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1.

Earthworks
Determination of Soil Gradation
A. Dry Sieve Analysis
(for soil fraction retained on 4.75 mm sieve)
1. Prepare the sample by drying i t air or oven and bring it to room temperature.
2. Clean all the sieves to be used (40 mm, 25 mm, 20 mm, 10 mm, 4.75 mm)
3. Weigh the required quantity of material from the prepared sample.
4. Place the sieves over a clean tray one over the other in the ascending order in the
ascending order of size.
5. Shake the sieve with a varied motion, backwards and forwards, left to right, circular
clockwise and anti clockwise, and with frequent jerking, so that the material is kept
moving is kept moving over the sieve surfaces.
6. Do not force the material through the sieve by hand, except for sizes coarser than
20 mm.
7. Break the lumps of fine particles, if any with fingers against the side of the sieve.
8. Light brushing with a soft brush on the under side of sieve may be done to clear
surface.
9. Find the individual weight of material retained on each sieve and record.
10. Calculate the percentage by weight of the total sample passing each sieve and report
the results in Form EW-1.

B. Wet Sieve Analysis
(for soil fraction passing 4.75 mm sieve and retained on 75 micron sieve)
1. Take a portion of the sample prepared by drying in oven and brought to room
temperature.
2. Soak the sample in water and leave it for soaking overnight.
3. Wash out the finer fraction passing through 75 micron sieve.
4. Then dry it in oven for 24 hours and sieve the dry particles and find the percentage of
soil passing through each sieve and report the results in Form EW-1




Sieve Analysis of Soil

Dry Sieving


I.S. sieve
Designation
Weight of sample
retained(gm)
Percent of Wt.
Retained
Cumulative percent
of Wt. Retained(%)
Percentage of
Wt. Passing
40 mm
25 mm
20 mm
10 mm
4.75 mm


Wet Sieving


I.S. sieve
Designation
Weight of sample
retained(gm)
Percent of Wt.
Retained
Cumulative percent
of Wt. Retained(%)
Percentage of
Wt. Passing
2.36 mm
1.18 mm
600


425
75


Summary of Results

Clay/ silt (-75 micron) percent
Sand (-4.75 mm+75 micron) percent
Gravel(-40 mm+4.75 mm) percent









Determination of Atterberg Limits of Soil
A. Liquid Limit(LL)
1. Take 120 gm of soil passing IS: 425 micron sieve.
2. Mix it with distilled water to from a paste.
3. Place a portion of the paste in the cup of the apparatus.
4. Level the specimen to half the cup.
5. Cut the paste with the standard grooving tool along the centre line.
6. Start rotating the handle at 2 revolutions per second.
7. Count number of blows till two parts of the sample come into contact at the bottom
of the groove (along a distance of 12 mm).
8. Record the number of blows and determine m.c. of the sample taken near the closed
the groove.
9. Repeat the test by changing the m.c. so that number of blows to close the groove is
from 35 to
10. Plot a graph between log (number of blows ) and moisture content and fit a straight
Line.
11. Read the m.c. corresponding to 25 number of blows from the graph. This gives the
Limit of the soil.
B . Plastic Limit (PL)
1. Take about 30gm of soil passing IS: 425 micron sieve.
2. Mix it with distilled water to form a paste.
3. Take about 8gm of soil from the paste and make a ball.
4. Roll the ball on a glass plate with hand to make a thread.
5. When the diameter of thread reaches 3 mm, remould the soil again to a ball.
6. Repeat the process of rolling ad remoulding until the thread of soil just starts
crumbling at a dia of 3 mm.
7. Determine the m.c. of the crumbled threads.
8. Repeat the test two more times with fresh portion of the soil mix.
9. The average of the m.c. of the soil in the three trials gives the Plastic Limit of the soil.
C. Plasticity Index (PI)
Plasticity Index is determined by subtracting the value of plastic limit from the value
of the liquid limit.
PI = LL PL
Report the result in From EW -2.
Form EW -2
Atterberg Limits Test
Determination of Liqid Limit (LL)

1 2 3 4 5 6 Remarks
Container Number
Weight of Container + Wet soil
Weight of Container = Dry soil
Loss of Moisture
Wt. of container
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content %
Number of blows
Liquid Limit(LL) = ------------- percent
Determination of Plastic Limit (PL)
1 2 3 Remark
Container Number
Weight of Container + Wet soil
Weight of Container = Dry soil
Loss of Moisture
Wt. of container
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content % (mc
1
) (mc
2
) (mc
3
)

Plastic Limit(PL) =

= ________ percent
Plasticity Index (PL) = LL - PL=__________percent
Determination of Moisture Content of Soil
1. Clean the container tin with lid dry and weight (W
1
).
2. Take the required quantity of soil specimen in container, crumbled and placed loosely
And weigh with lid (W
2
).
3. Then keep it in an oven with the lid removed and maintain the temperature of the oven
at 110
0
C5
0
C.
4. Dry the specimen in the oven for 24 hours.
5. Take out container from oven, place the lid back on the container and cool the
container in desiccators.
6. Record the final weight (W
3
) of the container with lid and dried soil sample.
7. Calculate the percentage of moisture content using the formula:


8. Report the results in Form EW-3.

Moisture Content Test of Soil
Sample
No.
Tin No. Wt. of tin
(gm) (W
1
)
Wt. of
Tin+wet soil
(gm) (W
2
)
Wt. of
Tin+dry soil
(gm) (W
3
)
Loss of
water (gm)
(W
2
) (W
3
)
Wt. of dry
soil (gm)
(W
3
)-(W
1
)
Moisture
content
(%)





Note : Speedy Moisture Meters are also available in the Market. These are based on the
principal that water will react with calcium carbide to form acetylene gas. Quantity of gas
formed is directly proportional to the water present. The quantity of gas can be read from a
pressure gauge which is calibrated in percentage of moisture on wet weight basis. This can
then be converted to moisture content based on dry weight.




Swell Index Text
1. Take two samples of dry soil, 10gm each
2. Take two 100 ml graduated glass cylinder
3. Pour the soil sample in each cylinder
4. Fill distilled water in one cylinder and Kerosene in the other cylinder upto 100 ml
marks.
5. Remove the entrapped air by gently shaking or stirring with a glass rod.
6. Leave the samples to settle and allow sufficient time (24 hours or more) for
the soil samples to attain equilibrium state of volume.
7. Read the final volume of soil in each cylinder.
8. Determine the differential free swell index Sd using the formula




9. If the value of Sd is 50 percent or more. The soil is expansive and not suitable for
use as embankment fill material. (For EW- 5(a))

Swell Index Test
From EW-5(a)
Sample
No.
Final volume of soil in water
V
w
Final volume of soil in
Kerosene
V
k

Free Swell Index





Note: permissible Limit ....................... Max 50 percent.
Determination of Proctor Density
(Light Compaction)

1. Weigh the mould (W
1
) to the nearest 1 gm with base plate attached.
2. Take 4 kg of air dried soil passing 20 mm IS sieve.
3. Add a known percentage of water (moisture content well below the assumed optimum
moisture content) by weight of dry soil depending on the expected optimum moisture
content.
4. Fix the collar (extension) to the mould.
5. Fill the mould by compacting the specimen in three layers with 2.6 kg rammer for
light compaction, by giving 25 blows to each layer.
6. Remove the extension and level off carefully to the top of the mould by means of
straight edge.
7. Take the weight of the mould and the soil (W
2
).
8. Repeat the same procedure for various percentages for water until the weight of the
mould + soil attains a peak and starts reducing with increase in water content. Ensure
that a minimum of 5 points are available to plot the graph of dry density vs moisture
content.
9. Find out the moisture content as explained in Test EW-3 Tabulate the results
(Form EW-4).
10. By using the graph of dry density vs moisture content, find out the maximum dry
density and the corresponding moisture content and report as MDD and OMC
respectively.
Note: For heavy compaction test, in step 5, use 4.9 kg hammer (instead of 2.6 kg hammer).
IRC manual has indicated 98 percent 98 percent density with heavy compaction in case of
granular Sub base. For light compaction, this will be equivalent of at least 100 percent
density.

