n=1
Or {(t) = A
0
+ A
1
Cos(wt + 0
1
) + A
2
Cos(2wt + 0
2
) + + A
3
Cos(Swt + 0
3
) +
Where A
0
= J. c o{{sct
A
n
= mognituJc o{ n
th
bormonic
w = {unJomcntol {rcqucncy
0
n
= pbosc onglc
Here n is a multiple that represent order of frequency. Oscillating wave, that is of fundamental
frequency (f) can be separated from higher order frequency (nf) and these higher order
oscillating waves are called Harmonics.
From power system point of view, utility and customers use many nonlinear loads/sources and
these constitute distortion of voltage and current wave forms, i.e., as seen from Fourier series
above, they introduce harmonics into the electrical system. These harmonics practically do not
contribute to any usable power.
2.5 Harmonic Effects on Power System:
Not only harmonics do not contribute to useful power, but they cause distortion in voltage and
current waveform as evident from voltage and current waveforms. These distortions manifests
into following bad effects which is proven by equations and experimentation;
(i)Harmonic Distortion reduces Power Factor: we can prove that power factor is reduced due to
harmonic distortion by a factor called distortion factor.
(ii)Each characteristic harmonics flows in a particular direction.
8
Based on above facts we can analyze following problems caused by harmonics;
1. Voltage Notching in power electronic equipments
2. Erratic electronic equipment operation
4. Overheating of equipments
5. Vibrations of motors
6. Audible noise creation in transformer and rotating machines
7. Nuisance operation of circuit breaker
8. Malfunctioning of Voltage regulator
9. Malfunctioning of Generator regulator
10. Malfunctioning of Timing clock in micro processor based devices
11. Electrical Fires
2.6 Harmonic Cancellation:
It is found that harmonic distortion at individual load bus not wholly transmitted to higher buses.
But due to a combination of factors, net distortion produced by large number of distributed loads
at higher bus is significantly less than sum of individual load distortion by a factor called
Distortion factor. A precise formula for this factor is not possible, but varies highly on load
statistics. Various factors affecting this are outlined below.
If single phase loads and three phase loads are connected at same voltage level, it is
found that combined harmonic distortion at bus is reduced.
Due to phase angle diversity of different types of loads at same bus level also leads to
significant reduction in harmonics. In this case distortion factor can be as less as 0.5.For
same type of loads connected at same bus also ,cancellation occurs due to change of
various parameters between loads like impedance magnitude, x/r ratio, DC link capacitor
at loads. In this case mainly higher order harmonics are affected.
9
In deltastar transformers 30
o
phase shift occurs. Result is that positive sequence
harmonics are shifted by +30
o
and negative sequence harmonics are shifted by 30
o
and
triplen harmonics are impededed by delta winding. These phase shifts cause their mutual
cancellation.
A strategic understanding at design stage on the cancellation factors helps in allocating loads at
various buses to minimize harmonic distortion to optimum at main bus.
2.7 Harmonic Distortion Indices:
IEEE 519 adopts two parameters, whose influence on power equations was proved by Alexander
Immanuel, to measure harmonic distortion.IEC 6100022 also agrees with this definition [2]
[27]. First one is THDv (Total Voltage Harmonic Distortion) and second one is THDi (Total
Current Harmonic Distortion).
Voltage distortion index is defined as
TBBv =
__ Vn
2 S0
h=2
V1
x 100% (1)
Similarly current distortion index is
TBBi =
__ In
2 S0
h=2
I1
x 100% (2)
Higher harmonic order is restricted to 50 by this definition as can be seen from equations.
2.8 Displacement Power Factor
If V(t) and I(t) are periodic current wave forms, this may be expressed in Fourier series as [27];
v(t) = v
0
+ _ vnCos(nwt  n)
n=1
(3)
I(t) = I
0
+ _ InCos(nwt  n)
n=1
(4)
So average power P
avcragc
= ] v(t)
T
0
I(t)ut (5)
= v
0
I
0
+ _
VnIn
2
n=1
Cos(n  n)
10
(To evaluate the above integral, multiplying out infinite series we get integrals of cross product
terms are zero. Only contribution of integral comes from product of voltage and current
harmonics of same frequency).
If supply voltage contains no DC component and harmonics,
P
avcragc
=
V
1
I
1
2
Cos(
1

1
) (6)
Now RMS value of periodic wave form for voltage is =_(
1
T
) ] v
2
(t)ut
T
0
=
_
v
0
2
+ _
V
n
2
2
n=1
(7)
Similarly RMS value of current =
_
I
0
2
+ _
I
n
2
2
n=1
(8)
Definition of power factor is
AVEARGE POWER
(RMS VOLTAGE)(RMS CURRENT)
=
(
I
1
V2
)Cos(
1

1
)
_
I
0
2
+ _
I
n
2
2
n=1
(10)
(
I
1
V2
)
_
I
0
2
+ _
I
n
2
2
n=1
is called as Distortion Factor and Cos(
1

1
) is called as Displacement Power
factor.But THD is given by TBBi =
__ In
2 S0
h=2
I1
.So Distortion factor =
1
1+(1H)
2
So by measurement, when truly sinusoidal P
1
=V
1
I
1
(COS(
1

1
) ). But when load current is non
sinusoidal, we have to multiply by a factor called distortion factor. So original power factor is
called displacement power factor and when we multiply it with distortion factor, we get True
power factor.
2.9 Stiff Systems and Soft Systems:
A stiff load in mechanical context means a system which does not undergo any type of
interaction or deformation when we apply forces to load.
11
In Electrical context, it means stiff system is the one that is stable or it can absorb distortions
when subjected to disturbances. Magical ratio, Isc/I
L
which is called as short circuit ratio helps in
defining this.
Higher the value of Isc compared to I
L
value, lower will be the impedance, hence only lower
voltage drop at Thevinins impedance of system. This causes lower voltage distortion, so system
can safely absorb more harmonic current distortion. Converse is the case when Isc/I
L
is less.
IEEE Std.519 table 10.3 is developed based on this concept.
2.10 IEEE Standard 519:
The Characteristic Short Circuit Ratio (I
sc
/I
l
) determines stiffness of system. Widely accepted
harmonic standard IEEE519 uses this ratio to specify THD indices [23]. As shown in Table 1
from IEEE519, as the stiffness of system increases, it is capable of absorbing more harmonic
current. For building power systems we normally encounter soft systems whose value of
I
sc
/I
l
<20. So the total acceptable current (demand) distortion allowed stands around 5% from
table. This is defined at point of common coupling (PCC), i.e., where utility is connected to
building system.
Table 2.1: Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems
(120V through 69000 V) [Source: 23]
12
Similarly IEEE519 defines voltage distortion also in Table 2.Since building power systems deal
with 11KV/415V in a typical Middle East context, acceptable value of Total Voltage Distortion
shall be less than 5%.
Table 2.2: Voltage Distortion Limits (Source : 23)
2.11 Parallel Resonance:
At parallel resonance, X
L
=X
C
at a specific frequency called resonance frequency (fp). So the
branch currents, I
L
and I
C
are equal in magnitude. Since they are 180
0
out of phase with each
other, they cause the circuit to look like high impedance.
X
L
=X
C
=>2*(pi)*f*L = 1/(2*(pi)*f*C) => fp = 1/(2*(pi)*SQRT(L*C)) (11)
From fig.;
Zp = X
C
(X
L
+R)/ X
C
+(X
L
+R) ~ X
L
2
/R ~ X
C
2
/R (12)
But Quality Factor (Q) is defined as Q= X
L
/R= X
C
/R & R<< X
L
QX
L
=Q X
C
(13)
So the Voltage (Vp) can be defined as product of impedance (Zp) and main current (I
h
),
Vp = (QX
L
) I
h
(14)
13
Above equation shows that during parallel resonance, a small harmonic current can cause a large
voltage drop, since it creates an open circuit condition of high impedance. This phenomenon is
called voltage magnification.
Similarly I
resonance
= Vp/ X
C
=(QX
C
I
h
)/ X
C
= QI
h
. So current in the capacitor bank is also
magnified Q times. This phenomenon is called current magnification.
Fig 2.4: Parallel Resonance Condition (Source: [12])
In power system of buildings, this condition is created when source transformer comes in parallel
with shunt capacitor bank and harmonic injecting load comes as shown in the Fig 2.4. This
condition causes capacitor failure, fuse blowing and transformer overheat.
2.12 Series Resonance:
Fig 2.5: Series Resonance Circuitry (Source: [2])
14
At series resonant frequency, voltage across Capacitor and Inductor are equal in magnitude.
Since these voltages are 180
0
out of phase with each other, they cancel out causing zero voltage
across the combination. This looks like a short during series resonance.
I
h =
V
h
/(X
L
+X
C
+R) & X
L
= X
C
(15)
= V
h
/R(Harmonic current flows freely in circuit only limited by
damping resistance).
So voltage across capacitor bank is given by,
Vc =( V
h
/R) X
C
=(X
C
/R) V
h
(16)
So voltage at power factor capacitor is magnified and is highly distorted.
2.13 Harmonic Mitigation Measures
Various measures that can be taken for reducing the effects of harmonics are given below;
1. Neutral Conductor Sizing:
As discussed earlier, harmonic currents behave like sequence currents. Triplen harmonics behave
like zero sequence currents. Hence they are flowing in neutral. Also they themselves are additive
on neutral. So the usual practice is to provide higher conductor size for neutral to accommodate
this additional current.
