
can be procured. Due to the different steam raising methods involved, the ma-
terials technology problems also require different approaches. Although in this
study only the conventional, coal-based techniques are being considered, the
other possibilities must be k ept in mind for future assessments. Schematic over-
views of these steam turbine cycles be they already utilized or still in deve-
lopment have been put together in figure 2 .2 . T o the greatest ex tent the systems
considered in figure 2.1 rely on steam turbines to convert the heat into elec-
trical energy, thus emphasizing once more the central significance of the steam
turbine.
E x amining figure 2 .1, it has been pointed out that the various scenarios are
quite different in their approach, particularly with respect to which k ind of
energy sources are to be harnassed. T hu s , for ex ample, the rather technical
question, whether the future will include the use of higher temperatures or
not, will also depend to some ex tent on the political scenario, particularly
where democratic processes of opinion formation are involved. Figures 2.3 a to c
present a possible sequence of arguments concerning this point. In this connec-
tion special mention must be made of modern day constraints being introduced by
environmental considerations, figure 2.3 c. T he removal of SO^ waste g as , for
ex ample, being evolved when burning coal in the steam raising unit, has had a
decisive impact on the increase in energy cost - over and above the oil crisis.
2.2 PLANTS AND EFFICIENCIES
besides questions such as : " which large, overall direction will have to be tak en
in the future" , detailed differences within the more conventional approach may
already yield sizeable efficiency gains. Referring back to figure 1.2 there are
several areas within the entire plant cycle which appear worthy of further opti-
mization. T he two most promising items are the steam raising unit and the steam
turbine. L ik ely SRU systems to be considered are presently
- conventional pulverized fuel combustion,
- Integrated gasification combined cycle ( ICG CC) ,
- pressurized fluidized bed combined cycle ( P F B CC) .
20
PRESSURIZED I
COAL GASFICATION I COUPLING
PLANT LINK
ga s i fi e r s te a m
I ga s i fi e r a i r
>r a i r I ?
mr

r i Mt t
I
COMBINED
CYCLE PLANT
20 ba r 320C
c oa l
combined cycle plant
a i r th rottl e
va l vt
s te a m
turbi n e
condensor
K.H. Krieb et al 1979
nuclear reactor
steam power plant
exhaust
waste . nuclear
heat | | material
teed
heater
electrical sfr
energy
tJr
waste
heal
G. Di be l i us 1974
MHD
seed, generator
cyclic
heat-
exchangers
compressor
c l os e d c y c l e
seed
MHD
generator
compressor steam
generator
op e n c y c l e
MHD-s te a m p owe r p l a n t s L.H.Th. Ri etjens
1982
Figure 2.2: While the "combined cycle" (gas and steam turbine) is presently
already being used (smaller units) , both the high temperature reactor and
the MHD systems are yet under development.
21
l'Mll
Enl wie It lung.
Konstruktion


1
1981
S
Material
beschaffung Fertigung
Mort ige
Inbetriebnahme
Eriahrungs
ruchtauf
198?
D=^0^^>
1983

1964
0
"WS
I


*
I
1
! 1
1986 1987
5
1988


Blau I.andtj^allien Rot: Bufklr<M|;\wjMrn
>
1989
(a)

Einwellen-
Sattdampfturbosatz 1300 MW
Uran (Weltvorrate 15600Mrd t SKE bei Nutzung durch Bruter)
nC
B Einvvellen
Z wischenuberhitz ungs
Damp fturbosatz 800 MW
Vergasung
' ' T \-\\ I M . ^ m Gasturbosatz 2 200 MW
pnHCUl
Kohle ( W eltvorr te 550Mr d t SKE)
I f IJJ
II \ . n II \ . I mit Gasturbosatz 2x200MW
g - -,
Erdgas (Weltvorrate 9 0 Mr d t SKE)
Gas- und Dampt -
( GUD- ) Proze
mi t Ga s turbos a t
Da mp ttui bos a tz 2O0MW
Ga s - un d Da mp l -
( GUD- ) Proze
mi t Ga s turbos a t
Da mp fturbos a tz 200 MW
rfW-l -n
rOJ
x r ~r r
TS0"
Erdl (We l tvorra te 1 40Mrd t SKE)
Kombi n i e rte r Proz e
mi t Ga s turbos a tz 1 00 MW
Zwi s c n e n ube rh ttz un gs -
Da mp fturbos a tz 700 MW
Figures 2.3 a to c:
T he diagram in ( a)
above illustrates,
how, for ex ample, in
Germany a new techni-
cal concept of energy
conversion, from the
inception to finali-
zation, may tak e as
long as two election
periods - indicating
possible political
difficulties for its
realization; due to
the various possible
choices of energy
sources ( uranium, c oal ,
gas, oil) there is,
figure 2.3 ( b ) , un-
fortunately, no clear-
cut singular optimal
concept for energy
conversion, and there-
fore it remains, to a
certain ex tent, open
to opinionated decisions;
(b)
22
PULVERIZED COAL
COMBUSTION WITHOUT
DESULFERIZATION
PULVERIZED COAL
COMBUSTION WITH
DESULFERIZATION 90%
PRESSURIZED COAL
G ASIFICATION; NO
DESULFERIZATION
COAL CONVERSION
BY "GUD" PROCESS
COAL GASIFICATION
WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE
REACTOR
188.6! Schwefeldioxid
53t Schwefeldioxid
19.4t Schwefeldioxid 191 Schwefeldioxid
,r
1000 MW
r
1000 MW
fe *.
372,2t Gips : CaSO^
Kohle-
vergasungs-
anlage
92t Schwefel : S
I Kohle-
I I vergasungs-
\ 7 anlge
621 Schwefel : S
E HTR If
1000 MW
84t Schweleil :. S I
(c)
Figure 2.3 a to c, continued: the l at t er poi nt becomes par t i cul ar l y relevant when
discussing ef f ect s of waste products on the environment: f i gur e 2.3 ( c) ; adopted
from W. T ral , 1980.
best nuclear units
best f ossi l uni t s
source: FPC/N RC
I I
1940 1950 1960
year
1970 1980
W.G. Steltz 1980
Figure 2. 4: Heat rate
trends i n US-American
steam power pl ant have
l evel l ed out at around
8000 BTU/kWhr f or the
best f ossi l uni t s. For
f urt her improvement
considerable steam tem-
perature and pressure
increases would be
requi red.
23
T hey represent essential efforts in their own right and are not subj ect of this
study. T he steam turbine appears to be the other most rewarding area of endea-
vors, i.e. improving the steam turbine efficiency through raising steam tempera-
tures and pressures. T he trend of improving heat rate, figure 2 .4 , could thus
obtain another j ump downwards.
Of considerable importance in the power industry is the price of electrical
energy supplied to the consumer. In the USA the price per k Wh has steadily
decreased over the forty year period from 193 0 to 1970, figure 2 .5, both in
current dollars and relative dollars considering 1972 as a base. T his trend
dramatically changed in the early 1970's as fuel prices and inflation rates
escalated. Thermal efficiency has progressively assumed greater importance
both to the consumer and to the utilities. P enalty clauses dependent on
achieved heat rates versus contractual values are commonplace, dollar value
penalties of % 50,000 to % 100,000 can be imposed on the manufacturer for
every Btu/ k Wh if his equipment is proven deficient. T he utility also places
enormous value on vendors' quoted heat rates, evaluating them at rates of up
to % 2 50,000 per Btu/ k Wh on new equipment. T he message is clear, thermal
efficiency is of paramount importance in the design of steam turbines and
related equipment. Statistical and potential values are given in figure 2 .6.
The rate of improvement of turbine cycle thermal efficiency is obviously
decreasing - increases in blading efficiency, reduction of ducting losses,
etc., are becoming more and more difficult to achieve. P ower plant and
machinery designers are work ing hard to achieve small improvements - con-
sidering the worth of energy. What then are our options leading to thermal
performance improvements and the management of our energy and financial
resources? Are ex otic processes the answer - MHD, solar power, the breeder
reactor, fusion? - Or perhaps the use of alternate fluid sub-posed cycles,
combined gas and steam turbine cycles, or even increases in steam conditions
of steam power plants, see figures2 .1 and 2 .2 . Significant changes will be
required in the future and the trade-off parameters will be the energy source
and cost.
2.3 NATIONAL EFFORTS
In the following a look at several national efforts may help to gain better in-
sight into the present state of " future think ing" .
quoted from W . G . Steltz 1980
24
()
10
8
6
If
* 3
CL
2
i b)
pr oj ect ed
h i stori cal
00 r
300
200
construction period
i nterest
environmental
protection
current dol l ars
I I I
source: EEI/BLS
J Li
1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
year
W.G. Steltz 1980
const ruct i on
ti me
45years
KTrenkler 1978
Figure 2.5: The constantly dropping price of electricity in the US has picked
up since the oil crisis 1973 and requires more attention on efficiency of the
energy conversion process (a). Costs for everything, in particular, investment,
environmental protection, and mortgages for :the duration of construction have
risen dramatically (b).
(a) (b)
unit si ze trends
steam plant additions
C
3
average si ze
of addi ti ons
1950 1960 1970 1980
year
W.G. Steltz 1980
(c)
18000r
1 16000
* 14000
e 12000
_ 10000
8000
,2.5 MW
net heat rate
tf =520C
t =520C
without reheat
wi th reheat
10 20 50 100 200 300 500
inlet pressure, bar
Krieb and W. Ratzeburg 1978
55 60 65 70 75
year
H. Trenkler1978
Figure 2.6: While the maxi
mal unit size has reached
1300 MW the average size
adjusts to between 600 and
800 MW units (a). Actual
heat rates are located
around 2350 kcal/kWh
(^9200 btu/kWh ^9700
kJ/kWh) the layout heat
rates being about 10%
lower (b). For present
day parameters (520C,
300 bar) the optimally
economic heat rate is
not much better than
9500 kJ/kWh (c).
25
USA I A recent study conducted by EP RI on " Improving T hermal E fficiency of Con-
ventional Steam E lectric P ower P lants" nay serve to set the scenery for further
enquiries ( see D.V. Giovanni and A. F . Armor 1 9 8 1 ) .
T he " best average" plant, referred to as BASE plant, characterizes the present
(" best average" ) status in the USA, figure 2.7 a. T he studies were set up to
ex amine the case for better efficiency with pulverised fuel fired boilers which
would then be an evolutionary improvement rather than the stepwise change needed
with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, i.e. gas and steam ( IGCC) and
P ressurized Fluidized Bed Combined Cycle ( P F B CC) .
It is said that most conventional steam plants with coal-fired drum boilers have
a net thermal efficiency of 3 3 -3 4 % . T hose in the 3 00-800 MW range have an inlet
steam temperature of 53 bC ( with reheating of the steam to this temperature be-
tween high pressure ( HP ) and intermediate pressure ( IP ) u ni t s ) . T he next stage
of the study presents the preferred high efficiency design that is commercially
available today. It uses proven materials at a performance level that is well
established by field ex perience. Statistics are presented to show that contrary
to general opinion, ex perience over the past ten years with " once-through" -
supercritical boilers shows that they are as reliable as the drum boilers of the
more conventional plant related to above.
T he operating conditions of this " base plant" are 24 MP a pressure, 53 8 C inlet
steam temperature with 2 reheats to 5b0C and 56C. T he net thermal efficiency
is 3 7. T hese improvements in the " base plants relate to better design, control,
inspection etc. ano more confident material selection" , figure 2.7 a.
An ADVANCE D P L ANT is then proposed, figure 2.7 b. It does not presuppose " tech-
nological break -throughs" .
T he two studies have different approathes. T he higher efficiency of the Westing-
house design does not seem to be directly due to materials. It appears that they
have a more serious materials problem in the very high pressure turbine than
General E lectric. T hey allow for this " to concentrate any metallurgical and me-
chanical problems due to higher temperatures at the HP end where components sizes
are smaller" . It is said that " the technology is limited by the metallurgical
properties of critical components" . T he concepts require previously unproven mate-
rials, material applications at larger component sizes than previously tried, mo-
dified designs of components.
26
BASE Pl ant General Sp e c i f i c a t i o n s
Gross Ra t i n g , MW
A u x i l i a r y Power, MW
NET RATING, MW
A u x i l i a r y Power, % of Gross
T ur bi ne Heat Rat e, Btu/kWh
NET HEAT RATE, Btu/kWh
NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY, %
T h r o t t l e Pr essur e, psi g (MPa)
T h r o t t l e T emper at ur e, F (C)
T h r o t t l e Fl ow, Ml b/ hr
1st Reh eat T emper at ur e, F ( C)
2nd Reh eat T emper at ur e, F (C)
Fi nal Feedwat er T emper at ur e, F (C)
Number Feedwat er Heat er s ( i n c l . deae at or )
Condenser Backpr essur e, i n . Hg
T ur bi ne l a s t st age l e n g t h , i n . (cm)
Gener at or E f f i c i e n c y ,
B o i l e r T h ermal E f f i c i e n c y , %
Excess Combust i on Ai r , %
A i r Pr eh eat er E x i t Gas Temp, F (C)
FGD Ex i t Gas T emper at ur e, F (C)
St ack Gas T emper at ur e, F C O
General E l e c t r i c , Westi ngh ouse,
BSW Team C Team
725
53
672
7. 3
765S
9350
3 6 , 5
35oo (2 1)
1 o o o ( 5 3 8 )
4. 7
1025 ( 552 )
1050 ( 566)
553 (2 90 )
9
1. 5
33. 5 (85)
98. 7
89. 5
17
300 (149)
120 (49)
170 (75)
742
4S
697
6. 1
7530
9190
37,1
35oo (2 4)
l o o o ( 5 3 8 )
4. 5
1025 ( 552 )
1050 ( 566)
550 (2 88)
8
2 . 5
31 (79)
98. 65
88. 5
22
290 (143)
120 (49)
170 (76)
T h ermodynami c cycl es f or th e BASE pl ant s
1050 F
r r
1025 F from
. bot e
3500_p3i
1000 F
1st RH
2ndRH
Westi ngh ouse base pl ant
boiler
1025 F 1050 F
taa
'TO?
GE base pl ant
Figure 2.7 a: Base
plant speci f i cat i ons
i ndi cate present
steam turbi ne con
di t i ons as seen by
two main US turbine
manufacturers.
27
Advanced Pl ant General Sp eci f i cat i ons
General El e c t r i c , W esti nghouse,
B4W Team C Team
Gross Rat i ng, MW
Auxi l f ary Power, KW
NET RATING, MW
Auxi l i ar y Power, i of Gross
Turbine Heat Rate, BtuAWh
NET HEAT RAIE. Btu/kWh
NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY, i
Tnr ot t l e Pressure, p sig (MPa)
Thr ot t l e Temp erature, *F C O
Thr ot t l e Fl ow, Ml b/ hr
1st Reheat Temp erature, *F C O
2nd Reheat Temp erature, *F C O
Fi nal Feedwater Temp erature, *F C O
Nu'noer Feedwater Heaters ( i n c l . deaerat or)
Condenser Backp ressure, i n. Hg.
Turbi ne Last Stage Length, i n. (cm)
Generator Ef f i ci ency, 1
Boi l er Thermal Ef f i ci ency,
Excess Combustion Ai r ,
Ai r Preheater Exi t Gas Temp, *F C O
FGO I nl e t Gas Temp erature. *F C O
FGO Exi t Gas Temp erature, *F C O
Stack Gas Tenp erat ure, ' F C O
725
824
'.
674
1.0
7300
8875
38,5
4500 ( i n
1050 (566)
4.4
1075 (579)
1100 (513)
580
9
1.5
33.5 (85)
98.7
89.5
300 (149)
235 (113)
120 (49)
170 (76)
51
73
5.2
7180
8330
41
4 5 0 0
( 3 1 )
1100 (593)
5.1
1050 (566)
1050 (566)
604
9
2.5
31 (79)
99.1
89.3
15
270 (132)
220 (104)
120 (49)
170 (76)
Thermodynamic cycle schematic for the ADVANCED plants
1050 F
60F
Westinghouse advanced plant
IQ5F ! 100 F
BFP
GE advanced plant
Fi gu r e 2.7 b : Ad
va nc e d pla nt s pe c i
f i c a t i o ns i ndi c a t e
a next po s s i b le
de ve lo pme nt a l step
as s e e n by two ma i n
U S t u r b i ne oanufac
t u r e r s .
28
It is claimed that, * under various scenarios, present worth lifetime savings
from $ 58,000,000 to over $ 145,000,000 are achievable, depending on the eco-
nomic scenario and the type of utility (public or investor) owned. The most
probable econimic scenarios, in which fuel inflation exceeds general inflation
by 1 to 2%, show 1ifetime .savings ranging from $ 70,000,000 to $ 100,000,000.
Thus, the savings for the first such plant would offset the development cost by
approximately five times . Figure 2.8 sums up the technical and economic con-
clusions of this study.
EUR] The present status in Europe has not been summarized in a way comparable
to the EPRI-sponsored study. The European status is mul ti level led according to
the multiplicity of national scenes. Despite the resulting divergent national
attitudes an attempt has been made here to generalize the European situation.
An approximate present state of the art may be sensed from data compiled in
figure 2.9. On the one hand, nuclear power has, despite the large sizes involved,
called for a rather conventional design (due to low steam temperatures available),
on the other, remarkable steps into the higher temperature regimes have been taken
with the small industrial type steam turbines, figure 2.9. The latter permits the
extrapolation of possible "advanced type" power system;
According to experiences gained with small units, figure 2.9, it may be rather
safely extrapolated that a temperature range of 550C and pressures up to 350 bar
may be built today. Designs for these machines are available since tbe 1950's
(H. Haas et al. 1982). In central Europe the small high - or p-niachines, figure
2.10, were mostly used as topping turbines by the chemical industry. ' Such units
typically in the range 10-60 MW, are also being employed to drive equipment such
as compressors, ships and the like. Here, there is an interest to move to higher
temperatures, motivated by efficiency and saving of space and for capital costs.
A typical advanced unit could be 20 MW with turbine stop valve (TSV) at 750 C
and 104 bar, giving ca. 50% turbine cycle efficiency. In coal fired ship propul-
sion this would equal the efficiency of diesels with cheaper fuels .
The philosophy of "centralizing" technological data in a way indicated below,
see at SU, is pursued by individual companies of the industrialized western
countries in that they all have introduced or are introducing "the piecing
together" of plants with the help of standardized modules, similar to what
will be shown below for the SU as a whole.