Date sheet for compaction Test of Soil
Description of sample
Type of test Standard Proctor
Weight of mould W
1
(gm)
Volume of mould V
m
(cc)
Per cent retained on 20 mm IS sieve

S
.
N
o

W
e
i
g
h
t

o
f

m
o
u
l
d

+

c
o
m
p
a
c
t
e
d

s
o
i
l

(
g
m
s
)

W
2

W
e
i
g
h
t

o
f

w
e
t

s
o
i
l


(
g
m
s
)


W
2
-
W
1

W
e
t

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
g
m
/
c
c
)

Moisture content determination
C
o
n
t
a
i
n
e
r

N
o
.

W
e
i
g
h
t

o
f

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
e
r

(
g
m
s
)

W
e
i
g
h
t

o
f

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
e
r

+

w
e
t

s
o
i
l

(
g
m
s
)

W
e
i
g
h
t

o
f

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
e
r

+
d
r
y

s
o
i
l

(
g
m
s
)

W
e
i
g
h
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r
)

(
W
w
)

(
g
m
s

W
e
i
g
h
t

o
f


d
r
y

s
o
i
l

(
w
s
)

(
g
m
s
)

M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

c
o
n
t
e
n
t

(
%
)
(
W
)

D
r
y

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
g
m
/
c
c
)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Wet density of compacted soil


Where
W
2
weight of mould + soil (gm)
W
1
weight of mould (gm)
V
m
volume of moould (cc)
Dry density of compacted soil


Where W= moisture content





Determination of CBR
(Static Method and Dynamic Method)
1. Compaction by Static Method
1.1 Find the weight of oiled empty CBR mould with base plate and filter paper placed
placed in.
1.2 Calculate the weight of soil required at OMC by using the formula ;

)
1.3 Take 6 kg of soil and mix it thoroughly after adding the quantity of water required to
Bring it to state at which it can be compacted to attain its maximum dry density.
1.4 Take the required quantity of this soil as calculated in step 1.2
1.5 Place this soil in the mould in 2 or 3 layers by ramming the layers lightly by a disc so
that a levelled surface is attained.
1.6 Over the compacted specimen, place one spacer disc approximately equal to one
third height of the compacted specimen.
1.7 Then compress it in a compressing machine or any similar suitable apparatus till the
spacer is just pushed to the top of the mould.
1.8 Remove the spacer disc.

2. Compaction by Dynamic Method
2.1 Take 6kg of over dried soil.
2.2 Add water (optimum water content required to attain max. Day density ) to it and mix
it thoroughly.
2.3 Take the empty weight of oiled CBR mould.
2.4 Fit the collar to the mould.
2.5 Place a spacer disc in it and then place one filter paper over it.
2.6 Fill the soil mixture in the mould in 5 layers by giving 55 blows to each layer.
2.7 Remove the collar and trim it off by a straight edge.
2.8 Then remove the mould from base plate, take spacer dis out.
2.9 Invert the mould and fix it in position on the base plate after placing a filter paper.
3 Finding degree of compaction
3.1 After compaction, weight the mould with specimen.
3.2 Find the weight of the specimen.
3.3 Take a portion of the remaining sample left in the tray and find the moisture content.
(As in Test EW-3)
3.4 Find the dry density and compare it with the maximum dry density and find the
degree of compaction (%) by comparing this with the maximum dry density.
4 Determining swell index
4.1 After weighing the moulds, place the surcharge weight (approximately 5.0 kg),
a perforated disc connected with a adjustable stem. Place this assembly in the mould.
4.2 Place the tripod having the micrometer in place and adjust the stem to touch the
micrometer indicator and find the initial reading on the micrometer.
4.3 The place the mould in water tank and soak it for 96 hours.
4.4 After 96 hours, find the micrometer reading.
4.5 Find the difference in reading.
4.6 Find the swell index by dividing the swell by the height of the specimen before
Soaking. Express this in percentage. [Form EW-5(C)]
Form EW(C)
Swelling Test of Soil
Mould nos. Height of
Specimen
Dial gauge reading L.C. of dial
guage
Total Swelling
(C-B)D
Swelling Index


(mm) Initial Final (mm) (mm) (Percent)
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
i.
ii.
iii.



5. Determining CBR
5.1 After 96 hours of soaking and after measuring the swell, find the weight of the mould
with soaked specimen (to be used for finding degree of compaction after soaking) .
5.2 Drain the excess water by keeping the specimen vertically or by tilting for 10- 15
minutes (for any specimen no titling is to be done).
5.3 Remove the filter paper in the specimen and keep it in the CBR testing machine to
show penetration when the specimen is loaded.
5.4 Place the same surcharge weight when soaking.
5.5 Adjust the penetration measuring micrometer and the platform on which the CBR
mould containing the specimen rests, to show penetration when the specimen is
loaded.
5.6 Start loading the specimen, after adjusting the penetration dial and the proving ring
to zero mark.
5.7 Note the deflections in the dial gauge of the proving ring for corresponding
penetrations as per the requirement, (deflections are noted for penetrations of
0.5,1,1.5,2,2.5,3,5,5,7.5,10,12,12.5 mm of the plunger).
5.8 Plot the deflections against the penetration (in mm) in a semi log graph. (Altern-
atively, deflections can be converted into loads and plot penetration vs load).
5.9 Find the correction required to be applied for the deflections (when and S-type curve
is formed, the lower bend can be avoided by drawing a straight line).
5.10 Correct the deflection by shifting the points actually plotted, (if a correction of 0.5mm
Is observed, instead of taking deflection for penetration of 2.5mm, deflection for 3mm
shall be taken).
5.11 Take the deflection for 2.5mm and 5mm (for corrected curves, corrected deflection
Shall be taken).
5.12 Convert these deflections into loads by applying the calibration factors.
5.13 Find the CBR values for these penetrations by using the formula.




Where P
T
= Load corresponding to the chosen penetration.
P
s
= Standard load for the penetration from the table given below.
Penetration Depth Unit Standard Load Toatl Standard Load
2.5mm 70kg/Sqm 1370kg.
5mm 105kg/Sqm 2055kg.

