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Mini-Project Instructional Design

Done By:
Florette Williams - 313500138




A paper presented in partial fulfillment
of the requirements of the course
EDID 6505 Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials
Trimester II, 2014




University of the West Indies Open Campus

Course Coordinator - Dr. Dickson-Deanne
E-Tutor: Dr. Leroy Hill


Date of Submission: July 29, 2014

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Table of Contents
Page
Needs Assessment . 3
Overall course goal . 3
Objectives . 3
Target Audience . 3
How will the information be gathered? 3
Prerequisite Analysis 6
Procedural Analysis 7
Objectives 8
Enabling Objectives 9
Task Selection Worksheet 10
Contextual Analysis Worksheet 11
Application Assessment 13
Lesson using Merrills First Principles 15
Advanced Organizer 15
Analogies 16
Reflection 17



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Needs Assessment Plan
Overall Course Goal:
Design a workshop to motivate teachers of MWD High school to make the switch from
their manual system to an automated system of Assessment and Recordkeeping
(ARK), as well as to learn how to use the new system. The Ministry of Education has
changed the concept of teaching and practitioners are being asked to do more in terms
of student assessment, recordkeeping /documentation and general accountability. In
light of this the ARK system has been sent to all high schools, but many consider it an
interruption to their normal mode of operation.
Objectives:
To determine the extent to which persons are resistant to the use of the new
system
To create changes in attitude towards learning a new system
To determine the computer skills base of teachers of MWD High school
To ascertain the time available for training
To implement the training program
To produce willing and efficient users of the new system

Target Audience:
The target audience for this training comprises the entire teaching staff of MWD
High school, who is expected to do more in terms of student assessment,
recordkeeping/documentation and general accountability and who is being
introduced to an automated system. The staff comprises approximately 80
teachers.
What I need to know:
The reason some teachers are unwilling to make the switch from the manual
system of assessment and recordkeeping / documentation to the automated
system.
The level of computer skills that each teacher possesses.
Why I need to know it: Information about the level of resistance and the reason for the
resistance is needed so that the right intervention can be proposed to address and
resolve issues.
Who knows that? The teachers of MWD High school are the ones with the information.
How will the information be gathered? The information will be gathered from survey
questionnaires, force field analysis and personal interview. For each technique that
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will be used, the information sought may be all or a stated set from the list provided
here:
Problem
What the actual situation or issue is with the teachers at the high school
What are the perceived differences between the old and new systems
What are the blockages towards the ARK system
Causes
The reason teachers are resisting using the automated system and opting to keep
the manual system in place
Feelings
How teachers feel about the old system and the new system
How teachers of MWD High school would rate their level of computer skills
Optimals
What teachers want to see happen with regards to assessment, recordkeeping /
documentation
Actuals
What transpires at present in the area of assessment, recordkeeping /
documentation
The opposing forces to the new system
Solutions
What will cause attitudes to change
The kinds of training needed to equip teachers to use the AKS system
Displaying ways in which ARK system will make the assessment and
recordkeeping tasks more efficient
Survey Questionnaire
This method is very versatile and usually plays a central role in a complex process
whereby information is transferred from those who have it to those who need it. For
this transfer to be effective, the questionnaire must meet the requirements of users and
respondents.
The information being sought by the survey questionnaire: Problems, actuals, optimals,
feelings, causes and solutions (refer to list above).
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The questionnaire survey is usually confidential as persons do not have to write names.
It is fairly easy to develop and administer. Scoring and analysis is also fairly easy to do.
Most persons are usually willing to participate in a survey by answering a
questionnaire.
Advantages: A questionnaire, when carefully thought out and conducted, can be a
valuable training and development tool; one that yields information about needs,
problems, potential problems and organizational obstacles as well as employee
perceptions, attitudes and opinions. It also has the ability to provide broad sampling.
Disadvantages: The questionnaire survey can be used to avoid the responsibility of in-
depth confrontation of the issues being addressed. Sometimes respondents do not
answer truthfully.
Personal Interview
This technique is a good one for employing because it allows an interviewer to gather
information that relates to all aspects of the issue at MWD High school. Interviews
allow the interviewers and interviewees to make personal contact, share ideas and
engaging in dialogue and problem solving. It would be ideal for MWD High because
teachers do have strong feelings about using the new system.
Information Sought: Since an interview is by nature personal it allows persons to
express all kinds of needs from which problems, actuals, optimals, feelings, causes,
solutions can be garnered (refer to list above).
Advantages
Flexible, helps you to learn about problem or situation in an atmosphere where person
freely express feelings.
Disadvantages
There is no control over respondent, can't anticipate all directions the conversation may
go, hard to change ones personality to fit that of the interviewees in order to ensure a
successful interview and this is a very time consuming process in which to collect data.
Force Field Analysis
Importantly the force field analysis technique is a good choice to use because it can
clarify the forces impacting the situation or problem at MWD High school. It will be
used to identify forces for change and forces against change.
Information Sought: problems, causes (refer to list above)
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Target group will remain the approximately 80 teachers. This procedure has no issue of
anonymity / confidentiality; it is easy to develop and does not involve much cost. It is
also easy to tally the information and it is likely that everyone will participate. For
diversity of opinions sought, the force field analysis needs consensus.
Advantages
Force field analysis is low cost, simple to perform, gives overall picture.
Disadvantages
This instrument can be very subjective, may lead analysts to jump to conclusions
because analysis starts with solutions.