adapted from D.V. Giovanni and A.F. Armor 1981
** ...** adapted from J.B. Mariotte 1981: GEC statements
29
C O NC LUS I O NS
1. There Is no stati sti cal difference between the avai l abi l i t i es of operating
supercritical and subcHtlcal pressure power plants. High avai l abi l i t y and
high thermal efficiency are not mutually exclusive.
2. The optimal, commercial ly available coal -fi red steam-electric plant is
characterized by steam conditions of 3500 psig, 1000*F/102S*F/10SO*F (24 MPA,
538 / 552 / 56. The typical heat rate for this 3ASE plant Is 9250 BtuAWh
( I . e . , 37J thermal efficiency) Including FGO, a wet cooling tower, and other
cormion environmental controls.
3. An approximate IOS reduction 1n heat rate ( i . e . , heat rates below 8500 Btu/kWh
and over 401 thermal efficiency) 1s technically feasible and economically
worthwhile. The ADVANCED plant 1s similar to the BASE plant and is
characterized by steam conditions of 4500 psig (31 MPa) and temperatures to
1100'F (59 3' C). In addition, heat rate reductions are achieved by the
ut i l i zat i on of waste heat within the plant, Improved component effi ci enci es,
and optimized system design. The optimum size plant is approximately 750 MW.
4. The ADVANCED plant is cost effective rel ati ve to the BASE plant, and much more
beneficial when compared to the subcritical plants commonly being purchased
today. For the economic premises used In the EPRI studies, the overall
l i feti me savings for the ADVANCED design were typically $100,000,000 for one
uni t.
5, An evolutionary-type research and development program to realize the economic
benefits of the ADVANCED plant would cost approximately $25,000,000 and
require approximately 5 to 7 years. No technological "breakthroughs" are
required.
6. The operational versat i l i t y .of the ADVANCED plant is comparable to that of
fossil plants in operation today in terms of turndown capabi l i ty, permissible
rates of load change, startup procedures and times, and load shedding
capabi l i ty.
7. The BASE and ADVANCED plants retain their high thermal efficiency at reduced
loads and are rel ati vel y insensitive to variations in ambient temperature. In
contrast, the performance of combi ned-cycle type power generation options
characteristically varies to a larger degree with ambient conditions.
8. The BASE and ADVANCED plants are economically and technically competitive with
other power generation options when equipped with environmental controls for
S0
2
, particulate matter, N0
X
, thermal discharge, solid waste disposal, and
l i qui d effluent discharges.
9 . The ADVANCED plant Is comparable 1n terms of thermal efficiency with IGCC and
PFB. I t has a unique advantage weetngarveaototionaryImprovement".
10. The development of ADVANCED p lant technology 1s warranted at this t i e.
Fi gu r e 2.8: C o nc lu s i o ns of the
EPR Is t u dy a r e t ha t , w i t h a r e
lati vely low R & D capi tal i n
ve s t me nt , a la r ge e f f e c t ma y be
a c hi e ve d i n e f f i c i e nc y i mpr o ve
ment at li ttle techni cal r i s k.
EPR I
. I U t h l W * Irr lCll%l t> t . ^ >
Siw tacine fun ruw
D** V. fiiff>ft*i
*0 F, Uv
C t e me fcM feu; U m u t i
. *. . ;
U U " t H I C O w l * t S f A B C H N S i T U T t
- - L M I I ;-?;
30
No.
1
2
I
4
S
I
7
t
9
10
11
12
13
14
IS
16
17
I t
IB
20
21
22
23
24
25
2
27
26
2S
30
Fin
Oper
ation
1951
1955
1956
1956
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1956
1959
1959
1959
1960
1960
I960
1962
1963
1963
1964
1964
1965
1966
1966
1966
1967
1967
Unit
Bayer Leverkusen 42
Bayer Leverkusen 43
Chemische Werke Huele
Fuldmuehio Reisholz
Feldmuehle Arnsberg
BASF Ludwigshaien 1
BASF Ludwigshafen 42
Power Plant Neuhof 44
Power Plant Herren
hausen 46
Power Plant Bremen
Haien 1
Power Plant Bremen
Haien 42
Bayer Leverkusen 45
Bayer Dormagen 44
Power Plant Hartingen 43
Power Plant Hartingen 4
Forges de la Providence
Bayer Uerdingen 41
Erdoelchemie 41
PoWer Plant Tocopilla
Bayer Leverkusen 47
Bayer Uerdingen 42
Erdoelchemie 43
Erdoelchemie 5
Bayer Dormagen 45
Bayer Flittard 41
Bayer Flittard 43
Power Plant Schelle 42
Power Plant Schelle 43
Erdoelchemie 47
Bayer Uerdingen 43
Main/
Reheat
Steam
Temp.
F/ T
1112/
1184
1112/
1112/
1112/
1112/
1112/
1112/968
1040/977
1040/968
1040/968
1164/
1184/
1112/977
1112/977
1040/
977/
1022/
1058/1004
1184/
917/
1036/
10367
1112/
1036/
1036/
1022/1040
1022/1040
1036/
977/
Maln
S leem
Press.
psig
2120
2100
4230
2100
2100
2190
2320
2540
2540
2540
2540
2100
2100
3330
3330
1420
4160
2810
1740
2100
4160
2810
2810
2120
2810
2810
2540
2540
2610
4160
Rating
kW
11OO0
14000
17000
11000
7000
29000
29000
B10O0
51000
84000
64000
14000
21000
107000
107000
10000
9000
18000
50000
14000
9000
17000
17000
21000
17000
17000
125000
125000
33000
15000
(a)
Year
Commissioned
1947
1950
1955
1957
1959
1962
*1966
1966
1973
Steam Condi
Unit Size I ni t i al
MW Pressure
psi
30 600
60 900
100 1500
120 1500
200 2350
300 2350
375 3500
500 2350
660 2350
t i ons
Temp.
454
483
565
538
565
565
593
565
565
Reheat
Temp.
C

538
538
565
565
565
565
* Su pe r c r i t i c a l Bo i le r
POWER PLANT DEVELOPMENT IN U K SINC E 1947, C OU R TESY C EGB
INDUSTRIAL
H. Haas et al 1982
(b)
Variante
Frischdampf"
Druck bai
Temperatur C
1. ZwischeriUburhiizer"
Druck bai
emp i'iatur
U
C.
2. ZwtschenUberhitzer"
Duick bai
Temperatur C
spez. Warmeverbr. (Rechg.)
(Jahresmittel wert)
Differenz bzw. Veibesserung W
Brennsloffeinsparung %
Vorwrmtemperatur normal 260C
bei Variante 287
U
C
3a. 4a 280C
kcal/kW h
0
186
635
43.6
535
2153
2266

1
245
565
69
568


2080
2190
7 6
3,35
Alle Da
2
3 0 0
5 2 5
95
5 3 5
24
5 6 5
2074
2183
83
3.65
3
3 0 0
570
95
5 4 5
24
5 4 5
2052
2163
103
4.52
mpfdaten beziehen sich
3 B
2047
2154
112
4.93
4
300
610
114
570
27.5
570
2022
2128
138
6,08
auf Einlrittszustand vor
A.
Schnei
4n
26
570
20T2
2119
147
6,47
Turbine.
der
Figure 2.9: I ndust ri al turbines and power pl ant t urbi nes, when compared i n t h ei r
r at i ngs, give an approximate pi ct ure of present day steam turbi ne technology:
advanced f or the f i r s t , conservative f or the l at t er ( a) . Extrapol ati ng from the
f i r s t t o use wi th the l at t er i ndi cates possible heat rate improvements and fuel
savings (b).
31
^
(a)
+.J
H. Haas et al 1982
(b)
\ I . W V H . M M I l ' I R H O H . no hei n* Imiti l* Hr. n, .t.. . . . , i h. iKe Meas, trae* ^ . e t i i i a l l * i nro, h tartu ne ' d'
H .s* < t i . I l l be i W l i r i f l nit in operation heti il i* deli red t lerenl . i t e* lor ateei OM I dt f errai k* h < *>ee | * arfceana fc larari.
lik T VA i 1*71. I l .Ir, f i r . l * . t.. aapoan umi. . T W tinS*rt i l l ran on 4 aeJajrfd h* Sant i ni ( f.*11 (atei.
W. Hossli 1969
Fi gu r e 2.10: The small i ndustri al type steam t u r b i ne uni t (a) ma y de li ve r
essenti al kno w ho w by w hi c h next ge ne r a t i o ns of large power plant steam
t u r b i ne s , such as i llustrated i n ( b ) , ma y be de s i gne d, possi bly a c c o r di ng
to c o nc e pt s i ndi cated by the EPR Is t u dy (see a b o ve )
32
JAP Japan, one of the outstanding energy consuming countries in the world, is
also confronted with the necessity of saving energy. To meet this challenge,
developments are underway towands an ultra high performance fossil fuel plant,
both coal gasification combined cycle power and "ultra supercritical" PFB plants,
The Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. (EPDC) is to undertake R & D in utili
zing coal for power generation in Japan. Having started 1981 technologies on
"ultra super critical steam condition" (U.S.C.) are to be developed. It is
aimed at performance improvement and efficiency increase by advanced steam
conditions in conventional coal fired power generation systems.
It is being expected that the U.S.C, technology will be commercialized in the
near future with an equivalent performance capability in coal gasification
combined cycle plant. In addition, adoption of lower consumption equipment
and high performance air preheater as well as others, will result in even
higher efficiency coal fired thermal power stations.
Figure 2.11 compiles data for both typical conventional as well as U.S.C.
type power plant. One may gather that design goals are comparable to the
generally accepted term of "... advanced conventional ..." type steam turbine
power plant.
SU 1 Last not least, a certain lead for the development in the communist block
countries may be obtained from examining the data given in figure 2.12 a and b.
Electrical energy in the SU is based to about 85% on heat power stations. Al
9
together, approximately 150010 kWh are being produced presently. 3 basic types
of systems:
fossil fuel fired condensation turbines for power stations WKW
power stations for heating purposes (back pressure turbine) HKW
nuclear power steam turbines KKW
Specialties of Russian steam turbine development, design, and operation are
summarized as follows
standardization of steam parameters is being attempted; both WKW and HKW
operate only with = 12.8 or 23.5 MPa; rated main and reheat temperatures
are strictly 540 to 565 C;
most WKW and KKW are being driven down to rather low vacua: 34 to 39 mbar.
An "advanced type plant" is said (B.M. Trojanowski 1980) to have been operated
for several years with the ratings 100 MW, 29.4 MPa, = 630 to 650C and
reheat temperatures to 565 C. This may be taken as being symptomatic for the
next developmental step to be taken in the SU.
33
COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL TYPE PLANT AND USC PLANT
C o m p a r i s o n I t
C o n ve n t i o n a l t ype
3.b O O ps l
1.O 0O /1,O SO 'F
U SC t ype
4 .SO O psi
l.iso/i,oo/i,
1. De s i g n C o n d i t i o n
R a t e d o u t p u t
S t e a m c o n d i t i o n (at t u r b i ne i nle t t
M a i n s t e a m p r e s s u r e
M a i n s t e a m t e m p e r a t u r e
R e he a t s t e a m t e m p e r a t u r e
O p e r a t i o n s y s t e m
M i ni m u m o p e r a t i o n p r e s s u r e
Ki nd o f c o a l
Th e r m a l e f f i c i e nc y tat g e ne r a t o r
e n d )
Bo i le r e f f i c i e n c y
Tu r b i n e t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y
2. Bo i le r
typ
Bo i le r e va p o r a t i o n at M C R
M a i n s t e a m p r e s s u r e (at SH
o u t l e t )
S t e a m t e m p e r a t u r e
M a i n s t e a m
Reheat steam
Feed water temperature
Mat uri al of bo i 1
Hu;h temjieratur spct i un
! Hushi ng SH tube
Fini. hiriv; Rll tube
ing SII o ut l e t header
m. , HMovn l. t header
1,000 MW
24 6 k g/c m
SJS'C
ibb'C
C o ns t a nt pr e s s u r e
a i t u m i n u o u s ,
Au s t r a l i a . C h i n e s e .
Am e r i c a n , So u t h
Af r i c a n C o a l s .
4 1.79
89.561
4 6.8 9*
I 1er,
radi ant , si ng l e :
ne
. or. .
3,ISO T/H
S4 3' C
S69C
287. S' C
320 kg /cm
620C
595C/S9SC
Sl i di ng pressure
80 kg/ cm
Blt u mi nu o u s *.
Au s t r a li a , C h i n e s e ,
Am e r i c a n . So u t h
Af r i c a n C o a l s .
4 3.92*
89.46
4 9.34
SU S34 7KTB
MITI SUS347HTB
JIS STFA24
(AST* A'3S P22 Equi v. )
JIS STPA24
iASTM A33S t22 Equi v. )
Monotubt bo i l e r ,
radi ant , do
. ssarf
. on.
2, 800 T/ H
330 kg / cr
625'C
S98/S98*C
316C
Modified ASTM13
7i 347H/ Hodl fl cd 1714CUMC
M ITI S U S 34 7HTB
JI S SU SJ16HTP
( ASTM A312TP 316H )
JI S SU S316HTP
( ASTM A312TP 316H )
1. Tu r b i n e
L e ng t h o f last s t a g e b la d e
N u mb e r o f c a s i ng
Ex ha u s t p r e s s u r e
Tr i ne i p*l pa r t o f M <
qu a li t y
C r o s s c o m p o u nd , 4 f lo w
e x h a u s t , r e g e ne r a t i v,
.t, c o n d e n s
i no
4 t yll
MgVac .
C r o s s c o m p o u nd , 4 f lo w
e x h a u s t , r e g e n e r a t i ve ,
d o u b le r e h e a t , c o n d e n s
i ng
4 4 i r.
.i nder
722 m n H g V a c .
t e e l o r N i C r m o
Au s t e ni t i c s t e e l
Au s t e ni t i c s t e e l
Figure 2 . 11: Japan proposes a short term plan for an ad
vanced type ( i . e . "ul t ra supercri t i cal ") steam power plant;
T. Suzuki 1981
Type and Size
Producer
Year of Producti on of
the f i r s t Aggregate
Nominal and
Maximal Power
Rotati onal Vel oci t y
I n i t i a l Pressure
I n i t i a l Temperature
MW
MW
l l
MPl
c
K.210
130
LMS
1959"
210
215
BO
12.76
540
b
K. 300240
ChTGS
1980"
300
320
50
23.54
540
b. 50
LMS
I 9 6 0 "
300
3 30
50
2 3.64
540
b 585
K500
240
ChTGS
1984"
500
535
50
23.54
540
K 800
240
LMS
1970"
BOO
635
50
23 54
540
K I 2 0 0
240"
LMS
1977
1200
1380
50
23 54
540
K500
130
LMS
1980
500
50
13,75
510
PT
60/ 100
130/ 13
LMS
1973
BO
' 00
50
12.75
555
R100
130/ 15
UTMS
1968
100
107
50
12.75
555
b 565
M I O
/no
no
UTMS
1961"
1 10
120
50
12 75
555
PT135
/ 1B5
130/ 15
UTMS
1973
135
165
50
12.76
555
T175

30
UTMS
1978
175
310
50
12.75
540
b 565
MBO
/ 210-
130
LMS
1979
180
210
50
12.75
540
b 565
T-250
/ 300-
240
UTMS
1971
250
300
50
23.54
TSO"
K-220-
44
ChTGS
19 89 "
225
240
50
4.3 1
TSO
K-500-
65
ChTGS
19 70
500
64!
50
37
TSD
K-500-
50
ChTGS
I S75
500
25
6 i l
TSO
K 750
Bi
ChTGS
19 80
750
50
B 37
TSD
K 1000
80
ChTGS
U l l
1030
2!
6 i l
TSO
K I0OO
80
LMS
I H 1
1000
BO
i.ia
b ! 7
TSD
Intermediate Super-
heat Pressure
Intermediate Super-
heat Temperature
Pressure in the
Adjustable Tapping
Heat Rate
Feedwater Temprature
Final Pressure
Number of Steam Paths
in LPStages
Typed Process Control
Length of Last
Stage Blades
MP 2.3 3.B
C 640 640
b 686 b 665