5.14 The higher of the two values is reported as CBR (Form EW-5)
6. Determining degree of compaction after soaking
6.1 Before testing itself , the weight of the specimen is noted as explained earlier.
6.2 After testing, take a portion of soil from the specimen (top portion where penetration
tested) and find the moisture content as explained in step 3.
6.3 Find the degree of compaction.
Form No.EW-5
CBR Test of Soil
Capacity of proving Ring:
Value of one divn. In:
Time of
Penetration
@ 1.25
mm/min
Penetration Proving
Ring
Reading
Load
Intensity
(Kg/cm
2
)
(A) X one
Divn. Value
area of
Plunger
Corrected
Load
Intensity
(Kg/Cm
2
)
Standard
Load
Intensity
(kg/cm
2
)
Unsoaked/
soaked
CBR%


Average
CBR
(%)
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
Min. Sec. (mm) i. ii. iii. i. ii. iii. i. ii. iii. Std. i. ii. iii.
0-0 0.0
0-24 0.5
0-48 1.0
1-12 1.5
1-36 2.0
2-0 2.5 70
2-24 3.0
3-12 4.0
4-0 5.0 105
6-0 7.5 134
8-0 10.0 162
10-0 12.5 183

Average CBR at 2.5mm penetration: (%)
Average CBR at 5.0mm penetration: (%)
Average Saturation Moisture Content: (%)
Average Swelling: (%)
























Determination of Field Density of Soil
(Sand replacement method)
1. The pouring cylinder shall be filled so that the level of the sand in the cylinder is within
about 10 mm of the top. Its total initial weight (Wi) shall be found and shall be
maintained constant throughout the tests for which the calibration is used. Volume of
sand equivalent to that of the excavated hole in the soil (or equal to that calibration
container) shall be allowed to run out of the cylinder. The shutter on the pouring cylinder
shall then be closed and the cylinder placed on a plane surface such as the glass plate.
(Sand should be clean natural sand passing 300 micron sieve and retained on 600
micron).
2. The shutter on the pouring cylinder shall be opened and sand allowed to run our. When
no further movement of sand takes place in the cylinder, the shutter shall be closed and
the cylinder moved carefully.
3. The sand that has filled the cone of the pouring cylinder (that is the sand that is left on
the plane surface) shall be collected and weighed to the nearest gram repeated at least
three times and then mean weight (W
2
) taken.
4. The internal volume(V) in cc of the calibrating container may be calculated from its
internal dimensions.
5. The pouring cylinder shall be placed concentrically on the top of the calibrating container
after being filled to the constant weight (Wi). The shutters on the pouring cylinder shall
be closed during this operation. The shutters shall be opened and sand allowed to run out.
When no further movement of sand takes place, the shutter shall be closed. The pouring
cylinder shall be removed and weighed to the nearest gram.
6. These measurements shall be repeated at least three times and the mean weight (W
3
)
taken.
7. A flat area, approximately 45 cm square, of the soil to be tested shall be exposed and
trimmed down to a level surface, preferably with the aid of the scraper tool.
8 A round hole approximately 10 cm dia and the depth of the layer to be tested upto a
maximum of 10cm depth shall be excavated in the soil. No loose material shall be left in
the hole. The metal tray with a central hole shall be laid on the prepared surface of the
soil with the hole over the portion of the soil to be tested the hole in the soil shall then
be excavated using the hole in the tray as a patter. This tray shall be removed before the
pouring cylinder is placed in a position over the excavated soil shall be carefully
collected and weighed to the nearest gram.
9. The moisture content (W) of the excavated soil shall be determined by taking
representative sample of soil. Alternatively the whole of the excavated soil may be dried
and weighted (Wd).
10. The pouring cylinder filled to the constant weight (WO shall be placed so that the base of
the cylinder covers the hole concentrically, the shutters on the pouring cylinder shall be
closed during this operation. The shutter then be opened and sand allowed to run out into
the hole.
11. The pouring cylinder and surrounding area shall not be vibrated during this period. When
no further movement of sand takes place, the shutter shall be closed. Teh cylinder shall
be removed and weighed to the nearest gram (W
4
) (See Note).
Note: It is necessary to make a number of repeated determinations say 4 to 5 and to
average the results, since the dry density of the soil varies appreciably from point to
point.
12. The weight of sand (W
a
) in gm required to fill the calibrating container shall be
calculated from the following formula.
W
a
=W
1
- W
2
- W
3
Where
W
1
Weight of pouring cylinder and sand before pouring into calibrating cylinder in gm.
W
2
- Mean weight of sand in cone in gm.
W
a
- Mean weight of cylinder with residual sand after pouring into calibrating cylinder
and cone in gm.
13. The bulk density of the sand Y
s
in (gm/cc) shall be calculated from the formula:
Y
s
=W
a
/ V
Where
V= Volume of calibrating cylinder in cc
14. The weight of sand (Wb) in gm required to fill the excavated hole shall be calculated
from the following formula.
W
b
= W
1
- W
4
- W
2
Where
W
1
- weight of cylinder and sand before pouring into hole in gm
W
2
- Mean weight of sand in cone , in gm
W
4
- Weight of cylinder and sand after pouring into hole and cone in gm
15. The bulk of the soil Y
b
Shall be calculated from the following formula:


Where

-Weight of Natural soil excavated in gm


- Weight of sand required to fill the hole in gm


W
s
- Bulk density of sand
16. The density of the dry soil Y
b
shall be calculated from the following formula

or

xy
b
gm/cc
Where
W - Moisture content of the soil in present
W
b
- Weight of dry soil from the hole in gm and
W
s
- Weight of sand required to fill the hole in gm
17. The following values shall be reported. (Form EW-8 for recording results)
a) Dry density of soil in gm/cc
b) Moisture content of the soil in percent.












Field Density of Soil
(Sand replacement method)
Road / Section Details :
Location of test point : Date of Testing
Thickness of layer : mm
Observation Tables
(a)
Calibration
(i) Mean weight of sand in cone (of pouring cylinder) (W
2
) in gm.
(ii) Volume of calibrating cylinder (V) in cc.
(iii) Weight of sand (+ cylinder before pouring (W
1
) in gm.
(iv) Mean weight of sand (+ cylinder ) after pouring (W
3
) in gm.
(v) Weight of sand to fill calibrating cylinder. (W
a
W
1
W
2


W
3
) in gm
(vi) Bulk density of sand Ys= (W
a
/V) gm/cc
(b)
Determination of Soil density
(i) Determination number
(ii) Weight of wet soil from hole (W
m
) in gm.
(iii) Weight of sand (+cylinder) before pouring (W
1
) in gm.
(iv) Weight of sand (+cylinder) after pouring (W
4
) in gm.
(v) Weight of sand in hole, in gm. W
b
=(W
1
W
4
W
2
)
(vi) Bulk density Y
b
=(W
w
/ W
b
) x Y
s gm/cc
(vii) Moisture content container number
(viii) Moisture content (W) percent
(ix) Weight of dry soil from the hole in gm. (W
b
)
(x) Dry density Y
b
= ()


Layer Value* Permissible Limit
Below sub grade Not less than 97 percent
Sub grade Not less than 100 percent

*Field density as percent of Maximum Dry Density of OMC.
Note: Field density can be determined by core cutter also. This is briefly described as under :-
1. Measurer the inside dimensions of the cutter and calculate its volume.
2. weight the cutter without dolly.
3. Clean the top soil of the site.
4. Place the dolly over the cutter and ram it gently into the soil till aboit ine cm of the dolly
protrudes above the surface.
5. Dig out the cutter containing the soil extruding from the ground.
6. Remove the dolly and trim off any soil extruding from the ends.
7. Weight the cutter full of soil an keep a representative sample for water content
determination.
8. Calculate the dry density of the solid by knowing its weight, volume and water content, From
EW-8 (a)for recording results.