2. Line Reactors:
Main problem with power electronic converters is that they make the sinusoidal current wave
form discontinuous and adding line reactors at appropriate places makes line current continuous
and so harmonic distortion is reduced. Since X
L
= 2(PI){I for reactors, it offers high impedance
to flow of higher order harmonics and so voltage distortion is reduced.
3. Capacitor based Filters:
Filters acts as sink to higher order harmonics and thus eliminates them. Main element of filter is
capacitor which provide all the harmonic current needed by the nonlinear element and so
harmonics are not flowing back to the source. Main problem is that nonlinear loads freely absorb
15
all the harmonic energy needed by it as per load conditions from filter and this may overload the
capacitor. So an inductor is added to limit the current intake as per V=L
d
dt
. In general we can say
capacitor reduces voltage distortion and inductor reduces current distortion. A resistor is also
added to the filter which acts as a damping resistor which helps in reducing value of harmonic
resonance to acceptable limits.
4. Multi pulse techniques:
It can be shown that characteristic harmonics generated by VFD equipment is reduced if the
pulse number of their converter can be increased. Simplest of three phase converter configuration
is 6pulse.We can increase 6pulse converters to 12 pulse by connecting two six pulse bridges in
parallel and is phase shifted to each other by 30
0
.Limiting factor for using higher order pulse
configuration is its economic cost. In 18pulse configurations all lower order harmonics are
eliminated. But because of rising cost of using higher order harmonics, 12pulse is normally the
best compromise.
2.14 Types of Filters:
Filters are commonly used harmonic mitigation equipment in building power system due to its
performance and compactness. Filters can be classified into mainly passive and active types.
Types of passive filters are;
a) Series Passive Filter
b) Shunt Passive Filter
a) Series Passive Filter: Series passive filter is connected in series to the line equipment. It
eliminates only the harmonics to which it is tuned. Major disadvantage is that since it is in series,
Filter has to be rated to carry the rated load current.
16
Fig 2.6: Series Passive Filter [Source: 15]
b) Shunt Passive Filter: Shunt passive filter is connected in parallel to the bus to where
harmonics has to be eliminated. Mainly there are two types are available:
(1)Single tuned shunt filter
(2)High pass shunt filter
Fig 2.7: Single tuned shunt filter [Source: 16]
17
Fig 2.8: High Pass Shunt Filter (Source: [5])
Single tuned filters can eliminate a specific frequency to which it tuned while high pass filter
provides filtering to a corner frequency to which it is tuned and also to frequencies above this
corner frequency. Sharpness of filtering is reduced in high pass filter and so usual practice is to
use single tuned filters for lower order harmonics and high pass filter to higher order harmonics,
whose magnitudes are very less compared to fundamental frequency.
Fig 2.9: Active Filter (Source: [11])
18
DSP chips based shunt active filters can dynamically check the compensation required online
and can mitigate harmonics as per load conditions. This is done by injecting a current equal in
magnitude but opposite in phase to the harmonic current to be eliminated. Main limiting factor
for it not becoming popular as that of passive filters is that its associated high cost.
Active filters consists of mainly following components;
(1) Controller: It monitors the line current and line voltage at nonlinear load and then generates
the reference current that enable inverter to generate compensating current.
(2) Interface Reactor: It is the coupling point between non sinusoidal output of inverter and
sinusoidal voltage supply. It allows dc capacitor to be charged more than the line to line voltage
so as to maintain the inverter voltage (V
inv
) as required.
(3) Voltage Source Inverter: Inverter uses capacitor as the input supply and by PWM method
(Refer Chapter 3 for detailed explanation on PWM Technique) generates high frequency signals
.Power flow mechanism reveals its action in filtering harmonics which is described below:
In active filter mechanism, we can see that I
Q
+ I
R
= I
0
, i.e., source voltage (V
s
) only delivers
active current, I
R
and inverter supplies reactive part of the current, I
Q
.Vs is leading I
Q
by 90
0
since it is the reactive current. To happen this, voltage across L
f
(V
lf
) must be in phase with Vs.
Also, V
inv
= V
lf
+ V
s
,ie, what voltage source inverter required to produce the voltage which is
the scalar sum of V
lf
and V
s
.
Now take the case of V
inv
required to for compensating 3
rd
harmonic at nonlinear load. Here V
s
has no component since it is producing only fundamental current.
So V
inv
= V
lf
= 2*(pi)*(3f)* L
f
*I
3
2.15 Filter Design & IEEE 1531
IEEE std1531 [24] specifies following four essential steps in filter design;
Step 1 Determine harmonic filter bank KVAR size.
Step 2 Select initial harmonic filter tuning.
19
Step 3 Optimize the harmonic filter configuration to meet the harmonic guidelines.
Step 4 Determine the component ratings.
A brief methodology as applicable to my case study on the commercial bank building is given
below:
(1) Determine harmonic filter bank KVAR size:
In a building power system, at each Point of Common Coupling (PCC) a capacitor bank is added
to improve power factor to 0.95 as per utility regulations. For all types of filters, capacitors are
essential components to reduce voltage distortion. When we design filters, we first calculate
value of capacitor bank KVAR required to improve power factor and then same value of
capacitance is added to filter element. KVAR value is found out by equation;
(2) Select initial harmonic filter tuning:
Harmonic modeling software is used for finding out dominant harmonics at PCC bus. After this,
we add combination of various types of filters tuned to required harmonic value (h) as per
percentage of THD
i
value to the level that we need to mitigate to. Now we can calculate
elements of filter using following general equations;
X
c]]cctc =
Kv
LL,SYSTEM
Q
c]]
(17)
X
C = _
h
2
h
2
1
c]]cc
(18)
X
L =
h
2
(19)
= X
L
(20)
Explanation: IEEE1531 recommends to tune the filter from approximately 3% to 15% below the
desired frequency. So it helps in sufficient filtering, along with giving sufficient allowance for
detuning of the filter.
20
(3) Optimize the harmonic filter configuration to meet the harmonic guidelines:
We can now add the filters to the given system to model in the software and see that harmonic
levels are sufficiently reduced to meet the IEEE519 standards and do the optimization of filters.
(4) Determine the component ratings:
(a) Voltage Rating:
= _ I(b)
h=1
X
c
(b) (21)
It can be split into fundamental and harmonic components;
=
C
() +
C
(b) (22)
Where
C
() = I
]
()X
C
(23)
Where I
]
() =

L
C
(b) = _
]
(h)
h
n
(24)
(b) Determination of MVAR rating of filter:
tcd
=
V3
c
(25)
We can see that this value is greater than original rating of capacitor bank (at Step 1).
(c) Nominal Current Rating:
I
tcd
=
c
V3
c
(26)
(d) Checking of the Dielectric Heating of Capacitor acceptable:
Dielectric heating can be evaluated using following inequality constraint:
_ (b)
h
I(b) .S
tcd
(27)
21
If this inequality is satisfied, proposed filter design is satisfactory.
2.16 Conclusion:
Harmonics are very complex phenomenon and quantification of harmonic distortion is
not an easy task. However many international standards have been developed to give
necessary guidelines for mitigation of harmonics.
22
Chapter 3
Building Power Systems & Electronic
Loads
23
3.1 Introduction
In this chapter, the classifications of the main electronic loads are made and also discussed
internal mechanisms of devices that contribute to harmonic content. Also, the modern trends in
these devices are investigated for harmonic mitigation to comply with IEC product standards.
Harmonic spectra which are used for case study is presented as well.
3.2 Classification of Electronic Loads in Buildings
For modeling building power system, we need to classify the building non linear loads based on
their harmonic spectrum. It will simplify the modeling efforts to arrive at valid conclusion since
we are dealing with numerous equipments. Main categories of building electronic loads are:
1. Variable Frequency Drives In building, it is common to use VFD drives for almost every
motors due to reasons of energy efficiency. VFDs emit considerable harmonics.
2. UPS, Servers For a data center application like Bank, not only critical loads but also some
essential loads coming under UPS category. However highly reliable switching mechanisms like
IGBT are used here.
3. Computers, Printers, Fax machineThese office equipments draws nonlinear current not in
significant amounts but they also adds to some amount of harmonic distortion. When thousands
of such equipments are coming into the system, it is a cause of concern and to be modeled in the
modeling software.
4. Lighting electronic ballastsMagnetic ballasts used for lights are replaced nowadays with
electronic ballast for energy efficiency and also for dimming the lights for creating a pleasant
environment.
We will now analyze inside components of electronic loads and how these components are
responsible for harmonic distortion so that we can derive the harmonic spectrum of various
equipments.
24
3.3 Variable Frequency Drives (VFD):
Motors used in buildings have variable load requirement .At low loads, if motor runs at rated
voltage and rated speed, it is causing waste of energy. So VFDs are used, which as shown in
block diagram below has a Converter part which converts supply A.C voltage to D.C voltage, a
D.C bus(L,C elements) which stores energy and an inverter which supplies variable speed A.C
voltage to motor.
Fig 3.1 VFD Internal Details (Source: [9])
From Equations n=120f/p and V/f = k
1
= k
2
T (ndesired speed of motor, VSupply voltage, f
supply frequency, flux level, Tdesired torque, k
1
&, k
2
are constants) we can deduce the
following:
1. Change of speed need proportional change in frequency.
2. If frequency is changed, it affects flux, so a constant torque cannot be maintained and so to
maintain a constant torque, voltage also has to be changed proportionately. From motor load
characteristic curve, we can know how much torque is required to drive the motor at a particular
load. We will maintain this torque but at reduced speeds for low loads by increasing voltage
proportionately. Also increase in flux causes more magnetizing current and hence more iron
losses, so flux has to be kept within limits.