GJ/ h
C 240 266
fi 3.46 3.43
2" 3
DGB" OGR
mm 765 1060
640 640
b 586
285 270
3 4 3 3.63
274
3 4 3
3 4 6
OGR DGR OGR
274
3 58
6
0
1
230
5
4
DU
1.3
b 0.2 5
419
240
1200 960
OGR
665
234
1470
b
0. 245
770
2 3!
2
DGR
b 2.06 bit
und bil 0.3
0. 245
2090 1170
1 2
DGR DGR
bi l
0 2
1090
250
5
2
DGR
756
840
540
b 565
bi l
02
1360
253
6.0
2
DGR
0.33 034 l i t OBI 1.19 0 1 7
243 383 260 2B3 350 250
b 2 80
226 166 225 190 222 200
b 220
3 53 3 92 6 18 4 41 3 93 ' u l l
4
DR
B 2
on DR
B
O.
4 I
0 1 DB
862u 862 1450 1030 1450 1200
1030
Legend:
TSD
DGR
DR
LMS
modernised t urbi ne
wi t h Baumann stage
i i i onorotati onal
= satuated dry steam
= steam entrance valve cont rol
= t h r ot t l e cont r ol
= Leningrad Metal Works
ChTGS = Charkow Turbi ne Works
UTMS = Ural Turbi ne Machinery Metal Works
The f ol l owi ng desi gnati ons are common i n the SU:
Let t er s desi gnate type of t ur bi ne:
K: condensation t ur bi ne, R: back pressure t ur bi ne, T: heat
tappi ng t ur bi ne, P: i ndust r i al steam tappi ng t ur bi ne
Fi r s t d i g i t : nominal power i n MW ( f or tappi ng t ur bi nes:
numerator = nominal power, denominator = peak power f or
operat i on i n condensing mold) second d i g i t : i n i t i a l
pressure i n kp/cm
2
. Next number: modi f i cat i on and f or
Ptyped t ur bi nes: pressure i n the upper tappi ng posi t i on
i n kp/cm', f or Rtyped t ur bi nes: back pressure i n th e
denominator.
B.M. Trojanowskij 1980
Figure 2.12 a: The date indicate the state of the art in steam turbine power plant in the Soviet
Union.
35
lu r b i ne pr o du c e d by C hTG S, t ype K50024 02; po w e r 500 MW, i ni ti al pr e s s u r e = 23,5 M Pa , n = 50/s
IT .L
?
1 L 1
lu r b i ne pr o du c e d by L M S , t ype k30024 03; po w e r 800 MW, i ni ti al pr e s s u r e = 23,5 M Pa , n = 50/s
t u r b i ne pr o du c e d by L M S . t ype K120024 0; po w e r 1200 MW (maxi mal po w e r 13a0 M W ) ,
i ni ti al pr e s s u r e 23,5 M P a , 50/s
B.M. Tr o ja no w s ki j 1980
Fi gu r e 2.12 b : The s e typi cal steam t u r b i ne power plant de s i gns c ha r a c t e r i z e three
si ze ranges of r a t i ngs : 500, 800 and 1200 MW.
36
2.4 MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES
In this section a short review on materials utilized in the critical steam
power plant components and present-day technologies leading to these materials
will be presented. The components are, see figure 1.7:
- turbine rotors;
- turbines blades and discs, seals;
- casings (turbine/valves) / housings, seals;
- steam ducts (main piping) and superheater;
- bolts.
Figure 2.13 a to c contains an overview of general property requirements for
the components of interest. The figures delineate clearly the three broad re-
gimes of requirements: both room and elevated temperature mechanical proper-
ties and stability against environmental media (corrosion). Better and more
non-destructive testing methods would help substantially in eyery respect. If
one looks at the materials presently available, then roughly three groups may
be distinguished, figure 2.13 b. Figure 2.13 c adds a short description for
each of the steel-families. These figures should only be consulted in "zeroth
order" comparative fashion.
Obviously, the austenitic steels, being located at the higher temperature end,
presently appear to be very suitable materials for future developments. Because
austenitic steels require high quality - high cost alloying elements this de-
velopment must, among other aspects, also be vitally concerned with improved,
though cheaper, materials and technologies. The difficultly of combinining
austenitic and ferritive components in one turbine cylinder, due to a large
difference in expansion coefficients, represents a problem area in its own
sight.
Rotors I Three basically different rotor designs are known in present steam
turbines, the "monolitically"-cast and forged, the welded, and the shrunk-on
type, figure 2.14. The large rotors required for modern steam power plants are
machined from forged ingots that can weigh from 200 to 400 tons. Not all manu-
facturers agree to the need of a centerline bore hole, figure 2.14 a. In the
case of welding together discs or shrinking them on a smaller size shaft ob-
viously the ingot size to be started with requires less critical metallurgical
engineering than in the case of the fully forged rotor.
37
^ ^ ^ comp onent s
requi r e me n t s ^ ^ ^
HP andl LP rotors i HP and nP and
I P and IP I P LP
rotors LP discs casings blades blades
HP andtttP and'
I P IP" 'valve
piping |bolts i nt eri ors:

compenjcondensor
sators i piping
mechanical room temperature
st at i c stress
toughness
fracture toughness
LCF
HCF
crack propagation
st at i c
crack propagation
cyclic
X
X
X
( x)
( x)
( )
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X X
X
x x
X X

( X) X
( )
X
X
I
i

I

,
!
mechanical elevated temperature
creep rupture
toughness
fracture toughness
LCF
HCF
crack propagation
stati c
crack propagation
cycl i c
x x x x !
x x x x '
X
X X

X
X
X
X
X X
X X
X

X X
X

:

1
( )
( )


X
, ,
environmental
gasmetalreactivity
( HTcorrosion)
corrosion local
corrosion SCC
x
i
1
( x)
X
corrosion cyclic SCC
erosive corrosion
erosive wear
f r i ct i on rear
NOT

1
X
X
:
X
1 *
X X
1
X X
( X)
I
I X
X X
X X
X
i
x
X

X
( x)
X


X
,<*)


! x


:
; !
Fi gu r e 2.13 a: Cri ti cal r e qu i r e me nt s for steam t u r b i ne c o mpo ne nt s a r e compi led
he r e and show that me c ha ni c a l t o u ghne s s and s t a b i li t y a ga i ns t c o r r o s i o n a r e the
mo s t ge ne r a lly pe r va di ng pr o pe r t y r e qu i r e me nt s . Be t t e r no nde s t r u c t i ve testi ng
me t ho ds ( NDT) i f a va i la b le , would b e pa r t i c u la r ly useful to mo ni t o r the s t a t e
o f de f e c t s and thus help pr e di c t o u t a ge s and li fe e xpe c t a nc y. ( ) s i gni f i e s a
lower level of ne e d.
38
Q.
-if
30
KM 25
E
E
20
i:
o
15
o
o
10 -
5 -
-
-
I
a\
i

tN
I
I
f
I
C^ ^
I
I
I
-
-
500 525 550 575
T, C
Fi gure 2. 13 b, c: Three main
groups of st eel s may be di s-
t i ngui shed i n steam t ur bi ne
product i on the essent i al
design pr oper t y bei ng creep
r upt ur e st r engt h (here 10
hr s! ) - ( b ) ; both proper-
t i es f or operat i on as wel l
as those necessary i n pro-
duct i on have t o be taken
i nt o account ( c ) ; AEG
publ i cat i on 1963.
600 625 650 (b)
a: low t o medium al l oy :
f e r r i t i c - T < 550

0
b: f e r r i t i c - martens i t i c
T = 550 t o 610C
c: aust eni t i c: T > 600C
creep strength
pri ce rel ati on.
cast abi l i t y
f or geabi l i t y
wel dabi l i t y
thermal shock cracking
sensi t i vi t y in l arge
t hi ck walled castings
oxide scal e- st abi l i t y
up to about, C
cut t i ng worxabil i t y
St abi l i t y gainst
erosion
chemical surface
stabi 1 i Ly (corrosi on)
f r i c t i on Jim wear at
high temera tu re s
stress and st r ai n
rel axat i on behavior
thermal expansion .
coef f i ci ent m K~
10-
b
at bCCC
thermal ;oniiuctivity
sensi t i vi t y against
thermal stresses
group a
low al l oy - steel s
see f i gur e 2. 13 b
1
good
good
good, i n some cases prehea-
t i ng and stress r el i ef
annealing necessary
low; f or crack t est i ng remo-
val of cast i ng ski n necessary
i n speci f i c l ocat i ons
560
normal
normal
bad
normal
normal
14,5 (normal)
0,09 (normal)
normal
group b
high al l oy f er r i t i c- mar t ensi t i c
steel s
f i gure 2.13 b'
3
sat i sf act or y
good
only wi t h' cont r ol l ed prehea-
t i ng and successive heat t r eat -
ment
very sensi t i ve; complete remo-
val of casti ng skin f or crack
t est i ng mandatory
650
d i f f i c u l t , due t o hard surface
normal
good
good
par t l y lower than group a
12,5 (low)
0,07 (l ess)
more sensi t i ve than group a
group c
aust eni t i c st eel s
f i gure 2. 13 b
7
sat i sf act or y
good
good, i n most cases stress
r e l i e f amealing necessary
i nsensi t i ve
750
low cut t i ng rat e necessary
due to high toughness
sensi ti ve
excel l ent
tends to f r et t i ng
di f f er ent depending on spe-
c i f i c al l oy and thermal
treatment
18,5 (hi gh)
0,035 (bad)
much more sensi t i ve than
group a ( c)
39
Fi gu r e 2.14 : The t hr e e
b a s i c types o f r o t o r
desi gns are
forgi ng from s i ngle
i ngot ( a ) ,
s hr i nki ng of di s c s
o nt o shaft ( b )
w e ldi ng t o ge t he r
di scs ( c )
J.T.A. R o b e r t s 1981
(a)
|>I
..
1
ti W0M ri
r i i ' . ' , V\ '..'.*. vfe I I
1 .5^ : ::. |
S -.
,
.<:: ..:.:...;..I?
i Emmi
| " S I L
I MI 7'N,
siCiRixmoK
sO.VI
\ v
VC;
! l l V t /
MCHlCiMlON ^ SI iv MI STI RI

OXIOt
M .J. May 1977
(b)
50^ 0305010 0 10 20 30 60 50
4 X
0 /o
m X
/o
J. Del o r me et a l. 1977
Fi gu r e 2.15: The conventi onal s o li di f i c a t i o n of large i ngots i s a c c o mpa ni e d
by he a vy s e gr e ga t i o n t hr o u gho u t the e nt i r e vo lu me . The di f f e r e nt s e gr e ga
ti onal z o ne s are i ndi c a t e d by the s ke t c h (a)r qu a nt i t i ve r e s u lt s me a s u r e d on
a 30 t i ngot ( b ) s ho w b o t h ne ga t i ve and po s i t i ve de vi a t i o ns from nomi nal com
po s i t i o n.
40
The problems in solidifying homogeneous microstructures for large ingots are
summarized in figure 2.15. The problem is that with increasing ingot size the
yield drops (from 80% with 10 to 20 tons ingots to less than 60% with 300 tons
ingots) due to gross segregation and inhomogeneous distribution of nonmetallic
inclusions upon solidification. Also, shrinkage porosity occurs in an unsatis-
factorily controllable manner. This in turn, requires well predictable "porosi-
ty repair" by forging. Here, good NDT-methods would be most helpful, compare
figure 2.13 a.
Presently, several lines of steel melting and solidification practices are
being followed. Firstly, primary methods such as A0D or ladle metallurgy,
figure 2.16, or secondary, i.e. ingot remelting methods, figure 2.17, have
been added to the steel making repertoire.
The welded disc construction requires reproduceable joining techniques such as
submerged arc welding, for example, figure 2.18. This rather tedious, time con-
suming technology may possibly be replaced by more elegant methods, such as Ed
welding, see chapter 3.
The materials selection for rotors orients itself by the requirements of creep
resistance, lef, and toughness to be maintained under thermal gradients, see
figure 2.13 a. While HP- and IP - rotors operate at elevated temperatures and
large absolute temperature gradients, figure 2.19, LP-rotors must retain suffi-
cient (fracture) toughness down to low temperatures to operate under high stress,
figure 2.20. They must also have sufficient resistance against corrosion by
water (droplets) . In figure 2.21 are compiled examples of the essential steels
utilized in rotor production. Obviously, rather complex interactions must be
expected between materials selection, the technology utilized for rotor manu-
facture, and field behavior.
Bladesj Several, basically different types of blades must be distinguished:
those for the high, an intermediate (not mandatorily) , and the low pressure sec-
tion. While figure 2.22 gives examples for each, figure 2.23 indicates the flow
path for the steam, see also figure 1.2 d, and the function of the various com-
ponents of figure 2.22. Within each of the sections, stationary vanes and moving
blades together determine the path of the steam and, to an important extent, the
energy conversion efficiency, figure 2.14. One should note the difference between
"action" or "impulse" and "reaction" type blade design and arrangement, figure
2.23, giving rise to the "diaphragm" and to the "drum" type turbine, respectively.
41
3
1^t
( )
LIL
S
SLAG
&. i n .
U ni o n C a r b i de b r o c hu r e 1980
Fi gu r e 2.16: Ga s e s are i nje c t e d i nto typi cal AOD vessel through mu lt i ple
t u ye r e s to r e f i ne the me t a l. Vessel i s mo u nt e d
f a c i li t a t e c ha r gi ng, s a mpli ng, and t a ppi ng. In
alloy s t e e ls s u lf u r levels of less than 0.0057
pr a c t i c e ; i n c o nve nt i o na l arc f u r na c e pr a c t i c e
0.0257 are t ypi c a l. Oxyge n le ve ls o f 20 to 4 0
the 60 to 80 ppm of arc f u r na c e pr o du c t . If no ni t r o ge n i s used du r i ng the
de c a r b u r i z a t i o n of low a llo y s t e e ls a fi nal ni t r o ge n level of 20 to 50 ppm
i s o b t a i ne d as compared to 70 to U 0 ppm that i s c u s t o ma r y i n arc f u r na c e
pr a c t i c e .
on t i lt i ng t r u nni o n ri ng to
AODpr o c e s s e d carbon and low
are common w i t h a s i ngle slag
s u lf u r levels o f 0.012 to
ppm are common as compared to
'BEST
/
M.J. May 1977
MKHW
CONVENTIONAL
INGOT
1 RIPAN PUFCWNG
AXIAL HOU
RCAOY FOR
CORF. RF.MF.IT
Fi gu r e 2.17: To i mpr o ve on the si mple
i ngot s o li di f i c a t i o n t e c hni qu e s , b e
s i de s s e le c t i ng a r e li a b le me t a llu r gi
cal t e c hno lo gy to pr e pa r e a sound me lt
(Low S o r AO D) , va r i o u s r e me lt i ng
s c he me s ha ve been pr o po s e d: e .g. BE ST,
a mo di f i e d ESR ( Ele c t r o s la g R e me lt i ng)
or MKHW o r e ve n o ne of the VAR t e c h
no lo gi e s (Vacuum Arc R e me lt i ng) .
V
ElFUROOE R
^dy "1
SETUP FORCO
Rt Mt l t
^ ^ 1
PARTlAllV
RCREl TtO
42
contact tube
consumable electrode
conduction flux
iquid slag
solidified, slag
(a)
substrate
weld bead
iquid weld pool
arc
weld cave
00
Figure 2.18: Submerged arc welding is the prominent method for rotor welding (a)
It requires long and careful preheating of the work pieces and will require up
to several months manufacturing time per rotor ( b ) .
1000
800
OJ'
i_
3
g 600
OJ
Q.
E

" AOO

s
^ \ ^ ^
200
range of cooling
rates for rim
ot rotor body
range ot
cool i ng rate
between nm
> o( rotor bod
range of cooling
rates for core
of rotor body
777
upper bainit
43
Fi gure 2.19: Di f f er ent cool i ng
rat es af f ect sol i d st at e t r ans
f or mat i on phenomena; t h e famous
Gal l at i on r ot or f a i l u r e i n 1974
obvi ousl y was due t o di f f er ent
mi cr ost r uct ur es formed on account
of cool i ng r at e gr adi ent s. T h i s
diagram r ef er s t o a 1% CrMoV
st eel s u t i l i z e d f or manufac
t ur i ng I P r ot or s.
10 100 1000
ti me, s
10000 100000
Hot
reheat steam admission temperature: 1112F(600C)
4b0 410 10
(a)
o
o
C. if"
IP rotor center line
Hot reheat steam admission temperature:1112F(600C)
IP turbi ne rotor cooling steam temperature: 806F (430C !
460 410 410
o o o o o o
0
JLLI. LLl A
IP rotor center li ne
H. H a a s et al 1982
60 50
rf
(b)
<*0.2
E S o m m 1976
Fi gure 2.20: The calculated
di stri buti on of temperature
i n an i ntermedi ate pressure
(IP) compactly forged rotor
i s strongly i nfluenced by
the use of rotor cooli ng
steam at the fi rst stage ( a ) ;
tangenti al stresses i n a low
pressure (LP) welded di sc
rotor for 200% o ve r r o t a
ti on show very complex stress
di stri buti on (b) even more
so than i n ( a ) !
44
1. Hocliw. rmfc. lc Ucnlcgcruogcu
HtMMkWCM
DIN
1 Tu 17007
cluBclM01B. tyK
C Si Un O N i
1. 1. AeauailUtaa CkM nUU4t U>k>)
\ i Ct S i i a
Xl Ci MN 11 11
X t CN i N b l t 11
X. Ci . N i M. n u
Xl Ci K. US 17 1]
X t Ort i *. N I. It 16
XaCi N i V Kh. l t l i
X t S. 1UV N b 1 k 11
X 11 ON . STi I i 11
Xt Ct N i t UMi b l t l t
X S N iCfTi 1111
X > N i &U. Ti U IS
1. 1941
1. 4949
1. 4911
1.1919
1. 1810
1.1911
1.494S
1.191
1.4962
1.19.16
1. 4910
1. 1917
0. 040. 01
0, 04
0. 040. 10
0,040,01
0, 04
0. 040. 10
0. 040. 10
S 0,15
0,040,10
0. 01
0. 040. 01
0. 7 3
0, 1 0
0, 7 1
0, 10
0, 60
0, 1 0
0, 60
1 , 00
0, 1 0
7 . 0
1.1
2 . 0
S. 1.5
S M
1. 0
U
1 . 0
1,5
11,019,0
15,011,0
11,011,0
15,111,5
15,511,1
15,017,0
15,511,5
11,511,0
11,515,5
10,012. 0
12,014,0
12. 014. U
15,117,5
1 2 . 4,3
12,114. 3
15,117,5
21,027,0
26,030,0
Mo Suulllgc
Wuruicucli. mllu
Wasiafurui. , .
C c
'C
S|>. itauitc.
fingliHicu
C
Lit fer
mier
1M. . I. J.
l u. , .
u. lal. J'J

2,07,5
1. 62,0

1,11,5

1. 62,0
l . M. S
1,52,0

0,10
(N b+T)10x,,C

0.10
( N b+T. ) 10x%C
0. 10
(N I>+T)l0x%C
W 2,53,5
0,10
( N b+T. ) 10X %C
V 0,100,85
Ti 0,400,60
W 2,53. 0
'B 0I50. 10
( N b+T. ) 10x%C
Al 0.30
B Spuren
Ti 2,10
V 0.3U
Ti 1. 92. 3
1150850
1W0950
1UU0 1010
Lu . . W.
10501100
La iHlsf W.
102UI100
Lu oder W.
10SOI1UO
Lu oder W.
U00115U
Lu oder W.
11001150
Lu . der W.
015915
Lu oder IV .