Field Density of soil
(core Cutter Method)
S.No. Observation 1 2 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11.
12.




13.
Volume of Core Cutter -V
cc
Weight of empty core cutter = W
Weight of core cutter + wet soil = W
1
Weight wet of soil = W
1
W
Bulk density Y
b
=

gm/cc

Container No.
Weight of container + Soil sample= W
2
Weight of container after oven drying W
3
Moisture content = W
2
W
3
Weight of dry empty container =W
4
Weight of dry soil =W
3
W
4

Percentage of moisture content



Dry Density



















Checking Surface Regularity
(using a Straight Edge)
1. The 3 meter straight edge may be made of steel or seasoned hard wood. When made of
wood, it may be 75 mm wide and 125 mm deep and its test face should preferably be
should with a metallic plate. The edge should be perfectible straight and free from
warps, rots or defects of any kind.
2. Periodically, the d\straight edge should be checked for its trueness with a string or a
metallic master straight edge. The straight edge should be rectified or replaced as soon
as the same has lost its trueness.
3. The depressions under the straight edge are to be measured with a graduated wedge.
The wedge should preferably be metallic but may alternatively be of seasoned hard
wood. The depressions should be graduated to read undulations upto 25mm with a least
count of at least 3 mm.
4. For recording depressions in the longitudinal profile of the road surface, the straight
edge is placed longitudinally, parallel to the centre line of the road. Measurements
along two parallel lines are sufficient for a single lane road.
5. The straight edge may be placed at the starting point with the wedge inserted between it
and the test surface, where the gap is maximum. Take the reading.
6. The wedge may then be slided forward by about 1.5 m distance and repeat the wedge
reading. This process is continued.
7. Mark the locations with depressions in excess of the specified magnitude.
8 Count the number of undulations exceeding the specified magnitude.
Note: (i) A team of three persons consisting of two workmen and a supervisor would
be required for one straight edge and tqo graduated wedges. The two
workmen will operate the straight edge, while the supervisor will record
measurements with the wedges and do the markings on the road.
(ii) At vertical curves, additional templates will be required.






2. Granular Construction
(Granular Subbase)
Sampling of Aggregates
1. Quantities of field samples for aggregates are given in Table 1 below.
Table 1 Recommended weights of field smaples for tests
Nominal maximum size of
particles passing sieve.
Recommended weight of
field samples.
A Fine aggregates
2.36 mm
1.75 mm
B Coarse Aggregates
9.5 mm
12.5 mm
19.0 mm
25.0 mm
37.5 mm
50.0 mm
63.0 mm
75.0 mm
90.0 mm

5 kg
5kg

5 kg
10 kg
15 kg
25 kg
30 kg
40 kg
45 kg
60 kg
65 kg

2. Samples for tests should be obtained from the field sample by quartering method or
other means to ensure a representative portion.
3. After selecting the aggregate sample for test, it is sometimes necessary to reduce the
size (volume) of the sample for convenience of handling and testing. Generally, a
mechanical splitter (Riffle box) is preferred for use with coarse aggregate or dry fine
aggregate. Quartering method is best when he aggregate sample is wet.
Note: In the Quartering method, the sample is poured on to the quartering cloth, it is
then levelled with a rod. Thereafter, the rod is inserted under the middle of the
Quartering cloth and both ends of rod lifted to divide the sample into two equal parts.
The rod is put in perpendicular position so as to divide the sample in four parts. Retain
any two diagonally opposite parts for testing.





Determination of Gradation of Aggregates
1. Bring the sample to an air dry condition either by drying at room temperature or in oven
at temperature of 100
0
C to 100
0
C. Take the weight of the sample.
2. Clean all the sieves and sieve the sample successively in the appropriate sieve starting
with the largest.
3. Shake each sieve separately over a clean tray.
4. On completion of sieving note down the weight of material retained on each sieves.
5. Report the results as cumulative percentage by weight of sample passing each of the
sieves. (Form SB-1)
Form SB- 1
Sieve Analysis of Aggregate
I.S. sieve
Designation
Weight of sample
retained (gm)
Percent of Wt.
Retained
Cumulative percent
of Wt. Retained(%)
Percentage of Wt.
passing






















2. Granular Construction
(Base Course)
Determination of Aggregate Impact Value
1. Aggregate passing through 12.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm sieve is filled in
the cylindrical measure in 3 layers by tamping each layer by 25 blows. Determine the
net weight of aggregate in the measure (W
1
).
2. Transfer the sample from the measure to the cup of the aggregate impact testing machine
and compact it by tamping 25 times.
3. The hammer is raised to height of 38 cm above the upper surface of the Aggregate in the
cup and is allowed to fall freely on the specimen.
4. After subjecting the test specimen to 15 blows the crushed aggregate is sieved on IS 2.36
mm sieve.
5. Weigh the fraction passing through IS 2.36 mm sieve (w
2
).
6. Aggregate impact value =


From GB -1
Aggregate Impact value
Observations Test No.

Average
1 2 3
Weight of aggregate sample filling in the cylinder= W
1
(gm)


Weight of aggregate passing 2.36 mm sieve
After the test = W
2
(gm)

A.I.V =( W
2
/ W
1
) x 100


Note: Permissible Limit ...................Max 50 Subbase; 40 Base; 30 Wearing course







Determination of Ductility of Bitumen
1. The bitumen sample is melted to a temperature of 75
0
C to 100
0
C above the approximate
softening point until it is fluid.
2. It is strained through IS sieve 30, poured in the mould assembly and placed on a brass
plate, after a solution of glycerine and dextrin is applied at all surfaces of the mould ex-
posed to bitumen.
3. Thirty to forty minutes after the sample is poured into the moulds, the plate assembly
along with the sample is placed in water bath maintained at 27
0
C for 30 minutes.
4. The sample and mould assembly are removed from water bath and excess bitumen
material is cut off by levelling the surface using hot knife.
5. After trimming the specimen, the mould assembly containing smaple is replaced in
water bath maintained at 27
0
C for 85 to 95 minutes.
6. The sides of the mould are then removed and the clips are carefully hooked on the
machine without causing any initial strain.
7. The pointer is set to read Zero.
8. The machine is started and the two clips are this pulled apart horizontally.
9. While the test is in operation, it is checked whether the sample is immersed in water in
depth of atleast 10 mm.
10. The distance at which the bitumen thread breaks is recorded (in cm.) and reported as
ductility value. [Form BL 1(B)]
Form BL- 1(B)
Ductility of Bitumen

1.
Grade of bitumen

2.
Pouring temperature,
0
C

3.
Test temperature,
0
C

4.
Period of cooling, (minutes)

4.1
In Air

4.2
In water bath before trimming

4.3
In water bath after trimming


Test Property Briquette number Mean value
(a) (b) (c)
Ductivity value(cm)

Note : Permissible limit ................. more than 75 units
Determination of Softening Point of Bitumen
1. Heat the bitumen to a temperature between 125
0
C and 150
0
C.
2. Heat the rings at same temperature on a hot plate and place in on a glass plate coated
with Glycerine.
3. Fill up the rings with bitumen.
4. Cool it for 30 Minutes in air and level the surface with a hot knife.
5. Set the ring in the assembly and place it in the bath containing distilled water at 5
0
C and
maintain that temperature for 15 Minutes.
6. Place the balls on the rings.
7. Raise the temperature uniformly at 5
0
C per minute till the ball passes, through the ring.
8. Note the temperature at which each of the ball and sample touches the bottom plate of
the support.
9. Temperature shall be recorded as the softening point of the bitumen. [Form B1-1(C)]
Form BL-1(C)]

