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A twin is one of two offspring

=> When a single parent is

involved in reproduction,
then it is called Asexual
=> Reproductive organs in
males and females are
different. In females
reproductive organs are
ovaries, oviduct and uterus.
=> Ovaries produce female
gamete called Ovum and
male gamete called Sperms
are produced by Testes.
=> Ovum and Sperm fuse to
form egg called Zygote.
The process of fusion of
ovum and sperm is called
=> Embryo is formed from
the zygote by repeated
divisions, which grows in
the uterus of the female in
case of internal
fertilization. Embryo grows
into foetus when it gets
into well developed limbs.
NCERT (CBSE) Textbook
Exercise Solved Broilers are chickens of either gender that
will be slaughtered for meat at about 5 to 8 month old depending on weight.
Layers are hens or PULLETS that will be used to provide eggs until they are about 18 to 24 months
old at which time they will become stewing hens.
Q.1: Explain the importance
of reproduction in
Ans: Reproduction is very
important for the
organisms. The organisms
reproduce to produce young
ones like them. It helps to
carry on their generation.
If reproduction does not
take place, no living being
will survive on the earth.
Had the process of
reproduction not been
there then all the plants
and animals would have
become extinct. Secondly,
special characters of an
organism are carried over
to its next generation
through reproduction only.
Q.2: Describe the process
of fertilization in human
Ans: Human beings
reproduce sexually. In
human beings fertilization
takes place inside the
female body (internal
fertilization). Males eject
sperm inside female bodies.
Sperms and ovum fuse to
form the fertilized egg
called zygote. This process
in which the ovum and
sperm fuse to form zygote
is called Fertilization.
During this process the
nucleus of the sperm fuses
with the nucleus of the
ovum thus forming a single
nucleus. In this way zygote
is formed with a single
nucleus, this completes the
process of fertilization.
Q.4: Indicate whether the
following sentences are
True (T) or False (F):
(a) Oviparous animals give
birth to young ones.
(b) Each sperm is a single
(c) External fertilization
takes place in frog.
(d) A new human individual
developed from a cell is
called gamete.
(e) Egg lay after
fertilization is made up of a
single cell.
(f) Amoeba reproduces by
(g) Fertilization is
necessary even in asexual
(h) Binary fission is a
method of sexual
(i) A zygote is formed as a
result of fertilization.
(j) An embryo is made up of
a single cell.
Ans: (a)-F (b)-T (c)-T (d)-F
(e)-T (f)-F (g)-F (h)-T (i)-T
Q.5: Give two differences
between a zygote and a
foetus ?
Ans: Differences between
a zygote and a foetus are
given below:
=> Zygote is formed of a
single cell while foetus is
made up of many cells.
=> Zygote does not have
well developed limbs;
foetus has well developed
and identifiable limbs.
=> Zygote is formed by the
fertilization of sperms and
ovum; foetus is formed by
the repeated divisions of
the zygote.
Q.6: Define asexual
reproduction. Describe the
two methods of asexual
reproduction in animals.
Ans: Asexual reproduction
is that type of
reproduction in which only
single parent is involved.
Asexual reproduction takes
place by different methods
like Budding, Binary fission
Budding This type of
reproduction takes place in
Hydra and Bacteria. A part
of the organism starts
bulging out. Slowly it grows
and develops into a
separate individual.
Binary fission In this type
of reproduction, a single
organism gets divided into
two. This type of
reproduction takes place in
Amoeba. The nucleus of the
Amoeba gets divided into
two followed by division of
their bodies, each part
getting one nucleus and
developing into a separate
Q.7: In which female
reproductive organ does
the embryo get embedded
Ans: Uterus.
Q.8: What is
metamorphosis ? Give
Ans: The transformation of
the larva into adult through
drastic changes is called
Q.9: Differentiate between
Internal Fertilization and
External Fertilization.
Ans: Internal fertilization
takes place inside the body
of the female while the
external fertilization takes
place outside the body of
the female. In case of the
internal fertilization
sperms are ejaculated
inside the females body by
the male while in external
fertilization sperms are
discharged in open.
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September 18, 2009 at
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in the same pregnancy.
Twins can either
be monozygotic ("identical"), meaning that they
develop from onezygote that splits and forms
two embryos, or dizygotic ("fraternal") meaning
that they develop from two eggs, each fertilized
by separate sperm cells.

In contrast, a fetus which develops alone in the
womb is called a singleton, and the general term
for one offspring of a multiple birth is multiple.