Prerequisite Analysis



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Procedural Analysis
Goal: To develop willing and competent users of the Assessment and Recordkeeping
(ARK) system. The aspect of attitude will be addressed by basic computer skills
training, since many persons are resisting because their lack of confidence in their
ability to use the computer efficiently.

Level 1.0: Providing basic computer skills training
1.1 Turn on computer with Microsoft Excel program
1.2 Open Microsoft Excel
1.2.1 Locate Microsoft icon on the desktop or in programs and double click
1.3 Use icons to navigate through the sheets
1.3.1 Locate icons at top of page in tool bar
1.3.2 Note the different methods of moving around the worksheet
1.4 Enter data in the form of alpha numeric characters into cells in the worksheet
1.5 Manipulate data by performing mathematical calculations
1.5.1 Create column headings for science, math and history scores
1.5.2 Enter sample of students science, math and history scores
1.5.3 Enter formula below each list of scores to add numbers
1.5.4 Enter formula in the column on the right of the sums to calculate the
average of scores
1.6 Save workbook
1.6.1 Click the icon for saving the worksheet. If prompted, provide an appropriate
name for the file.
1.7 Exit workbook by clicking the X on the top right hand corner of the worksheet
1.8 Follow guidelines in ARK manual to become familiar with ARK data entry
processes and abbreviations

Level 2.0: Setting up assessment categories
2.1 Determine the number of graded pieces of students work to use
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2.2 Set up categories for each type of graded work, eg., classwork, assignment, test,
examination
2.3 Assign separate weights for each category of graded work
2.4 Calculate total percentage for all categories assigned

Level 3.0: Perform data entry task for populating grade book
3.1 Enter grades for each category
3.2 Do verification check for each entry
3.3 Do reasonableness check
3.4 Save grade book after each category entry

Level 4.0: Assigning comments and citizenship
4.1 Open tab for comments on academic performance and behaviour
4.2 Enter code for selected academic performance comment as stipulated on the
ARK system for each student
4.3 Save input periodically or at the end of class list
4.4 Select and enter comment for each student as desired
4.5 Save selection periodically or at the end of class list

Level 5.0: Entering student attendance and punctuality
5.1 Transfer weekly attendance and punctuality record from teacher register
(manual) to the stipulated slot in attendance section
5.2 Assign the variation to the attendance for each student: absent, late, excused
5.3 Verify dates, checking for school days or not

