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, l

16. What is.Hel- Volhard-Zelinslry ( HVZ


)
reaction? Give an example.
i I t t l l l
f l nl r l I l . r l l l
| | l i t - l l "I l l /
"
t l ( , 1, 1 I ' n l ' l l t - v
Subj ect code-34'
Hax Marks: 70 17. Give the use of following compounds :
-
,
(i) Norethlndrone (ii) Ra1S.d!ne,
l2
Ar- \
"
\
1. 1, . : . . 1i . ". =
. . - : i , , "i . . i . .
. . .
,
ltjlwhat are non-soapy det-erger-rts?:Gve one example-
PART-C
IfI. Answer any FilE of the following quqstions :
( Each questionicarrieis' 3 mafks.' ) ' ' ::
('t9.'Oraw a neat labeled diagnm of blast furn.ice. Wiite the equatio.ns for the readions
taking place in the temperature r:lnge 500-1073K during the extraction of cast irpn from
. - , t . \ . \ . a cl r - gl f "' l ) Av^t
a
' ^d
0.
l
-
.
5af=-15
1
. . ' ,
, {
2+I
2' F 1
t
r ,
l l
, t
. . , | : , ! : t i , , 1' r 1' - r ! - = t ' l r
l r nl l r
A, l t ,
(
' l l l ( l
l ) ' nl l l ) ' l r t s
ar i compul sor y'
, - , r t
l . r l r ,
'
l . l r r l r l , r l r ' r 1t t ' t l l r r t r r
' t t t t l t l l ' l w
l ' r l r <: l cd di agr anr s wl r er ever r equi r ed'
11; =
l , , r J t 3| l e: at t ' l r t r i l l r l r |
' l h
l l l dl t t l l t l l c( ' ( : ssi l r y'
I l l : e r r f r r l . t t l l l i r r . r kt l l . r l ot r l " r r ot l t l l owed )
. , At l
l l *r l . l l 11vi 1111; t ; t r . st i or t s t
t "UT
10x! =10
,
i r t t "v, '
, ; r r r , r l l t r l l
r , l l l l l ' 1 t r r l , r l k )
I
I
t "'
, ' , , ,
, , , , , , , , , r , l v, r r l , r , l . . l r r r , l al i t y over mol ar i t y as t he uni t of concent r at i oni sconcer ned?
r ' l r r i
r ' "'
, r . - ; t i - ^^- - ^r . - . t ^^o. l t ^, r .
t
""
, . t ' . i l r' , rl wrl l t wl rx. h : ; i l j con can be doped t o gi ve a p-t ype Semi conduct o
,
l , ; , . , ,
, , ,
, , t t , ' , t t , ' , yr st l t r : l eadst or agebat t er yz
*E: ' - : ' . : J' t , ' i {i i ' . ' +
r t ' l ' ! ' t e t ' i ]
,
i : j \ . . 1. i ,
'
*", .
, ,
, . r. rl u, rl ri , n wl ri cl r rrl at cs rat e const aht of a react i on wi t h t emperat ur. e'
! , *
I
-"
I J
' '
t u' "
, rr, rrl t ",
l , t w f , rr sol ut i on cont ai ni nq a non-vol at i l e sol ut e'
"'
'
,
' : ' , , ' l r '
, ) f : , r i r ca i n l he nr et al l ur gy of copper ? F- l *>. ne r v c, f t ' f
( t
1) c- . . r \ f
C' 1 r ' I ' '
, '
*". 1:
, ' , , , ,
6ost abundant nobl e gas i n t he at mosph-r. .
i r^^1>' -' r r" t
-' t r
a f st cg
. Nr "
, )
Ar QOi n
, . . . i , r r , r l r r r ol ecul t
r r , , - - , u: l l y. r Jn0ci et o; ] enonc, ur hi ci i gi vesycl l cl "pr eci i r i ' Lai ' e' ' r ' i i l r sodi u; - r
^
l ) l o' l
9
u
, .^ui,1eand
iodine solution?
/\
. . tc phe-\
ovle
r , f t
r ' ' ""
r : .
.
' r 1
; r Nq l i ' ' 466r
^ART_B
- . , , ey
doY FI VE of t he f ol l owi ng quest i ons ;
5x2= 10
i l ' fl l i f questi on carri es 2 marks
)'
'
(Eu-' ^,' ,,' ,nu' forthe
fol l owi ng:
i
l -i c,1qe r
.
i r S" Z
'
r' r
-)
t 1. l : , ' ?; ; k. t
def ect i s noi f ound i n al l d[ mbt al hal i des'
. cl r"1r
{
.
t
r\ . , y, \ ,
lll ..nottky
defect l0wers the density of ionic solid'
l tt) ' ' '
'
/ nhl rausch' s l aw.
tz
,]t:J;;;;
expre:,sion for molar cohduaivity of potbssium sulphate at inlrnitc dilutiott octtrrtlittr;
] j ' [ oPt rausch' s
t aw
' "
-rr, nn
i s of second order wi t h respect t o a react ant . l Jow i : ; i t l t , t t t : , rf f t : t t ul rf l l x'
^
A ( eou' -
t3' A"tniriTration of the reactant is (i) doubled (ii) reduced to ltalf ?
",
^, , n
*f ry Ceo* i s a good oxi di zi nq agent whi l e Et rl * i s goocl rci l uci rrq at . ; t : rt t i t r , )(I r(' ot r' ,
14 ?l l ' i ^ l o. nr hqr ^or cl e
- \ - ! \ t \ \ ^.
r - r
nL, 1. , r r , , ) ,
\ , ' v
"
\ "\
^|
l [ l 0l
r'
5v' '
, . rn vou Lol l vert propcne t o proparl -l -ol ?
i . ( l i ow
u"
(i) Plil h,-rs lowcr boiling point than NH:. l\lprence 6'.f .
:x1- e tit{-qtcJt c: v^'1'4'rro
6Ond' . r ^4
( i i ) Al r r xr r n t er nper at r r r c, N2 i s much l ess r eact i ve.
<\
. ' gl r"^g Lnt r' rt .
\ ' : e^d l a: gI ^. bona
(i i ) At rrnm t ernperat urc, N2 rs I nuch l ess react l ve.
S\ f eng t r, 6: t
(i i i ) l hc st abi l i t y of l 5 oxi &t t i on st at e decreases. dpwn t he 15' n, group.
e7' tha
nl
I ' r . . l . \ \ V, , 7- ' - r l ;
c. r c, i ' , c6t
21. (.r) Mt,rrtiorr tlre favourable conditions foi the.conversiol oj S^O3 to SO3 in themanufacture.cf
:,rrllrlruric acid by Ciintact process,
?.-.:t
*
[:, 45O-
c V
( l O
,
vqCE
haemat i t e.
20. Explain the following observations :
(b) Wri te l he structure of HzS:Oz.
^.
., :
-
o -S
--n,
-. sr r
F, o. - .
_,
, ), ). ((, r) Wl rat i s t he act i on of chl ori ne on sul ph' ur di oxi de i n' i queous medi um?
( r , r \ Vl t ) , ; , . l l l . , r .
. : ; . : t dl l
, : r l l [ i r t a?r i ?O! SSO1' . r t r on?and
! ' r t v". t :
' Ff t el a' '
e
L<1v
l - ar 5l
dr Ecoc. 61\
I t f ' ev' \ ha\ , 4;
2
"t . c'
o. l Ef t ^
Lr
(o) Why zinc salts are colourless whereas nickel salts a# coloured ? o\ - ci tvqrn s i I
i
'r]
(l r) l ransi ti on metal s fogn a l arqe number of compl ex compounds. Gi ve reasons-
,
i r 7
! ^, 4) , r
1; c[ a"
. ' ^c1
l i t i i i - . ' a. ' a"t
et ' c**
t
c'
q- ' nV' \ \ s
er , r #pl er et hef ol l owi ng. quui , onr .
Vdr l ( - f \ \ e- o' ' cl cr :
^r
qt 61\ q- o
' 24
Vr r rr,,:-
v
( ' i
nl , (
13.
(i) Mn04' + C2Oqr- * H* ------' -' -+ .?
( i i ) Cr 2072 + I + H' ?
A
(i i i ) KMnQ
+
?
25. Based on VBI explain the formation, geometry and magnetic proper' ty of
hexammine.cobalt (ilI) cation. ( Atomic number of Co
=
27
)
26, Give the IUPAC name of
[Co(en)2C12]Cl.
Draw the optical isomer for cis-[Co(en)2o2]'
r yr i
PART-D
3xg=15
.,or anY
THREE of the fol l owi ng
questi ons :
Ao5w"-,,psti on carri es 5 marks ) u
l;::;;"'o:i::l:::::::i]
'
t'u"^|"^*qX
has a o*r,* ,,
Q,zlslcrl.
If tn. uag" i.nftt
"j.SS
,ryt^t-",Il is 400pm,
lz.
(a) Al
:iil;;iil.o;
bubic unir cell; ( Motar mass oii=eo9'lm.l, Nr'=.6.022'x
1d23mol'
oillT.''i J;fiii';il.;il;
"i'x=boe"6J,
Ni= 6'022'x 1d23morr 13
. / , \ "/
, l ont l r y
Lr r er ! / r e sv' r ' . \
"- ' - - r : : :
:
-
t uv-
.,..t Wpe
of crystalline so,,O ,, On ice? Name the binding forcps-Present
in dry ice' 2
(b)vVhat' rr- p' orii-
-- -
-!_119_?:"1flj::
in
qo
?n nrwarr
i vr l "l vc\ ^i
po\ Cv
Lq' \ u! {r \ \ vr Ls'
, rr' e boilinq
point
of a solution containing 0' 529 of glucose dissolved in B0' 29 of Water'
rind
u'"..i'r'^i
I"'"^J^ I ,"n.r-"r .nrl K" ior water
= 0:52 K kg mol-r )
' 3
zB.