Softening Point of Bitumen
1. Grade of bitumen
2. Approximate softening point
3. Liquid used in water bath (water/ Glycerine)
4. Period of air cooling (minutes)
4.1 Period of cooling in water bath (minutes)


Test Property Sample No.1 Sample No.2
Ball No. Ball No.
Temp at which sample touch
bottom plate(
0
C)
1 2 1 2

Mean value, softening point

Note : permissible Limit ........... More than 40
0
C




Determination of Specific Gravity of Bitumen

1. Clean and dry the specific gravity bottle and weigh along with the stopper (W
1
).
2. Fill the bottle with distilled water, place the stopper and keep in water at a temperature
of 27
0
C1
0
C for at least 30 Minutes.
3. Remove the bottle from water, clean outside and weigh (W
2
).
4. Empty the bottle, clean and dry.
5. Heat the bituminous material to pouring temperature and pour it into the empty bottle
up half level with out causing the entry of air bubbles.
6. Cool the bottle to 2
0
C for 30 minutes.
7. Fill the remaining space of the bottle with distilled water at 27
0
C, place the stopper and
keep in water at 27C for 30 minutes.
8. Take the bottle out, clean outside and weigh (W
4
).
9. Specify Gravity = {(W
3
W
1
) /(W
2
W
1
) (W
4
W)}. [From BL -1(D)]
Form BL-1(D)
Sample No. Wt. of
Bottle (gm)
Wt. of bottle +
distilled water
(gm)
Wt. of Bottle + half
filled material (gm)
Wt. of Bottle + half
filled material +
distilled water (gm)
Specific
gravity
(gm/cc)
W
1
W
2
W
3
W
4

1.
2
3.
Average

Note : Permissible Limit .......... Not less than 0.99 gm/cc








Water Content of Bitumen
1. Place 100gm. of bitumen sample in flask.
2. Add 100 ml. of solvent.
3. Attach the flask to Dean and Stark apparatus filled with condenser.
4. Distill the content till entire water accumulate in graduated receiver as a separate layer.
5. Determine volume of water in receiver and report as percent of bituminous material
Form BL-1(E)
Form BL-1(E)
Water content of Bitumen

Sample no.

Volume of water in receiver in ml. (V)

Percent water content (=V)


Note: permissible Limit .............. Max 2 percent.












Determination of Flash Point of Bitumen
1. Fill bitumen into the cup upto the indicated mark.
2. Place the kid and set in the solve to heat the bitumen.
3. Insert the thermometer.
4. Apply heat at 5
0
C 6
0
C per minute.
5. Stir at the rate of 60 rpm.
6. First apply the test flame at a temperature at least 17
0
C below the actual flash point and
then at intervals of 1
0
C to 3
0
C.
7. Record the temperature reading on the thermometer at the time of the flame application
which causes a bright flash to give the flash point of bitumen [Flame BL-1(F)]
Form BL-1(F)
Flash Point of Bitumen

Sample No.


Flash Point
0
C

Corrected flash Point


Note: Permissible Limit .......... Min 220
0
C










Determination of Viscosity of Cutback

1. Level the tar cap in the tar viscometer.
2. Heat water in the water bath to 60
0
C 0.1
0
C and maintain the temperature throughout
the test.
3. Place the graduated receiver under the orifice of the tar cap.
5. Check the temperature and allow the sample material to stand at 60
0
C + 0.5
0
C for 5
minutes.
6. Remove the thermometer.
7. Lift the valve and suspend it on the valve support.
8. Start the stop watch the reading in the cylinder is 25 ml. and stop it when it is 75 ml.
9. Note the time in seconds taken by 50 ml. of the rest sample to flow over as the viscosity
of the sample at 60
0
C.
Form BL-1(F)
Viscosity of Bitumen

Sample no.

Flash time

Atmospheric Pressure

Viscosity










Determination of Loss on Heating
1. Stir and agitate the bitumen thoroughly, warm if it necessary.
2. Heat the container at 100 -110
0
C for 30 minutes cool and weight the same.
3. Weight into the container 50 + 0.1 gm of bitumen.
4. Bring the oven to a temperature of 163
0
C 1
0
C and place the sample container in the
revolving shelf.
5. Close the oven and rotate the shelf at the speed of 5-6 rpm.
6. Maintain the temperature at 163
0
C +1
0
C for 5 hours.
7. At the end of the specified period, remove the container then cool and weigh it.
8. Report the average loos of weight of all containers nearest to 0.05 percent.
Form BL-1(H)
Loss on Heat of Bitumen

(a) Percent loss on heat

Sample No.

Wt of bitumen before
heating (W
1
)

Wt. of bitumen after
heating (W
2
)

Percentage loss in Wt.




(b) Retained penetration percentage

Sample No.

Penetration between
heating (l
1
)

Penetration after
heating (l
2
)

Retained penetration
percentage












Determination of Loss on Heating

1. Weigh 2 ml. of bituminous material in a conical flask.
2. Add 100 ml. of trichloroethylene (TCE) and dissolve bitumen by continuous stirring.
3. Allow the contents to stand for one hour and then filter through pre- weighed gooch
crucible.
4. Was the material in good crucible by small amount of trichloroethylene till filtrate is
fell from colour.
5. Dry the crucible in oven 110
0
C for one hour.
6. Calculate the solubility in TCE as under [Form BL-1(1)]
Matter soluble in

percent.
Where W
1
= Weight of Bitumen Sample.
W2 = Weight of insoluble material.
Form BL-1(1)


Solubility of Bitumen in Trichloroethylene


(a) per cent lose on heat


Sample No.

Wt of bitumen sample(W
1
)

Wt. of insoluble (W
2
)

Percentage of soluble
material





Note: Permissible limit ................. Min. 99 per cent
















Wax Content in Bitumen

1. Take 25 ml. of melted bitumen in distillation flask and heat over the flame so that the
first distillation droop is formed in 3 to 5 minutes.
2. Continue distillation for 15 minutes.
3. After cooling, weigh the distillate in receiver (to near 0.001 gm)
4. Dissolve a fraction of warm distillate (2-4 gm) in 25 ml of either and then add 25 ml. of
ethanol in a test tube.
5. Close the test tube with stopper fitted with thermometer and place in cooling bath at
<20
0
C.
6. Maintain the temperature of bath by adding solid carbon dioxide.
7. Filter the wax through filter paper in a funnel at <20
0
C.
8. Wash the content with mixture of same solvents at <20
0
C.
9. Support the filtration by gentle suction process at 5 Kpa.
10. Dissolve the paraffin residue in hot petroleum sprit and evaporate the filtrate in the
evaporating disk over the steam bath for 15 minutes.
11. Dry the residue in oven at 125
0
C for 15 minutes.
12. Calculate the paraffin wax content, using the formula.

percent. (From BL-1Q)


Where

= Initial mass of bitumen.


= Initial mass of distillate.




= Final mass of distillate.

= Final mass of paraffin wax.