Objectives
Goal: To develop willing and competent users of the Assessment and Recordkeeping
(ARK) system. The aspect of attitude will be addressed by basic computer skills
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training, since many persons are resisting because their lack of confidence in their
ability to use the computer efficiently.
Terminal Objective: At the end of a two day workshop, participants will efficiently use
the ARK system to document student performance.
Enabling Objectives
1. After completing a 1 hour tutorial, the participant will demonstrate basic
computer skills by manipulating data in an Excel worksheet.
2. At the end of the ARK system tutorial the participant will set up at least three (3)
assessment categories in the grade book
3. The participant will enter correct grades into grade book after creating categories
using the ARK system features.
4. After performing data entry tasks to populate the grade book, the participant
will record appropriate comment for academic performance and behaviour for
each student.
5. After populating the grade book, participant will transfer weekly attendance and
punctuality record from teachers attendance register (manual) to the stipulated
slot in attendance section.
6. After entering grades and comments on academic performance and behaviour,
the participant will create report cards.
7. Using the school grading system as reference, the participant will analyze each
report card and select those with averages 20 40% above or below the
stipulated pass mark.
8. Using the school code of conduct handbook, the student will analyze reports and
select those with unsatisfactory to poor behaviour.
9. After making decisions on academic performance and conduct, the participant
will discuss student performance with parents.



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TASK SELECTION WORKSHEET

Criteria for Task Selection
Worksheet
Criticality

40 pts
Universality

10 pts
Frequency

10 pts
Standardization

10 pts
Difficulty

30 pts
Total

100
pts
Notes Priority
1 being
the
highest
TASKS
Providing basic computer skills
training
40 10 2 10 10 72

5
Setting up assessment
categories
40 10 2 10 15 77 2
Perform data entry task for
populating grade book
40 10 10 10 10 80 1
Open tab for comments on
academic performance and
behaviour
40 10 10 10 5 75 3
Entering student attendance
and punctuality
40 10 10 10 5 75 3
Generating report card 20 10 10 10 5 55 7
Making administrative
decisions re academic
performance
30 10 10 10 10 70 6


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Contextual Analysis Worksheet

Directions: Identify relevant factors in categories (only where and when appropriate) and
indicate the effect they will have by circling appropriate number.

-2 Greatly impedes
-1 Slightly impedes
+1 Slightly facilitates
+2 Greatly facilitates

Orienting Context
Learner Factors
Learners are the entire teaching staff who lack basic computer skills
but are experienced in the use of the manual system
-2 -1 +1 +2
Learner attitudes towards using the computer to complete task vary -2 -1 +1 +2
Learners display a general resistance to the new ARK system -2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors
The school is equipped with computers and other technological
devices
-2 -1 +1 +2
The learners are aware that the manual system of assessment and
recordkeeping will be replaced by the ARK system which is fully
automated
-2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
The directives from the Ministry of Education must be adhered to
and the participants have an obligation to learn how to use the
ARK system
-2 -1 +1 +2

Instructional Context
Learner Factors
The instructor will take participants through the steps of using the -2 -1 +1 +2

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computer to perform mathematical functions in MS Excel
The learners will practice entering grades in grade book -2 -1 +1 +2
The participants will practice entering comments in comments section -2 -1 +1 +2


Immediate Environment Factors
Participants will be guided through a change in the method by which
assessment and recordkeeping is conducted
-2 -1 +1 +2
The new system requires more computer use by participants -2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
Participants are asked to do more in terms of using the computer to
assist with assessment and recordkeeping
-2 -1 +1 +2
The school has made training available for participants -2 -1 +1 +2

Transfer Context
Learner Factors
Participants will use the computer to perform mathematical functions -2 -1 +1 +2
Participants will use the computer to enter grades and comments on the
ARK system
-2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors
Instructor will support the participant throughout the workshop -2 -1 +1 +2
Participants will have access to online support -2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
Reports are prepared each school term -2 -1 +1 +2
Need for improvement of liaising with parents -2 -1 +1 +2


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Application Assessment for learners using the ARK System

Enabling Objective

1. After completing a 1 hour tutorial, the participant will demonstrate basic
computer skills by manipulating data in an Excel worksheet.
1. 1. A class teacher asked you to use Microsoft Excel to set up a marks record for her
students. There are three grades for six subjects. Place these tasks in the order that
would help you to achieve the results needed after opening the Microsoft Excel
programme.
i) save and close
ii) enter formula to calculate average;
iii) enter formula to add numbers;
iv) label columns;
v) merge and centre and add title;
vi) use the mouse to block across the first ten columns A1 to J1);
vii) populate with grades;
Answer:
i) use the mouse to block across the first ten columns (A1 to J1);
ii) merge and centre and add title;
iii) label columns;
iv) populate with grades;
v) enter formula to add numbers;
vi) enter formula to calculate average;
vii) save and close