750100'C/
11 h/Lu
710110 c;
/L u
130950
900950
9001000
900V iO
730100
710130
I
1

Uc

| U
l u
. , 1 .
*
'] (rfaULll Z..JL. Ui|indn. Wwltuj vue a. Il' kfU*C
' I
:
( i iCweiojtjejluhl; p kbfjuchnckt ; ti kUa|lMMcl ; wk wwi u Li h cr Lni i l .
>l t c KIXMM Lp/nun; E4Mc 16 50 kp/ma; Ei*c 1W kii/uu; 1M*c 1S00C
i . uei bi , , M' C * HiEM kp/cu. Oi / i ' / ' / ' * ^ > ^ * 1.5 . dtitclbc gilt tuck W
Oui i ' .Oti ' t yd Oj*.!
1
G. Di bel i us e t ' a l 1981
Fi gure 2.21 a: T h i s t abl e compiles examples f or st eel s u t i l i z e d i n th e cont r uct i on
of high temperature steam i ndus t r i al t ur bi nes. Aust eni t i c st eel s show good f orgeabi
l i t y and good wel dabi l i t y (see f i gur e 2.13 c ) . Gener al l y, 1% Cr Mo V st eel s are
used f or f orged HP/IP r ot or s , 3,5% Ni Mo V st eel s f or f orged LP r ot or s.
Anwwndung
bp f r i ch
MO / N D
MO / N D
MD / N D
M D / N D
H D MOT
bl a et wa 520 ' C
H D 4 MDT
bl a e r o i S4Q*C
H D + MOT
bl et wa 58CTC
H D t MDT
bl a t wo 6 5 0 ' C
Sir refc
gr erua
kg/ mm*
30
40
SO
60
45
60
60
35
Leyl ti runga
typ
1 /. Nl
2 V. NI
Cr Ni Mo
Cr Ni Mo
Cr Mo
Cr Mo V
12 V. OMoV
17/ 13 CrfJI
Lf f j l e
C
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.2O
0. 22
0. 22
0. 20
0. 10
ung. Ri c i r wen
Cr


1
1
1.5
1.2
1?
17
NI
1
2
I
1.5

0.5
I 3
Mo


0.4
0.5
0.4
0.9
1.0
V.'
2.5
V

0.3
0.3

Hochdruck. MDT M, nr lei ., A r,ch Z . i scl . cnb. rr, !Uur, 0. MD M.tleldruck, ND N. cd. i d' uck
G. Di bel i us et al 1981
Fi gur e 2. 21 b: St eel s f or welded t ur bi ne r ot or s are qui t e si mi l ar t o those
f or ged, al t h ough i t t ur ns out t o be advantageous i f pur er grades ( wi t h res
pect t o s u l f u r , oxygen, h ydrogen) are pr ovi ded.
45
Accessibility of horizontally divided casinos of the
high pressure and reheat pressure cylinders of
KOOMW turbine
Section ot the intermediet* pressure cylinder
module ID SO
D. Kalderon 1980
forged I P and HP sect i on blade
NC mi l l ed blades f or HP or I P
sect i on
F. Di et zel 1980
Fi gure Z.'cZ : The power stea.i t ur bi ne at i t s appear temperature and pressure end
consi st s cf the h i gh and i n t ened i ate pressure sect i ons (iP ano I P) ; i n rtouern
uwchines the HP anu IPstage blades norua! l y cone ui Ih shrouds.
46
Rutor " a condenser turbine with blading, steam
regulator step, short and medium reaction stages
(partly shrouded) and lov/ pressure bladings
Spechtenhauser 1976
Steam entrance valve blade showing
pine tree root
Figure 2.22 B: A condensation turbine
combines all sections on one rotor:
HP, IP and LP. The steam entrance
valve consists of one row of blades,
sometimes manufactured in sections
if not made in one piece altogether.
Steam entrance valve blading for 10-MW-back
pressure turbine
m

Section of the low preuure cylinder
module LO 66
D. Kalderon I960
LP rotor: 400 MW, 3600 rpm: GEC brochure 1980
Figure 2.22 C: Wh ile high and intermediate pressure
section require relatively small blades and vanes
(see figure 2.22 A) the low pressure blades are
quite large. In mounting them onto the rotor (or
disc) they are normally interconnected by "damping
wires" (=anti-vibration).
PIC i L 19T8T I G E BLADE i- 9S eenllmeten I7.'> i n. I n-1 \i\t. r xr i odi ni ili root.
\% ben i n-l . i l l . .1 i nd runni ng, lh. rip >< lb* Madr i l l I r . n. l ,il Will . . - l-r -. run. I . ..r I.I.
11,, -|. ,| f . . . un. I in -Iram umi . ' l l i r rendi t i on! rxi -l i n i n i hr Hirl. in. ' . - Iii-I -lam. \. # HOSSl 1 1 9 6 9
48
moving
blades
. > l
^-~7J
' J
' i ,
~ J
)
y )
( a)
pr i nci pal const r uct i on
F. Dietzel 1980
stationary
blades
rotating
blades 7
( b)
LMl'ULlSK ULAU1NC ^ one hi u general methods for extruding
kinclit' viierpy from steam in a turbine. In lhe stationary b I ude
steunt U. wceleruted a velocity i Cj l about twice liiat of the
mu vini Itiliti* i U) . Velocity i-, ublu ill ed Jt lhe expense of pret
suro (curves at right). The moving Illades extract kinetic energy
from the lust-nioving alcuni, ao thai it leaved wilh essentially nu
tungeiitiul component o velocity t.C.,1. I passing through one row
uf fixed blades and one rov* of moving blades, called a stage,
llie amount uf energy transferred to the rotor s proportional tu
the change in absolute steam velocity, lCu {diagram at lefl).
W. Ho s s l i 1969
stationary
blades
rotating
blades^
Ci , C2: absolute steam velocity
Wi , W2: relative steam velocity
U: velocity of rotating blades
HE ACTION BLADING is the other concept used iti Blenni turbine
design. Here the pressure drop per stage is equally divided between
fixed and moving bladea i curves ut right). In the Fixed blades steam
is ucceleruted lu 11 velocity iCx) only slightly greater t hun that
of the imiving blades (Vl. Continued expansion uf the steam in
the an..in. blades provides thrust and gives the steam u relative
velucity '. I equal und opposite to its furnier absolute velocity
(Cx). In reaction blading the energy, AC,,, transferred to the rotor
in a single stage {diagram ut lefts is unly about half that trans-
ferred by impulse blading. Efficiencies, however, are comparable.
(C)
W. Hos s l i 1969
49
y
(d)
Drum turbine offers the simplest
arrangement of seals ( black ) when
reaction blading is used. Seals on
rotor and stator blades can be
identical because the pressure
drop across them is equal. Also
the seals are simpler in design
than those needed for impulse
blading.
Diaphragm turbine provides effective
seals ( black ) in turbines with impulse
blading, where the complete ex pansion
of steam per stage occurs in the
stator, or fix ed, blades. T his design
allows seals to be placed on as small
a diameter as possible. T he moving
blades are usually covered by a
circumferential shroud, which may
also carry seals ( not s how n) .
seals W.Hossli 1969
Figure 2 .2 3 : ( a) indicates the basic function of steam-blade interaction. T wo
types of blading are being utilized, ( b) In the reaction type turbine ( DRUM
T URB INE ) fix ed and moving blades that constitute one stage are practically
identically designed; each accounts for about half of the pressure drop that
is converted to k inetic energy within the entire stage. T hus both stationary
and moving blades have the same shape simplifying design, ( c) In the impulse
type turbine ( DIAP HRAGM T URB INE ) the fix ed blades alone accelerate the steam
until its velocity in rotation direction is about twice that of the moving
blades. T he moving blades are designed to absorb this impulse and to transfer
it to the rotor in the form of k inetic energy. Diaphragm turbines will need
fewer stages for the same power output than a reaction turbine; again yielding
an argument for economy. T he efficiency, however, will be about the same as
for drum turbines, ( d) Sealing in the two types also ex hibits significant
differences.
50
Diaphragm and drum type turbines show advantages and disadvantages that, on the
whole, appear to be compensating with respect to each other. In turbine design one
of the major secondary problems is providing seals to keep the steam from lea-
king through the narrow spaces between the rotor and the stator. In impulse
blading the complete expansion in each stage takes place in the fixed blades.
It is thus desirable to place the seals on as small a diameter as possible.
This has led to a turbine design known as the diaphragm type. Because the
pressure differential is large the diaphragm needs considerable space in the
axial direction. Therefore the width of the fixed blade must be made larger
than it would otherwise have to be. A circumferential shroud is often placed
around each ring of moving blades. In reaction blading the pressure drop per
stage is less than it is in impulse blading; moreover, it is divided equally
between fixed and moving blades. Thus both blades can be fitted with similar
seals, and the seals need not be as effective as those needed on the fixed bla-
des in impulse blading. The result is a drum turbine. Another advantage of the
reaction turbine is that the stationary and moving blades in each stage can
have the same shape, which simplifies design and yields manufacturing economies.
For more than 50 years these two kinds of turbine, the diaphragm turbine and
the drum turbine, have been in competition without either type's demonstrating
a distinctive advantage. Along the way the advocates of the two designs have
moved somewhat away from pure reaction or pure impulse arrangements.
* In steam turbines of low reaction type (less than 25% reaction at blade root
diameter) , often referred to as "disc and diaphragm" turbines, leakage losses
in a turbine stage are relatively low, since not only is the pressure drop across
moving blade tips moderate, but the widths of stationary and moving blades are
very adequate for the provision of large numbers of labyrinth seals, even when
considerable differential expansion between rotating and stationary components
must be provided for. Furthermore, sealing between the rotor and the stationary
blading is effected at reduced diameter between the turbine discs. Thus, the
highest levels of turbine efficiency are achievable if profile and secundary
losses are reduced to low levels by the aerodynamically advanced blading, see
again figure 2.24.
Low profile losses are not, however, a sufficient design objective for the
moving blades of large steam turbines. They must be combined with adequate
strength and flexural stiffness of the blade profiles if high overall efficiency
is to be obtained within an overall turbine design of high mechanical quality.
quoted from W. Hossli 1969
51
profile
200
500
eoo
protile
arrangement
JJ
7J
J>J>
Wsp
Wsp1000
%
42%
61%
Comparison of the speci f i c
sect i on modulus of di verse
blade pr of i l es
(Wsp = speci f i c sect i on
modulus)
1000
8000
J>J>
100%
179 %
B3
~ l J w

33
t
m
rn

S
t est bl adi ng f or th e deve
lopment of p r o f i l e 8000
> > y>
de ve lo pme nt of e f f i c i e nc y
(compared to theoreti cal
ma xi mu m) and uni t po w e r
of s team t u r b i ne s
J. Lde ma nn 1980
Fi gu r e 2.24 : Both a r r a nge
me nt and shape of b la de s
e s s e nt i a lly c o nt r i b u t e s to
the c o nve r s i o n e f f i c i e nc y
o f the steam t u r b i ne c yc le .
Thr o u gho u t 70 ye a r s s u b
stanti al i nc r e a s e has
200 500
800
1000 8000 profi le been r e a li z e d.
52
The influence of blade profile strength and stiffness on the turbine efficiency
comes about in the following manner: small chordal width, possible with profiles
of greater strength, lead directly to higher efficiencies through large height
to chord ratios; even more importantly, they enable a larger number of stages
at lower mean diameter and with longer blades, to be accommodated within the
same rotor span, and thereby a further improvement in overall efficiency is
obtained. Stronger and stiffer moving blade profiles postpone the need for the
sub-division from single flow to double flow in the high pressure and inter-
mediate pressure cylinders, and in such cases the number of stages that can be
accommodated in a single flow rotor of similar span and stiffness is up to
6o-7o% higher.
Turbine blades are exposed to the most stringent service conditions. These are
in particular: centrifugal stresses and hcf bending loads from pulsating steam
forces within boundary parameters that are dictated by elevated steam tempera-
ture and steam chemistry and mechanical impact (corrosion - everywhere, erosion
- last stages).
The last and next to last stage blades in the low pressure turbine section, for
example, carry the highest load and develop most power. 1 /c more efficiency of
the last stage accounts for 1 /oo improvement in overall thermal efficiency.
The LP-blades are also the major sources of forced outage in fossil turbines,
figure 2.25.
Vibration is particularly troublesome in long blades. Resonance frequencies
and the location of nodal points have to be established for optimization of
damping behavior. Figure 2.26 shows a set-up for measuring natural frequencies.
Property requirements for last stage blades are thus particularly demanding:
highest possible yield point combined with good ductility in order to with-
stand both high centrifugal stresses and hcf-conditions. The steel should re-
sist chemical attack - under severe stress corrosion conditions. The material
should exhibit good damping capability, one reason why "damping wires" are
utilized, figure 2.22 c.
Last not least, last stage LP-blades have an erosional problem, figure 2.27.
Condensation of water forming droplets that impinge on the blade surface with
supersonic speed may help explain the relatively high outage rates alluded to
in figure 2.25.

quoted from D. Kalderon, 1980
53
'flB flfll.
s h a ft seal s e g m e n t
s e a l s b e t w e e n t h e s t a g e s o f a 2 2 0 MW
c o n de n s in g t u r b in e
F. Die t ze l 1980
Fig u r e 2 . 2 4 e : In t u r b in e de s ig n o n e o f t h e m a jo r p r o b l e m s is p r o v idin g s e a l s t o
k e e p t h e s t e a l fr o m l e a k in g t h r o u g h t h e n a r r o w s p a c e s b e t w e e n t h e r o t o r a n d t h e
s t a t o r .

b.
,
en
y

o
. '
d-
Forced outage rate due to blades 1969 to 1977
(Edison Flectric Institute data)
Fi gure 2. 25: The l ast t hree
rows of blades i n the LP
sect i on of the steam t ur bi ne
account f or 70% of al l blade
outage. Row N ( L- l ) alone
accounts f or 40%.
R. I . daf f ee 1979
54
300
H z
250 '
20 0
150
' "
. .'//'. ,
'
.

> . . | V' ' *
J.J \
" ' ' . ' ' ' , "
l'. '

f ' '
..
. .
. ' ' '
| !....
a
,
50
1000 20 0 0 30 0 0 4 0 0 0
.100
H z
250
200
150
I
^ _ !
u o
50
0
I
~~""
1000 20 0 0 30 0 0 4 0 0 0
Figure 2.26: Natural frequencies
as a function of rotations (rpm)
must be measured to determine
optimal damping characteristics.
A. Spechtenhauser 1976
55
W. E ngelk e, H. Scheffczyk 1977
Figure 2.27 a: E rosion becomes an important problem in the last
stage L P -blades because water condensation tak es place. Stator
blades are sometimes provided with slits as water passage w ay s .
L ast row moving blades are frequently protected by Stel li te
" shields" .
56
The manufacturing of steam turbine blades so far has mostly been performed by
either forging or NC-milling and cutting (HP- and IP-stages) and by forging (LP) .
Materials utilized in general are given in figure 2.27b. Between 10 000 and 15 000
blades, depending on type and size, are necessary per steam turbine. By value
they represent 20% of the overall cost of a steam turbine and stand for an even
higher percentage of manufacturing time (25 to 30% at Brown Boveri, Baden -
J. Ldemann 1980..
Seals,( figure 2.24 e, are important in that they have to help keep leakage
losses low. They should have the following properties: good corrosion resistance
in the atmosphere at temperatures of up to 570C and pressures of up to 240 kgf
(cm ) , erosion resistance at steam flow velocities of 200 - 300 m /s , good running
in characteristics at peripheral velocities of up to 250 m/s, satisfactory and
stable mechanical properties at room and operating temperatures and withstand the
action of static and dynamic loads during the period between overhauls, the length
of which is at present being increased from 20.000 to 30.000 h, and finally, a
coefficient of linear expansion close to that of the metal of the diaphragm hou-
x
sing.
Casings j Besides differentiating the overall-HP-, IP- and LP-housing, in addi
tion, inner and outer casings must be distinguished. Figure 2.22 A shows a parti-
cularly good example for the latter. Casings are manufactured by casting, welding,
or a misture of both, i.e. casting several selections to be welded afterwards to
yield the full size housing. Various examples are given in figures 2.28, 2.10 and
2.22 A. The production methods thus impose certain constraints on the material
selection in that weldability and/or castability have to be verifiable. While the
inner casing, figure 2.29 would normally be cast the outer casing of the LP-section
will normally be welded. Steam valves are always cast, figure 2.29.
Turbine and valve casings have to withstand high stresses under non-constant tem-
perature conditions. Both thermal and mechanical stresses are encountered within
temperature gradient fields. Thus, static and dynamic creep stresses must be coped
with, see figures 2.13 a and 2.30. Due to the various service exposure profiles
different material selections must be made for the HP-, IP- and LP-sections, fi-
gure 2.31. The three types of steel alloy families utilized for the different tem-
perature levels had been indicated in figure 2.13. Figure 2.31 shows the steel
alloys generally encountered in turbine and valve casings.
quoted from V.G . Zelenskii 1979
s t e e ls
5 .li CrTi 26 15
3 C r N i M o L M b 16 16
12 C r N I W n 10 13
22 C r M o V 12 1
28 C r M o N IV 4 9
30 CrMoi li V 6 11
X 3 Cr.Ni HoVllb 16 13
X 8 CrNi MofJb 16 16
.1 i mo ni c 90
i oni c 30 A
N i mo ni c 10$
11 6 V 4
a p p li c a t i o n
f o r
HP IP L P b la de s
b o l t s , c a s e s
L P b l a d e s , li ve
s t e a m va lve s
L P b l a d e s , nP
s t e a m no z z le s
d i s c s , r o t o r s ,
b o lt s
r o t o r s , di s c s
r o t o r s , di s c s
L P b l a d e s , d i s c s ,
1i ve s t e a m va lve s
L P b l a d e s , li ve
s t e a m va lve s
HP M P LP b la de s
M P L P b l a d e s ,
HP s t e a m no z z le s
HP M P L P b la de s
LP b la de s
r o o m t e mpe r a t u r e
y i e l d
s t r e ngt h
./mm
2
635
275
245
590
550
550
255
215
635
590
735
1050
t e ns i le
s t r e ngt h
N /m m
2
9301130
54 074 0
54 0690
330930
700350
700350
54 074 0
530690
1030
980
980
1200
e lo n
ga t i o n
%
15
30
40
14
17
17
30
35
16,5
20
5,5
7
i i i pact
s t r e ngt h
( DV M )
J
34
41
137
34
31
31
69
103
55
27
27
e le va t e d t e mpe r a t u r e
u ppe r t e ns i le
t e mpe r a t u r e s t r e ngt h
li mi t 0,2 li mi t
a t C
700
700