Form BL-1(Q)


Wax content in Bitumen
Sample No. Initial mass of
bitumen
(

)
Initial mass of
distillate
(

)
Final mass of
distillate
(

)
Final mass
of paraffin
wax (

)
Percentage
wax content




Note: Permissible limit ......... max 4.5 per cent.



Sieve test for Emulsion
1. A specified amount of sample is poured through an IS 600 micron sieve.
2. After rinsing with distilled water, the sieve and bitumen are dried in oven.
3. The amount of retained bitumen is determined by weighing and reported as residue on
sieving. [From BL-1(J)]
Form BL-1(J )
Sieve Test for Emulsion


Sample No.
Weight of
sieve


Weight of sieve
plus sample


Weight of sieve
+sample after
jeating


Weight of
sample
retained after
heating


Percentage of
sample retained




Note: Permissible limit ............... Maximum 0.55 per cent.














Stability of Emulsion to mixing with Coarse Aggregates
1. Weight 200 gm of stone aggregates into the metal pan.
2. Add 50 gm. of emulsion to the aggregates and mix vigorously with the spatula for 3
minutes
3. Record whether there is appreciable separation of the asphaltic base from the water of
the emulsion and whether or not the aggregate is uniformly and thoroughly coated with
the emulsion.[Form BL- 1(K)]
Form BL-1(K)
Stability of emulsion to mixing with Coarse Aggregates

Sample no.
Coating of the total aggregate surface area by the emulsion

Good/Fair/Poor


Good = Fully coated.
Fair = Applies to the condition of any excess of coated area over uncoated area.
Poor = Applies to the condition of an excess of uncoated area over coated area over
coated area.










Viscosity of Emulsion (Saybolt-Furol Viscometer)
1. The viscosities of RS (Rapid Setting ) and Ms (Medium setting) emulsions are
determined in seconds at 50
0
C and SS (Slow Setting) emulsions at 25
0
C respectively.
2. Test at 50
0
C.
(i) Heat the emulsion sample to 50
0
C3
0
C in a 71
0
C +3
0
C water bath.
(ii) Stir the sample thoroughly and pour approximately 100 ml into a 400ml. beaker.
(iii) Immerse the bottom of the beaker containing the emulsion approximately 50
mm. below the level of water bath.
(iv) Hold the beaker upright and stir to obtain uniform temperature .
(v) Heat emulsion in the water bath to 51.4
0
C0.3
0
C.
(vi) Immediately pout emulsion through the sieve No. 20 into the viscometer.
(vii) Stir the emulsion in the viscometer until the test temperature is attained.
(viii) Adjust the bath temperature until the emulsion temperature remains xonstant for
one minute at 50
0
C0.05
0
C.
(ix) Remove the thermometer.
(x) Report the time in seconds taken by 60ml. of the test smaple to flow over at
50
0
C [Form BL-1(L)]
Form BL_1(L)

Viscosity of bitumen Emulsions by standard sadybolt-Furol Viscometer
Sample No. Test Temperature Viscosity (second)

(i) 25
0
C


(ii) 50
0
C


Note : Permissible Limits .... 20-100 seconds at 25
0
C and 75-400 seconds at 50
0
C


Storage Stability Test on Emulsion
1. Place 500 ml. of emulsion sample in each of the two cylinders.
2. Stopper the cylinder and allow them to stand undisturbed for 24 hours.
3. About 55 ml. is siphoned from the top and placed in oven for about 2 hours at a temper-
ature of 163
0
C2.8
0
C.
4. they are removed, allowed to cool and weighed.
5. After removal of the top sample, another 390 ml. is siphoned off from each of the
cylinder. Weight about 50 gm. and place in oven for about 2 hours at a temperature of
163
0
C2.8
0
C.
6. Remove the samples from the oven allow the sample to cool and weigh.
7. The storage stability is expressed as the numerical difference between the average
percentage of bituminous residue found in two top samples and two bottol samples
[Form BL -1(M)]
Form BL-1(M)
Storage Stability Test

Sample No.
Percentage of residue form
top sample
(A)
Percentage of reside from
bottom sample (B)
Settlement
(B-A)
1.
2.
Average

Note: Permissible limit .................. Maximum 1 per cent.








Particle Charge of Emulsion
1. Heat the emulsion to be tested to 50
0
C3
0
C in a water bath. Stir the emulsion thoroughly
to ensure uniformity of temperature.
2. Pour the emulsion into the 250 ml. breaker to a height that will allow the electrodes to be
suspended 22 mm. in the emulsion.
3. To facilitate suspension of the electrodes, inset the glass rod between the two electrodes
under the insulator.
4. The two copper plates 25 x 75 mm are immersed and connected to a 12 volts circuit.
5 At the end of 30 minutes, an appreciable quantity of bitumen is deposited on cathode
(negativity charged electrode) indicating a cationic emulsion. [Form BL-1(N)]
Form BL -1(N)
Particle Charge of Emulsion

Sample No.

Weight of sample

Weight of emulsion on
cathode

Percentage of cationic
emulsion













Miscibility of Emulsion with Water
1. Gradually add 150 ml of distilled water with constant stirring to 50 ml. of the emulsion
in a 400 ml. glass beaker.
2. The temperature should be between 21
0
C and 25
0
c.
3. Allow the mixture to stand for two hours.
4. It is then examined for any appreciable coagulation of the bitumen droplets in the
emulsion [Form BL-1(O)]
Form BL_1(O)
Miscibility of Emulsion with water

Sample No.
Total Volume (distilled Water +
Emulsion) MI.
Percent appreciable coagulation
of asphalt content
















Stability of Emulsion with Cement
1. Make up the water content of the emulsion (slow setting ) to 50 percent by adding extra
water of necessary.
2. Pass the cement through 150 micron sieve and with 50gm into the metal dish.
3. Weigh 1.40 mm sieve and shallow pan to nearest 0.1 g, (W
1
).
4 Add 100ml of emulsion to the cement in the dish and stir the mixture at once with the
steel road with a circular motion making about 60 revolutions per minute.
5. At the end of one-minute mixing period, and 150 ml freshly boiled distilled water at
room temperature and continue stirring for 3 minutes. Maintain temperature of 25
0
C.
6. Pour the mixture trough the weighted 1.40 mm sieve and rinse with distilled water.
7. Place the sieve in the weighed pan, heat in the oven at 110
0
C until dry and weighty to
nearest 0.1 gm (W
2
).
8. Report the coagulation value as

(Form BL-1)(P).
Where
W
1
mass in gm of weighed sieve and pan
W
2
mass in gm of sieve,. Pan and material retained on them.
W
3
mass in gm of binder in 100 ml of diluted emulsion

Form BL-1(P)
Stability of Emulsion with Cement
Sample No. Wt. of sieve
and pan
(W
1
)
Wt. of sieve, pan + Wt.
of sample retained after
washing(W
2
)


Weight of binder
in diluted
emulsion (W
3
)
Coagulation value
with cement.