(.)
f'^l:,I"n.#
"7
6i"i,i*;.'r-a,tifiot
ana ru ior waier'=-0!sz-K.ke:to''1
'
( lut' ' "'
.^^,;, u^ff ri.|^-l iiiu.r i. fho v2trp nf van' t Hoff fJgtor, for a comp (r,:;"van,t
Hoff factor. what is the value of van,t Hoff factor for a compound
f
ul
otlf.""rirs
iuttaruiiruiion in-un orgunic
solvent?
G'? E'
2
fijirgrrn'ttttamerisaiion
in an organic
solvent? $'? F
L --->
-
. first-order
reaction, the concentration
of reactant
gets reduced from
(b)
1l:r
; 0.2M in 5min. Calculate rate constant of the reaction'
0
or ' ' ' -
.
^
.,.ttri,
cell is set up at 250c with the following half-cells:
30.
(a)
A
""*-,4qi (0.001l i ,1) and Cu /
Cu2* (0.l M)
na'
!62lcibre
the El'4F or'tne ceit. ('E!as
= 0'av and Eocu
= 0'34v )
--.--
.^ any twc di fferences behveen el ectroni c conci uctors and el ectrol yti c conductors'
' i r r {' \ : ' '
\ L /
' -
3
7
^^nne
the following terms :
'
' ; ' \
r)cr! ' -
""i i O
oi ul vri r
(i i i ) Het erogeneous
cat al ysi s
3
I
t t ol
j r) 6; ect roPt rorest s
. , rrri t
t he
drspersed phase and di spersi op nredi unr of t he f ol l owi ng col l oi dal syst enrs' 2
( Dl ' 1, , q. oke ( i i )
Mi l k
(' /
-qG"
' l I
. . -, 31ry
THREE or t i 6?t t owi ng
quest i ons
3x5= 15
V. A.n5l;uestions carries 5 marks )
(
tactt "- "
' ;
. . . una| i nZai t sev, s( Sayt zef f ) ni t ewi t nanexampl e.
u u:,,::_does
chlorobenzene react with methyl
qhloride
in
,presence of aphy.Qrous AEI:?
,.
' .2,,
( b; n""
, , . , . . : i . , , .
r ' 1, j . . : ' , . , : : , l : ' . .
"
I
r
r "
tdentifY
tne:
. : I
(c) Arrange the following in the dereasin"g order of reactivity toWards
nucleophilic substitution reactions'
'
,rr"
Noz
/Na.,
{,4
l \ - / l
I
Noz
( I I )
33. (a) Mention the major products formed in the following reactions.
(i) (cHr3 C-o-CH: + HI
(ii) oH
-_-..--_.-.->
I
cl
-(o
Y
( r )
Nou
( ur )
(iii) CHr-CH=CH-CHrCHz-OH
.
(b) Ao organic compound (P) with the formula. crHoo reacts with cH:cHzM9cl. The product
.
t:ormed on hydrolysis forms analcohol
.(q).
Alcohol Q
on warming with Lucas reagent
forms cloudiness. Name the compounds P and
Q.
2
34. (a) How do you bring about the following conversions?
3
(i ) Et hanol t o et hanal
(i i ) Et hanal t o but -2-enal
(i i i ) Benzal dehyde t o Benzal dehycl e cyal ohydrt n
(b) What is formatin? Give one use of it.
2
35. (a)Expl ai n Hi nsberg' s t est f or t he di st i nct i on of pri mary, secondary and t ert i bry ami nes. 3
I
-l\
dit. HNor
l ( Jl -
\-.., pcc
i (l l a.t*..n
benzenami ne and ammoni a, whi ch i s l ess basi c and why?
36. (a) Write the main struitural difference between DNA and RNA'
Name the nitrogen base present only in RNA but not in DNA
(b) Give an examPle each for.
'
(fiOptically inactive a-amino acid
,
''(fl
Water soluble vitamin
,-
(c) Write the Haworth's stucfure for monomer prgsent in cellulose'
fii.f
al **. the structure of the moriomer for dEch of the folloiffng polymers'
\
-
'/ (i) Nylon - 6
(ii) PolYProPene
(iii) Natural rubber
(b) What are thermosefting polymers? Give one example.
I o{) r r
t r l
'2
. l
t"l t
il cup.ro.ii,-
1N,T
. l M
1M
CH:
I
CH, = C- CH=CH:
b) . Thesear et hepol ymer shavi ngext ensi ""c' oss- l i nki ngandcannoj ber emoul - ded' ,
Emmpte - Bri kel i te i . ,
:
I M
1M
i , ' - i
I I I ' t Jc
(i l
l l , )Ml s' l ' l t Y
MODI ql ,
Qt Jl : S' l ' l ON
l ' r\ l ' l ' l l l \ ' l
TIME : 3 Hrs. l5 minutes
I
Mi r t r r r r t t t r t Mr t r ks
't0
. _t
l nst ruci i ons I
t ' Thegdst i odi apl r hNf our par t s: A. B, Cr nd D. Answcr al l t hc pnr t :
!D
'Wrilcbalffied chmim! cquatioro urd dnw labcllcrl diagranrs whcr cvcr rc(lor'nl
I
iiD Uselogtdbleandsimplecalculat6rilnccsary .
'
I Ai r swer l al i , t hequest i on! : ,
,
l 0xl =10
I
)
On what factor the value ofcolligative property depends
'1
2) What happens to the soJubility Ja gas in water on increasing thc tcmpcrature' )
({q-r( ' aqcf
3) Namb the metal usedin galvanisation.of iron- Z;n<-
4) Hbw many times does,thb ratg generd'lly increase on increasing thg
I temperature by lffC ?
'
. f-
5) Name the dispersed
phase in milk. t ,q..qj 1 Gr
!
;; ;t;; ;; il;t;;i'A;il;J in r.u#ng oruauxite. Q-(t ' -'vi^
hTdr o
't"'
ote
7) Wlich qobte gas is radioactive ? I -1ao\ct"
8) CH, - CH
=
CH, + HCI
--+
X. What is ' X' in the reaction ?
9) What is the I.U. P.,a-'.C. name of HCHO ?
{tO; )
net*".nNH, aldCH,M,,
whichhashigher p{n value ? t' !\-r
3
t
PART. B
Ansrver any five of the following :
I 1) Define : (i) unit cell (ii) space lattice"
12) What are fuel cells ? Give an example
I 3
)
What i s hal f l i fe peri od of a rercti on ?
I I
5x2=l O
. \ - \ *, t 6[ v
Oqe^
Or 1ge- n \ I t ' \
v- v
I l , t r i r i l i ( i : \ t cd l ( ) nr l ! , , , ; . : , : : r l oi i t l l l si
u' \ \ f
LL4l
1S\
i c' ) l
17)
i 8)
order reactibn ?
How do lanthanoids reactwith water? Give eqLration.
Hou. does di et hyl et her react wi t h excess of h" r; rogen i od i dc
' )
Why is acetic acid weaker than formic acrd ' 1
How are antiseptics differ from disinfectants
' .)
i) Cive one adVantage of using synthetic detergcnts.
ii) Give an example forartificial Sweetening agent containing peptide bond.
:
PABTi!
III Answer anyf i veof t hef ol l owi ng:
)
5x3=l 5
19) (i) Suggest a method to concenrrate copper
fyrites
ore.
(ii)' How is nickel refined by Mond' s process? 1+2
20) (i) Howdoeszincreactwithdil.HNOr?
(ii) Which allotropic form of phosphorus exhibits chemiluminescencc ? 2+1
2l) (i) Give anexampleforamphoteric oxide.
(ii) How dogs ozonoreact with nitric oxide ? Ciivc cqtration- l+2
22) (i) Which halogen has higlrest clectron affinity
' /
(ii) Horv is hydrogen chloride prcpared in thc lll>or:rtory
' l 1!2
23) Wri t e t he chcmi cal equat i ons i nvol vcd i n t l t c t rr: rt t t rf ; rct t t re of
,potassiurn
dichromatc frotn ohrontilc orc. 3
24) (i ) Why do 3d-scri cs cl cmcnt s cxl ri bi t vari l bl t : oxi rl l t i ot t st at cs' /
4l
!
ry
i i ti on methl i ons are coj oured' '
'
( i i ) Expl ai n why t r ansr hon met al l ons ur c u: i "' *
25) [ring vBT, expiain the fornratiOn of
[NiClJ
:'
- ^.
26; (i) iive the laPACnarneof[Cr
(NIl,), (H' o)j] C!'
Answer any Three of t he f ol l orvi ng : '
3
zif
^l
Ciassify the followinginl"iiiftl.' .11
tvnes
:l:rvstalline
solids'
I
(i) iodine tiii' sio,
(iii) copper nreral
(tv) Mgo
b) Wfrat is nrpantby co-ordination
nrrnrber in so-lids ?
What is the co-ordination
nttnrber of atoms in
(i ) FCCal rangement
(i i ) BCCarrangenrent ?
.