580

650
700
850
800
870
HI/
2
N/mm
600 : 451
600 : 152
600 : U 7
550 : 2t4
500 : 365
500 : 36b
600 : 147
600 : 132
600 : 726
600 : 696
700 : 745
950
creep rupture
strength after
10
5
hrs at or.:
N/mm
600 :
600 : 221
600 :
600 : 59
550 : 104
550 : 104
600 : 172
600 : 152
650 : 314
650 : 265
600 : 402
600 : 569
700 : 2d4
550
Fi gu r e 2.27 b : A s e le c
o nly ha vi ng b e e n u s e d
ti or. o f b la de ma t e r
f o r t he LP s e c t i o n.
St a hls c hls s e l 19/7 und U . w i c ke r 19/4
i als s ho w s Fe b a s e and N i b a s e to pr e va i l f o r all t ype s o f b la d e s , b u t Ti a llo ys
58
(a)
J^
E. Somm 1976
(b)
E. Somm 1976
Figure 2.28: All-cast steam turbine casings represent an economic and tech-
nically sound approach, but may present problems in very large size con-
struction ( a ) . Steel plate welded casings are not limited by size conside-
rations. However, NDT-inspection of weldments is very cost-intensive, (b)
shows a "mixed construction" with the inner casing having been cast and the
outer casing welded.
59
(a)
AEG 1963
AMAX 1977
GHH 1961
Figure 2 .2 9: HP - and IP -housings: both inner and outer casing cast.
60
LP- housing-
outer casing welded,
inner casing cast .
AEG 1963
Li ve steam val ves: al l - c as t
Fi gur e 2. 29: Heavy cast i ngs are most l y encountered i n casi ngs, bot h f or
t ur bi ne cyl i nder s (a t o c) and val ves ( d) . Whi l e the HP- and I P- sect i ons
are always cast , f o r out er and i nner par t s ( a ) , the LP- sect i on wi l l t y p i -
c a l l y have an al l - wel ded out er sheet casi ng.
61
(a)
80
UO
00
E. Somm 1976
temperature at a hot start
t=80 min ^ .
^ T
=30mm ^
ATm
(30min)
Tmzzl^
=r*
:
t r 80 min
30 min
^ -
outside
t = 20 min
min
(b)
K.H. Mayer I960
Fi gu r e 2.30: St r e s s di s t r i b u t i o n ma y be calculated nu me r i c a lly by the
f i ni t e e le me nt me t ho d. It he lps to vi s u a li z e the e f f e c t of t e mpe r a t u r e
di f f e r e nc e s on o c c u r i ng s t r e s s e s (and s t r a i ns ) and ma y help o pt i mi z e
t u r b i ne he a t i ng and c o o li ng c yc le s as well as cooli ng r e qu i r e me nt s .
62
Type of cast i ng
Symbol
GS C2 5
GS 2 2 Mo 4
GS 1 7 C r Mo 5 5
GS 1 8 Cr Mo 9 10
GS 1 7 C r Mo V 5 1 1
G X 8 C r N i 1 2
G X 2 2 C r Mo V 1 2 1
( t e e l
St andar t
N?
1. 0619
1.S419
1.7357
1.7379
1.7706
1.J107
1.4931
Te ns i l e
st r engt h
| N/ mm' i
440 bis 590
440 bis 590
490 bis 640
590 bis 740
590 bis 780
S40 bis 690
690 bis 880
20 C
245
245
315
400
440
355
590
200 C
175
190
255
355
385
275
500
0, 2 f
l oad 1
300 " C
145
165
230
345
365
265
470
rmanent el on
n H / m/ at
350 " C 400 C
I N/ mm' J
135
155
215
330
350
260
460
130
150
205
315
335
255
445
gal l on
450 " C
125
145
190
305
320

420
500 "Cl 550 " C

135
180
280
300

375

160
240
260

320
d o n
gat i on
( L . =
5 d 0 )
>
22
22
20
18
15
18
15
Imp act val ue
ISOV
)
>l
24
24
24
40
24
35
21 ( OVH)
(a)
a ppi i c a t i o n
ti P o u t e r c a s i n g s , va lve c a s i n g s .
Ml'. IP u u t e r c a s i ng s
HP , IP o u t e r c a s i n g s , va lve c a s i ng s
va lve c a s i n g s , o u t e r a nd i nne r c a s i ng s ( HP, I P )
va lve c a s i n g s , HP, IP i nne r c a s i ngs
i nne r c a s i ng s ( HP, IP)
i nne r c a s i n g s , va lve c a s i ngs
Thyssen AG 1981
Te m
p e
rat ure
lc)
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
~
m

(
o
147/205
134/ 190
122/ 175
110/ 160
98/ 146
88/ 132
77/ 118
67/ 106
58/ 94
50/ 84
43/ 74

2
OJ
to
(D
205/ 285
168/ 262
171/ 239
153/ 213
13S/1B6
118/15B
100/ 132
83/ 108
67/ 89
54/ 74
43/ 62
1
o
S

r^
<
CD
o
O)
o
u
CD
CO
CD
Cv.
>
s 3
O
t ~
f
o o
Creep l i mi t ( I X) /
10000
207/ 313
189/ 287
173/ 262
156/ 236
140/ 209
125/ 184
110/ 162
96/ 142
83/ 125
72/ 110
62/ 98
( 362)
( 337)
235/ 312
216/ 287
198/ 265
180/ 240
163/ 218
147/ 196
132/176
119/157
107/139
94/ 123
83/ 108
74/ 95
65/ 83
57/ 75
50/ 67
44/ 59
305/ 340 ( 305)/( 3B3)
2B0/315 ( 286)/ ( 359)
256/ 291 ( 269)/ ( 336)
234/ 269 ( 251)/ ( 313
214/ 248 ( 232)/ ( 291)
196/ 229 216/ 269
180/ 212 198/ 248
164/196 181/227
148/ 181 164/206
134/ 166 148/185
120/151 131/167
105/ 136 117/ 148
91/ 122 102/ 130
77/ 108 89/114
64/ 94 76/ 98
50/ 80 66/ 83
_


CO
CD
Creep rup i
( 110)/ 160
( 96)/ 142
( 82)/ 125
( 70J/110
( 60) / 96
( 50) / 83
( 39)/ 72
( 32) / 62
( 25) / 54
( 21) / 46
( 20) / 40

S
CM
O i
CO
CD

o
S
O
r~
co
CD
.
o
a
to
co
CD
ure st r engt h [ H/ i r ni J
176/ 19 6
150/ 173
126/ 152
104/ 130
85/111
68/ 9 2
55/ 74
44/ 58
34/ 45
28/ 35
2 1 / 29
100000 h
161/ 243
141/ 212
123/ 183
107/ 157
9 1/ 134
78/ 115
67/ 9 9
58/ 86
49 / 75
40/ 64
33/ 55
(310)
(282)
177/ 255
161/ 230
146/ 207
130/ 184
116/ 164
103/ 142
9 0/ 125
78/ 108
68/ 9 2
58/ 78
49 / 66
4 1 / 56
35/ 48
30/ 41
26/ 35
23/ 29
~ OJ
> S
1 1
u
~
t ^
CD CD
227/ 275 (259)/ (309)
203/ 250 (240)/ (288)
1 82/ 227 (222)/ (267)
1 64/ 206 (205)/ (247)
1 48/ 1 87 (1 88)/ (227)
1 33/ 1 71 1 72/ 207
1 1 B/ I 54 1 54/1 87
1 05/ 1 39 1 38/ 1 71
93/ 1 24 1 22/ 1 52
81 / 1 1 0 1 06/ 1 35
70/ 96 91 /1 IB
59/ 82 77/ 1 03
48/ 68 66/ 83
38/ 55 54/ 74
28/ 41 43/ 60
1 8/ 28 34/ 49
(b)
T he values in brack ets are ex trapolated
T he values apply to GS-62 5 after quenching and tempering
Amax 1977
Figure 2. 3 1: Mechanical properties of heat resi st ant cast steel (DIN 17245)
are shown i n ( a) . 0. 1% creep l i mi t and creep rupture strength of heat resi st -
and types of cast steel s are given i n ( b) .
63
T he rather involved thermal and pressure conditions, figure 2 .3 0, have le de-
signers to calculate numerically resulting stresses for a more pointed approach
to engineering. T his has been helpful for the layout of cooling passages, in
particular also for start-up and shut-down cycles.
Steam Ducts, Superheaters | Figure 2 .3 2 illustrates the typical parts of a
steam turbine power plant piping system. After approx imately 50 years of
documented ex perience with high temperature steam piping, requirements 'have
been well established for the prevailing temperature, pressure, and corrosion
conditions. E x amples for cross sections and support designs are shown in
figure 2.3 3 . Within the steam raising unit ( SRU) requirements are quite simi-
lar to those outside. An important aspect is insulation, see again figure
2 .3 3 , but also the j oining of various types of steel as may be gathered
from data put together in figure 2 .3 4 . Figure 2.3 5 indicates both composi-
tions and microstructural specialties for some of these materials.
P ipes are normally manufactured by rolling and/ or welding. Good weldability
is an important property requirement. Other property requirements are, be-
5 5
sides creep strength ( 1 10 to 2 10 hr s ) , corrosion resistance and toughness
against crack ing, especially within welded sections, figure 2 .3 6. Also the
response to thermal ex pansion and contraction effects, due to unex pected tem-
perature fluctuations, must be considered. It may cause leak ages, see figure
2.3 4 a.
T he interior, but also ex terior surfaces of pipes are subj ect to severe envi-
ronmental attack . T herefore, surface stability and protective coatings, figure
2 . 3 7, are of interest in certain cases. In connection with components within
the SRU this is particularly relevant.
How to most efficiently produce steam is essentially determined by the type of
firing utilized. Figure 2 .3 3 sk etches the types of firing systems in use today
and those being proj ected for the future. T hey have the common feature that for
steam generation similar types of hot waste gases deliver the tnermal energy to
a heat ex changer which, in turn, comes in contact with the water to be vaporized
and on the steam to be superheated, figure 2 .3 9.
64
iv vi

V VI

10
boi l er
12 feedwater suction line
34 feedwater pressure line
56 1 i ve steam 1i ne
78 cold reheater line
910 hot reheater line
1112 waste water suction line
T(C)
140
240250
530650max.
350550max.
540650max.
25
1314 waste water pressure line 50
U
<&.
3
d)
S
ZJ
4>
1 i ve st
earn line
\f V
H. Hampel 1976
hot superheater line
cold superheater line
feed water line
14M0V63
14MoV63
15Mo3
17MnMo
V54
T(C)
205
45
P(bar)
4
180350
80250
50
60 80
0 , 0 3 0 , 0 4
0 , 5
P(bar)
530
530
50
354
350
250
E. Grafen 1967
Figure 2.,32i. The main piping system is subjected to diverse pressures,
temperatures, and H
2
0 environment depending on their task.
\7X Sii.
(a)
fis ens t eg
ol d design
gn
(b)
new design
design
Ho um fur
die Schlackenwo lle
verbleit er
SchelIband ,Blechmant el
M
!'''! Wrmes chut i
' ^ a
h*
plas t is che Abdicht ung
wis chen den Blechen
A. Schneider 1978
raht ko rb
Flls cM/it
L . lo t s t elle
As bes t ring
'Ro hFW^. Blech-
Schellban
fisens/eg
<
Slecn/nontel
Fllstoff
E. Schwenk 1954
Figure 2.33: The support of steam ducts, particularly if located within the
steam raising unit, is not a trivial matter; (a) indicates how the design
had to be changed in order to prevent bending (and thus potential cracking)
of the steam pipes on account of nontolerable temperature gradients;
(b) gives a cross section of a high temperature/high pressure steam pipe
and one that also has to cope with a certain water content.
65
Operation time and availability of
high temperature vessels
in operation
since
operation, h
availability,
%
Bensonvesse
1
600C
1951
188000
88.5
2
650C
1955
164000
90
3
650 C
1956
154000
90
4
650C
1958
U8000
92
700
600
E
ai
E 500

400
ahead of behind
I
superheater
maximal
temperature
wall
temperature
13CrMoA X8CrNlNbl613 X8CrNiMoNb1616
Fi gu r e 2.34 : Hi gh t e mpe r a t u r e Benson type s t e a m a u t o c la ve s ( ve s s e ls )
ha ve o pe r a t e d for e xt e nde d pe r i o ds o f t i me ; ha vi ng been layed out
for 200 OOOhr s of o pe r a t i o n the li mi t i ng t e mpe r a t u r e (dashed li ne )
i s a ppr e c i a b ly hi ghe r than the actual t e mpe r a t u r e (through l i n e ) .
1
OQ2
Or/100000
I I I l_
..no 500
temperature. C
600
VGB 1957
heat resistant steels
nonalloyed steel
tine grained steels with
elevated temperature yield strength
low alloy, heat treatable steels
martensitic Crsteels
austenitic steels, nonstabilized
austenitic steels. Nbstabilized
C 22
SIJ5 8
HI
HI I
Hi l l
l7MnMoV6*
ISNiCuMoNbS
tSMo3
13CrMoU
lOCrMo 910
ItMoV 63
\OCrMoV12 I
X6CrNi 11
X6CrNiMol713
X8CrNiNt>1613
< * . \ . >. : 6
, ' "., stf.)
T.C
I
<500
<500
<550
>550
1 St 35 8
2 St 45 8
3 15Mo3
4 13 Cr Mo 44
5 10 Cr Mo 910
6 10CrSiMoV7
7 X8CrNiNb1613
8 X8CrNiMoNb1616
9 X8CrNiMoVNb1613
H.Gerlach 1976
Fi gu r e 2.35: St e e ls for hot
s t e a m pi pi ng i nc r e a s e t he i r
alloy c o nt e nt t o w a r ds hi ghe r
t e mpe r a t u r e s and di f f e r i n
t he i r mi c r o s t r u c t u r e i n a
s i mi la r w a s to t ha t i ndi
cated by f i gu r e 2.13.
66
ferrite us te nife
final measure
after welding
'and heat
treatment
highly Nicontaining eleclrode
A.Schneider 1978
Figure 2.36: Utilizing highly Ni
containing electrodes ferriteto
austenite weldments may be routine
ly produced.
>^nc^ff. it.ii teftii<aria'ri I I t
That's one of the new BERNEXCVDcoating Installations
Type 250 with Tandem reactor system.
Figure 2.37: CVD (chemical vapor deposition) techniques in the widest sense
and plasma spraying methods, especially LPPS (low pressure plasma spraying)
appear to be particularly adaptable processes for coating.
67
(a)
PS!
riHHHrlHHffi ^ & >
f
r-
d
r\
W :UJ
/ O i l /zJIA\
Wanderrostfeuerung mit ZonenUnterwind. a Wanderrost ; b Fl l t r i cht er ;
c Zndgewlbe; d Luftkammern; e Aschest auer ; f Aschet ri chi er (Werkbild Babcock)
Fr e i r auro
S t a r t b r e n n e r
B e t t h h e B e t r i e b
Be t t h h e R u h e
E i n t a u c h h e i i f l a c h e n
Br e n n s t o f f d s e
Ds o n p l a t t e
Br e n n s t o f f /Ka l k
F l u i d i s i e r u n g s l u f t
U. Renz 1982
Aschti ri bzug
( c) <! 50 0
& primary r.r . .