25
Also for starting, it has been found from currentspeed curves that, if we start motor at or below
2Hz, starting current will be only 1.5 times motor rated current. If we start at 50Hz, it takes 6
times the full load current. So VFDs change the frequency to 2Hz at starting without decrease in
starting torque required, i.e., it increases voltage correspondingly.
We can see how VFD achieves variable voltage and variable frequency. There are two methods:
(1) Pulse amplitude modulation
(2) Pulse width modulation.
In Pulse amplitude modulation, to keep V/f ratio constant, magnitude of D.C bus voltage is
changed by rectifier bridge for a change in voltage and for frequency control switching of
thyristors is changed in inverter bridge. But it has many disadvantages. So widely used method
is Pulse width modulation (PWM) especially Sinusoidal pulse width modulation
(SPWM),which will be examined in detail;
Here a pulse train is generated as gating signal to inverter thyristor bridge by following method:
A comparator generates gating signals to the thyristor bridge as shown in Fig 3.2 by comparing
sinusoidal wave which is called as a reference wave (with frequency f
r
) and a triangular wave
(with frequency f
c
) which is called as a carrier wave based on desired inverter switching
frequency.
Fig 3.2 PWM Comparator Circuitry
26
Fig 3.3 PWM Wave Form Triangle Intersection Principle (Source: [9])
If we analyze the waveforms in Fig 3.3, we can understand that at intersections of Vr (Reference
voltage) and Vc (carrier voltage), pulses are generated.V
AN
is the output when reference
waveform is greater than triangle wave form (for positive legs of thyristor bridge conduction).
V
BN
is the output when reference waveform, which is shifted 180, is greater than triangle wave
form. So V
AB
can be defined as V
AN
 V
BN
.
So the number of pulses per half cycle depends on carrier frequency (f
r
),which can be as
high as 5khz.Also pulse width varies as per amplitude of sine wave. Ratio( Vr/ Vc) is called
Modulation Index (m).By controlling m, we can control amplitude of output voltage. Maximum
value of m is 1 occurs when Vr = Vc. As the inverter output is very close to sine wave,
harmonics are minimum possible in the above configuration.
In our case study, VFDs are used for controlling various equipments like Chillers ,which consists
of major portion of the load (375kw for each chiller) and other part is for less load equipments
like Extract fans, Lifts etc categorized under MCC (motor control center). Increase of cost is a
27
major factor in obtaining less THD equipments. So a compromise between quality and cost is
considered for selecting Chiller and MCCs of THDs mentioned in the Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Harmonic Spectra of VFD Based Equipments
CHILLER
>12.5%
Harmonic
Order 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19
% Harmonic 0 9.3 4.9 0 5.2 4 0 1.4 1.2
MCC>7.5%
Harmonic
Order 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19
% Harmonic 0 5.6 2.9 0 3.1 2.4 0 0.9 0.7
3.4 UPS:
A block diagram of Online UPS is shown in fig 3.4. In simplest terms, AC supply is converted
into DC which is stored in batteries through a battery charger. As needed by load, DC is inverted
back to AC and fed to load. A DSP processor stores necessary algorithm to command PWM
processing [10].
Fig 3.4 UPS Internal Block Diagram
In UPS, inverter also does the power conditioning function as well. It means inverter
supplies/consumes reactive power required to keep power factor close to unity and also to
28
control the output voltage, means inverter does power conditioning function also. This effect is
created by series inductor (jwL) which is connected in series with supply voltage (Vs)source
which then comes parallel with inverter voltage source. Vi (inverter voltage) is determined by
PWM modulation index, m and battery voltage. Inverter supplies reactive power (Vi>Vs) for
under voltage and consumes reactive power (Vi<Vs) for overvoltage situations so that voltage is
regulated within limits. Shift angle () is determined by real power demanded by load as per
equation P=ViVsSin()/jwL
IEC 6100032 pressurizes manufacturers to reduce input harmonic currents ,so computer
related equipment manufacturers redesigned their SMPS (switch mode power supply units)
which is the integral part of computer related equipment to get at 100% load, the input current is
virtually harmonic free and power factor close to unity. These loads when work at less than
100% load lead to leading power factor scenarios. So to accommodate these leading power factor
scenarios, UPS manufacturers has redesigned inverter and filter compartments of ups to provide
a symmetrical ups capability circle diagram (ie,0.7 pf leading and 0.7 pf lagging ) as shown in
Fig 3.5.
Fig 3.5 Modern UPS Capability Diagram (Source : [17])
29
Aim of manufacturers to reduce THD to 3% to 5% and comply with standard. In our case study
scenario of 5% THD is considered and its Harmonic current spectra is given in Table 3.2
Table 3.2 Harmonic Spectra of UPS
UPS>5%
Harmonic
Order 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19
% Harmonic 0 4.4 1.7 0 1.3 0.8 0 0.6 0.6
3.5 Office Equipment Electronic Loads
Fig 3.6 Full Wave Bridge Rectifier of SMPS (Source: [18])
All electronic office equipments SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply) as an essential
component for their operation. Main part of SMPS is a full wave bridge rectifier as shown in Fig
3.6.Capacitors which is seen in figure is used for maintaining voltage near to peak value. These
capacitors do not contribute to improvement of power factor due to action of bridge rectifier. So
power factor to remain on low, i.e., 0.7. But IEC 6100032 (<16A, Class D) imposes stricter
limit on harmonics for manufacturers of these equipments. So an additional circuitry as shown in
Fig 3.7 is used for improving power factor and hence the harmonics is called as Continuous
Mode Boost Converter.
30
Fig 3.7 SMPS with PFC Circuitry (Source: [18])
As in Fig 3.7, Q1 is a MOSFET type switch, which is switched on and off continuously so that
inductor (L1) stores energy while MOSFET is on and while MOSFET is off, energy is released
so that we get a sine wave output. To make a perfect sine wave (so that voltage follows current in
a similar way), MOSFET gate signal is controlled by a PWM(Pulse Width Modulated) controller
whose mechanism can be understand from Fig 3.8.
Fig 3.8 PWM Waveform Processing (Source : [19])
To comply with IEC 6100032, manufacturers are forced to reduce the harmonic THD to low
values and here an average case of THD of 2.5% is considered. Detailed Harmonic current
spectrum is given in Table 3.3.
31
Table 3.3 Harmonic Spectra of SMPS Based Equipments
COMPUTERS
>2.5%
Harmonic
Order 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19
% Harmonic 2.1 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.7 0 0.4 0.4
3.6 Lighting Dimmer Loads:
Fig 3.9 Dimmer Drive Block Diagram (Source :[20])
A block diagram of Dimmer controlled LED(light emitting diode) lighting is shown in the fig
3.9. As can be seen in the figure, a DIACTRIAC combination is used in the first stage to phase
cut the wave as to the desired dimming voltage. RC phase shift is used to delay triggering the
gate to cathode voltage which is fed via diac to triac gating.
This output is fed to a current driver which gives constant current to LED. Control of this
current is achieved by two ways mentioned below;
(a) Analogue Control
In analogue control, it directly controls the driver current. If for e.g., for full illumination, driver
current required is 350ma, then it is reduced to 175ma for half illumination. But colour
temperature also get changed as the driver current is reduced so causes degradation of output. So
the better strategy is another method called PWM control.
(b) PWM Control
In PWM Control, amplitude of pulses is not changed, but the width of the pulses are changed. It
means depending on capacity of human eye to integrate the average amount of light in pulses
32
hence reduce the apparent brightness. For example, for 25% of illumination, LEDs are driven
with on time of pulses equal to 25% and off time of pulses equal to 75%, i.e., LEDs do not see a
constant current, but a continuous stream of current pulses.
Harmonics are considerably reduced in PWM kind of dimming which also helps
manufactures in complying with IEC 6100032 standard (<16A) of Class C equipment (since
P<25W) for recommended limits of voltage distortion of 3% to 5%.
Fig 3.10 Illustration of PWM Process in LED Drivers (Source :[20])
Considering in our case study, majority of the Dimmer loads do not follow latest PWM
technology, harmonic THD considered is high, i.e., around 7.5% and detailed Harmonic current
spectrum is given in table,
Table 3.4 Harmonic Spectra of Dimmer Drives
DIMMER
>7.5%
Harmonic
Order 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19
% Harmonic 5.6 3.4 2.6 0.8 1.7 1.3 0 0.9 0.6
33
3.7 Conclusion
Our analysis reveals that PWM in combination with high speed switching devices can eliminate
harmonics almost completely. But to restrict escalating rising cost, a costbenefit analysis has to
be made and choose the devices with lower harmonic spectrum as practical as possible.
34
5 Chapter 4
Mathematical Modeling of
Harmonics
35
4.1 Introduction
In this chapter, mathematical aspects behind complex harmonic modeling are detailed. History of
development of harmonic power theories are mentioned. A sample HPF modeling is done using
GAMS software.
4.2 Aims of Harmonic Modeling
The major aims of harmonic modeling are the following:
1. To measure the Voltage, Watt and Current of load components including harmonic
components.