'
28) a) What are azcotropes ? Give an exampte'
b) The boiling poiniof ryarer becomes l{tois10:c
t:" l'u.g.fi-,
-'
z no**lJiiesoluteis
dissolved
in l00g ofJ1,. Cfo{.ate'eit't:.'
r nol ur r nu"' of t hesot ut e( \ of wat er =0' 6K/ kg/ r nol ) ' , ' "- ' ' "
2g) a) Def i nemol u, , ond*t unuL. hnut i si t sS. I . ur r i t ?.
b) Calculate the etecJJ" fotential
of ZnlZnSO' ' (0' 01M)
at?5'
(Givbn t;,
=
-0' 76V)
30) u; M.,ition ony trvo factois affeeting the rateof reaction
b) Half life period of a first order reaction is 30 min' Calcnlate the
time reqlired to complete 90% of the reaction'
3l )
a) Give any two ditferences between lyophilic and lyophobic
pqlioids'
ti) Mention
""y ' *of"i;"
affecting the adsorption of gases onsolids'
l +2
'
trl+2
x5=15
7
:
. i Ci u" an exampl e i or het erogeneot t s
cat al ysi s
r \ nst r cr i t t t t ' I i ot t r of l hc f r r l l or vi ng
:
l Zi
^l
f l ow doos chl or obcnet nc
I el ct \ vl l l r ; r cci f i chl or i de I
bi Explain delrydrohalogcnatton
rvith an cxanrplc'
'
. 3
2
2
I
\ I
=
l u
2
7
I
2
A
I
3
2
3
2
L
I
, : 2
j
' 7
2
I
1
7
I
c) What i s chi ral carbort i t t ot t t '
33) a) Gi ve one exampl e cacl t l i r r I ' t t t t pl t ' i r r l ' l r r l r \ cd ct l l L' r s'
'
Ui Wri t e chemi cal equat i ons l i i r l l t c crrt t r cr: ; i ot t of
( i ) phenol l opi cr i caci d
( i i ) phcnol t obcnzene
. iiil)' ",tt.ne
to ethyl alcohol'
34) a) Explain decarboxylation
with an exantP,le'
,
1'
u)' Ho* i, acetone obtained lrqm Acetyl
qlloride ?
6b Nu*" ttt" ketone rised inthe preparation
o[ tear gas'
35)' Y
How is anilineprepared
from nitrobenzene
?
I
b1 llowdo.sr.rr,yr#reiiaittitr,t
*..ttoimethyl
iodi{e? GivLequations'
36) ,aj
Write the Hawgrthslrlc]ure
of Ma-ltose'
b) Cive an examPleeach tor
:
(i)l:a' t urib cr -' aniino-acid' (ii)
a globular protein'
c) Narle the vitanrin lvhose deficiency cauies Rickets'
l7) ;j nisiingr' ,istttto*.en
thernloplasticand
tlrtinrosetting' polyntcrs'
t r)
(' l rrssi f y t l rc l ol l orvi rrg i nt o pol yanri t l cs
and pol yesl crc:
Nyl on"( r . ( r , ' l i : t Yl ct t c
t ) Nrt t t t r' l l t c l l x)l l (t l l l cf t t '
"t ' ' t ' t t t l t l ' . . . . .
9) ,
,
1'0)
l)
2
3)' .
4\ '
5)
6) .
7)
s)
14)
r-5)
soturloNs To ivrorini P'aPER - vl
.
.
r , ,
. . :
.
P. ART: . A, . , , . , , .
. 1,
Number of solute pirticles in the solution; '
Solpbilitydecreasei , .
Zinc
'
Doublies OR increases by tv,ro times
tiquid,fat
Sodiulnhydroxide
:
Radon'
CHj -Crt-CH- on 2-chl oropropane oR i sopropyl chl ori de'
ct
Mettfanal.:,
:
NII,
'
.
I
PART-B
(i) It is thesmallegtpossible repeating unit of a crystal la,ttige'
l
iii
Th. three dimeniional 4nange-meiit
of the lattice points is called'space Iaiticc
Th! cells which convert chemical eriergy of combustion of fuels into
electrical energy are called fuel cells'
Ex : HJdrggp.ri r.qxygen.fuel.cell'
The time required to rgduce the concentration
-of
the reaclant to liulf o1" itt initii i
value i9 called halflife period of a reaction.
11)
12)
l 1)
. 0.69J
t , ;
l . . l nt hanoi ci s rcaf t $ i t l : t va. t cl
hydrogen gas..
2Ln + 6H,O-----+2Ln (0H). r' i l J,
t
Di et hyl el her react s rvi l h excess o1' hYdrogen i odi de Lrndcr drast i c coi l ! i l i l ol rs i ('
form etlryl iodide.
C2H. - O. C2Hr + 2HI --) 2C, H. . l
+ H, O
Becuuse aceiic acid has an electron releasing - CHr
Bro,p
rvhich nrakes the O-ll
bond 5trongeraninotfavour,the
releaseofH' ion easily. But in formic acid there
is no such group an{ hence release ofproton;(H
*)
becomes easy'
Antiseptics are applied,on living tissues such is wounds,.cuts etc., but disinfectants
are appliedon non-living objects such as floors etc.,
(i) They produce lioth even with hard water..
(ii) A3partanre on alitame on saccharine.
PARr-9
(i) Froth floatation on oil' floatation method"
(ii) Inrpure nickel is heared with CO to get volatile nickel tetracarbonyl
whibh on furtherheating gives vapours ofpure nickel
-
Nin 4CO
,r,' -t",
Ni (CO),
.s,;fl,r
,
\i * 4CO
a) zincreacts tvith dil. HNor to fomr zinc nilrate, waler arld nitrous oxide.
4Zn + l0 HNO. ----' + 4 Zn(NO.)r
+ 5H,O
+ N,O
, *'
. : . . . . r , , . , r r , . . , 1. . ; . . 1, , .
r ' l : i i
.
.
, . : . . .
t l r j i , ' I i t , .
1, \ r Lr \ L, : ) \ : ' , . .
I
l 6)
l 7)
l 8)
l e)
20)
, i r ) _
' 33) a) Si mpt e et her
Mi xed et her
b)
OH
c)
35) a)
i ) )
36) a)
H
CH:OH
cg{,oIl
: .CHr-GCII, taimcthvl
cthcr) on Crllr-O--CrH, {di"rhvt
trh"d
: CofrrtO-g11
(methvl phenyl erher) on CrHr-O-CHl
(mcthvtethvlriher)
t)
O';mvo'
r2f4' , 3.ri,O
i i i ) CHr=CHr-l HrO
. *, ' : sor.
)
CHr-CHpH
34) a) Wrcn a carboxylic acid is heated with sodalime' an alkane is formed' This
reaction is callcd decarboxy{ation
Ex: CHTCOOH+Naorl
+ cl{rcooNa+HrO
clircooNaf NaoII -:'o4
cHo+ Narco,
b) Acctone is obtained byareating acetyl chloride with dimethyl cadmium'
2cl ' l r - co -cl +cl l r-Cd-cH'
---r 2 cHr - co - cH' +9661'
Acctophenone.
Aniline is preparedbf *rereductioncifnitrobenzqne
using tin and conc' HCI
C6H.NO,
+ 6[H1
s;c*xt
,C6H5NH2+2H]O
\' i.lir1,,l nntin" rcecls *' ith eicess o{meth-vl iodide 1o lonrr dinrcthvl
arnrno, t ri rncl i l yl rnri rrcard
f i nal l l ' t ct ranret l i i l
ont t )i ot t i t -t rl l i t t i i : ' i :
cHr - NH,
+ cHrl
----t
{cHr)2
NH
+ HI
(CH.), Nli + CH,l
,--+
(CH,)r N + HI
(Cl l r)j N' i -CI l : l
. +
(CHJ, N. : l
.
OH
,to. I 1rc,
'y-\1
l oI
\z
I
NO,
OB
b)
c)
37) a)
i) Lysine on
ii) Haemoglobin
and i n
i i ) c
l ' ol yur r r i <l c
I ) 0 l ycst ct
c)
( ' l r l or ol l r cr r c ( 2 - chkr o- 1, ' J
- br r l at l t cr r c)
a+l a+f
' ' l - _. '
-' E-'1:
olt
bn licating,
r cnuut l t l t t l
lrpuc
l,USmY
MODEL QIJESTION
PAPER-VII
TI ME: 3 Hr s. l 5
Maxintr.rmMarks :70
Ansrver any, live of the folloling : i 5 r 2
=
l t l
l 3)
.
I I ) Calculate the number of atoms in the unit cell of body centred cubic crYstai. ,)
, 1
f
: yg6,"
,1tE chemical equationsfor the reactions occur at the electrodes of ncid
storage bafterY.
l4) Givereason: i) Actionoidsshorvvariableoxiddtion
states crf 5 \
,,Cd
,-+
rt act i ort i s 6-91 >: l i l ' s .
cl l cul at ehal f l i l e peri od of a f i rst order react i on i f t l re rat c cor' 1st ' i i l oi -l l i r
-....,^ri^- i. ri r)i r: ]lt
rt
c(]\\/.r:c I c.t)
I Actionoids shorv variable oxiddtion states crf 5 t
,
C d
,
-+^P
ii) cerium shorvs +4 oxidation state . n Cb\e'
$A"i
I C A\ i?
CCy.,n.pclct)\t
tsc' i -
5 t
,Cd,
Lcbte-
QY\"
{3ll
1 5 )
' ' ,
llxplain Kolbe' s reactron.
I 6
)
ii
l-lou' do you prepare aldehl' des from prinrarv alcohols' 1
l7) lWhat areantioxidants ? Givean examplel
l8)
' What
are biodegradable detergents ? Give an examplc'
PART-C
Anirver any liYe of tlie follorving:
5 x 3
I 9) How is a}minium extracted from purified alumina ?
'
20) a) How is dinitrogen prepared from ammonium dichromate ?
b) Write lhe structure ofortho$osphoric acid.
21) Write tbe oquatioris involved in the manufacture of sulphuric acid lrom
sulphur dioxide by contact
Process.