s 800C
ri ng nozzl e
ol dust pr i mar y air.*. ..vrr>
1
core air.
inner nozzle
<350 . .
react i on
zone
but t er f l y valve
gasi f i cat i on
& evaporat i on
Fi gu r e 2.38: Thr e e b a s i c
t ype s o f f i r i ng t e c hni qu e s
ma y be di s t i ngu i s he d: ( a )
b e i ng u t i li z e u f o r lump
f u e l, o f i nt e r e s t pr e s e nt ly
as w a s t e c o .nb u s t o r s ; ( b )
f lu i di z e d bed c o mb u s t i o n of
c o u r s e by po w de r e d c o a l; ( c )
ga s , o i l, and pu lve r i z e d
coal c o mb u s t i o n b u r ne r r i gs .
68
thermal stresses
support structure with
strain monitors
tubular axle and
pos. 14 constant
1 measuring waggon
2 transport rolls
3 bending rail
4 holder
5 bending die
.membrane wa l l
t u b e
g 44
| 5 x 3 ) 6
7 Mat:15Mo3
_,
1
J t 4 t I
y
H
mounting
interface
collector
tube separation of tube
bundle heating plates
^
2
Y
%
'7
I!
match cord
iplastic envelope
7
i
If

cr
z
:

^
2:
automatic
adjustment
of 5 by A R
tube bending
machine
joints by welding roll press joining explosive joining joining by hydraulic dilation
types of joining tubes to plate
VGB Dampferzeugungstechnik 1980
69
nel : clowns lope
_ s di r e c t i o n
w e ldi ng c u r r e nt a nd speed of i mpu ls mo du la t e d TIG w e ldi ng
, L_I
1 propina I fona
Cr
QfvM
> n j e c t o r f * K ^ ,
2
lutartene control .i th recorder
s c he ma t i c f o r a u t o ma t i c ga s a me a li ng
1 Bypa s s ( f la me s t a b i li s e r ) 3 r i ng b u r ne r
2 ma gne t i c va lve 4 t he r mo c o u ple
tncrao couple
'V
Lr "5>
iet pa int
ajuster
'adjustable
tourte of
electricity
c o nt r o l c yc le for: r e s i s t a nc e he a t i ng
CTGCO
me di u m f r e qu e nc y i ndu c t i ve he a t i ng
a ) Thyr i s t o r t r a ns f o r me r (low f r e qu e nc y)
b ) i ron c o r e de s i gn
c ) Thyr i s t o r t r a ns f o r me r ( Te di u m f r e qu e nc y)
1
J
^
(J> tao o jr i lo r
platt m u r i U i pli r
v JlUttOnprvN * v. l Un .ali
JJ'.ar tonu.car Oll Container
schematic for hydraulic
dilation of tube end
joining designs
tubeplate for
hydraulic dilation
VGB Da r o pf e r z e u gu ngs t e c hni k 190
Fi gu r e 2.39: A s e qu e nc e o f ma nu f a c t u r i ng s t e ps f o r s u pe r he a t e r t u b e s i ndi c a t e s t ha t
va r i o u s jo i ni ng t e c hno lo gi e s mu s t be ma s t e r e d to yi e ld de pe nda b le s t r u c t u r e s .
70
{Bolts) In turbine cylinders, see for example, figure 2.29, and steam chests
*
the bolts are required to possess sufficient resistance to stress relaxation
to maintain flange tightness against internal steam pressure. Although high
creep strength is a basic requirement, other requirements are:
- high yield strength,
- good notch ductility and resistance to embrittlement,
- good stress relaxation characteristics,
- adequate creep ductility.
Bolts and studs differ from all other turbine components in that they are
oJ:ched, subjected to cold as well as hot stressing and a varying pattern of
stressing is obtained due to the practice of tightening and re-tightemng .
Figure 2.40 gives historic and present examples of steels utilized. Bolts are
used from room temperature upwards to above 370 C where creep becomes the
significant design factor.
*
. quoted from K.J. Irvine 1975
71
( a)
S100
>
80
D

o 60
t
O
o
C
20
o

Q.

1

1 1 1
bolt
f ai l ur es!
* I
I
r
^ ^ "
1 1
I 1
X '
1 1

1
1

"MW
_
50
60
3C
20
10
u
C
CL
C

cr
c
c

en
CO
O
LU
U
1960 62 6 66 68 70 72
year
material
group 1
(CrMo steel)
group 2
ICrMoV steel)
group 3*
BCrMoVsteel )
group L
(MoV steel )
group 5*
fl CrMoVsteel )
group 6
(1 CrMoV steel)
group 7*
(12 Cr st oel )
group 8
(Ni base)
nominal composition. %
C
0
0
0.3
0.2
0.2
02
0.15
0.1
Cr
10
1.0
30

1.0
1.0
12.0
2Q0
Mo
0 5
05
05
05
1.0
1.0
05

025
Q75
025
075
075
025

ot h er s

0.5 W

,
01 Ti. 0.005
025Nb
2 0T..1.0AI
bal ance Ni
' no longer m use for high temperature bolts
G D Branch et al 1973
(b)
30
20
10
c
o
s
o
c
10
20 r

' - .
1%Cr1%Mo3/ %
" base steel
base+0.08
> base 008 TI + 0005B
L J_
( C)
200 r
30000 h rel axed st ress
at 0.15% strai n
'/oMo3V4%V
%Mo1/4VoV
100 1000 10000 100000
0
300 400 500 600
t emperat ure. C
j
10 100 1000 10000
r upt ur e life, h
100000
K.I.Irvi ne 1975
Fi gu r e 2.40: In a typi cal 500 MW steam turbi n
studs of 4 0 to 150 mm di a me t e r and o f 200 to
s ma lle r b o lt s ) , o pe r a t i ng at t e mpe r a t u r e s
?
u p
w i t hs t a nd steam pr e s s u r e s up to 16*5 MN/m . (
pr e s s u r e s i ncreased and addi ti onal plant w a s
of bolt f a i lu r e s per ye a r i ncreased (quote G.
ly good toughness i s obtai ned w i t h Ti B doped
selecti on may be qu i c kly obtai ned from tables
e , there are about 700 bolts and
1000 mm length (i n addi ti on to
to 570 C i n jo i nt s w hi c h ha ve to
a ) As steam temperatures and
brought i nto o pe r a t i o n, the nu mb e r
D. Branch et al. 1973) . Pa r t i c u la r
steels ( b ) . General ly,a ma t e r i a ls
and f i gu r e s such as shown i n ( c ) .
72
3. FUT URE R & D
Thoughts and ideas presented under this heading are somewhat extrapolatory, if
not hypothetical, as they are simply based on one possible (but not necessarily
logically mandatory) avenue of approach: namely the general idea of increasing
steam temperatures (and pressures) over and above the highest so far used:
650 to 700 C. The justification for this approach may, of course, be derived
from general considerations of efficiency increase, since with today's energy
situation the rule "better efficiency - better economy" applies more directly
than in the past. In order to keep in touch with the "next steps" presently
anticipated everywhere it will be attempted to put the "very advanced step"
into perspective with the "advanced steps" described earlier (section 2 ) .
Considerations concerning the "very advanced step" appear to be relevant from
several points of view. Generating electricity by steam turbine power plant
only will certainly call for efficiency improvements within a scenario of
steadily rising energy cost and environmental constraints. Steam turbine as
part of a combined cycle, be it with gas turbine or the magnetohydrouynaniic
principle or other (figure 2.2) should be made to operate as efficiently as
possible. Unfortunately the developments are interrelated. For example, the
gas turbine - steam turbine combined cycle depends on the availability of
gaseous fuel for the European countries, in other words, a successful develop-
ment of coal gasification processes (figure 1.7 c ) . Although the combined cycle
is not likely to introduce new material problems of the kind discussed here in
the next future (steam temperatures will not rise much above 550C very soon) ,
it still may profit from new materials and technologies.
3.1 ECONOMY OF STEAM POWER PLANT
It has been pointed out earlier that there appears to be a natural limit of heat
rate below which it would not pay to thrive. The US- advanced concept, figure
2.7 b, is oriented exactly towards reaching this goal within conventional pos-
sibilities, i.e. 8500 btu/kWh = 2142 kcal/kWh = 8965 kJ/kWh (K. Schrder 1962) .
Parameters for this number were, in particular, within a conventional scenario
of unit size, energy independent specific material cost, and the process of coal
energization. There was no presupposition of combined cycles of any kind (for
example, the gas turbine - steam turbine combined cycle) .
The most cost sensitive part of the entire steam turbine cycle, outside the
steam raising unit, is the high pressure section. A plot of turbine cycle heat
73
rate as a function of throttle pressures and temperatures indicates substantial
possible improvements by raising throttle and reheat temperatures to 760C, fi-
gure 3 .1. Following a conservative line of ex trapolation, see figure 3 .2 , one
may arrive at approx imate investment capital increases of 50% per plant, i.e.
for 1000 MW about $ 15,000,000.-. T his m eans , in effect, that seen from the
standpoint of national or even of world-region wioe interests ( for ex ample,
the E uropean Com m u ni t y ) , large sums of money appear appropriable for very ad-
vanced R & D . Since the advanced concepts are now being tack led, and will start
bearing 3 to 5 years from now, this post-nex t-step-development may tak e as long
as 10 years to completion. Summing up the additional value of 1 plant per E C-
country a total of at least $ 100,000,000,- may be spent over a period of 10
y ears . T he number is ex tremely conservative and, in the light of the E P RI-study
referred to in chapter 2 .3 , the most essential plant lifetime savings have not
even been considered.
3.2 TURBINE DESIGN AND ENGINEERING
A substantial amount of turbine design and engineering must precede the selection
of materials and technologies for future steam turbines. Critical design compo-
nents must above all be assessed with respect to operational conditions, in par-
ticular regarding temperature and stress distribution and corrosive attack pro-
longed over ex tended periods of time. Fortunately, much of this task may today
be performed by computer simulation and modelling. T hu s , a great deal of ex peri-
mental laboratory work may be saved, and the necessary remaining ex perimentation
can be performed very pointedly in areas that will have been mapped out by com-
putation. E x amples for this approach may be found in great abundance in steam
turbine R & D publications, compare figures 2.20 and 2 .3 0.
P articularly sensitive areas of future design and engineering regimes are com-
piled in figure 3 .3 . oasically these cover the component families indicated in
figures 1.7 and 2 .13 . It appears that special emphasis will have to be directed
towards rotors, blades, casings, and piping.
T he materials problem in general may be alleviated by modifications in design
and construction. For ex ample, cooling of rotors, blades or casings may help to
stabilize materials against elevated temperature attack . Simultaneously, of
course, an energy loss penalty will have to be tak en into account.
T he measures to be tak en with respect to materials must not be seen dissociated
from process conditions. As an ex ample, austenitic steels will have to be con-
74
" i t h
2000 - 44,0%
. 1900 - 46,42
1800 -|- 48,7%
1700 - 51,1%
1G50 4 52,3%
537/537 C(convent i onal )
593/565C
648/565/565C (Eddystone 1)
648/648/648C
759/759/759 C
241,2
J I
344,5

100 200 300 400 500 600 700
THROTTLE PRESSURE - bar
W.G. St el t z 1980
Figure 3. 1: The turbi ne cycle heat r at e, and thus turbi ne cycle ef f i ci ency
are sensi ti ve functi ons of t hr ot t l e pressure and HP- and IP-stage steam
temperature.
35<S
possible capital cost
increase in t for
annuity of 10.6X
and an amortisation
within 17 years;
interest rate: 7.51
Figure 3.2: Assuming an
avai l abi l i t y of 5000 hr s/ a,
an improvemant of heat rate
by 350 kcal/kWh, a pri ce of
ca. 0.04/kW and, l ast l y,
a primary energy cost of
$ 0. 10/Gcal 50% more may
be spent on pl ant cost than
presentl y.
A. Schneider 1978
75
cooiiNC i owi n
yi
"'//''i>
r
U/ii ' I l " i,
' . - :> -\
t LI CI MOSI *T.C
' I Cl f l i AI QH
' / / / " / " V / . " '
O. I. N I I I , ' 1
/ / / '
(b)
,
!
, . c>m^.
v
, creeo ; \ ' aust eni tes
^ = . ^7&$m
, : r esi st ant
al l oyed st eel r ^
$ t e e 1
F^TI '_r
!
5
. e r t * fCucnx l
T i al l oys
austenites
RSRaustenites(?)
cerami es (?)
s
" v r ei oni sat i on
three to four
,7.\7 .. .
nonnucleating water

Fl ui di zed Bed ' P n ' /' aitrnai.
Combustion SRU
f or Atmospheric
Pressure
Fl ui di zed Bed
Combustion SRU
r 16 bar
-
/?' inf Imet /
o i l .
UJS .
1 SO -
coa 1 gasi f i cat i on
*Sr
-W^e
-4

Fi gure 3.3: Se ns i t i ve areas of future R & D i n steam power plant desi gn and
e ngi ne e r i ng ( a ) have been i ndi cated u t i li z i ng components o f f i gu r e s from c ha p
ter 2; the essenti al ma c hi ne components of l through 6 are r o t o r s , b la de s ,
c a s i ngs , pi pe s .( b ) e xt e nds the hi stori cal sketch o f f i gu r e 1.5 b i nto the ne xt
two de c a de s .
76
sidered.in many cases, and these are known to be more stress corrosion sensitive
than their ferritic counterparts. The steam, and thus also feedwater, purity will
have to be further optimized.
Another point of concern will have to be scaling up. So far, all of the experience
gained with high temperature turbines has been with small units, i.e. the indu-
strial steam turbines with approximately 15 to 150 MW maximal size, figure 2.9.
Reaching into the 500 to 1000 MW range and increasing temperatures and pressure
to 650 C or 300 MPa may still draw rather safely on experience gained with indu-
strial machines, but further increases in power and efficiency will also increa-
singly require R & D efforts in materials, technology, and property assessment.
An example showing that scaling up industrial machines would result in moderately
improved net heat rate and which design and materials have to be selected is given
by figure 3.4. It shows particularly well the interactive considerations between
efficiency gain, engineering and materials selection to be taken for only a "simple"
scaling up measure.
3.3 MATERIALS AND COMPONENT MANUFACTURE TECHNOLOGIES
With temperatures and pressures increased to levels such as alluded to in figure
3.1 materials' and technologies' selections may have to Le modified or even altered.
Possible avenues of approach are discussed in terms of the individual components.
Rotors The case of the turbine rotor is an excellent example for the interactive
dependence of quality and fulfillment of property requirements between a material
and its technology. Figure 3.5 illustrates this point schematically. It also shows
which path may be increasingly necessary in the future to guarantee sound materials.
Rotor failures resulting in complete plant devastations in the past have shown hydro-
gen embittlement to be particularly important for non-crack prone microstructures
(see R.I. Jaffee 1979) . Another generally valid observation for tougher steels is
that sulfur should be kept as low as possible. Therefore, techniques will have to
be adopted both to improve the composition and tolerance band of alloying elements,
e.g. by techniques such as compiled in figures 2.16 to 2.17. For more homogeneous
microstructures similar solidification techniques, i.e. that permit a controlled
"grain engineering", may be required, again figures 2.16 and 2.17. Extremely homo-
geneous microstructures may be obtained via the class of rapidly solidified steels
(RSR, see below) . Then the welded design may be the favored one, and new welding
77
c
o
E
o
J
o
CL
E
<z
cr
ra

t i
OJ
c;

3
l i )
0
Turbi ne Rat.ng: 700MW
Main Steam Pressure
. i ne p.a
. J \ M ..a
Single
Reheat
Turbi ni
r1
.__

.:
.
"
' S

r'
_
s
I

;
.
;.

:.
.
:.
""

::

:;
Doubl e
Reheat
Turbines

;
:
.

:\
;"
2
".:
:
:'
.
s
,.