2. To find out ways to improve power factor of system.
3. To filter out undesired harmonics using various types of filters.
We can start our analysis by seeing how harmonic current is generated. When a sinusoidal
supply is given to non sinusoidal components like VFDs (i.e., nonlinear load), current gets
distorted. This distorted current causes a non sinusoidal voltage drop across Source. Thus we
infer that this is caused by a non sinusoidal voltage felt by the nonlinear load or nonlinear load is
a source of nonlinear voltage. For the simple circuit, non sinusoidal voltage follows same
harmonic spectrum as that of harmonic orders that of current.
Now the question is how we can model the complex interaction of harmonic sources and
non harmonic sources together in the system. In recent years, a well developed view on this
aspect is developed. We will analyze some of the milestones in following sections.
4.3 Budeanus Distortion Power Concept:
In 1927, Professor Budeanu in his book titled, Reactive and Fictive Powers, has come up very
first with a mathematical expression for harmonic power. He stated that apparent power consists
of three terms:
1. Active power due to fundamentals and harmonics is:
P = _ v
Cos
n
=1
(28)
2. Reactive power due to fundamentals and harmonics is:
36
= _ v
in
n
=1
(29)
3. The reactive power interactions cause distortions in the wave form, which generated a
new type of power called distortion power. He developed an expression for distortion
power which is as follows:
2
= P
2
+
2
+
2
(30)
=
_
2
 P
2

2
(31)
Fig 4.1 Budeanus Power Triangle (Source: [27])
As shown from fig 4.1, P, Q
b
, D are mutually orthogonal.
Disadvantages of Budeanus method are mentioned below:
1. Linear method of adding reactances to get total Q
b
led to cancellation, for e.g., a series
branch of equal Inductance and capacitance are connected and linear addition of these
two (Q
L
Q
C
) leads to Q
b
value to zero. But if we think of physical phenomenon, energy is
flowing backward and forward from inductor and capacitor, i.e., oscillating not zero.
2. Even though proved based on well known mathematical formulation called Lagranges
identity, physical meaning of Distortion power, D is obscure and hence compensating
for this power is impossible.
37
4.4 Fryzes Current Source Concept:
Fryze in 1932 tried another approach based on harmonic current source. He proposed following
circuit model:
Fig 4.2 Fryzes Current Source Model (Source :[27])
As shown in fig 4.1, he divided circuit into two parallel branches, one consisting of active
current branch and other consisting of reactive current branch. He defined active branch
conductance (Gc) to the ratio of active currents to respective voltages:
C
=
1
=
h
=
P
2
=
(32)
Similarly reactive current branch is defined as (t) =
b
(t)
(t)
and is represented as current source
of what is termed as watt less current, i
b
. This is the first time harmonic source is represented as
a current source which became a standard in later years. i
a
& i
b
are orthogonal and so can be
represented as:
i
2
= i
2
+ i
b
2
(33)
So we can write apparent power, S as:
2
= P
2
+
P
2
(34)
Where, S=VI, P=VI
a
& Q
F
= VI
b
38
Disadvantages of Fryzes method are that quantity P & Q
F
do not correspond to actual real and
reactive powers and hence does not enable to design a compensator for compensating this.
Because of this difficulty, Mr.Czarmecki (1984) modified Fryzes current component equation to
include harmonic and non harmonic reactive components separately. His circuit model is
depicted in following Fig 4.3.
Fig 4.3 Czarmeckis Harmonic Model (Source: [27])
He postulated that
i
2
= i
2
+ i
s
2
+ i
2
(35)
Each term of this expression can be explained as follows:
1) i
a
active component just like Fryzes ,i.e.,i
=
C
u where
C
=
P
u
2
,
wbcrc P =
n
u
n
2
2) i
r
reactive current due to reactive elements i
r
= _ B
n
2
n
u
n
2
3) i
s
is the extra distortion component just like Budeanu predicted, but more fits to the
reality, i.e., i
s
= _(
n

c
)
2
u
n
2
So power equation can be modified to:
39
2
= P
2
+
s
2
+
2
(36)
Where Ds = Ui
s
; Q = Ui
r
4.5 IEEE Std 14592010 Method
This method also known as Emanuels method as this method is proposed by Emanuel(1995)
[27] [25].He considered the Fourier series assumption that voltage source and current source can
be split into harmonic components as follows;
2
=
1
2
+
h
2
& I
2
= I
1
2
+ I
h
2
(37)
where
h
2
=
h
2
h=1
I
h
2
= I
h
2
h=1
Now we can find out apparent power, S using usual formulae as follows:
2
= v
2
I
2
= v
1
2
+ v
2
(I
1
2
+ I
2
)
2
= (v
1
I
1
)
2
+ (v
1
I
)
2
+ (v
I
1
)
2
+ (v
)
2
2
=
1
2
+ B
I
2
+ B
V
2
+
H
2
Fundamental Apparent Power,
1
= v
1
I
1
= P
1
2
+
1
2
&
H
= P
H
2
+
H
2
Non Fundamental Apparent Power,
N
= (B
I
2
+ B
V
2
+
H
2
)
Where B
I
is called as Current Distortion Power, B
v
is called as Voltage Distortion Power,
H
is
called as Harmonic Apparent Power.
Since Total Harmonic Distortions, TBB
I
=
I
H
I
1
& TBB
v
=
V
H
V
1
, we can prove following
relationships;
B
I
=
1
(TBB
I
); B
V
=
1
(TBB
I
);
H
=
1
(IE
)(IE
)
40
4.6 Power Factor Compensation Method
By definition Power Factor, PF =
P
S
=
P
1
+P
H
_S
1
2
+S
N
2
Hence we are able to arrive value of compensating power, Q
c
required as a result of above
methods and running a Harmonic Power Flow (HPF).So from this we may assume that a single
capacitor in parallel would be fully compensated for harmonics. But this idea suffers a drawback
because of possibility of multiple resonance points. So we are using tuned LC branches so that
tuning is more accurate and at same time THD values are reduced.
4.7 Harmonic Power Flow Methodology
D. Xia & G.T Heydt on their classic paper [28] [29], formulated harmonic power flow for the
first time. Main idea behind it is formation of complete set of equations to describe complete
fundamental and harmonic power flow mechanisms of the system. First set of equations consists
of, as in conventional power flow, formation of fundamental power flow equations ,i.e., for nbus
power system 2(n1) equations are required. Second set of equations comes from Kirchoffs
Current Law (KCL) applied to buses to solve for q harmonic frequencies of interest,i.e.,2(n)(q)
equations. Third set of equations consists of again applying KCL but for this time running only
for harmonic producing buses ,say, m numbers and for fundamental current flow,i.e.,2m
equations. So total number of equations to solve are 2(n1)+2(n)(q)+2m equations.
For example ,for the system shown in fig 4.4,n=3,q=1 & m=1(since only 5
th
harmonic source at
bus2 is considered).so 2(n1)+2(n)(q)+2m = 2(31)+2(3)(1)+2(1) =12 equations for solving
variables v
2
(1)
, o
2
(1)
, o
3
(1)
, v
3
(1)
, v
1
(5)
, o
1
(5)
, v
2
(5)
, o
2
(5)
, v
3
(5)
, o
3
(5)
We will now demonstrate HPF [5] [8] [21] first without compensator branch for fig 4.4 and
calculate harmonic distortion. Then we will add compensator as in Fig 4.4 and resimulate
system for complete harmonic mitigation.