G ive any three anomalous bchaviour'of fl uorine
a) Zinc faririly are ndt considered as d'block elenrents- WIil' ?
b) Copper(l) compgundsarqcolourlesswhere
as
Coppcr (lI) cpmp.aun4rSlqgf.loured,
Why ?
I low is potassium dichromate prepared front qoncentred chromitc orc
n
l:xpiain tl& saliint.fcatures ofVBT' with respgit to the formrtion of
t:o-iirdinatiori compourids.' '
a) Drd thg diagram to gtrow ttre splitting of degenerdted orbitals
in an octahedral crYstal field-
b) Givc,the solvate isomerof
[Cr(HrO)o]Clr-
III
- 1<
. l
)
\ J
-)
l
) r l
2. \ )
) 4\
21)
')
(r)
rAR.T-D
3x5=15
ry AnswerjanY
Three 6f the following
:
ir-' ;il-;;
"lement
fom's gt!'*:':Il'^unit
cell ede'e length being
, 260
pm. Calculate thd dcnsty of lhe elenrent'
i 7*^1"
-""",^f
rhp elernerit:Z3dnrol, N,=6
i A;ffi;;',i;t;r'"'"r*"*'*
--z:g/nor' N
'=6'02T
T-]
o); ;ficili-i'nu'"n
"o'tallirie
iol i'ls a'r d
T:T::::,: I'l;
' 372
?8)
n)i Di sti +guri l hbetl veencrvstal i l l fl esorru5 -rrru
dr' vrvrrwuJ vY"-"'
I
a),i A solirtion,**
p,"pui ov dissolvins' 8*,o|.Y]l'::'^:
:l ] : 1f,'1:-';;
t *
"*'
' lr
sur*lrurlrwa l' r
ei' s' v- *' r""na
to r' l"t
'
boiiing point oi I00' 340c'
The rbsulting soltttion rvas
^,- -
n < r v /L^/ nrnl
;;-#:ilr,',"*"rs"'":::
!5:i;A::"t:llY,if
ot'
rn,
varu+r4rv
' ^' Y^v
; fl rl si gni fi cance' gf
Henry' s constant ?
State"ft,l em.yi p
l aw
{hati t
.,
_,^_,-^r.,^a,r r^, r0 mi n wi rh a
il;il;# ff
"of
p.. .,,lpr' ute is elec tro I
vseo
f:'' 0, t'll]."]T:
*"a;i
"ir.,
o,.,.,p"... lvhat is the mass of copper deposited at the
, "1
D)!,
l q\ r)i
electrode?
(atomic masscoppcr' k
63)' -
u)'
p.nl"
ritiii''g
'nll*
tut'ductivity-
c|,' I{owia1e r3apd*d.;;s
;;;;-"i*"g; s'a 9'*rof
the cell re{ated ?
l'
t*,]l t
30) ;i ino* ,f,u, ttie time requiJtor
f%.contnlction
oia first order reactron
rs
I
twic6 the time
'"q''iJittlne
completion 90% otthe reactio''
bJwh; i i ' . | ' . "a"f i r st or der r eact i on?Gi veanexampl e.
31)
^i
Writb three applications
of adsorption'
3+z
U; Wilut is a protective sol ? Cive an example'
|
4x5: 20
Anlrvei an1' Four of the follo;wing
:
32) t) Explain Fittig's reacl'ion'
-
-
il H'orv do yoll convert edryl alcohot to ethyl chloride ?
2+z+ |
c) What is racbrnic mixture
?
-
3i )
^)
I r henol s ar e aci di c r "' l r i l c al col i ol s ar e nei t t r al Ci ve r ci i sot t s'
i ; Uot " : r r e t he l bl l ou' i n. g
cor r t er si ons cr l r r i cd ot l t '
'
i) ketone to seccindarY
alcohbl
i i ) et hanol t o et hanal
. i i i )
di et hyl ct hcr t o ei hl l i ot i i de
- - . . , . . , . r . - - , , r . - . ,
t *'
14) a) Hor v do you pr epar c aci d chl or i ' l c
"t ' : i
t l l l : *t ' chl ondc' l
. Why thi onyl cl rl ori rl e i s betl er rcagent i n the above rcacti orr
' /
b) Expiain ardor
1o:;;;41 -l:'l-'i'*o'''
35) a) Completetlrefollowingequatron:
i ) R-Co-Nl ,{,++911
ti l tH'
' '
i i ) C6H5NH2+HNO;+IIC] -
?
i i i ) ' @- N: N- Cl +
@H -
e! - - - ' ,
b) Methyl amine rs strongerbasethan
am43nia,
Ynt-t. ,-^
3+7
36) ui Distinguish benveen fbrous
proteins and globular proterns'
b) What happens rvhen gilucose reacts with^hldro8enl?ft*
t
2+2+l
-
c
)
Nanre the n itiogen base,rhich
ispresentonly
lll:Kr\ rr r
37i oj whutor.l,omopolltng;andco-polymers?
'
b) What is vuilcanisattii
of.iubber
?'
'
:
'
c) Give'dnexunlp[iot"yothetibpolynrer
'
2+2+l
r )
SOt UTIONS'".tp MoDEL
PA PFIR
-
v I I
Pr\RT'.E
."\ solution ,havirig lowcr osnrotic pressure tharr that o I a g ivcn so ltll to rr
lry,potorric solution"
Oxygcn dissolved in u ater
5nT'
It is defined as "thc ratelofths vs3s1isn, rvhen the concctttratton
I
of cacl r r ci l ( : l i l t l t t '
I
_5)
6,)
7)
8)
e)
l 0) ,
l , l r
l _i )
i l )
BccauSe oftheir porous structure
l\,t onrJ
's process
Radon
2 . bromo-2-nrethyl ProPane
Dui t o t l re associ at i on of mol ecul es i n carboxyl i c aci d t hrot rgh i t l l cr nrol t ' ct t l i t t
hydrogenbonding -
Vitamin-A
,
PART-B
I
Contribution by corner particles,
ix8
= I
' d
Contribution by bbdy centred particle
=
I
Tot hl nri . of part i cl es/ uni t . gl l
=
| + I
=2
,
i \ r anode : Pb+i o, ' 1 -+ Ph. So, +2a-
..\t cath<ide : PbO. + SOI: t. lIt' +2e- -+ PbSQn+2H
tO
Chcmi cal f onrrt rl a of rt rst i s Fe, O, t t l ' O
0.693 0 691
i . =
- - *
, I r r l
I
( i 91, I t t
r) Duc t o conrparabl c crrergi es ol 5f , 6t j and 7s subshel l s'
r i ) Ccri unr has nobl c gas conl -rgurat i on rn +4 oxi dat i on st at c'
\ \ ' l t cn i l ry soi l i unr phcrl rrc rs l rci rred rvi t h co, al 1. i 0"(' i l n(l 6-7 i l t l -l l osl rl rcri c
l ) l
csst l r c- socl i t t t t r si t l t el i l t l c r s l or r ncd r i l l t ' l l r ' t t aci dl l l cat r or l ut r cs si t l t e r I t c
"et t i
' l ' hi s
r cl ct i or r i s cal l t t l Kol l r c' s r t l t cl i on
t ' ) l
I f.r)
,-\-a'coor
*-
t/
+
^ta''l
\\jlrcn .prirnaty algoholS ilr' c li.-ated rvith acidified pgtassitrnr dichrotrtlit c sr) itrl I Urr
irklchrrlcs are lorrtretl.
R - ( - - H; - Ol l +' [ OJ
] . - : - : : - : i "11 r
R- CHO+H, O ,
l . : r
(l Ft . -CH. -Ol ' l
' l ()i
. --' : f l : l : \ ""' r
CH, -Cl l O
r t l ' ()
ct hanol
-
cl h: t nl rl
' I 5: Sr r 6sl i r ' ccl r , l r i ct l t , , l i ' , , r l f t i r et i r r d( t l cl i t 1, ) osr r l l r t r , r r r i sc: r l l c<l i l t t l i , r r t r l i t t t l
t : r : [ ] . l l , \ .
( ) t { l }. 11. l .
( ) R vi l mi r r - l :
t 7)
Ti me:
3Hi
15mi n
N PUC - CHEMI.STRY :
MODEL
QUESTION
PAPER -vru
. l
'
: : . ' - :
. . .
r ", , , 1 '
.Giye
an exanipli; foq ttie cdrryiound ofManganese where Man!;anese shows l-7
oxidation state.
Calculate the magnetic moment of a divalent ion, M' 2 in aqueous solution, if
the atomic.number of M is 25.- 1 + 2
G
' '
Subject
_gode.-:c
Max Marks: 70
21'
4
b)
PART_A
I A. ns\ ' erALl l he
quest i ons. Each quest i ons carri es ONE mark:
I
Ci ve anexampl c l or a sol i d sol t rt i on i n ra' hi ch sol vent i s a sas'
]:
What annypertonic solutions ?
1;; The question papelhas four Parts - A, B. C'and D- Atl parts are comPulsory'
2;t Write balancedlchemical iquations and draw labeled d'ragrams wherever required'
3.r us bg tabl es and si mpte cal cul ator i f necessary'
( Use ot scientific calculatori is not allowed )
24, a) :dmsng aqueous solutions bf Cu'2 and Zn*2
,
which one is colotrred and why ?
b) Name the ferrorhagnetig element in the first transition s#es. 2 + |
25. Write any three postulates of \,Lternei'S.theory
| 3
26. ir) Wharaie ligands ? bive anexample for anionic bidenlate ligand.