2. At the end of the ARK system tutorial the participant will set up at least three (3)
assessment categories in the grade book
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2.1. The total weighting for of the four categories of grades is 100. The first category is
5%, the second is twice that amount, the third is twice the total of categories one and
two. What is the weighting in percentage for categories two, three and four?
A. 10%, 30%, 55% (Correct answer)
B. 5%, 15%, 55%
C. 10%, 30%, 45%
D. 15%, 25% 45

3. The participant will enter correct grades into grade book after creating categories
using the ARK system features.
3. 1. Given a set of labeled grades for a class of 10 students, use the ARK system to enter
grades in the appropriate assignment categories created. Your peers will check for
accuracy and completeness.

4. After performing data entry tasks to populate the ARK grade book, the
participant will record appropriate comments for academic performance and behaviour
for each student.
4.1. Use the populated grade book as a reference to enter comments on behaviour and
academic performance for 10 students in the appropriate section of the ARK System.
Ensure that reference is also made to the suggested comments for behaviour and the
guidelines for matching grades with academic performance. Your work will be
reviewed by your peers.

Enabling Objectives
5. After populating the grade book, participant will transfer weekly attendance and
punctuality record from teachers attendance register (manual) to the stipulated slot in
attendance section.
5.1. Given a copy of a manual attendance register, copy and edit one weeks attendance
for a class of 10 students. Be sure to edit and add details for late, absent and late with
excuse. Your work will be reviewed by your peers.

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Instructional Design Lesson using Merrills Fist Principles
After completing a 1 hour tutorial, the
participant will demonstrate basic computer
skills by manipulating data in an Excel
worksheet

Double click to see PowerPoint lesson
Advanced Organizers
Graphic Organizer: Problem and Solution Map showing cause as - New system of
recordkeeping that needs to be implemented and the solution to use MS Excel to create
a grade book for entering student grades.

MS Excel is an
automatic system
for organizing
numbers
A grade book can
be easily created
to store grades
Use MS Excel to create a grade book
for entering student grades
New system of
recordkeeping
needs to be
implemented
Easier
calculation
and
management
of grades
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Expository Organizer
Concept: Manipulating Numbers
Mathematical operators are used to manipulate numbers. Some operators include:
+ for addition
- for subtraction
/ for division
x for multiplication

Analogies
Two difficult areas in the lesson are: finding the average and copying the formula by
dragging and dropping
Finding the average
Lets say that you visit a cake shop and record how many cupcakes are bought by each
customer who enters the shop. You will then add all the cupcakes bought and then
divide that number by the number of customers you recorded. The answer you derive
will be the average number of cookies that each customer bought.
Copying the formula by dragging and dropping
You are returning from a wonderful vacation with a special bag for your kids. You drag
the bag carefully from the car and drop it inside on the living room floor. Your kids
quickly open up to see the goodies inside.


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Reflection
The target audience for this training comprises the entire teaching staff of MWD High
school, who is expected to do more in terms of student assessment,
recordkeeping/documentation and general accountability and who is being introduced
to an automated system. The staff comprises approximately 80 teachers. Some members
of staff are apprehensive about using the computer system to perform tasks. The
approach to ease the discomfort is to train the staff. Misconception anticipated is that
the task might be considered too difficult and time-consuming at the onset. Fears can be
allayed with consistent instructor guidance and assurance of the positives of using any
automated system, such as increased efficiency, increased productivity and general
quality of the product.
The process started with needs assessment, prerequisite and procedural analysis,
writing objectives and selecting instructional strategies. The instructional strategies
used are based on Merrills First Principles of Instruction: Activation of prior learning,
demonstration, application and integration. During the instructional process, advanced
organizers and analogies were used to help participants develop a better understanding
of the concepts.
The prerequisite / hierarchical analysis didnt work for a while and presented a
challenge. However as the concept got clearer, another attempt was made at crafting the
hierarchy. Generally, in selecting the tasks, I would try to be more concise and not
attempt so many objectives for the two day workshop.
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The peer feedback was quite an eye-opening experience and it was amazing to see the
high quality of feedback from those who were wearing the same shoes I was. There
was an understanding among us that fostered discussion and critique. In the early
stages however, as peers we really didnt know the direction to take with each others
work but soon our roles along with the content became clearer.