4.8 Harmonic Power Flow Simulation without Compensator Branch
Consider a simple 3bus system as shown in Fig 4.4, whose input parameters are given below:
(all units are standard SI units and in Per UnitPU)
41
Fig 4.4 3Bus System for Formulation of HPF
Voltage at slack bus(1) = V
1
<
1
=1<0
Voltage at Bus(2) = V
2
<
2
Voltage at Bus(3) = V
3
<
3
Bus1 Shunt Impedance, z
1 1
= j6 =>Shunt Admittance, y
11
=  j0.16
Bus1Bus2 Line Impedance,z
1 2
= j0.25 => Line Admittance,y
12
= 
j4
Bus2Bus3 Line Impedance,z
23
= j0.25 => Line Admittance,y
11
= 
j4
Total Power delivered by Non Linear Load at Bus2, P
d2
+ j Q
d2
= 0.6 + j 0.4
Lets assume Nonlinear Device current at Bus2 is given by following two equations (VI
relationship)=>
Real Part,u
r,2
(5)
= u.S[v
2
(1)
3
Cos[So
2
(1)
+ u.S[v
2
(5)
2
Cos[So
2
(5)
=K1
Imaginary Part,u
I,2
(5)
= u.S[v
2
(1)
3
in[So
2
(1)
+ u.S[v
2
(5)
2
in[So
2
(5)
=K2
42
Fundamental Line Admittance Matrix (without Compensator Branch,Bus3,ie,without applying Filter)
From KCL, considering I sign convention arbitrarily positive and entering towards Bus;
I
1
= V
1
y
11
+ (V1V2) y
12
I
2
= (V2V1)y
12
_
I
1
I
2
_
= j
y
11
+y
12
y
12
y
12
y
12
[ _
v
1
v
2
_
= _
j4.6 +j4
+j4 j4
_ _
v
1
v
2
_
So YMatrix is _
Y
11
Y
12
Y
21
Y
22
_ = _
j4.6 +j4
+j4 j4
_
Fundamental Power Flow Equations (without Compensator Branch,Bus3,ie,without applying
Filter)
P
I
= v
I
2
u
II
+ _ Y
In
v
I
v
n
N
n=1
n=I
Cos (0
In
+o
n
o
I
)
I
= v
I
2
B
II
 Y
In
v
I
v
n
N
n=1
n=I
in(0
In
+o
n
o
I
)
P
2
= u +Y
21
v
2
v
1
Cos(0
21
o
2
) = 4v
2
in(o
2
)
2
=  v
2
2
B
22
Y
21
v
2
v
1
in(0
21
o
2
) = +4v
2
2
 4v
2
Cos(o
2
)
For conservation of Power;
P
2
P
g2
 P
d2
= u => 4v
2
in(o
2
) + u.6 = u
2

g2

d2
= u
=>
+4v
2
2
 4v
2
Cos(o
2
) + u.4 = u
Harmonic Current Flow Equations (without Compensator Branch,Bus3,ie,without applying
Filter)
So YMatrix for 5
th
Harmonic is _
Y
11
(5)
Y
12
(5)
Y
21
(5)
Y
22
(5)
_ = _
ju.8S2 +ju.8
+ju.8 ju.8
_
5
th
Harmonic Current at Bus2, I
r,2
(5)
+ u
r,2
(5)
= _ Y
2,]
(5)
v
j
(5)
Cos[0
2,j
(5)
+ o
j
(5)
+ u
r,2
(5)
2
j=1
(real part)
= Y
2
()
v
()
Cos [0
2
()
+o
()
+ Y
22
()
v
2
()
Cos [0
22
()
+o
2
()
+ u
i,2
()
= u.8v
()
Cos [9u +o
()
+ u.8v
2
()
Cos [9u +o
2
()
+ u
i,2
()
43
= u.8v
1
(5)
in[o
1
(5)
+ u.8v
2
(5)
in[o
2
(5)
+ u
r,2
(5)
= u
5
th
Harmonic Current at Bus2 I
I,2
(5)
+ u
I,2
(5)
= _ Y
2,]
(5)
v
j
(5)
in[0
2,j
(5)
+ o
j
(5)
+ u
I,2
(5)
2
j=1
(imaginary)
= u.8v
()
in[9u +o
()
+ u.8v
2
()
in[9u +o
2
()
+ u
i,2
()
= u.8v
1
(5)
Cos[o
1
(5)
 u.8v
2
(5)
Cos[o
2
(5)
+ u
I,2
(5)
= u
Fundamental Current at Bus2 I
r,2
(1)
+ u
r,2
(1)
= _ Y
2,]
(1)
v
j
(1)
Cos[0
2,j
(1)
+ o
j
(1)
+ u
r,2
(1)
2
j=1
(real)
= Y
2
()
v
()
Cos [0
2
()
+o
()
+ Y
22
()
v
2
()
Cos [0
22
()
+o
2
()
+ u
i,2
()
= 4v
()
Cos [9u +o
()
+ 4v
2
()
Cos [9u +o
2
()
+ u
i,2
()
= 4v
1
(1)
in[o
1
(1)
+ 4v
2
(1)
in[o
2
(1)
+ u
r,2
(1)
= u
Fundamental Current at Bus2 I
I,2
(1)
+ u
I,2
(1)
= _ Y
2,]
(1)
v
j
(1)
in[0
2,j
(1)
+ o
j
(1)
+ u
I,2
(1)
2
j=1
(imaginary)
= 4v
()
in[9u +o
()
+ 4v
2
()
in[9u +o
2
()
+ u
i,2
()
= 4v
1
(1)
Cos[o
1
(1)
+ 4v
2
(1)
Cos[o
2
(1)
+ u
I,2
(1)
= u
5
th
Harmonic Current at Bus1 I
r,1
(5)
= _ Y
1,]
(5)
v
j
(5)
Cos[0
1,j
(5)
+ o
j
(5)
2
j=1
(real)
= Y
2
()
v
2
()
Cos [9u +o
2
()
+ Y
()
v
()
Cos [9u +o
()
= u.8v
2
()
in[o
2
()
+ u.8S2v
()
in[o
()
=0
5
th
Harmonic Current at Bus1 I
I,1
(5)
= _ Y
1,]
(5)
v
j
(5)
in[0
1,j
(5)
+ o
j
(5)
2
j=1
(imaginary)
= Y
2
()
v
2
()
in[9u +o
2
()
+ Y
()
v
()
in[9u +o
()
= u.8v
2
()
Cos [o
2
()
 u.8S2v
()
Cos [o
()
= 0
Modified Power Flow Equations to include harmonic components(without Compensator
Branch,Bus3,ie,without applying Filter)
P
2
(5)
= I
2
(5)
v
2
(5)
Cos(o
2
(5)
 y
2
(5)
)
44
= _K
1
2
+ K
2
2
v
2
(5)
Cos(o
2
(5)
 Atan_
K2
K
)
F
2,r
(5)
= Y
21
(5)
v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
Cos(0
21
(5)
 o
2
(5)
)
= u.8v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
Cos(9u  o
2
(5)
)
= u.8v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
in(o
2
(5)
)
2
(5)
= I
2
(5)
v
2
(5)
in(o
2
(5)
 y
2
(5)
)
= _K
1
2
+ K
2
2
v
2
(5)
in(o
2
(5)
 Atan_
K2
K
)
F
2,I
(5)
= (v
2
(5)
)
2
B
22
(5)
 Y
21
(5)
v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
in(0
21
(5)
 o
2
(5)
)
= u.8(v
2
(5)
)
2
 u.8 v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
in(9u  o
2
(5)
)
= u.8(v
2
(5)
)
2
 u.8 v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
Cos(o
2
(5)
)
For conservation of Power;
P
2
(1)
+ P
2
(5)
+ F
2,r
(1)
+ F
2,r
(5)
= u
2
(1)
+
2
(5)
+ F
2,I
(1)
+ F
2,I
(5)
= u
GAMS CODE for full system(without Compensator Branch,Bus3,ie,without applying Filter)
VARIABLES X1,X2,X3,X4,X5,X6,Z,K1,K2;
EQUATIONS EQ1,EQ2,EQ3,EQ4,EQ5,EQ6,EQ7,EQ8,EQ9,EQ10,OBJ;
EQ1..4*X2*SIN(X1)+0.6+SQRT(SQR(K1)+SQR(K2))*COS(X5ARCTAN(K2/K1))*X6+0.8*X6*X4*SIN(X5)=E=0;
EQ2..4*X2*X24*X2*COS(X1)+0.4+SQRT(SQR(K1)+SQR(K2))*SIN(X5ARCTAN(K2/K1))*X6+0.8*X6*X6
0.8*X6*X4*COS(X5)=E=0;
EQ3..0.8*X4*SIN(X3)+0.8*X6*SIN(X5)+SQRT(SQR(K1)+SQR(K2))*COS(X5ARCTAN(K2/K1))=E=0;
EQ4..0.8*X4*COS(X3)0.8*(X6)*COS(X5)+SQRT(SQR(K1)+SQR(K2))*SIN(X5ARCTAN(K2/K1))=E=0;
EQ5..0.8*X6*SIN(X5)+0.832*X4*SIN(X3)=E=0;
EQ6..0.8*X6*COS(X5)0.832*X4*COS(X3)=E=0;
EQ7.. K1+0.3*X2*X2*X2*COS(3*X1)+0.3*SQR(X6)*COS(3*X5)=E=0;
EQ8.. K2+0.3*X2*X2*X2*SIN(3*X1)+0.3*SQR(X6)*SIN(3*X5)=E=0;
EQ9..4*X2*SIN(X1)+(0.6*COS(X133.66)/(X2*COS(33.66)))=E=0;
EQ10..44*X2*COS(X1)+(0.6*SIN(X126.56)/(X2*COS(33.66)))=E=0;
45
X1.l=0;X2.l=0.9;X3.l=0.1;X4.lo=0.001;X5.l=0.1;X6.l=0.01;K2.L=.01;K1.Lo=.02;
OBJ..Z=E=0;
MODEL LPKKT1 /OBJ,EQ1,EQ2,EQ3,EQ4,EQ5,EQ6,EQ7,EQ8,EQ9,EQ10/;
SOLVE LPKKT1 USING dnlp minimizing Z;
GAMS OUTPUT for full system(without Compensator Branch,Bus3,ie,without applying
Filter)
LOWER LEVEL UPPER MARGINAL
 VAR X1 INF 0.180 +INF .
 VAR X2 INF 0.868 +INF .
 VAR X3 INF 19.398 +INF .
 VAR X4 0.001 0.140 +INF .
 VAR X5 INF 0.549 +INF .
 VAR X6 INF 0.146 +INF .
 VAR Z INF . +INF .
 VAR K1 0.020 0.168 +INF .
 VAR K2 INF 0.107 +INF .
Distortion Calculation for full system(without Compensator Branch,Bus3,ie,without applying
Filter)
Fundamental line current,I
12
(1)
= (v
2
(1)
 v
1
(1)
)y
12
(1)
=(0.868<10.32 1<0)*4<90 = 0.84<43.48
Harmonic line current, I
12
(5)
= (v
2
(5)
 v
1
(5)
)y
12
(5)
= (0.1468<31.47 0.140<1111.98)*0.8<90 = 0.15<85
Current Distortion,TBB
I
=
I
2
()
I
2
()
 uu = 0.15*100/0.84 = 17.85%
(From Budeanus method) Apparent Power, = vI =
_
(v
2
(1)
)
2
+ (v
2
(5)
)
2

_
(I
12
(1)
)
2
+ (I
12
(5)
)
2
=(u.868)
2
+ (u.46)
2
 (u.84)
2
+ (u.)