'
PART_D
IVAnswer any THREE questions. Each.question carries Frl/E marks : 3 x 5
:
I 5
27. a) Silver crystallises in fcc lattice. If edge length of the cell is 4.07 x lFt cm
.
anddensi tyofsi l veri s 10.5gcm-r, cal cul atetheatomi cmassofsi l ver. - 2
b) What is a semiconductor ? What type df extrinsic seririconductor is formed
when Si l i coni sdopedwi t hBoron? . 2
What i st hepacki ngef f i ci encyi ri Bec?
' . .
1
'What
is ieriri prmeable mbmbrane ? Give an example. 2
Write the mathematical formof Raoult's law of RLVP, Explain thesymbols. 2
Define molal defressionconstant. 1
Write the diagram, half cell representation and halfcell reabtion ofSHE. 3
What is corrosion of metals ? Mention any two methods of preventign of it. 2
At 250 C, rat e const ant of a chemi cal react i on i s 2. 4 x l 0r s-] . Cal cul at e t he
ener gyof act i vat i on, i f i t sr al econst ant i s l x l 0- 3s- r at 400C. ( R- 8. 314Jl mol / KB
Explain the cffect ofcAtalyston rate ofa reactibn. 2
What are adsorbate and adsorbenl?
' .)
Expl ai n t he pr upar at i on i ' t r r ; ei ul so] : : l . r ' I r l r , : r i r ". cl cct r r cal nr ci hor l
( Ji r
e i i i , i cr t i i r r r l : l c l L; hoi l r , : ' , ur r cr r i r ! . l l . r l - \ . ) , . , r
I x 10
=
"I' od"nq
"n
t 0
F.J l!'
3'
) write
rdl s.L.urlit of rnolar conductivity.
4-.
Flalf
li$lxriod of a'firsi order,reaction is 3 min. What is the time required for the
compl#ion
rif 99.9% olthe same rebction 2
AmonqAl l ' and
Ca2, , whi ch of t hese i s t hc besl coagul at i ng agent t ocoagul at e bl ood' l
Gi ve ai erampl c f or a hal i de ore of al umi ni unr. C-r . 4 6r \ -,
t ' c N a3A[ i '
c
Wi i t concuse
of hcl i um. F' , r
\ :
-4
t a\
\ con f l
WritctlnIUPAC name of the comfound
(Cl' tr)rCHCHCl,
hcctone
is convcrted into propane in the presence of Zn-Hg and conc llCl'
t t : r nr c
of l hi s r eact i on' !
5.
6.
7.
8.
9 What i s t he
5 r l {) : 2{)
2i A llorvs
5 x 3: 15
..-
0
28. a)
b)
c)
29. a)
b)
30. a)
b)
31. a)
b)
c)
1,
t ,
' :
i
I
,]
I
i 1
I
1;
I 0 Nanrc
lhc vitamin rvhich causes tbe dise ase beri-beri due to rts deficicncy
I'AP.T_ B
1I i sl \
f l ' f l nr f i YI - t r ucsl i on: : . l : . r r cl r qt r t s{i or l c: t i ' r i cs' f \ \ ' O nr : r r ks ;
1 1
' Draw
adi auranr' of uni t cel l oJ' bcc. ] l o*' nr: i rl )' at onl s are pi esent i n i t 1
I 2. Calculatc
rhe tinre required to deposit 1.3 g chronrium rvhen a cuneni of I
t l r r oughasol ut i on
of chr onr i t t r r r ( l l l I sul phat c. ( cq. nr ass of Cr
=
l i l i )
l t .
14.
l - 5.
16.
l't .
18.
20
l )cl l neordcrof a
rcrl ct l on.
(. i i vc
l n cxl i rl l pl c i L)f l cl o or(i er I cact l 0l l
Wri t c
anv t rvo propert i cs ol ' l ant hanords.
Crvg mxxnnl pl g cach I br l i t ri hydri c phcnol ant l a nri xet l ct hcr'
Explain
Etard' s reacrion.
Whaiarcantiseptics
? Give an exarnple
Explainsaponification.
i -
VAnsrver any FOUR quest i ons. Each quest i on carri cs I i I VE mark :
32. a) \ \ t ri t e anv t \ \ , o di f f erencc-. bet i vccn S. r and Snrrcrct rons.
b) Lr pi ai n l : r i cr i cl - Cr al i ' s l ur cl i oi r \ \ r i l r r ( sl ) ! et r r r i hl ur u1r anr . , , . .
c) Gi vean exarnpl e f or a gerni nal di hal i dc.
33. a) Horv i s phenol nranuf act ured f ronr cunrcne' l
b) How does ethanol reacl with ethanoic acid ?bive equation.
c) Write the general equation forWilliamson' s ether synthesis. .,
34. a) Give two tests to distinguish bewben aldehydes and ketones. .
b) How does acetic acid react with a Ajnmonia ? Give equation.
c) Among chloro, .fluorb, bromo acetic acids, which is most acidic ?
35, a) Explain Ho{Thann' s Bromamide reaction.
:
b) Explain carbylamine reiction.
c) Give the gerieral fomrula of diazonium saltsl
36" a) Write Haworth strtrcture of a non -reducing sugar.
b) What is denaturation ofproteins
?
, c) What are nucleic acids ? Writq thq biological role of I-RNA.
37 a) Mention the monomers and partialstructure of terylene.
b) How is buna-N rubber prepared ? G ivc equation.
c) Give an example for a natural pol1.' nier.
4x5 20
I
2
2
".,..
I
2' '
z
' 1
2
z
I
2
I
2
2
2
I
PAITT- C
I I I Ansrver
any. FI VI I quest i ons. [ , ach q uest i on ca rri cs
' f
t I REE Marks :
19.
a) Name t he f l ux usecl i n t hc cxt ract i on ol cast i ron f rom haenrat i t c ore.
b) Erpl ai n zone ref i ni ng nre-t l rod f or t l rc pt rri f i cat i on of nret al s'
'
a) Howdoes PCl , react wi t l t rvat cr 2
b) \ . l t i t e t he l onl ul a o{' t hc cont pl cx t on f orrrt ecl by t he conrbi nal i ori of
Cu' i on anr. i amnron i a nt ol cct rl cs
l - t 2
2
I
2
I
2
I
2l
a) Howdoes conc. I -l , SO, reai t ri ' i t h coppcr' ' / Ci vc cqLri rt i orl
. . .
b) Name the producr lon' ccl u,hen su l' hur tl iox itlc reacts rvith clrlorine gas
L2'
r, ) Howi schi ori ; i e prcpal cd f ronr pot assi Lt m pct nrat t garl at c' /
'
b) Wliar is aquaLegia ?
$L
63
EF{EM] sTRY
Time: 3 Hours 15 Minutes
General Instructions:
il The question paper has four parts A, B, C and D.
iil Write balanced chemical equations and draw labelled diagrams wherever necessary.
Max. Marks: 70
Il AnswerAllof the following. Each question carries one mark.
[Answer
each question in one word orin onesentence]
1l Whatis osmotic pressure?
2l Whatisaprimarycell?
3] How does tr,, of a second order reaction vary
with initial concenffation of the reactant?
4l Name the catalyst used for the oxidation of
ammoniato nitric oxide and water.
5l Givethecompositionofmalachite.
[Each
question ca
1U Whatare F centres? Explainwithanexample.
121 Write the Nemst equation for the Daniell cell and
indicate the terms involved.
131 The concentration of a reactant X decreases
from 0. 1M to 0.025M in 40 minutes. ff the reaction
f ol l ows I order ki net i cs, what wi l l be
the rate of the reaction when the concentration
of X i s 0. 01M?
6f What is the structure of XeF6?
What are enantiomers?
How many particles are present in each unit cell of
aFCCcrystallattice?
9l Write the IUPAC name of the organic product
formed when bromoethane is heated with
ethanolicKCN.
101 What.does the secondary structure of a protein
specfy?
7l
8l
rries two marksl
141 Givereasons:
il
The majority of transition elements exhibit
catalytic properties.
iil Most of the d-block elements form
coordination compounds.
l5l What is Hinsberg's reagent? How is it useful for
distinguishing between primary, secondary and
tertimvamines?
161 An alkyl halide is heated with sodiumin dryether.
Name the reaction. Give the general equation.
iil AnswerAI{Y F'[VE of the following
@n
171 What are
functions.
"Histamines"?
Give some of its l8l \\-hat is copolymenzation?
Illustrate with an
eramDie.t
iiil AnswerANY FM of the follouing
[Each
question carries 3 marks]
1el
201
2rl
22)
Explain the terms calcination and roasting with
suitable examples.
Dry chlorine
(in a limited supply) is passed over
heated white phosphorous to form a compound
X. X is made to react with ethanol to form an
organic compoundY. Yis heated with an alcoholic
solution of KOH to form an organic compound
Z.Identrfy X, Y and Z.Wite equations for the
reactions involved.
How is ozone layer useful? Explain two factors
that pose threat to the ozone layer.
Complete the following equations:
I Fz+ZCl -
- +
i i l 2Ca( OH) 2+ZC12- - >
iiil NH3+3 C/2(excess)
-+
231 il Calculate the magletic moment of Fer+ ion'
iil The electroruc configuratio nof Cr rs 3d5 4sr
instead of 3d4 4s?
'
Give reasons'
iiil Name a transition metal that does not exhibit
variable oxidation states.
Write ionic equationfor the reaction of
permanganatewith
il Oxalateions
in acidic medium
i) Fez*
ions in acidic medium
UsingVBT,
account for the geomeny and magnetic
property of INiCI+1Z-
given atomic number of
Ni
=
28.