Note : Permissible Limit ................. Maximum 2 per cent (SS)




Elastic Recovery Test (Modified Bitumen)
1. Prepare three test specimens and condition it at a temperature of 15
0
C.
2. Elongate the test specimen to 10cm in the ductility machine at the rate of 5 0.25cm
per minute.
3. Immediately cut the test specimen into two halve at the mind point using scissors.
4. Keep the test specimen in water bath in an undisturbed condition for one hour.
5. After one hour, move the elongated half of the test specimen back ino position hear the
fixed half of the test specimen so that the two pieces of modified bitumen just touch.
6. Record the length of the recombined specimen as X.
7. Calculate the percent elastic recovery as
Elastic Recovery (%) =

[Form Bl-1(R)]
Form BL-1(R)
Sample No. Length of recombined specimen
after 1 hour (x)
Elastic Recovery
















Separation Difference Test (Modified Bitumen)
1. Place the empty tube, with sealed end down in the rack.
2. Heat the sample until sufficiently fluid to pour. Care should be taken to prevent locali-
zed over heating.
3. Pass the molten sample through IS : 600 micron sieve.
4. After through stirring, pour 50gm into the vertically held tube.
5. Fold the excess tube over two times and crimp an seal.
6. Place the rack containing the sealed tubes in 163
0
C 5
0
C oven.
7. Allow the tubes to stand for 48 4 hours.
8. Remove the rack from the oven and place immediately in the freezer at 6.7 5
0
C.
9. Leave the tubes in the freezer to solidify the sample completely.
10 Cut the tube into three equal portions with the knife.
12. Discard the centre portion and place the top and bottom portions of the tube into
separate beakers.
13 Place the beakers into 163
0
C 5
0
C oven until the bitumen is sufficiently fluid to rem-
ove the pieces of aluminium tube.
14 After thoroughly stirring, pour the top and bottom samples into appropriately marked
rings for the Ring and Ball softening point test.
Form BL-1(S)

Sample No.
Softening point of
top sample
A
Softening point of
bottom sample
B
Separation Difference
A-B
1

2

3



Average






Determination of Stripping Value of Aggregate
1. Take 200 gm aggregate passing through 20 mm IS sieve and detained on 12.5 mm IS
sieve and heat the aggregate to 150
0
C.

2. Heat 10 gm of bitumen (5% of weight of aggregate ) to 160
0
C.
3. Mix the heated aggregate and bitumen properly and aloe to cool in a 500 ml beaker at
room temperature for about 2 hours.
4. Add distilled water ino the beaker after expiry of 24 hours and cool it to room
temperature.
5. Now, observe the stripping of the aggregate visually.
6. Area of aggregate stripped off from aggregate shall be reported in percentage. (Form
BlL-6)
Form BL-6
Stripping value of Aggregate
Type of aggregate:

Type of binder:

Percentage of binder used:

Total weight of aggregate:

Total weight of binder:

Temperature of water bath:


Number of observations Stripping(%)
1
2
3
Average value

Note: Permissible limit .................. Not more than 15 percent.








Determination of Soundness Test
1. (a) Preparation of Sodium Sulphate solution
Prepare the saturated solution of Sodium Sulphite in water at a temperature of
25
0
C to 30
0
C of specific gravity 1.151 to 1.171 and stir at frequent interval until it
is used.
(b) Preparation of Magnesium Sulphite solution : (Alternative)
Prepare the solution of Magnesium Sulphite by dissolving either anhydrous or
crystalline Magnesium Sulphite keeping specific gravity between 1.295 and
1.308.
2. Clean the coarse aggregate (coarser than 4.75 mm I.S. Sieve) and dry to a constant
weight 105
0
C 110
0
C and separate to different size ranges (10- 4.75 mm. 20-10 mm,
40-20 mm, 80mm and larger size).
3. Weight each fraction and place it in separate container for the test.
4 Immerse the sample in the prepared solution of Sodium sulphate or Magnesium
Sulphite for 16 to 18 hours so that solution covers them to a depth of a least 15mm.
5. Keep the cover of the container during the period of immersion and maintain the
temperature of the solution at 27
0
C + 1
0
C.
6. After immersion period, remove the aggregates from solution and drain for about 15
minutes and place in the drying oven maintained at a temperature of 105
0
C 110
0
C
until it comes to a constant weight.
7. Again immerse in prepared solution for the next cycle of immersion and drying.
8. After completion of five cycles, cool the sample and wash off sulphite.
9. Each fraction of the sample is then dried at a constant temperature of 105
0
C 110
0
C
and weighed and then sieved through as indicated below.

Size of Aggregate Size used to Determine Loss
63-40mm 31.5mm
40-20mm 16mm
20-10mm 8mm
10-4.75mm 4mm

10. Report the loss of weight as soundness (Form BL -13)

Soundness of Aggregate
Sieve size, mm Grading of
original sample
(%)
Wt. of each
fraction before
test (gm)
Percentage passing
finer sieve after test
(actual percent loss)
Weighted average
(corrected
percentage loss)
Passing Retained
1 2 3 4 5 6
60 40

40 20

20 10

10 4.75


Number of particles coarser than
20 mm before test

Number of particles affected, classified as to the number
disintegrating, splitting, crumbing, cracking or franking
Passing Retained Retained
40 mm 20 mm
60 mm 40 mm

Note: Permissible limit ............. Max 12 per cent (sodium sulphite solution)
Max 18 percent (Magnesium sulphite solution)

Determination of Rate of Spread of Binder
1. Cut the cotton pads to a size of 2003x 102 mm. making sure that each pad is as uniform
in size as possible.
2. Attach the cut cotton pads to heavy wrapping paper using suitable adhesive, the amount
of adhesive, being the same on each pad. Leave sufficient area of wrapping paper on
the four sides uncovered.
3. Number the pads on the underside of the paper.
4. Attavh pieces of masking tape to the wrapping paper and tape, to the nearest 0.1 gm.
5. Weigh the cotton pads complete with wrapping paper and tape, to the nearest 0.1 gm.
6. Attach the pads to the metal sheets. Fold the uncovered paper under the metal sheet
and secure with tape, such that no uncovered paper is exposed.
7. Place the metal sheet with test pads, on the road way at such locations, that the tyres of
the distributor will not run over the pads.
8. As soon as the bitumen distributor has passed, remove the metal sheet and test pad
from the pavement. Remove the absorbent pads and wrapping paper, including masking
tape from metal sheet.
9. Weigh each pad, including wrapping paper and masking tape to nearest 0.1 g.
Form BL-3
Rate of Spread of Binder
Tray No. Wt. of bitumen on tray Rate of spread







Determination of Binder Content

1. A representative sample of about 500gm. to be exactly weighed and placed in the bowl
of the extraction apparatus.
2. Cover the sample with commercial grade Benzene.
3. The mixture is allowed to stand for about one hour before starting the centrifugal
machine.
4. The dried filtering is weighed and then fitted around edge of the bowl and the cover of
the bowl is clamped tightly.
5. A breaker is placed under the drain to collect the extract.
6. The machine is revolved and the speed is maintained till the solved ceases to flow from
the drain.
7. The machine is allowed to stop and 200 ml. of Benzene is added to the bowl and the
procedure is repeated.
8. The falter ring is removed, the residual material is dried first in air and then in oven at
constant temperature of 110
0
C5
0
C till constant weight is obtained.
9. Filter the extract through a filter paper.
10. Dry the filter paper in the oven and determent the weight of fines in the extract. (Form
BL-9)
Form BL-9
Rate of Spread of Binder
Sr.
Observations
1 2 3
1.
Wt. of mix before extraction (A)