2
= 0.73
Active Fundamental Power, P
2
()
= u.6
Active Harmonic Power, P
2
(5)
= v
2
(5)
I
2
(5)
Cos[0
2
(5)
= u.46  u.  Cos(S.4S) = .uS
Total Active Power ,P= P
2
(1)
+ P
2
(5)
= 0.613
46
Reactive Fundamental Power,
2
()
= u.4
Reactive Harmonic Power,
2
(5)
= v
2
(5)
I
2
(5)
in[0
2
(5)
= u.46  u.  in(S.4S) = .u7
Total Reactive Power ,Q=
2
(1)
+
2
(5)
= 0.3825
So Distortion Power, D =
2
 (P
2
+
2
) = u.7S
2
 (u.6S
2
+ u.S82
2
) = 0.207
4.9 Harmonic Power Flow Simulation with Compensator Branch
Fundamental Line Admittance Matrix (with Compensator Branch,Bus3,ie,with applying Filter)
Y Matrix is =_
Y
11
Y
12
Y
13
Y
21
Y
22
Y
31
Y
32
Y
23
Y
33
_ = _
j4.6 j4 u
j4 j8
u j4
j4
j4
_
Fundamental Power Flow Equations (with Compensator Branch,Bus3,ie,with applying Filter)
P
I
= v
I
2
u
II
+ _ Y
In
v
I
v
n
N
n=1
n=I
Cos (0
In
+o
n
o
I
)
I
= v
I
2
B
II
 Y
In
v
I
v
n
N
n=1
n=I
in(0
In
+o
n
o
I
)
P
2
= u +Y
21
v
2
v
1
Cos(0
21
o
2
) + Y
23
v
2
v
3
Cos(0
23
+o
3
o
2
) & P
2
P
g2
 P
d2
= u
From above two equations=> 4v
2
in(o
2
) 4v
2
v
3
in(o
3
o
2
) + u.6 = u
P
3
= u +Y
23
v
2
v
3
Cos(9u +o
2
o
3
) & P
3
P
g3
 P
d3
= u
From above two equations=> 4v
2
v
3
in(o
2
o
3
) = u
2
=  v
2
2
B
22
Y
21
v
2
v
1
in(0
21
o
2
) Y
23
v
2
v
3
in(0
23
+o
3
o
2
) &
2

g2

d2
= u
From above two equations=>+8v
2
2
 4v
2
Cos(o
2
) +4v
2
v
3
Cos(o
3
o
2
) + u.4 = u
Harmonic Current Flow Equations (with Compensator Branch,Bus3,ie,with applying Filter)
So YMatrix for 5
th
Harmonic is _
Y
11
(5)
Y
12
(5)
Y
13
(5)
Y
21
(5)
Y
22
(5)
Y
31
(5)
Y
32
(5)
Y
23
(5)
Y
33
(5)
_ = _
ju.8S2 ju.8 u
ju.8 j.6
u ju.8
ju.8
ju.8
_
47
5
th
Harmonic Current at Bus2 I
r,2
(5)
+ u
r,2
(5)
= _ Y
2,]
(5)
v
j
(5)
Cos[0
2,j
(5)
+ o
j
(5)
+ u
r,2
(5)
2
j=1
(real)
= Y
2
()
v
()
Cos [0
2
()
+o
()
+ Y
22
()
v
2
()
Cos [0
22
()
+o
2
()
+Y
2S
()
v
S
()
Cos [0
2S
()
+o
S
()
+ u
i,2
()
= u.8v
1
(5)
in[o
1
(5)
+ .6v
2
(5)
in[o
2
(5)
 u.8v
3
(5)
in[o
3
(5)
+ u
r,2
(5)
= u
5
th
Harmonic Current at Bus2 I
I,2
(5)
+ u
I,2
(5)
= _ Y
2,]
(5)
v
j
(5)
in[0
2,j
(5)
+ o
j
(5)
+ u
I,2
(5)
2
j=1
(imaginary)
= u.8v
1
(5)
Cos[o
1
(5)
 .6v
2
(5)
Cos[o
2
(5)
+ u.8v
3
(5)
Cos[o
3
(5)
+ u
I,2
(5)
= u
Fundamental Current at Bus2 I
r,2
(1)
+ u
r,2
(1)
= _ Y
2,]
(1)
v
j
(1)
Cos[0
2,j
(1)
+ o
j
(1)
+ u
r,2
(1)
2
j=1
(real)
= Y
2
()
v
()
Cos [0
2
()
+o
()
+ Y
22
()
v
2
()
Cos [0
22
()
+o
2
()
+ Y
2S
()
v
S
()
Cos [0
2S
()
+o
S
()
+ u
i,2
()
= 4v
1
(1)
in[o
1
(1)
+ 8v
2
(1)
in[o
2
(1)
 4v
3
(1)
in[o
3
(1)
+ u
r,2
(1)
= u
Fundamental Current at Bus2 I
I,2
(1)
+ u
I,2
(1)
= _ Y
2,]
(1)
v
j
(1)
in[0
2,j
(1)
+ o
j
(1)
+ u
I,2
(1)
2
j=1
(imaginary)
= Y
2
()
v
()
in[0
2
()
+o
()
+ Y
22
()
v
2
()
in[0
22
()
+o
2
()
+ Y
2S
()
v
S
()
in[0
2S
()
+o
S
()
+ u
i,2
()
= 4v
1
(1)
Cos[o
1
(1)
+ 8v
2
(1)
Cos[o
2
(1)
+ 4v
3
(1)
Cos[o
3
(1)
+ u
I,2
(1)
= u
5
th
Harmonic Current at Bus1 I
r,1
(5)
= _ Y
1,]
(5)
v
j
(5)
Cos[0
1,j
(5)
+ o
j
(5)
2
j=1
(real)
= Y
2
()
v
2
()
Cos [9u +o
2
()
+ Y
()
v
()
Cos [9u +o
()
= u.8v
2
()
in[o
2
()
+ u.8S2v
()
in[o
()
= u
5
th
Harmonic Current at Bus1 I
I,1
(5)
= _ Y
1,]
(5)
v
j
(5)
in[0
1,j
(5)
+ o
j
(5)
2
j=1
(imaginary)
= Y
2
()
v
2
()
in[9u +o
2
()
+ Y
()
v
()
in[9u +o
()
= u.8v
2
()
Cos [o
2
()
 u.8S2v
()
Cos [o
()
= u
5
th
Harmonic Current at Bus3 I
r,3
(5)
= _ Y
3,]
(5)
v
j
(5)
Cos[0
3,j
(5)
+ o
j
(5)
2
j=1
(real)
= Y
S
()
v
()
Cos [0
S
()
+o
()
+ Y
S2
()
v
2
()
Cos [0
S2
()
+o
2
()
+ Y
SS
()
v
S
()
Cos [0
SS
()
+o
S
()
= u.8v
2
()
in[o
2
()
+ u.8v
S
()
in[o
S
()
= u
48
5
th
Harmonic Current at Bus3 I
I,3
(5)
= _ Y
3,]
(5)
v
j
(5)
in[0
3,j
(5)
+ o
j
(5)
2
j=1
(imaginary)
= u.8v
2
(5)
Cos[o
2
(5)
 u.8v
3
(5)
Cos[o
3
(5)
= u
Modified Power Flow Equations to include harmonic components(with Compensator
Branch,Bus3,ie,with applying Filter)
P
2
(5)
= I
2
(5)
v
2
(5)
Cos(o
2
(5)
 y
2
(5)
)
= _K
1
2
+ K
2
2
v
2
(5)
Cos(o
2
(5)
 Atan_
K2
K
)
F
2,r
(5)
= Y
21
(5)
v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
Cos(0
21
(5)
 o
2
(5)
)
= u.8v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
Cos(9u  o
2
(5)
)
= u.8v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
in(o
2
(5)
)
2
(5)
= I
2
(5)
v
2
(5)
in(o
2
(5)
 y
2
(5)
)
= _K
1
2
+ K
2
2
v
2
(5)
in(o
2
(5)
 Atan_
K2
K
)
F
2,I
(5)
= (v
2
(5)
)
2
B
22
(5)
 Y
21
(5)
v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
in(0
21
(5)
 o
2
(5)
)
= u.8(v
2
(5)
)
2
 u.8 v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
in(9u  o
2
(5)
)
= u.8(v
2
(5)
)
2
 u.8 v
2
(5)
v
1
(5)
Cos(o
2
(5)
)
For conservation of Power;
P
2
(1)
+ P
2
(5)
+ F
2,r
(1)
+ F
2,r
(5)
= u
2
(1)
+
2
(5)
+ F
2,I
(1)
+ F
2,I
(5)
= u
GAMS CODE for full system(with Compensator Branch,Bus3,i.e.,with applying Filter)
VARIABLES X1,X2,X3,X4,X5,X6,X7,X8,X9,X10,K2,K1,Z;
EQUATIONS EQ1,EQ2,EQ3,EQ4,EQ5,EQ6,EQ7,EQ8,EQ9,EQ10,EQ11,EQ12,EQ13,EQ14,OBJ;
EQ1.. 4*X2*Sin(X1)4*X2*X4*Sin(X3X1)+SQRT(SQR(K1)+SQR(K2))*COS(X7ARCTAN(K2/K1))*X80.8*X8*X6*SIN(X5X7)
0.8*X8*X10*SIN(X9X7)=e= 0.6;
EQ2.. (4*X2*X4*SIN(X1X3))=e= 0;
49
EQ3.. 8*SQR(X2)4*X2*COS(X1)4*X2*X4*COS(X3X1)+SQRT(SQR(K1)+SQR(K2))*SIN(X7
ARCTAN(K2/K1))*X8+0.8*X8*X6*COS(X5X7)+0.8*X8*X10*COS(X9X7)=e= 0.4;
EQ4.. 4*X4*X44*X2*X4*COS(X1X3)=e=0.15;
EQ5..0.8*X6*SIN(X5)+1.6*X8*SIN(X7)0.8*X10*SIN(X9)+SQRT(SQR(K1)+SQR(K2))*COS(X7ARCTAN(K2/K1))=e= 0;
EQ6..0.8*X6*COS(X5)1.6*X8*COS(X7)+0.8*X10*COS(X9)+SQRT(SQR(K1)+SQR(K2))*SIN(X7ARCTAN(K2/K1))=e= 0;
EQ7..0.832*X6*SIN(X5)0.8*X8*SIN(X7)=E=0;
EQ8..0.832*X6*COS(X5)+0.8*X8*COS(X7)=E=0;
EQ9..0.8*X8*SIN(X7)+0.8*X10*SIN(X9)=E=0;
EQ10..0.8*X8*COS(X7)0.8*X10*COS(X9)=E=0;
EQ11..K1+0.3*X2*X2*X2*COS(3*X1)+0.3*SQR(X8)*COS(3*X7)=E=0;
EQ12.. K2+0.3*X2*X2*X2*SIN(3*X1)+0.3*SQR(X8)*SIN(3*X7)=E=0;
EQ13..8*X2*SIN(X1)4*X4*SIN(X3)+(0.6*COS(X133.66)/(X2*COS(33.66)))=E=0;
EQ14..4+8*X2*COS(X1)4*X4*COS(X3)+(0.6*SIN(X126.56)/(X2*COS(33.66)))=E=0;
X1.l=0;X2.l=0.9;X3.l=0;X4.l=0.9;X4.up=1.0;X5.l=0;X6.lo=0.0001;X7.l=0;X8.lo=0.0001;X9.l=0;X10.lo=0.0001;K1.L=.2;K2.L=0.001;
OBJ.. Z =E= 0;
MODEL LPKKT /OBJ,EQ1,EQ2,EQ3,EQ4,EQ5,EQ6,EQ7,EQ8,EQ9,EQ10,EQ11,EQ12,EQ13,EQ14/;
SOLVE LPKKT USING dnlp minimizing Z;
GAMS OUTPUT for full system(with Compensator Branch,Bus3,ie,with applying Filter)
LOWER LEVEL UPPER MARGINAL
 VAR X1 INF 0.164 +INF .