::
<>
_


^
.
Base: Single Reheat Turbi ne 2400 psig/1000 F/1000 F
H. Haas et al 1982
Material
Ferrllic
1%
Ch romi um
Steel
Martensille
1 2 *
Ch romi um
Steel
Austenitic
>15S
Ch romi um
>12%
Nickel
Steel
Appl i cati on Range
SCV ] Sl op and Cont rol Valves
IC ] Inner Casings
^
HPR | H P Rotors
I P R_| I P Rotors
J
Wi thout Rotor
Cooling
fscv
!ic
HPR
IPR |
d
Wi thout Rotor
Cool i ng
:
HPR I
,IP n
With Rotor
Cool i ng
s*cv
'~\c
:

HP H
' IPR
1000 10S0
525 550
IUV 1150
r
5.5 600 6S
1200
650
; F
Rated Main and Reheat Steam Temperature
H. Ha a s et al 1982
Fi gure 3.4 : Expe c t e d he a t rate
i mpr o ve me nt s by s c a li ng up to
700 MW de s i gns u t i li z e d so f a r
w i t h i ndustri al ma c hi ne s up to
50 MW o r so are c o ns i de r a b le ;
de pe ndi ng on w he t he r r o t o r
c o o li ng i s u t i li z e d o r no t ,
a u s t e ni t i c s t e e ls ha ve i n
c r e a s i ngly to be c o ns i de r e d
f o r the t a s k.
78
onepiece ingot
forged rotor
casting
forging
machining
severalpiece i ngot ,
welded rot or
conventional casting
cont rol l ed casting
RSRpowder metallurgy
welding/bonding
machining
Figure 3.5; Depending on which type rotor design is adopted different technolo
gy sequences are possible. The welded design, due to utilization of several
smaller pieces, instead of one large ingot, may resort to better controlled cas
ting and solidification technologies or even to RSR powder metallurgy.
Simplified illustration of a gas turbine blade composed of
several materials: A, and Az mechanically strong (directionally sol
idified eutectic) superalloy; corrosion resistant (conventional)
superalloy; C ductile (conventional) superalloy: n principle, after
Jahnke (18).
Diffusion welded sections oriented in parallel (a) and perpen
dicularly (bl to the growth direction; Sahm (16) .
P.R. Sahm 1981
Figure 3.6: Electron beam welding, shown principally in (a ), possesses the po
tential of yielding very small volume deep penetration weld seams (b).
79
methods may be required such as electron beam welding, figure 3.6 or even dif-
fusion bonding, figure 3 .7. As compared to the time consuming submerged are
technique ( figure 2 . 1 8 ) . T his could result in substantial technology rationali-
zation.
T he materials selection, see figure 3 .4 , appears to have to be oriented towards
austenites. T hey may possibly be the " cheap" RSR-type materials in the long run.
^E x perience gained with a number of machines by KWU, figure 2 .9, require as most
important step in applying advanced steam conditions to 700 MW class and larger
units, the supply of large austenitic rotor forgings. P resently, large rotor
forgings from austenitic materials weigh approx imately 15 metric tons and have
diameters of about 900 mm. Such rotors could be forged from several materials
displayed in figure 3 .8 and could be utilized as HP turbine rotors. Rotors from
other materials of figure 3 .8 could be realistically ex pected only if maj or deve-
lopment programs would be initiated.
Recently ex perience has been gained in forging a small austenitic rotor from
the material X3 Cr Hi Mn Mo H19165 for a 1000 MVA superconducting generator.
T he 11 metric ton rotor with 83 0 mm diameter was forged from 3 3 metric ton
electroslag remelted ingot. T he 19% Cr and 16% Ni austenitic rotor alloy steel
included the additional chemical element contents of 0.3 % nitrogen, 0.2%. nio-
bium and 2 .7% molybdenum. A yield strength of 54 -62 Ksi at ambient temperature
was achieved. T he homogeneous structure of the rotor forging permitted ex cellent
ultrasonic inspection with a detectable minimum crack size of about 5 mm.
As with ferri ti c or martens i ti c rotors, the measurement and control of residual
stresses are of utmost importance ( compare to figure 2 . 2 0 ) . Since these stresses
can be somewhat higher in austenitic rotors, they should be considered when de-
fining the turbine start-up limits. Also, the lower heat transfer and higher
thermal ex pansion have to be recognized when evaluating cycling capability*.
I Bladesl T he obvious choice for higher temperature blades for IP - and HP - section
will have to be austenitic steels or else Hi-base, i.e. superalloys. Since much
ex perience has been gained with such materials in gas turbines much may be adap-
ted from this field of endeavors. Newer developments here may, however, be diver-
ted directly into high temperature steam turbines, thus possibly circumventing
the very high cost alloys and technologies involved in GT - materials R & D .
Because materials and technologies are closely interconnected the term " materials
,* adapted from H.Haas et al 1982
80
(a)
(b)
[T 882.33
Simplified illustration of a gas turbine blade composed of
several materials: A, and A, mechanically strong (directionally sol
idified eutectic) superalloy; B corrosion resistant (conventional)
superalloy; C ductile (conventional) superalloy: in principle, after
Jahnkeim.
W. Bunk and P. R. Sahm 1981
, / ji rv, dircctUmatly didijtcd t'i 00 airfoils haw shown improved performance and durability
The Ea gl e , & W, Oc t . 1979
(c)
directional ly solidified C0C17C3 eutectic:
Diffusion welded sections oriented in parallel (a) and perpen
dicularly (bl 10 the growth direction; Sahm (If,) .
P. R. Sahm 1975
Fi gure 3. 7: The concept of manufacturi ng gas t ur bi ne blades by di f f us i on
bonding ( e. g. TLPbonding: t r ansi ent l i qui d phasebonding) i s an ol d one
and has been i nt roduced i nt o present day tech nol ogy j oi ni ng di r ec t i onal l y
s o l i d i f i e d blade halves ( b) . Very much d i f f e r i n g composi ti ons and mi cr o
st r uct ur es may be j oi ned wi t h ext er nal l y (and of t en i nt er nal l y ) v i s i bl e
seams ( c ) .
81
.D
1
2
3
4
S
fi
7
R
9
u . . U !
1 . MI X
u . ~ . ,l,c
H
4
1
y
M
$

"
Mi rial
U N Di t l g r x Ht M
C l M u K V t i l
I 2? Cl Mo V 17. 1
l ( C , h Mb 1613
Cl N, Mi . I.t, I.16
X a C i N , Mc B H D 1 6 1 6
X 6 C' N' Mo I / O
1
X S Ci N, Mc N W I 3
1
X i N, Cr l i y t l l
N, l a Ci 17 Mo
SI , . . " . , l o
c .
c
A 4 7 c
Cl ass L M
A 565
GR. 6 1 6
A 473
T y p e 3 4 7
A 473
y p e 3 1 6 H
A 473
y p e 3 1 6 L
( A ; 6 )
( I r. l O)
02

0 ? i
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o i
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004
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. S
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16
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t o
7 6
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lo
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io
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i o
lo
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14
. 1
>

/
/
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/
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i
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V ^ 0 7 5
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Kal
> HO
> Ut
> 30
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> 9 7
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1 3 0
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> 75
> 76
> 60
> 71
> 7 1
- 138
MbO
a l f . , . - - -
i a* H ^ I
Cara Si t i
m j
e - , c i
Kal
I J * a .^ ^ ."1
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27
32
17
17- 27
- 3 6
- 6 i
0 1 4 5 Kai
i . - . . f
( O t r e ]
Kal
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9 5
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in dic a t e s w e l l fo r g e a b l e
in dic a t e s de v e io p e m e n t w o r k n e e de d
. Ha a s e t al 1982
Fig u r e 3. 8: A s u b s t a n t ia l a m o u n t o f k n o w l e dg e o f t h e m e c h a n ic a l b e h a v io r o f
a u s t e n it ic s t e e l s is a l r e a dy p r e s e n t l y a v a il a b l e . It m a y s e r v e a s a b a s is fo r
fu t u r e m a t e r ia l s de v e l o p m e n t s . S o l id a r r o w m a t e r ia l s b e in g h ig h e r in t e n s il e
s t r e n g t h m a y b e t h e o n l y c h o ic e fo r t h e h ig h a n d t u r b in e s in q u e s t io n .
30 -
1 1
Test temperature 9 80C
Test stress 200N/ mm
2
directionally
solidified,
as cast
(001)-single-crystal
heat treated
directionally \
40 60 80
durati on, h
Fig u r e 3. 9: C o n v e n t io n a l l y a n d
s in g l e c r y s t a l - dir e c t io n a l l y
s o l idifie d s u p e r a l l o y s ( h e r e :
12 ,5% W, 10 % C o , 9% C r , 5% Al ,
21, Ti a n d 1% N b ) s h o w s u b s t a n -
t ia l diffe r e n c e s in c r e e p b e h a v io r .
PI Piearcey and E Terkelsen 1967
82
technology" will be mostly referred to in describing these overall efforts. Exo-
tic materials have become highly cost-sensitive, similar to "energy", and must
be replaced by cheaper possibilities.
On the more conventional side, investment casting the blades (utilizing either
improved steels or the more conventional superailoys) could become more interes-
ting than machining them (involving high materials losses, see figure 2.22 A ) .
Here, the newly arriving numerical calculation of solidification processes may
help to carve out highly improved techniques. Directional solidification (DS)
may be one of the approaches for providing further improved steels, possibly
even as single crystals, figure 3.9. On the non-conventional side, a technology
of foremost significance is
rapid solidification.
This, being a rather general term, hides a host of techniques, figure 3.10,
almost all of which appear relevant for both
better blade materials
and
new steam turbine-blade manufacturing technologies.
The case for better and, in terms of strategic metals, cheaper materials is made
by RSR-materials in that it appears possible to utilize single Fe-base alloys
with certain amounts of interstitial and substitutional additions yielding homo-
geneous and very finely crystalline alloys for improved temperature, corrosion,
and mechanical performance. This field should, in any case, be closely watched.
In particular, also powder metallurgical approaches, both with respect to bulk
materials, or else surface coated or layered, should be kept in mind. As indica-
ted by figure 3.10 some of these techniques also appear to be suitable for the
manufacturing of discs which may vary in a controlled fashion.
Other technologies may involve welding. There have been several attempts to, for
example, Ed (electron beam) - weld steam turbine-blades, figure 3.11 , utilizing
cold rolled preforms thus saving expensive material to be milled away otherwise,
figure 2.22A.
LP-blades have a different set of requirements to fulfill compared to their HP-
counterparts. Here, steel may possibly be increasingly replaced by the Ti-alloy
TA16 V 4.
83
Powder at omi za. i on processes
q;
melt
7 Vi ner.
'gasjets
helium
cooling
gas
/'.'t
"ti
M:
mm**
stream
atomized
powder
^ ^ E ?
1
rotary
atomizer
disk
^
atomized
powder
al Conventional inert gas
atomiz ed
powder t r a r ) S t e r
y:.'.!;'//tube
b) Vacuum or soluble gas
fangsten atomized
cathode powder
\ ignition ^ consumable
\ arc , alloy bar
helium Y/\ \\
induction
coil
ary J \JS
avatar "
anged
cl Rap id solidification rate
(A)
prima
plasm J
arc '
water cooled
noz z le
d) Pl asma rotary electrode
E R.Thompson 1982
tundish
pray
p retorm
~rvwf~
Cv
overspray pretorm die

torging
press
E R Thompson 1982
(C)
sheet
Figure 3.10: Rapid sol i di f i cat i on technology
(RST) appears to hide large potenti al f or
improvement wi th respect to more homogeneous
(nonsegregating), mat eri al s, new (metastable)
phases, but requi ri ng new technological
approaches. The concept of materials wi th
engineered property gradients l i es hidden
behind these new powder metal l urgi cal tech
nology concepts.
rol l quenching
b flow on to outer surface of roll
c fl ow on to inclined inner surface of roll
Process for (semi) continuous p roduction
of amorp hous sheets
Warlimont 1978
(B)
. Laser beam
Plasma control jet
/Layerglaze deposit
United Technologies Brochure
1980
Singla or mult, ptiott matts
1
SuptH cooling
f
?" .
ucitation
vitali growth
igVtiCfltion
fronts
Crystallina
structura
Fruargram
structure
Nota
sapo ration
coogulotion
MatastoDlt
structura
Amorphous
ic4idif>cation
5 .9 :
84
Turbine blade welded to the
root with an electron beam
Brown Boveri Brochure 1978
Microstructure of an electron-
beam weld with a typical soli-
dification pattern (magnifica-
tion 56:1)
Figure 3J1: A new method welds cold-rolled blade preforms directly onto the root
and the shroud with an electron beam. One of the problems is guaranteeing a
homogeneous microstructure in the heat-affected zone, the material being a 12%
Cr- steel. Segregational effects must also be avoided in the welded zone.
Comparative studies of solidification parameters of the weld and directional
solidification tests have shown that the beam can be regulated in such a way
as to achieve the desired microstructure and the avoidance of centre lines with
segregational effects.

c
"O
D
"Q.
E

(
co
Oj

o
800
6 00
00
200
0
\
WJ
,
'
6A|
-*
V
""V//*M'Ai7#/v>/
t
7//, . steam
_L

* NaCl -sol ut i on
ai r
13 C r steel
NaCI-sol uti on
13 Cr steel
10
3
10
5
10
7
10
9
cycl es to f ai l ure
Fat i gue propert i es (R = -1) of bl adi ng mat er i al s
compensat ed for densi ty.
R. I. Jaffee 1979
Figure 3.12: Titanium alloys, in
particular Ti 6A1 4V, appear to
be unaffected by corrosive en-
vironment with respect to cyclic
stress conditions - in contrast
to 13% Cr stainless steel.
85
Two main characteristics of titanium make it attractive as a steam turbine blan-
ding alloy: its high strength to weight ratio and its corrosion resistance. The
former increases the size capability of low pressure turbine design. The major
impediment to larger size is the length of last row, low pressure blades. Last
row blade length is limited by high centrifugal loads acting on the blading and
the supporting rotor. By using titanium with a lower density than steel, blade
length can be increased without raising stresses in the rotor. The density of
titanium at 0.160 lb/in.
3
(4.4g/cm
3
) is about 60% of that of steel at 0.280
3 3
lb/in. (7.7 g/cm ) . For comparable stress levels in the rotor to blade attach-
ment areas, a titanium blade nearly 4 0 % longer than the current steel blade can
be substituted.
Corrosion can be a major problem in low pressure turbines due to the presence
of corrosive elements such as chlorides, caustics, and sulfates. These elements
originate in the steam cycle through condenser leaks, defective demineralizers,
improper water treatment, or improper cleaning, see figure 2.22 C. Figure 3.12
gives property comparison between Ti Al 6 V 4 and 13% Cr steel.
Ti-alloys are difficult, and thus expensive, to process. However, the advent of
(RSR-) powder metallurgy progressively utilizing very clean processing conditions
not only promises even better materials in the future but also cumulatively and
overall cheaper technologies, figure 3.13. Here, hot isostating pressing (HIP)
appears to offer interesting possibilities, even if only as a preliminary step
ies, even
izing.
to isothermal forging or possibly gatorizing>
Large part-precision casting may yield another answer to economic processing.
Last not least, particularly relevant technologies may be found in surface
coating or even "glazing" procedures (see figure 3.10) to give better erosional
stability to LP-blades.
[Casings| The rotors are enclosed in casings which are then, in effect, pressure
vessels subjected to full steam pressure at maximum temperature, figure 2.29.
Since there is a temperature gradient through the casing, thermal stresses are
added to the pressure stress each time the machine is started. The casing has
therefore to stand the combined effects of static creep stress and high strain
fatigue, the latter being related both to resistance to deformation and to the
A M
ductility of the material . This will be the more pronounced the higher the
*.,.* quote T.M. Rust et al 1979
**. . ? * adopted from J.B. Marriott and P. Greenfield 1971
86
CLEAN ROOM FOR SUPERALLOY OR TI TANI UM POWDER PREPARATI ON
(AntRHLF 17)
FILTERED
Al f r-INERT GAS
POWDER HANDLING
COLUMN
SCREENING

CHANGE
ROOM
FILTERED
^AIR
-rH--K,
SHIPPING
VESSEL
COLLECTION
VESSEL
7i
50
7
ol
r ,
4
F m y r
I
Afc HI P
,

~
ICoti vrn l i n a l
Pi ot r . un g
1
rOft-ho* pounl wl . K M. C | M , u p of , *J p . t u
- o m . . . * a w , . . r i e m er O C , i t ? t , r . * -
Convent i onal
D
HIP + For ge
C= cO
As HI P
'~t c _
C i rO
fc= t = 3
1
11=3 ~ =3
Qjwi fKi i rfoi rr
W. r Ha Ul l i , w i *eUntUl b u i U*\n9i f o r T j pl ci l Sa. p. i-. llo, T -rtl ra. CU,
C.r.PrrcUOM m .ARO M riche c . , ,
UochJnanj
i
Oa e
Comp ruon O mi nu duri n t mti odi Ren 91 dui
O.k.AKMOLQ 1st ULAKO l a i i r r n CP l OO, 1 f 11 , l* . t 1
Figure 3.13: Clean room processing of T i al l oy powders, rapi dl y sol i di f yi ng
them and, l ast l y, ut i l i z i ng most di r ect methods of compaction such as hot
i sost at i c pressing (HIP) may yi el d a next generation materi al s technology.
87
t e m p e r a t u r e s a n d p r e s s u r e s t o b e a c c o m o da t e d. Fig u r e 3. 14 in dic a t e s t h e p r e s e n t
s t a t e o f t h e a r t t o b e o v e r c o m e fo r fa u l t l e s s a n d t h u s l e s s c r a c k in g - p r o n e m i-
c r o s t r u c t u r e s . He r e , c o m p u t e r s im u l a t io n a n d m o de l l in g o f s o l idific a t io n p r o -
c e s s e s p r o m is e s c o n s ide r a b l e im p r o v e m e n t s s im u l a t a n e o u s l y p r e p a r in g t h e w a y fo r
e ffic ie n t C AD- C AM ( c o m p u t e r a_ided de s ig n , ... m a n u fa c t u r in g ) . Al s o , w e l da b il it y ,
b o t h in t e r m s o f r e p a ir a n d c o n s t r u c t io n w e l din g , n e e ds fu r t h e r a t t e n t io n .
T h e de v e l o p m e n t o f b e t t e r s t e e l s h e e t m a t e r ia l , fo r e x a m p l e in t h e w a k e o f
c o n t in u o u s r a p id c a s t in g t e c h n o l o g ie s ( c o m p a r e fig u r e 3. 10 ) m a y b e o f in dir e c t
in t e r e s t , a s s h e e t h o u s in g s t h a t a r e u s e d in t h e L P- s e c t io n , m o s t l y e x t e r n a l l y .
Pip e s ] As ide fr o m t h e t r e n d t o a u s t e n it ic m a t e r ia l s - a s in m o s t o t h e r c a s e s
s o fa r dis c u s s e d - p ip in g m a y n o t b e a s s e n s it iv e t o n e w m a t e r ia l s t e c h n o l o g ie s .
S im il a r l y to c a s in g s g o o d w e l da b il it y is e s s e n t ia l , a s jo in t s b o t h t o o t h e r
p ip e s a n d t o v a l v e s a n d c a s in g s in c l u din g jo in t s b e t w e e n dis s im il a r s t e e l s ,
h a v e t o b e fa b r ic a t e d, s e e fig u r e 2.36 a n d 3. 14. S im il a r t o w h a t h a s b e e n p o in -
t e d o u t fo r c a s in g s , h e r e a l s o ,c o m p u t e r m o de l l in g w il l c o n t r ib u t e t o w a r ds m o r e
p o in t e d a n d s a fe r m a t e r ia l s l a y - o u t a n d de s ig n . A p a r t ic u l a r l y r e l e v a n t b r a n c h
o f m a t e r ia l s de v e l o p m e n t m a y b e c o a t in g t e c h n o l o g y . \\ere
t
c h e m ic a l v a p o r de p o s i-
t io n ( C VD) a n d p l a s m a s p r a y in g m e t h o ds , e s p e c ia l l y l o w p r e s s u r e p l a s m a s p r a y in g
( L PPS ) , m a y y ie l d in n e r a n d o u t e r s u r fa c e s w it h e x c e l l e n t s u r fa c e s t a b il it ie s .
C o l t s I b e in g a s im p l e s y m m e t r ic p ie c e o f c o n s t r u c t io n y ie l d t h e m s e l v e s p a r t i-
c u l a r l y vieil fo r v a r io u s n e w t e c h n o l o g ie s : dir e c t io n a l s o l idific a t io n , p o w de r
m e t a l l u r g ic a l a p p r o a c h e s e t c .
Fl a n g e b o l t s fo r t e m p e r a t u r e s u p t o 6 50 C m a y b e fa v o r a b l y p r o du c e d fr o m
" b a s ic s u p e r a il o y s " s u c h a s Nim o n ic 80 A. Fo r t h e h ig h e s t t e m p e r a t u r e s in dis -
c u s s io n = 6 50 t o 80 0 C p o w de r m e t a l l u r g ic a l p r o du c t s o f t h e m e c h a n ic a l l y
a l l o y e d t y p e MA 754 o r t h e n e w e s t in t h e fie l d, MA 6 0 0 0 , a p p e a r t o b e p a r t i-
c u l a r l y in t e r e s t in g . T h e ir c r e e p r u p t u r e b e h a v io r m a y b e c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r
m a t e r ia l s in fig u r e 3. 15.
3. 4 TECHNOLOGY MIX (R & D IN MATERIALS PROCESSING)
The prevalent class of materials i n steam turbi ne power pl ant i s t eel s. Although
steels probably have drawn the absolutely highest rate of at t ent i on to t hei r R&D
much remains to be optimized - both wi th respect to the i nt eract i on cycles
property - microstructure
88
Speiser
Giefi technische
O nil gefhrdete Zonen
iLjiksrgerahrdete Zonen
Anlegefehler
Konstrukti onssah wei fl ungen
Feh l erart : A = lineare Anzei ge, = Poren , E = Ei nsch l ufl
Typis che Schweiung an einem Vent i/gehaus e.
| >-
Gus t ckzo nen mit erhht em Fehlerris iko .
K.H. Mayer et a l . 1980
P.N. Hansen 1975
Figure 3.14: The problems i n the so
r al l y solved: hot teari ng surface i
i nt eract i on) and nonmetallic i ncl u
t i on and modelling could help t o co
11 The 1490*C sothcrm at different times after
pouri ng for the parts shown n Fig. 9
l i di f yi ng HP and IPcasings are not yet gene
r r egul ar i t i es ("penet rat i on", i . e. moldmetal
sions must be fought agai nst. Computer simula
nt rol the sol i di f i cat i on sequence considerably.
600
500
00
300
200
100
80
60
0
30
1 1
si ngl ecryst al
alloy (cast)
Nimonic 113
MM002IDS]
advanced ODS
blade alloy
conventional process route
Mar M246* VC*Y203(ret.7 I
PM IN100 (ret. 81
* Mar M 246* VC (ref.10)
. rapid solidification route
* advanced RSR alloy (ref.11)
_ l I I I I I
cast IN100
_ l _ J _
700
600
T
1
v
1 r
UDS Mar M002
devel opmental hi gh-' loy
\ Tdevel apmental 738*23 _
600E
' t ypi cal t urbi neV
' bl ade st r ess/ A,
I _1 _
WAZ-D
_J L_ _ L
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
= ( T* 273) ( 20* l og t
28 29 30 31
10~
3
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400
temperature. C
S5
cn