241
2s)
261 Give the IUPAC name of
lPtCI2@n) 2lCl2'
Draw
cis andtrans isomers sllPtCl2@n)zl2*
ion and
the dextro and laevo forms of the cis form'
AnswerANY THREE of thefollowing'
[Each
question carries 5 marks]
271 Whatis a crystal tattice? Draw the unit cell of a
body centred cubic lattice and calculate the
packing efficiencyintheBCC
crystal lattice'
t5l
281 al Thevapourpressureofpure
A isT0mmof
Hg at 25 "C.It forms an ideal solution with
B in which the mole fiaction of A is 0'8' If
the total vapour pressure of the mixture is
84mmof Hgat25 "C, whatwillbethe vapour
pressure of pure B at the same temperature?
bl What happens to the solubility of a gas in a
liquid with increase in pressure? Write the
name and statement of the law on which your
answer is based. 13+21
29) a] Calculatethe
standard emf of the celi at 298K
in which the cell reaction rs:
Cul r ; , +2Ag' , , , qt
+ C, r l -
- r
- l - {gt r )
Given the equilit' nurrl
.-trlf i-r:]l
' ' l
the reaction
i s 3. 91' l o15'
bl
\\-hat i: lin::::":
Ktrhln:*x: ' ":
*
l.rrli [*f':!::r
: : , ' -i :
-
: ; *-: i r i t i ' ? St at e
. ;
*-riE:rL,J,;::
migfatiOn Of
c
*
-"-l '
..-:'-.:tr1e
example.
E@
13
+21
301 a] The velocityconstantofafirstorderreaction
\+' as found to be 1.2 x l o-a s-l ancl
2. 4x10as- l
at 300K and at 3l 0K
respectively. Caiculate the activation energy
given R
=
8.3 14,IK-r mol-r
bl Prove thatthehalftifb
pcriod *fafirstorder
reacti on i s i ndependent of the i ni ti al
concentration cfthe reactarrts.
L3
+2]
3 I
I
a] What is peptisation? Describe the preparation
of a positively chargedAgl scl and a negatively
charged. AgI sol from .4gN03 solution and
Klsolution.
bl Explain tlte temrs electricai double layer and
zeta potential.
[ 3+2]
32] a] Mention the rnajor product formed in the
followingrcactions:
d
Propene is treated with diborane follolved
by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide in an
alkalinemediurn.
iil Nitriles are hydrolysed in the presence of an
acid.
iifl Sodium
phenate is heated iodomethane.
bl Write the structural representation of Sp 2
mechanism using the hydrolysis
,rf methyl
bromide as an example.
[ 3+2J
Answer AITY FOUR of the following.
[Eaeh
question carries 5 marksl
3sj al
361 al
b] Givercasons:
il
Aryl halides are extremely iess reactive
towards nr:cleophilic srrbstifirtion.
i{ An elecmrr withdrawing
group increases the
aeid strength of phenol.
[ 3+2]
A ketone is treated with hydrazine to form a
cornpound X. X is boiled with KOH in ethylene
glycol to formY. What are X andY? Name the
reduction.
furange tlre fallowing in the inereasing oider E'rf
their acidic skength in aryreous tnediurn: Acetic:
acid, moncchloroacetic acid arid propanoic
acid. Give one reason for the trend *bserved.
{3
4- 2}
Mention trryo differences in the structures of
am;viose zurci amylopectin. Write the I Iaworth's
structure of the monomer of starch.
Give ar"l exeimple for each ofthe following:
il asulphurcontaining u- anr.ino acid.
bl
331 aI
3al al
bj
tiVrite
equations for each ofthe following:
ij ReirnerTiemannreacticn
iii Flttigreaction
Oxidation ofacompound P givcs aproduct
Q
r.r'hich reacts wittr phenyl hydrazin* but does
not ans'wer the silver mirrar test. Name the
conrpounds
I) and
Q. [3
+ 2]
Write equalions for each of the fnilowing:
i.l Roscninund reduction ibr tbre
preparaticn of
benz-aldeh,vde.
iii Aldol cernri*nsaticn trrking ethanal as an
example.
a
iiil Decarbcxylation.
d
a globular protein.
37] aj lixplain iruith anexample, the formationaf
li anaddition pe-"lymer.
ii] a condensa'rion pol}rm*r'
Iriame the rnonci-ners of Buna- S.
(iive
an exarnple of a thermoplasti*.
bl
[ 3+2]
[3
+2J
roE
EMI STRY
EI
il
f
Vax. Marks: 70
Ti mc: 3 Fl ours 15 Mi nutes
Generul Instructions?
i] The question paper iras four parts A, B,.C and D.
ii] Write balanced chemical equations and draw labelled diagrams wherever necessary.
Il Ansn'erALL ofthe following. Each question carries one mark
[Answer
each question in oneword orin one sentencel
I
I
What is the unit ofthe rate constant for a first order
reaction?
21 Give an example ofa network polymer.
3l Define afrrel cell.
4l What is the dispersion phase in a gel?
5l WritetheIUPACnameof
lcr1unr1,
@2o\f
ch.
Why is l-lelium used in filling air ships and balloons
for wcalher shrdyz
What is the gencral electronic configuration ofthe
3d series?
Name the most suitable oxidising reagent for the
conversion of a primary alcohol to an aldehyde.
Give an example ofa non-narcotic drug.
Which vitamin deficiency causes pernicious
amemia?
6l
1l
el
l 0l
8l
iil Answer AI{Y FIVE of the following
[Each
question carries two marks]
I l] Calculate the number of particles per unit cell
offcc?
What is the osmotic pressure of a 5%o (#v)
solution ofcane sugar at 288 k (mol. mass ofcane
sug,r:342 gmol-r, R: 0.0821it atm k-r mol-' ).
Write the symbolic representation and cell
reaction forthe Daniel cell.
l5l Write the modified Arrhenius rate equation and
explaintheterms involved in it.
Mention an)'nvo uses of phenol.
How <io
,vou
prepare benzaldehyde by the
Gatterman-Koch reacti on?
18] In what u'av is sucrt-1a-qe a superior sweetening
agent than aspar.:-me'
t2l
l 6l
17l
Explain the extaction of Ni by Mond's process.
l 3l
iiilAnswerAIIY
FM of the following
[Each
question
carries 3 marksl
: 01
' 1
1l
- r
I
, 9]
Describe the extraction of Aluminium from purified
Alumina
Explain the laboratory method for the preparation
ofdinitrogen.
Explain whytransition mctals and their compounds
show paramagnetic
behaviour and also calculate
the,magnetic moment ofa divalent ion in aqueous
solution ifits atomic number is 26.
22] How does acidified grotassium permanganate
react
wittr
d
lron(II)ion
if Oxalateion
rnl HzS
Write ionic cquations for the reaction.
231 Mention the conditions required to maximise the
yield
of ATf3 and write the flow chart for its
manufacture.
24] Write any three postulates
of Wemer's theory of
co-ordination compounds.
25] On the basis ofthe valence bond theory explain
why
[co(
NH)o]3* forms an inner orbital
complex.
261 Explain why F2 has a smaller enthalpy of
dissociation compared to that of C I
2?
Answer AI\Y THREE of the following.
[Each
question
carries 5 marksl
271 al Calculate the packing efficiency in a body
centered cubic crystal (bcc).
bl \Vhattype of stoichiometric defect is strown
byZnS?
[ 4+
1]
b] Calculate the equilibriurn constant of the
reacrion
Cu6.1 + ZAg*
+
Cu(iq1 + 2Ag6y
Given
E\utt
=A.46V
[ 3+2]
301 al A first order reaction takes 40 minutes for
30% decomposition. Calculxe
t
i.
b] Define threshold energy"
[4
+ I
]
3l
]
a] Describe sorne features ofcatalysis by zeolites"
bl Give reason: Finely divided substances are
rnore effectively absorbent than their crvstalline
form.
[ 3+2]
281 aj
bl
2e) al
State l{enry's law and mention twc important
applications.
Give two differences between an ideal and
non-ideal solution.
13
+
21
Suggest any three methods ofpreventing the
rustingofiron.
Answer ANY F'OUR of the following.
[Each
question carries 5 rnarksl
How do
biphenyl?
you convert chloro benzene to
Name the reaction.
b] Explain Finkelstein'sreactionwithanexample.
[ 3+2]
E! E
321 al
33_l al Write the rnechanism of
dehydration of alcoh ol.
bl How is anisole prepared from phenol?
[3
-
2J
3a] a] Explain',vlry mo*ochloroacctic acid is a shonger
acid than acetic acid.
bJ Vttrat is cross aldol conclensation?
prring
cross
aidol condenraiio& since tle reactents contain
cr Hatcnrs, lxrw many produc,ts will be fsrmed
ir:alrrixfire?
c.l F-lanne the reagent used in Clemmenson
reducti on.
[2+2+l j
(iirc
a rcason: Although the arnine group is an
O ad P directing group, aniline on nitration
Eats a r$stantia! arnount of M-niftoaniline.
De$nt'e tbe carbylamine reaction.
.frra:g the tbliowing in the increasing order
ofrtbbasc strength
c6/ / < l H: , cl i 3j i H2, i #/ : .
12+2+l )
\lrite tre ]Ia*orth stn-lc,h:Je for sucrose.
Mention the biologiel importance of RNA.
[ 2+3]
Write a note on tlre vulcanisation of rubber.
Define thermoplastics and thermosetting
pobrners.
[ 3+21
caralysed l5l
4
361 al
bl
371 al
bl
i.
EHEMI STTRY
Time: 3 Hours 15 Minuts
Gmeral Instruellons:
il The questioa paper has fuur parts A, B, C and D.
iil Write balanced chemica! equations and draw labelied diagrams wherever necessary.
Max. Marks:70
Il Answer ell of the folliowing. Each question earries one merk,
[Answer
etch qir$tion in one word or in one sntcncel
1l StateRaoult'sLawotRelativstowerirgof\iryour
pressure.
