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Kernel In SAP

Kernel In SAP
Kernel contains the executable files. It contains those files which are used to run every event in SAP.
Example: starting database, shutdowns of database, starting sap, shutdown of sap, saposcol, to uncar
the sap files etc.
The applications are coded and run in an OS and DB-independent manner. Thus, the kernel of an SAP
system consists of all native programs and dynamic libraries that are required for launching the
Runtime, executing ABAP or Java codes, communicating with the outside world of the application
server like OS, DB and network. These native binaries can be categorized through different aspects:
DB-dependent vs. DB-independent:
Unicode vs. Non-Unicode:
Primary vs. subsidiary:
The SAP R/3 or J2EE engine kernel consists of executable that are directly used by the SAP processes,
by the database administration utilities, or by the installation programs etc. Some of these programs
can be very useful even when the SAP system is down. The SAPCPE process will make sure that once
the kernel upgrade is done, the kernel files are in synch in all the locations.
Location
In a standard standalone SAP server the kernel or runtime directory is
/usr/sap/<SID>/SYS/exe/uc
Some important kernel files in sap
R3trans_164-20000978.SAR: R3trans_164-20000978.SAR' is a compressed archive with the latest
version of R3trans from the SAP Service Marketplace, used when we patched the kernel.
SAPCAR: SAP Compression and Archiving program
Cleanipc: Cleans Inter-Process Communications Memory
disp+work: Dispatcher & Workprocess - "The complete Kernel" - Here the complete ABAP is
processed.
Dpj2ee: Dispatcher for Java
Dpmon: Used to get the process overview of an instance in text mode.
Enserver: SAP Enqueue Server
Jcmon: Program to monitor and manage Java processes
Jcontrol: Program to control Java processes
jenqulib.jar: Java Enqueue Library
jlaunch: Program starts the Java processes.
Rfcping: Ping the RFC layer.
sapccm4x: CCMS Agent for Abap
sapccmsr: CCMS Agent for Java
sapcontrol: 'sapcontrol' is used to stop/start/monitor the sap instances (for example, from the
sapmc).
Sapstart: Starts SAP processes
Sapstartsrv: Starts SAP processes.
startdb Program to start the database
startj2eedb Program to start the database (Java)
startrfc: The tool is a very easy SAP command line interface to start all of the implemented function
modules of SAP systems.
Startsap: Program to start SAP
stopdb: Program to stop the database
stopj2eedb: Program to stop the database (Java)
stopsap: Program to stop SAP
tp: The Transport Tool. This program coordinates the complete import and export of program and
table changes made within the SAP system in order to transport them through the complete System
Landscape.
icmadmin.SAR: Tool to monitor and manage the Internet Communication Manager (ICM) from the
SAP System (transaction SMICM).
Icman: Tool to monitor and manage the Internet Communication Manager (ICM) from the SAP
System (transaction SMICM).
Icmbnd: Program to bind ports with numbers from 0 to 1023
Icmon: Internet Communication Manager (ICM) used for HTTP(S), SMTP based communication used
to monitor and manage the Internet Communication Manager (ICM) from the SAP System (transaction
SMICM).
instance.lst List of database-independent executables. These executables are valid for all database
systems used by the SAP system.
instancedb.lst List of database-dependent executables. These executables can only be used with a
particular database system.
Kernel Upgrade Process:
Find the current version of the J2EE kernel (Any one step)
Execute the command disp+work v in cmd
SYSTEM->STATUS
SM51->Release Notes
Know about Unicode or non-Unicode(Any one step)
TP V from command prompt
Winmsd from command prompt
Isainfo v in Unix
SE38 run report RSPARAM RSPFPAR
Download the kernel according to your need from SAP Market place
http://service.sap.com/swdc
--->Support Packages and Patches --->SAP NetWeaver ---> SAP NETWEAVER---> SAP NETWEAVER
7.0 (2004S) ---> Entry by Component---> Application Server Java--->SAP Kernel 7.00 32 bit
UNICODE
Uncar the .SAR files in any location
SAPCAR -xvf <filename.SAR>
Ex:- /usr/sap/<SID>/SYS/exe/uc/NTAMD64_NEW
Note in case of error
Rename the SAPCAR file to SAPCAROLD and then extract the kernel files again:
SAPCAROLD.EXE -xvf <filename.SAR>
Bring SAP and OS COLLECTOR down:
Stop sap from MMC
In windows, stop the SAPOSCOL (Start-> run-> services.msc)
In Unix servers, stop the SAPOSCOL use the command:
saposcol k
Note: SAPOSCOL service should be stopped because it also will get overwritten by the new
file. Also, in UNIX servers, the owner of SAPOSCOL service is the user "root". In this case, you will
have to login as "root" user and stop the service.
Take Backup of the present Kernel directory
/usr/sap/<SID>/SYS/exe/uc/NTAMD64
Copy the new kernel files to the KERNAL LOCATION folder location
EXA:-
/usr/sap/<SID>/SYS/exe/uc/NTAMD64_NEW FILES TO
/usr/sap/<SID>/SYS/exe/uc/NTAMD64
Bring SAP and OS COLLECTOR UP:
Start sap from MMC
In windows, start the SAPOSCOL (Start-> run-> services.msc)
In Unix servers, start the SAPOSCOL use the command:
saposcol l
From command prompt enter disk+work for check kernel version which have been upgrade
Check DB connection using R3trans -d