2.
Wt. of filter paper before extraction (B)

3.
Wt. of mix after extraction (C)

4.
Wt. of filter paper after extraction (D)

5.
Wt. of filter collected from extract after allowing for setting (E)

6.
Wt. of filter collected in filter paper (B-D) =F

7.
Wt. of aggregate + filter collected after extraction (C+E+F)=G

8.
Percentage of Bitumen (in the mix)







In- Situ Density of Bituminous Course
1. The metallic tray of the filed density unit is kept on a level spot of the bituminous
surface and a hole, 10 cm. in diameter, is cut up to the full thickness of the layer.
2. All bituminous materials removed from the hole are carefully collected and weighted.
The thickness of the layer is also recorded. (prior calibration for depth of hole is
necessary).
3. A known weight of dry standard sand passing 600 micron sieve and retained on 300
micron sieve is taken in the sand-pouring cylinder.
4. The cylinder is kept directly over the hole and the shutter of the cylinder is released
without any jerk and closed when the hole is filled with the sand.
5. The quantity of the residual sand in the cylinder as well as the quantity filling the cone
of the cylinder are separately weighed.
6. The in-situ density of the layer is calculated as follows: (Form BL-11).
Insitu density = (A x D) (W-(W
1
+ W
2
) gm/cc
Where.
A = weight of bituminous material removed from the hole cut in the layer, gm.
W = initial weight of sand taken in the cylinder, gm
W
1
= weight of sand filling the cone of the cylinder, gm
W
2
= Weight of sand remaining in the cylinder, gm
D = bulk density of sand, gm/cc
Form BL-11
In-Situ Density of Bituminous Course
Wt. of bituminous
material removed
from the hole cut in
the layer, gm.
(A)

initial weight of
sand taken in the
cylinder, gm

(W)
weight of sand
filling the cone of
the cylinder, gm

(W
1
)
Weight of sand
remaining in the
cylinder, gm

(W
2
)
Bulk density
of sand,
gm/cc

(D)
Insitu
density
= (A x D)
(W- (W
1
+
W
2
) gm/cc



Determination of Rate of Spread of
Aggregate in Surface in Surface Dressing
1. A small square metal frame 20 cm x 20 cm is laid on the freshly laid surface dressing.
2. Collect all the Chippings within the enclosed are.
3. Wash the chippings in solvent to remove the binder.
4. Weigh the chippings and report the rate of spread in term of Kg. Per 10 m
2
.
(Form BL-12)
Note: (i) Measurements may be taken at interval of 8km.
(ii) Variation in the rare of spread should be within + 20 percent of the mean.
(iii) Overall rate of spread may also be determined by checking the weight of chips in the lorry and
the area on which these are spread.
Form BL-12
Rate of Spread of Aggregate in Surface Dressing
Area considered for test Wt. of aggregate Rate of spread












Quality Control Registers

Rural Roads Manual, Special Publication 20, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi
2002 Par 10.11 provides for recording of the Data in the prescribed forms; therefore, this
register will be maintained for each Road. The guidelines for maintenance of this Register are
as follows:
1. The Quality Control Register will be maintained in two Parts. The first Part
will be Quality Control Register Record of Tests and the Second Part will be the
Recorded of Abstract of Quality Control Tests and Non Conformance Report Register.
a. The first Part of the Register is the Register of all Quality Control Test conducted
by the person is responsible for the basic Quality Control Testing; therefore, the first part
of the Register will be maintained by the person who is responsible for the basic Quality
Control tests. If there is a provision of Quality Control by contractor in the Tender
Document, the Quality Control Register will be issued to the contractor for every Road
Work but if the responsibility of the basic Quality Control Tests is with the Department,
the Register will be issued to the site in charge officer of the basic Quality Control
Testing of work not below the rank of junior Engineer/sub Engineer.

This Register will always be available at the work site. If some tests are required to
be conducted in the laboratory which is situated away from the work, the prescribed
format of the test conducted will be duly filled up on a separate sheet and this sheet will
be pasted on the space prescribed for that test but the register will not be taken away
from the site in any case.

This Register contain : forms for tests sufficient to accommodate quantities given in
Appendix 12.2 of the Rural Roads Manual for a length of Road up to 3 km. If the
quantities or the items in the work are more, additional forms required as per the
prescribed frequency may be added at the end of the Register and the corresponding
entries should be done in the abstract. In case the quantities items or the items in the
work are less, the forms may be left blank and the corresponding note may be recorded
in the abstract. If the length of the Road is more then 3km, additional Registers) should
be maintained. The first part of the Register will have following three Sections:




Section 1: Earthwork
Section 2: Granular construction
Section 3: Bituminous construction


b. The Second part of the Register is the Record of abstract of the Tests conduct and
Non conformance reports; therefore, will be maintained by the site in charge officer not
below the rank of Assistant Engineer.

If the test results do not conform to the prescribed limits, a Non conformance
Report (NCR) in the Format Prescribed in this Register will be issued to the Contractor.


2. The Quality Control (QC) Register will be issued in the same manner as the
Measurement Book is issued to the work. Every register should be page numbered and
no page should be removed. The Register of issue of the Quality Control Register will be
maintained by the Head of the PIU.

3. In case of Hill Roads, where the work of formation cutting may be executed, all
the tests shown in the Earthwork section may not be required but the tests for CBR and
compaction will be required in such case also, the formats will be left black in such
cases.

4. How to fill up Register part 1:

a. Filling up the Test Format- Take sample as per specifications and complete
the basic entries of the Register like Sample Number. Reference of Road/ Section
from where the sample has been taken etc. Subject the sample for testing and enter
the Date of Testing and other relevant details at the prescribed places.

i. Enter the test Results at specified places and compare the results with the
prescribed limits. If the test results conform to the prescribed limits, the
corresponding entry should be done and the work should be allowed to
continue and an Non Conformance Report (NCR) should be issued by the
officer in-charge of the work.
ii. The compliance of the instructions given in the NCR should be ensured
and again the rest should be repeated. The work should be allowed to
continue only after the Test results conform to the prescribed limits.

b. Filling up the Format of the Abstract of Tests Conducted-

i. Column 1 to 5 are self explanatory.
ii. The reference of the page number of the Part two of the register on which
the office copy of the Non Conformance Report (NCR) is preserved
should be entered along with the Date of issue of the NCR in the column
number 6 of the abstract.
iii. The date of compliance reported by the contractor should be entered in this
column.
iv. The reference of the page number on which the repeat test (which
qualifies) record is maintained should be given in this column.
v. The basic abstract of the Test conducted will be maintained in part one of
the Register but the copy of the abstract will also be maintained in part two
of the Register.
5. How to fill up Register Part 2 Record of abstract of tests and Non Conformance Reports:

a. Filling up the Abstract of Test Format- Basic abstract of the tests conducted will
be maintained in the First Part of the register but the same abstract will also be
maintained in part two and it will be the Responsibility of officer in-charge to update
this abstract once in every week (Generally on every Saturday of the Week).
b. Issuance of Non Conformance Reports- the register contains one perforated copy
of the NCR and one office copy, as soon as the incidence of no conformance of any
test occurs, it will be the responsibility of the person responsible for the basic
Quality Control Testing to inform to the officer in charge of the work. The officer in
charge of the work will immediately issue a Non Conformance Report to the
contractor and the office copy will be retained in this Register.



Thereafter, the Contractor need to rectify the deficiencies and return the NCR
after due compliance for approval/ acceptance of the PIU.