 VAR X2 INF 0.917 +INF .
 VAR X3 INF 0.164 +INF .
 VAR X4 INF 0.956 1.000 .
 VAR X5 INF 2.064 +INF .
 VAR X6 1.0000E4 1.0000E4 +INF 0.021
 VAR X7 INF 2.064 +INF .
 VAR X8 1.0000E4 1.0400E4 +INF .
 VAR X9 INF 2.064 +INF .
 VAR X10 1.0000E4 1.0400E4 +INF .
 VAR K2 INF 0.109 +INF .
 VAR K1 INF 0.204 +INF .
50
 VAR Z INF . +INF .
We can see that after applying improvement compensator, Voltage at nonlinear bus significantly
improved due to power factor improvement. During simulation, Capacitor MVAR value
increased gradually and at one point, harmonic voltages are seen diminishing to negligible value
and so distortion to negligible value. Hence compensator improves power factor as well mitigate
harmonics.
4.10 Conclusion
We have seen the historical development of harmonic power flow theory. Simulation done for
sample system with compensator and also without compensator prove that compensator addition
mitigates harmonics.
51
6
7
8
9
10 Chapter 5
Simulation of a Commercial Bank Building
52
5.1 Introduction
In this chapter, we will analyze load profile of a typical high rise bank building of 25 floors and
to be modeled in the harmonic modeling software. Where ever at the point of common coupling
(PCC), harmonic distortion stipulated by IEEE 519 exceeds, we will go for Filter design as per
IEEE 1531.
5.2 Description of the Case Study
Case study for this project consists of a Commercial Bank installation at Middle East. This is a
twenty five floors building (Ground floor + 24 floors). There are four step down transformers
(11KV/415V) each of capacity 1500 KVA feeding directly from utility. All transformers are
located at ground floor transformer room. Bus duct risers are connecting various floor level
panels to ground floor transformers. Chillers which consists of major portion of building, is
located at roof floor. Since this is a bank, to ensure high reliability of supply, essential loads have
a generator backup. Server loads and other critical loads are connected through UPSs located at
various floors. Some of the lighting is controlled through dimmers partly attributed to green
energy drive and partly due to attracting of customers by creating various light scenes.
5.3 Load Profile Analysis:
Total connected load (TCL) of the building is 5200KW.Detailed breakup of the type of loads
are given in following table:
Table 5.1 Connected Load Schedule
Sl. No. Category KW
1 Chiller 1500
2 MCC 800
3 UPS 630
4 Dimmer 495
5 Computer, Printer, Fax Machine 630
6 Linear Loads 1145
TOTAL 5200
53
It has been found out that 77% Loads are Non Linear Loads and only 23% are Linear Loads. A
detailed pie chart will give a more visual picture of the scenario as in Fig 5.1.
Fig 5.1 Building Load Profile
Fig 5.2 Single Line Diagram of the Building
29%
15%
12%
10%
12%
22%
LOAD PROFILE OF BUILDING
1 Chiller 2 MCC 3 UPS 4 Dimmer 5 Computer 6 Liner
54
There are four transformers as can be seen from SLD(Fig 5.2) feeding from utility. Detailed load
breakup of each transformer are given in simulation section below.
5.4 Short Circuit Ratio Calculation
Transformers used are of rating 1500 KVA with a percentage impedance of 5.75%.Utilty
impedance can be taken as small compared to Transformer Impedance.
Full Load Current of Transformer,I
L
=
1500 X 1000
V3 X 415
= 2u89.2 Amps
Short Circuit Current, I
SC
=
I
L
%Z
=
2089.2
5.75
= S6SS Amps
Short Circuit Ratio,
I
5C
I
L
=
36335
2089.2
= 7.S9 < 2u
So as per IEEE 519, Table 10.3 Total Harmonic distortion allowed is 5%.
5.5 Simulation of System
Let us start simulation of system in modeling softwareInputs and outputs are given below
beginning from Transformer1;
5.5.1 Transformer1 Simulation (Without & With Filter)
Table 5.2 Transformer1 Loading Details
Sl.
No
Type of Load KW
rating
KVAR rating KVA rating Power
Factor
1 CHILLER1 375 282 470 0.80
2 MCC1 100 61 120 0.85
3 DIMMER1 220 136 260 0.85
4 COMPUTER LOADS1 330 255 420 0.79
5 LINEAR LOADS 250 120 280 0.9
6 CAPACITOR BANK  500  
7 TRANSFORMER LOADING
AFTER P.F CORRECTION
(based on NR Power Flow)
1275 450 1350 0.94
55
Power factor at Bus feeding has improved from 0.79 to 0.94 after using 500 KVAR capacitor
bank.
Now running Harmonic Power Flow for Transformer1, we get THD values at Transformer1
busThey are THD
I
= 13.6% &THD
V
= 5.53%.
Detailed breakup of Resultant harmonic spectrum at Transformer bus is given as below:
Fig 5.3 Harmonic Model at Transformer1
Table 5.3 Harmonic THD Values for Transformer1 Before Applying Filter
180Hz 300Hz 420Hz 540Hz 660Hz 780Hz 1020Hz 1140Hz Total
THD
I
(%) 0 10.15 6.32 0 1.5 0.9 0.24 0.18 13.6
THD
V
(%) 1.68 4.47 3.57 .07 1.13 0.69 0.19 0.14 5.53
56
Fig 5.4 Transformer1 harmonics Current versus Frequency
Fig 5.5 Transformer1 harmonics Voltage versus Frequency
Impedance scan analysis shows Parallel resonance at 420Hz as in fig 5.6 below:
Fig 5.6 Transformer1 harmonics Impedance versus Frequency
57
Since current and voltage distortions exceeds 5% suggested by IEEE519,we go for filtering
bearing in mind to use minimum amount of filtering to reduce costs;
Fig 5.7 Harmonic Model at Transformer1 With Filter
Fig 5.8 Transformer1 harmonics Impedance versus Frequency After Filter
As shown in Fig 5.7, we apply 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic filter by dividing filter MVARs in the
approximate ratio of 60:40. As can be seen from Fig 5.7, distortion values reduced to THD
I
=
1.67% & THD
V
= 2.22% which is below the acceptable value of 5%. Harmonic resonance also
has come down to acceptable values as shown in Fig 5.8.
58
5.5.2 Transformer2 Simulation (Without & With Filter)
Table 5.4 Transformer2 Loading Details
Sl. No Type of Load KW rating KVAR rating KVA rating Power
Factor
1 CHILLER2 750 464 880 0.85
2 MCC2 200 124 240 0.85
3 DIMMER2 100 62 120 0.85
4 COMPUTER
LOADS2
100 48 110 0.90
5 LINEAR LOADS 150 73 170 0.90
6 CAPACITOR
BANK
 350  
7 TRANSFORMER
LOADING AFTER
P.F
CORRECTION
(based on NR
Power Flow)
1300 510 1410 0.93
Power factor at Bus feeding has improved from 0.86 to 0.93 after using 350 KVAR capacitor
bank. When running Harmonic Power Flow for Transformer2, we get THD values at
Transformer2 busThey are THD
I
= 21.6% &THD
V
= 8.42%.