co
o
o

"O
_
Figure 3. 15: Oxygen dispersion strengthened (0DS) al l oys provide the highest Ni
base creep strenth materi al s known to date.
89
and
microstructure - processing (technology).
Due to the advent of computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing
(CAM) R & D in materials processing may be carried out much more efficiently and
pointedly. Process optimization and modification are thus being speeded up sub-
stantially. An example for what is meant by CAD and CAM of materials processing
is illustrated in figure 3.16. This type development of new technologies is be-
coming more common as it is being taught in the schools for technology to the
students.
Computer modelling permits, in particular, the technical as well as economical
benefits and/or short-comings of different technologies to be compared, for
example, welding vs. casting, casting vs. forging, forging vs. welding, milling
and cutting vs. the mentioned techniques etc. On the other hand, synthesizing
new technology cycles also becomes possible more easily. The "wafer-blade" tech-
nology may serve as an example for the kind of "technology .nix" which has yielded
an extremely advanced result for aircraft gas turbine blades, figure 3.17.
In terms of the components discussed in this study possible and probable direc-
tions of R & D have been compiled in figure 3.13.
90
( a)
(b)
V
'N \
'ft*' '
. ' , J . !
>;
i i '".
I " H ' ' ^
' " i 'M
t e
!' 't"
$ ,i ' . ,V a ,
'J ' , S S . '
' . i L rVC' "
VJ/ ^ V V i
\1\ I,
i V
T
7
P.R. Sahm, W. Richter, F. Hediger 1983
(c)
ss* zua n a u s M uw vm \tm **
ALL Tl MS IH MlKUTES
M Mt ASURE: D
25M CCAtCULATEO
COMP*. Of CALCULATED E Of REEZE .MM/ES WITH HEAStAtD DAIA
Coep asoa rifnriaw^ cod o f r x wives with RMttund dtta.
A cross section of a turbine casing and lhe correspon
ding coordinate system for making the necessary calculations.
The banded extrusion of a threedimensional shape was
converted to a twodimensional shape by the modified heat
coment method. Dimensions in mm.
M.C. Flemings 1974
E. Niyama et al. 1981
Figure 3.16: Computer modelling of solidification processes presupposes as main in
gredients a correct solidification model and a functioning enmeshment method. Most
of the 3dimensionally enmeshed casting (a) can be dissolved into specific sections
(a) and (b) that may then be treated separately for a detailed thermal flow analysis
indicating, for example, isotherms for a certain solidification time. The two examples
shown in (c) indicate that attempts to simulate and model solidification in large cast
turbine casings, in both cases simplified 2dimensional FDMapproaches, are being made
since approximately 10 years.
91
extruded
blank
<a
9
photoetched
wafer
superplastically
rolled sheet
RSR
powder
induction
melt
V
EC M
machined
blade
di recti onal l y
recryst al l i zed
blank
G= 25K/cm
Sequence of steps in the f abri cat i on of a wafer blade
12r
MarM200
RSR(NiMoAI)
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 KOO
time, h
Creep deformati on of superal l oys at
1800F(982C) and 30 000 psi (2 068
2
Pa)
AR. Cox and LS. Bi l l man 19

3
D

&

a.
u .
o
C
a
</>
<=2
' ** c u r _Q |_ I . UI
k
3 c
*
a
ai

. a
a 'r
O .
" " JC
I j l g
1000
800
600
400
200
"ent

100
80
60
40
20
0
current
bl ades
cur r ent
t ech nol ogy
3et t er cool i ng and
i
T
Mar M
\ 7
vV
\y
X ^ >
I I 1
r adi al waf er
bl ade
RSR
st ronger met al
200
RSR( Ni Mo AI )
150 F
I I I I
1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
metal temperature, F
Creep resistance of superalloys
Fi gu r e 3.17: The "radi ai w a f e r b la de " i s an e xa mple "par e xc e lle nc e " of a
t e c hno lo gy mi x w i t h opti mal r e s u lt s : here yi e ldi ng 150F (r~ 83 K) hi ghe r
t e mpe r a t u r e c a pa b i li t y than standard ma t e r i a l. In c o nju nc t i o n w i t h t he
r e a li z a t i o n of a new c o o li ng de s i gn a total t u r b i ne i nlet t e mpe r a t u r e
gai n of 800F (~ 444 k) a ppe a r s po s s i b le . Thi s i mprovement i s w o r t h a
lot of mo ne y.
Type of R & D
:

u
IO
Ol
in
cu
t.


c


O
TD
C
3
4.

c
:




c






S-
-
solidifi cation sequence
in steels: DS/Q, DTA
computer simulation in
o solidification
o stress mapping
o deformation processes
in Ti alloys
PHACOMP type alloy
optimization
fracture mechanics
creep behavior
corrosion and
environnent
metallurgy
casting and
solidification
RSR-metallurgy
forging/deformation
welding/joining
Technology
Mix
ROTORS
X
X
X
X
X
X
cleaner steels
ingot casting
(rheocasting)
(isothermal)forge
(see below)
casting and EB-
welding of discs
BLADES
HP-IP LP
X
X
X
X
X
investment casting
(direct ' 1, single
x'l)
isothermal forge
(see below)
- EB-welding of
rolled preforms
- diffusion bon-
ding of adv.
materials
- isothermal for-
ge (or HIP)
PM-preforms
(x)
X
X
X
X
controlled invest-
ment casting (?)
HIP: near net shape
isothermal forge
- isothermal
forge (or HIP)
PM-preforms
CASIMGS




cleaner steels
sand mold casting
optimize repair
and construction
welding
- "cast and weld"
compound tech-
nology
PIPES
(x)
X
X
X
X
X
(cleaner steels)
centrifugal
casting
EB-welding
- coat inner
and/or outer
surfaces of
cast or wel-
ded pipes
Figure 3.18: Fundamenta
technologies should be
DS/Q: directional solid
1 research and process development have to be closely intertwined for optimal results. The newer
sought for good size improvements in materials technologies for steam power plant,
ification and quenching; DTA: differential thermal analysis
93
4. CONCLUSIONS
Assuming the back ground of a relatively conventional scenario of
steadily rising energy costs and increasing environmental constraints
the following conclusions are drawn with respect to design and engineering, ma-
terials and their technologies of steam turbine power plant.
- Steam turbine cycles employing primary and reheat temperatures in the
range of 750 to 800C at pressures of 500 to 600 bar appear to be reason-
able to strive for as thermal efficiency gains of at least 5 may be
realized. In terms of feasible cost increases of plant both with respect
to MAU* invested per kWh and tolerance limits for R & money ex pendable
over a period of about 10 y ears , R & D towards this goal seems interes-
ting, figure 4 .1.
- Combined cycles, in particular gas turbine - steam turbine, appear to be
mandatory developments in the future. Although not very directly affec-
ting R & D goals for the steam cycle proper, nevertheless the steam rai-
sing process will have to cope with gaseous fuels presupposing a predo-
minantly coal gasification back ground in E urope.
- T he most obvious directions of developments in materials technologies
appear to be
ever widening application of CAD-CAM to R & D both in engineering as
well as in materials processing and compount manufacture; in particu-
lar solidification, welding, plastic deformation processes as well as
property assessment through numerical simulation and modelling are man-
datory;
in materials specifically there will have to be more application of
austenitic steels ( rotor, HP -, IP -blades, casings, pipes)
superalloys ( HP -, IP -blades)
-titanium alloys ( L P -blades)
ceramics ( seals?)
with improved mechanical ( creep, fracture) and environmental stability
properties
MAU: monetary accounting units
years
expenditure %
" s c e n a r i o s "
in particular
environmental
primary energy source
coal energization
combined cycle
power plant, i.e.
specifically turbine
design and engineering
economic limits
ratings
(pressure/temperature)
electric generator
materials and technologies
(technology mix)
rotors
blades
HP, IP
LP
casings
piping
1
0.5
(prepari
evaluat
ing on '
2
0.5
itory stu(
ng for R
'naturallj
3
1
lies and
& D go
'")
4
5
5 6 7
JJ >
8 9 10
< *
Figure 4.1: Over a 10 year R D period 3 main areas of enquiry should be dealt with: scenarios power plant design
and engineering, and materials and technologies.
95
t in component production technologies specifically
a more competitive comparison of the conventional technologies
among each other will tak e place ( partly due to computer model-
l i ng ) , thus resulting in
mix ture of various technologies lined up in one sequence of pro-
cessing steps ( " technology m i x " )
in situ controlled solidification ( rotors, casings, valves, pipes)
directional solidification ( HP -blades?)
rapid solidification, in particular powder metallurgical pro-
cessing ( HP -blades?, L P -blades?) but also as continuous process
( casings, sheet material?)
isothermal deformation processes ( isothermal forging, gatorizing
( T M ) , HIP - L P -blades?)
*E b-welding, in particular thick sections ( rotors?, p i p e s ) .
T he development and efficient application of these technologies implies
the design and development of optimized materials.
B efore starting out on a conscious effort in " materials and technologies
for post-nex t-step steam power plant" ( the " nex t step" is currently well
underway on a national effort basis at least in two economic world re-
gions: USA and J a p a n) , another 3 year period of more detailed prepara-
tory studies seems appropriate, figure 4 .1. In particular, iiore accurate
estimates than were possible here on ex penditure should be provided
during this period.
96
5. RE F E RE NCE S
AEG Publication 1963: Dampfturbinen Turbogeneratoren
Amax - Climax Molybenum Company 1977: Warmfester Stahlgu Sonderdruck
Th. Bohn, P. Eich, U. Hansen, B. Jehle 1977: Knftige Stromgestehungskosten von
Grokraftwerken KFA Jlich Report ISSN 0343-7639
G.D. Branch et al. 1973: Conference Publication Philadelphia N C 192
G. Brand 1975: BBC Report D BBC 50182 D
Brown Boveri Brochure 1978: Research Publication N KL 5052 E
W. Bunk und P.R. Sahm 1981: Werkstofftechnik \Z 345
COST 505 Statement 1981
A.R. Cox, L.S. Billman 19?: ASME Publication
J. Delorme, M. Laubin, H. Maas 1977: Kommission der Europischen Gemeinschaften
Gieen und Erstarren von Stahl _1 248
G. Dibelius 1974: in: Energietechnik im Hinblick auf knftige Entwicklungen
(VWEW) Frankfurt 45
G. Dibelius, R. Pitt, M. Ziemann 1981: VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 2 75
F. Dietzel 1980: Dampfturbinen
W. Engelke, H. Scheffczyk 1977: KWU Report 384
M.C. Flemings 1974: Solidification Processing
GEC Brochure 1980: Large steam turbine generator manufacture
H. Gerlach 1976: in: Herstellen Prfen und berwachen von warmgehenden Rohrlei-
tungen in Kraftwerken TV 22 19
A.F. G iamei, J.S. Erickson 1976: in: Int'l Symp. Superalloys: Metall Manuf.,
Clayton's Pubi. Div., Seven Springs, Pa., 405
D.V. G iovanni, A.F. Armor 1981: Improving the Thermal Efficiency of Conventional
Steam-Electric Power Plants, EPRI CS
GHH 1961: Dampfturbinen Report StM 241 d 1055
E. Grafen 1967: Musteranlagen der Energiewirtschaft RWE Frimmersdorf
H. Haas, J. Ewald, W. Engelke, H. Termuehlen 1982: Turbines for Advanced Steam
Conditions American Power Conference Chicago
H. Hampel 1976: in: Herstellen Prfen und berwachen von warmgehenden Rohrlei-
tungen in Kraftwerken TV 22 10
P.N. Hansen 1975: Ph. D. thesis part 2, Department of Metallurgy, The Technical
University of Denmark
A. Husermann 1976: Brown Boveri Mitteilungen 6_ 372
W. Hossli 1969: Steam Turbines. Scientific America 220 101
K.J. Irvine 1975: in: Materials in Power Plant Spring Residential Course London
R.I. Jaffee 1979: in: Metallurgical Transaction A 10A 139
97
J ahrbuch der Dampferzeugungstechnik 1980: 4 . Ausgabe
D. Kalderon 1980: Design of L arge Steam T urbines for Fossil and Nuclear P ower
Stations GE C T urbine Generators L imited
K.H. Krieb, W. Ratzeburg 1978: bersicht ber neue Kraftwerk stechnologien
T echnische Mitteilungen 71 3_
K.H. Krieb, U. Dorstewitz, H. Rhein 1979: Forschungsbericht BMFT -FBT 79-78
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European Communities Commission
EUR 10040 EN Advanced steam turbine power plant technologies and the materials, implications
P.R. Sahm, E. Fiender
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
1985 98 pp. 19 29.7 cm
Physical sciences series
EN
ISBN 92-825-5549-6
Catalogue number:
Price (excluding VAT) in Luxembourg:
ECU 7.74 BFR 350 IRL 5.60 UKL 4.50 USD 6
ABSTRACT
Assuming the background of a relatively scenario of steadily rising energy costs and increasing environ-
mental constraints steam turbine cycles employing primary and reheat temperatures in the range of 750 to
800C at pressures of 500 to 600 bar appear to be reasonable to thrive for as thermal efficiency gains of
at least 5% may be realized. In terms of feasible cost increases of plant both with respect to 5 invested per
kWh and tolerance limits for R&D money expendable over a period of about 10 years, R&D towards this
goal seems interesting.
Before starting out on a conscious effort in "materials and technologies for post-next-step steam power
plant" (the "nect step" is currently well underway on a national effort basis at least in two economic world
regions: USA and Japan), another 3 year period of more detailed preparatory studies seems appropiate.
The "next step-steam-power-plant", underway within US and Japanese national efforts, does not lean on
substantial technological breakthrough (except possibly for the steam raising process in Japan). It thrives
for temperature and pressure ranges about 560C and 240 bar, but not more than 650C and 350 bar) that
have been utilized for a number of years in smaller, industrial type power plants. While the problems here
may be characterized by transfer of expierences with medium size units (50 to 150 MW) to large units (800
to 1300 MW) the problems of "post-next-step-steam-power-plants" are entering fully a class of materials,
i.e. austenitic steels, with which little or no large scale experience has been collected so far.
Simultaneously, this may mean entering looking for new materials technologies or switching from one to
another class of materials processing or, in effect, taking on new processing sequences ("technoliogy mix")
not heretofore prcticed. The advent of CAD-CAM makes computer simulation and modelling an important
partner of this R&D effort.
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