2l Narne the organic product formed wtren phenol is
treated wittr excess ofbromine rvater.
3] Silicon ard germanirmn are rcfirrcd by ...........-...
4l Write the IUPAC name of acetaphenonc.
5l Wluarehomollpticcomplexes?
6] Whichistlre sbongestredrrcing ageata.mongtl*
hydrides of
Soup
I 5 elements?
The SRP values of AL and Ag af,e
*
1.56V
and
+0.80V
respectively. Which of these is a
more powerful reducing agent?
What will happen to the half life period of a first
order reaction ifthe temperature is incpssed?
What type of magnetic behavior is shown by
tk
sc3+
ion?
Name avitamin, the defieiency ef which gives
riseto scurw?
n
8I
el
l0i
iil Ann+'creny FIVE ofthefollowing
[Erch
guestion carries two marksl
1U Wrise the IUPAC names ofeach ofthe following
iJ
[Co(ivrl3 )6 ] [Ci(CN)6
j
and
iil ffa3[Co(Or):]
Explain linkage isomerisrn with an exannple"
[-low is methanol canverted inta ethanoX?
Caleulate the number of particles present in eaeh
unitcell ofaBCC crystai lattiee"
Give reasons foreaeh ofthe following:
{
Benzaide}r}'de r-rndergres Cannizzaro's rwiion
ir] Acetophenons does not react with sodium
bisulphite solution.
Write the Nernst equation and indicate the terms
involvd.
What are analgesics? Give an example.
FIow is phenol com'erted into salicyfic acid? Write
the sfiucfurai sequence.
t2l
l 3l
141
r6l
!7j
181
l sl
HTE
iiilAnsw'er en1. F[\T sf L! fnilm:mE
,
[Each
questbns cerrics
-1
rri'*,
20)
2rl
19] Write the postulates of Werner's theory of
coordination compounds.
Descri be t he shape and st ruct ure of
IC
o{N
fu) 6J3*
ion using the Valence bond theory.
Predict its magnetic properly.
Draw a neat labelled diagram ofthe Blast fumace
and explain the reactions involved inthe extraction
ofcast iron from haematite.
22] With the help of a florv chart, outline the various
steps which are involved in the manufacture of
sulphuric acid by the Contact process.
:-1] Ii.' ;
-; ;.::a.:
*- :,;:tromate prepared from
Pu:.:+:;,-:
n:--
:' fY
24] Name ihe ::-e-' : : *is
- ' :"-'''*. Eransition series that
i] does not d.isp.a-e :: J-r-J_ieii rom dilute acids
ii] forms colourless i31r l:i is -l oxidation state
iid canexhibit+Z oxi.t"tion Eate
25] Complete the following equanons:
il 3clz + 6NaOH (hot and conc.) -+
4
XeF6 +3II2A -+
f,
SOz + Cl2 -+
261 Describeeachofthefollowing:
il
Passivi$'ofaiw'ninium iil Brownringtest
271 al
bl
28] al
2e) al
Calculate the packing effrciency in a simple
cubiccrystal lattice.
Give an example of metal deficiency defect.
t 4+11
q
The molal elevation constant of water is
0.520lkg. Ifa solution of 3.759 ofa non-volatile
solute in 50g of water has a boiling point of
I 00.95C, what will be the molar mass ofthe
solute?
Describe any two applications of Henry's Law.
[ 3+2]
With the heip of a schematic diagram, describe
the working ofa hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell.
Answerany THREE ofthefollewing"
[Each
questions carries 5 mark!
30"1 al
bl
311 al
bl
State Famday's First {"aw ofelecfiolysis.
[ 3+2]
Derive a* integrated rate equation for the
velocity constantofa first order reaction.
A first order reaction takes I 00 seconds to be
50olo complete. Calculate the rate constant
and the tinne required for the reaction to be
75olo connplete.
[ 3+2]
Bring out any three differences betrveen lyophilic
colloids and lyophobic colloids.
fr4ention any four characteristics of enzyme
bl
bl
E@
catal,vsis.
[ 3
+2)
i
::] a] Mention the major product formed in the
followingreactions:
ilA haloalkane is heated with an alcoholic
solution of silver acetate.
iilAcid chloride is treated with dialkyl
cadmium.
i i r] Acet one i s oxi di zed usi ng sodi um
hypoiodite.
Answer any FOUR of the following.
[Each
questions carries 5 markl
361 al
bl
il Aromatic amines cannot be prepared by the
Gabriel phthalimide synthesis
13
+21
351 al Describethesynthesisofeachofthefollowing
starting from benzene diazonium chloride.
i] benzcne
ii] iodobenzene
iiii pHydrox y azobrrzene
bl Howisbenzamideconverted into aniline?
t 3
+2J
Describe the formation of a nucleoside and
nucleotide.
What is a zwitterion? Write its general
structure.
Name an amino acid hormone .
12
+
?+' 1l
What are thermosetting plastics? Name the
monomers of Buna-N and write its oartial
strucfure.
What is saponification? Write the equation.
13
+21
bl
331 al
3al al
bl
cl
371 al
bl
How do aldehydes react with monohydric
alcohols inthe presence ofdryHCl?
Write equations for each ofthe following:
i] Swartsreduction.
ii] Stephenreduction.
iil Etard'sreaction.
Complete the following equations :
I
ROH + SOCI2 +
il
RCHO + NH2OH -->
Describe Gabriel phthalimide synthesis.
Give reasons for each ofthe following:
d
Aniline does not undergo Friedel-Craft
reaction.
bl
EE
EHEMI ETRY
Time: 3 Hours 15 Minutcs
G en e rsl Intitrueticns :
i] The questi{tn paper has four parts A, ts, C and D"
iil Write balanced chemical equations and draw labeiled diagrams wherer.er :t3:e:.sa-
Max. Marks: ?0
trl Answer ALL of the following.
lj DefineVantHoffsfactor'
2l WhatisaPrimarycell?
3] Write the ciremical fonnular fbr the rate equation
4l lV1ention ihe method by which Nickel can be
puified.
i51-)
woUle gases have very low meiting and bciling
pints, why?
6] What is the condition iur arr eiement to shou'
pararnagnetic pmperiies ?
71 WhatareEua:itiomers?
Sl Whichbp* ofaidefu''d* underg+es Cannir*r*'s
rea4.?i*nT
9j Why e:irt'i vigalni* C be stored i*';ur body?
1 0] \\hat a'e ?r*. .'.+*ilir$:rs?
orrater** -]r#=#=fi#
II] Answerany FIVE +f thefcllawing'
1U
r 1t
t Ll
What are interstitial defocts a'ld tefahedral voids?
State and explain Kcthirauseh's law of Indepienclent
Migration trf lons.
Write the Nernst equation r'vith an oxidation-
reduction reaction for the c*ll
t ^, t l
hrg(.,.)
i1u
g;i,
iic
u;.,
1c
u
14] ldenti{r the rea*iicn order from the following rate
cff$ta5fis:
{
K"- 2. 3
r:
l t J
5
Lmol
r$*r
n] K=' l
x
t f t + 5- t
I 5l \foh3, is Cr:' rer-iucing and ll{nr. oridising l'r na'iure
w'hen both have a d{ cor'figrnati**?
16j tlxplaln lViliiamsc-:n's ether s;:elhesis wish ;rn
exampi*.
131
E@
Explaigrhe
su6tr,.
tel
l n CHr ' C=N*CHr - Mg- Br
@f t '
> A
rf/s:o
,
g
IdentiftAandB.
method of bleaching Alumina from
201 Write the reactions involved in the manufactuie of
Sulphuric acidby Contact Process.
2l] Describe the preparation of ozonised oxygen.
Name the oxidized product obtained when ozone
reacts with lead sulphide.
221 Explain the large scale preparation ofNitric acid
byOstwald's process.
What is chemotherapy? Write the name of the
medicine usd for the fieatrnent ofpneumonia.
23] E
AlainthepreparationofPotassiumpennanganat
from MnO,
\
24] Write any three similarities benveen tanthanoids
andActinoids.
251
[
Explainhydrate isomerismwith ane:<ample.
ifl Write the IUPAC name of Kr[CO(NOr)ul
26] Discuss the nature of bonding and magnetic
reaction ofTenaryaonickelate (tr) ion,
[Ni(CI$)4F-
on thebasis ofthe valance bond theory.
IIII Answer any X'IVE of the following
271 What is packing efficiency in a crystal? Draw the
unit cell ofa bcc stnrcture and calculate the packing
efficiency in a bcc lattice.
281 al 45 gofethylene glycol (CrI{uOr; is mixedwith
600 g of water. Calculate:
d
the freezingpointdepressionand
iil the fieezing point ofthe solution
b] State Henry's laws and give anytwo applications
ofthe law.
291
4
Calculate the emf of the cell in which the
following reaction takes place. Also represent
thecell.
MB'+ 24.9.(0.0001 M) + Mg2-(0. 130 M)
+
2Ag,u
3x5=15
bl A solutionofNi(NOr), is electolysed between
platinum electrodes using a current of 5 A for
20 minutes. What mass of Ni is deposited at
the cathode?
[Given
atomic mass ofNi: 58.4
301 al Explain the effect ofacatalyst on therate ofa
reaction
bl The rate constant of a first order reaction is
1.5
x
l0{ S-r. What is its half life period?
3ll al Distinguishbetween Lyophobic and Lyophilic
colloids.
bl Whatisfoam?
cl Descri be Bredi g' s arc method for the
preparation of gold solution.