Detailed breakup of Resultant harmonic spectrum at Transformer bus is given below:
Table 5.5 Harmonic THD Values for Transformer2 Before Applying Filter
180Hz 300Hz 420Hz 540Hz 660Hz 780Hz 1020Hz 1140Hz Total
THD
I
(%) 0 13.6 17.8 0 0.15 0.4 0.24 0.22 21.6
THD
V
(%) 0.84 5.25 7.59 0.01 0.02 0.36 0.31 0.32 8.42
59
Fig 5.9 Harmonic Model at Transformer2
Fig 5.10 Transformer2 harmonics Current versus Frequency
60
Fig 5.11 Transformer2 harmonics Voltage versus Frequency
Impedance scan analysis shows Parallel resonance at 420Hz as in diagram below;
Fig 5.12 Transformer2 harmonics Impedance versus Frequency
61
Fig 5.13 Harmonic Model at Transformer2 With Filter
Fig 5.14 Transformer2 harmonics Impedance versus Frequency With Filter
As shown in fig 5.13 ,we apply 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic filter by dividing filter MVARs in the
approximate ratio of 50:50 .As can be seen from fig 5.13, distortion values reduced to THD
I
=
4.34% &THD
V
= 3.10% which is below the acceptable value of 5%. Harmonic resonance also
has come down to acceptable values as shown in fig 5.14.
62
5.5.3 Transformer3 Simulation (Without & with Filter)
Table 5.6 Transformer3 Loading Details
Sl. No Type of Load KW rating KVAR rating KVA rating Power
Factor
1 MCC3 400 120 420 0.95
2 UPS 630 305 700 0.90
3 DIMMER3 50 31 60 0.85
4 LINEAR LOADS 220 106 240 0.90
5 CAPACITOR
BANK
 275  
6 TRANSFORMER
LOADING AFTER
P.F
CORRECTION
(based on NR
Power Flow)
1300 380 1360 0.96
Power factor at Bus feeding has improved from 0.91 to 0.96 after using 350 KVAR capacitor
bank.
Now running Harmonic Power Flow for Transformer3,we get THD values at Transformer2
busThey are THD
I
= 8.80% &THD
V
= 3.97%.
Detailed breakup of Resultant harmonic spectrum at Transformer bus is given as below:
Table 5.7 Harmonic THD Values for Transformer3 Before Applying Filter
180Hz 300Hz 420Hz 540Hz 660Hz 780Hz 1020Hz 1140Hz Total
THD
I
(%) 0 7.45 3.63 0 0.14 0.17 0.15 0.15 8.80
THD
V
(%) 0.40 3.27 2.24 0.01 0.01 0.17 0.21 0.23 3.97
63
Fig 5.15 Harmonic Model at Transformer3
Fig 5.16 Transformer3 harmonics Current versus Frequency
64
Fig 5.17 Transformer3 harmonics Voltage versus Frequency
Fig 5.18 Transformer3 harmonics Impedance versus Frequency
65
Fig 5.19 Harmonic Model at Transformer3 With Filter
Fig 5.20 Transformer3 harmonics Impedance versus Frequency
As shown in Fig 5.19, we apply 5
th
harmonic filter by replacing power factor capacitor. As can
be seen from Fig 5.19, distortion values reduced to THD
I
= 1.89% & THD
V
= 2% which is below
the acceptable value of 5%. Harmonic resonance also has come down to acceptable values as
shown in Fig 5.20.
66
5.5.4 Transformer4 Simulation (Without & With Filter)
Table 5.8 Transformer4 Loading Details
Sl.
No
Type of Load KW rating KVAR rating KVA rating Power
Factor
1 CHILLER3 400 232 460 0.86
2 MCC4 100 61 120 0.85
3 DIMMER4 125 77 150 0.85
4 COMPUTER
LOADS3
200 97 220 0.90
5 LINEAR LOADS 500 242 560 0.90
6 CAPACITOR
BANK
 300  
6 TRANSFORMER
LOADING AFTER
P.F
CORRECTION
(based on NR
Power Flow)
1325 460 1400 0.95
Power factor at Bus feeding has improved from 0.88 to 0.95 after using 300 KVAR capacitor
bank.
Now running Harmonic Power Flow for Transformer3, we get THD values at Transformer2
busThey are THD
I
= 8.36% &THD
V
= 4.07%.
Detailed breakup of Resultant harmonic spectrum at Transformer bus is given below:
67
Fig 5.21 Harmonic Model at Transformer4
Fig 5.22 Transformer4 harmonics Current versus Frequency
68
Fig 5.23 Transformer4 harmonics Voltage versus Frequency
Fig 5.24 Transformer4 harmonics Impedance versus Frequency
Table 5.9 Harmonic THD Values for Transformer4 Before Applying Filter
180Hz 300Hz 420Hz 540Hz 660Hz 780Hz 1020Hz 1140Hz Total
THD
I
(%) 0 6.60 1.69 0 3.74 1.53 0.29 0.20 8.36
THD
V
(%) 1.38 3.05 0.82 0.06 2.67 1.27 0.29 0.20 4.07
69
Fig 5.25 Harmonic Model at Transformer4 With Filter
Fig 5.26 Transformer4 harmonics Impedence versus Frequency After Filter
70
As shown in Fig 5.25, we apply 5
th
harmonic filter by replacing power factor capacitor. The
distortion values reduced to THD
I
= 2.35% &THD
V
= 2.45% which is below the acceptable value
of 5%. Harmonic resonance also has come down to acceptable values as per Fig 5.26.
5.6 Conclusion
Results of simulation show that in building power systems dominant harmonics are 5
th
and 7
th
.
So widely used filters are single tuned 5
th
and 7
th
order filters. It is found that higher order
harmonics are not very dominant and also they get partially removed by 5
th
and 7
th
order filters
and overall results comply with IEEE519.Hence considering cost reduction aspects, high pass
filters for eliminating higher order harmonics not considered.
71
Chapter 6
Conclusions and Further Work
72
6.1 Final Discussion
This dissertation investigated the methods of quantification of harmonics so as to develop
models for harmonic study. Further analysis of these models helped in ways for mitigation of
harmonics like use of passive filters.
Main findings of this dissertation can be summarised as follows;
1. Harmonics can be quantified by two main indices, THD
v
and THD
i
. IEEE519 imposes limits
on harmonics based on these parameters.
2. Series resonances and Parallel resonances occurs in circuits and causes voltage and current
amplification, hence damage to equipments. But this can be limited to low values by careful
design of filters and its Q value.
3.Pulse Width Modulation(PWM) based technologies reduces THD (Total Harmonic Distortion)
levels to minimum possible levels but with an increase in cost factor.
4.In Buildings, nonlinear loads occupy significant portion of total loads and involves many
smaller loads. So we have to aggregate the smaller loads in groups in a way to preserve their
phase angle identities. Larger loads can be modelled individually.
5.Active Filters and Passive filters are widely used in the mitigation of harmonics. For buildings,
passive filters are normally used owing to cost factor. Design of passive filters should comply to
IEEE1531.A filter tuned for a particular harmonic can ward off also neighbouring harmonics to
some extent. This property is used for minimization of number of filters.
6.Power flow mechanisms of harmonic loads is a very complex process. Simulation done for an
example 3bus system reveals this process.
6.2 Further Works
Doin! "rmoni# Po$er %lo$ &imultion ' open& up (or n in)ui&itive lerner mn* re& o( (urther
re&er#h on #ompen&tor +e&i!n n+ it& optimi,tion
L!rn!e multiplier te#hni)ue .7/.26/ o( optimi,tion i& mo&t $i+el* u&e+ &in#e $e re +elin! $ith
nonliner &*&tem o( e)ution& 0&i# i+e 1ehin+ it #n 1e outline+ & (ollo$&2
73
1. Formation of Objectives : Our aim is negotiating a tradeoff between Cost of Filter and
Harmonic Distortion reduction. So our objectives are two folds, first one for minimising
cost of filter(i.e. Minimize Filter Cost Function, say C(U) since cost varies as a function
of filter MVAR value, U).Second one is with introduction of a penalty function, value of
which is small when THD value is away from its limit(as per IEEE519) and larger when
THD value is close to its limit, i.e., C
p
(THD).So we get our objective as [26]=>C(U)+
C
p
(THD).
2. Formation of Constraints : As we are bounded by power flow mechanisms happening
inside the system, we have two constraints best describes this. one is Harmonic Power
Flow Equations, i.e., F(v,U)=0 and other is THD mechanism (as we know THD is ratio
of Harmonic voltage/current to Fundamental voltage/current) described by THD =g(v).
3. Formation of Lagrange Equations : by combining equations of (1) &(2) steps, and
adding Lagrange multiplier, we get; [26]
L(v, 0, TBB, , ) = C(u) + C
P
(IE) + F(v, 0) + (TBB  g(v))
(Notewe have to expand as per system, each term of equation
for eg F(v, 0) = 
1
] _
F(v
(1)
, 0)
F(v
()
, 0)
_)
4. Solution of this will iteratively give the best value of U of the filter.
74
References
75
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76
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