IVf Answerrny THREEof the following questions
@E
Vf Ansrcr rry tWldt- - L3!-
4x5=20
321a] Expl ai nS*l mechani smwi t hanexar npk. i l . . t *wsr ysr eact i onwi t hasui t abl e
bl Explain the action of alc. AgCN on haloalkanes
,.
witiranequalion.
33] a] Expl ai n the conversi on of propene to
2-propanol with an equntion.
b] Name the major product fonned when acetone
is heated with tr-iAll'{4.
c] Explain Reimer-Tiemann reaction.
3al al l{ow do you prepare carboxylic acid from
Gri.gnard's reagent? Write the reaction.
bl
tlhat
is the llell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction?
Giveanexample.
srTfn"
bl f-riE tu LB{C re ofAniline.
clBplirffitoaniline
withaneryalx-
361 al What isaZwiuerfurr?Gireitssuucture.
b] What is the ditrerence berurcen a nwleoside and
anucleotide?
c] Write the Llaworth stmctune of stuose.
371 al Describe the free radical mechanism for
polymerisation of Etlrcne.
b] How is Nylon 6, 6 manufactured?
,r[,E
E! HEMI gI TFI Y
Time: 3 Hours 15 Minutes
General Inslructionsi
i] The question paper has four parts A, B, C and D.
iil Write balanced chemical equations and draw labelled diagrams wherever necessary.
Max. Marks: 70
Il Answer ALL of the following:
U
Whatare isotonic solutions?
2l StateHenry'slaw.
3] Define zero orderreaction.
41 State Faraday's 2nd law ofelectrolysis.
5] What is sorption?
6j What is tlre role of lfune stone in the exh'action of
iron?
7l Helium is used to fill ainhips and ballons why?
8] Narnethe Ileteroeyclicnitrogenbasepresentonly
in DNA butn<rt irr RNA.
9l Mentionthe majorproductinttre followingreaction
C2 I'IsBv
+AgCNsu1..,
-ie!-t
tOl Aldehydeshave lowboitingpoirf than alcohols of
comparable molecular mass. Why?
iil AnswerANY- FIYE of the following
ru
t2l
Explain F'renkel detbct.
Name the factors influencing electrolytic
conduclance.
What is apseudo unimolecularreaction? Give an
examplc.
What is Lanthanoid contraction? What is the
common oxidation state shorvn by Lanthanoiclcs.
Explain Kolbe's reaction with an exarnple.
Explain nitration of Anisole with an equation.
Give cquations forthe reactions ofaldelryde with
hydroxylamine and Sodir:m bisulfite.
What are tranquilizers? Give an example.
l sI
l 6l
t7l
l 3l
l 8l
r41
@E
iiil AnswerAl\fY FTIII of tlc ffri4
1 9.1 Explainthe extraction ofaluminium from purified
bauxite by Hall-Heroult process.
20] Mention thrce anamolous bchaviours offluorine.
2ll Describethemanufactr;re ofnitic acidby Ostwald
process.
al Explainthe actionof conc. HrSOo on oxalic
acid crystals with an equation.
bl Write the structure oforthophosphoric acid.
a] Explain linkage isomerism with an example.
a] Calculate the percentage of making efficiency
inabcc unitcell.
bl A metal crystallizes as fcc lattice with edge
lenglh 450 pm. Ifthe molar mass ofthe metal is
50g mol'-r, find the density ofthe metal.
13
+21
a] Derive an expression for first order rate constant
of areaction.
b] Ihe rate of a reaction increases 4 times when
the temperature changes from 300k to 320k.
Calculate the activation energy (R:8.314 J/IV
mol).
291
^lCalculate
std. free energy change for the
reaction Znlg +2Ag@d
+
Z
12+
+ 2Ag6y
Eo cell
:
1.56V and F
:
96.500 C mol-r.
b]
r*tat
is a Mptic mmPlex?
241 Using LtsT. erplarn IiEgoomeq'andmagnetic
property of
[Co
{\I{
t.f
comPlex.
a] Transition metals ard tbeir compounds are good
catalysts. Explain.
b] Give the outer electronic configuration of
Manganese.
(At.No.25)
al HowdoesKMnO4 reacts withlls in neutral
medium?Giveequation.
b] What are intrstitial compilrnds?
b] Give equations for the cell reactions taking place
at anode and cathode in a button cell.
c]Whatiselecfochemicalseries?
12+2+11
301 al The b.p. of benzene is 353.3k. When 2gof a
non-volatile solute was dissolved in l00g of
benzene the b.p. increases to 3 54.2k. Calculate
the molar mass ofthe solute.
(\ for benzene:
2.53K kg mol-r)
bl What is a non-ideal solution? Give an example.
[ 3
+2)
3 1] a] Explainthemechanismof,en4ane
catalysis.
bl What is (i) peptisation (i i) electrophore sis
13
+21
zsl
221
231
261
271
281
AnswerAhlY TIIREE of the following.
E@
AnswerAIYY FOUR of the following :
321
331
a] Write the S*2mechanism forthe conversion of
bromomethane to ethanol.
bl Explain Wurtz-Fittig reaction with an o<ample.
cl WhatisDDT?
a] LIow is phenol manufactured from Cumene?
bJ Complete the following reactions:
il
R- cHzoH
c' o'
>?
11cH' - c- cl n
clHl
a] Explainthe following reactions with an example.
f,
Aldolcondensation
i[ Gattermann - Koch reaction
b] Give equation for the conversion of acetic acid
to acetamide. l2+2+lj
351 al How do you convert nitrobenzene
to amhnel
Giveequation.
b] Explain carbylamine reaction.
c] Methylamine is a shong base than ammoaia Cne
reason. L; . - --
.
-
-qu-
"
573k'
361
371
a] Write the Hawortlr strucnre ofMaltose.
bJ What is a peptide linkage? How many peptide
bonds are present in aheptapeptide?
c] Name the vitamin responsible for ccagulation
ofblood 12+2+
1l
a] What are thermosetting
polymers? Give one
example.
b] Explain vulcanization of rubber.
cl What are biodegradable
polyrners?
l2+2+
ll
341
EE
,l'i fi
,:i:
:r::'ili I
.ti:
t
,,
-ili
j.:i
,'' '""iii "
ij
li
'f',-,t4',,lr;i
t:
o, j j
]#F' ,_,.,
, t j i l l l : . , . . 1l
I ' hJr. l
:;{
I
@l E
1l What is osmotic pressure?
Ans: The extra pressure that must be applied on the
solution to just stop the flow of solvent from
i t s si de t o t he sol ut i on si de t hr ough a
semipermeable membrane is called osmotic
pressure.
2l What i s a pri mary cel l ?
Ans: In a primary cell, the reaction occurs only once
and al' ter its use over a period of time the
battery becomes dead and cannot be reused
agai n.
3l I-Iorv does t,., of a sccond order reaction
var y r vi t h i ni t i al concent r at i on of t hc
rcact ant ?
Ans: t 172 of a sccond or der r eact i on wi l l be
i nver sel y pr opor t i onal t o t he i ni t i al
concentration of the reactant.
4l Namc t hc cat al yst used f or t he oxi dat i on of
'
ammonia to nitric oxide and water.
Ans: Pt/Rh gauge.
5l Give the composition of malachite.
Ans: CuCO3.Cu(OH)2 / CU2CQ(OH)2
6l What is thc structure of XeF5?
Ans: Distorted octahedrai.
7l What are cnantiomers?
Ans: St er eoi somer s r el at ed t o each ot hcr
non-supetimposable mirror images arc t:rr l,
enantiomers.
8l l l orv many part i cl cs arc prcscnt i n ci rch rrrr
cell of a FCC crystal latticc?
Ans: 4
9l Write thc IUPAC namc of thc organic pror lrrr
f ornrcd when bromoct hane i s hcat crl r' ' i l
ethanolic KCN.
Prnnaneni t ri l e
What docs t he secondary st ruct ure
(, 1
protein speciry?
The secondary structure ofa protein rclbls t r t l r
shape i n whi ch a l ong pol ypept i dc cl , rr
can exist.
Ans;
\
101
i
Ans:
l l l What are F cent res? Expl ai n wi t h an
example.
Ans: F+entres (from the German word Farbenzneter
for colour centre) are anionic sites occupied by
rupaired electrons. They arise as aresultofmetal
excgss defect due to anionic VacAncies For
examplc, if crystals of NaCI are heated in an
atrnosphere ofsodium vapour, the sodium atoms
are deposited on the surface ofthe crystal.
'Ihe
CY- ions diffirse to the surface ofthe crystal and
combine with Na atoms to give NdCl.
121 Write the Nernst equation for the Danicll cell
and indicate the terms irrvolved.
Ans: The Nemst equation for the Daniell's ccl I r:rrr r lr
expressed as:
F- r +J
r; .. = Fo ..
^
RT
,,,V:)
". ' el l -
ccl l
-
"' f r, 1
nr
LCr, )
E. ux i s emf of t he cel l
-n
L"
rr11 i s st andard enrl ' of t hc ccl l .
R is universal gas constant.
T is absolute temperature.
r number of clectrons transfcrrcd itt lltr' , ,'
reaction which is 2 for the Danic:l ct' ll
F is the Faraday constant.
, , , , , [ 7- n2*1
1! t heconcen! "at i ot *. 1i T, 10*, r
lcuz
t'f
is theconcentralionof
copP0r ions, : .
' : , 1 . , ), : :
ijt l' hc conccntration ofa rcactant X dccreascs
frorn 0' 1M to 0' 025M in 40 minutcs' If the
reaclion follolvs I ordcr kinetics, what will
bc t hc r at c of t hc r bi ct i on
r vhcn t he
concent l a(i on
of X i s 0' 0l M?
Ans: 0. 025M i s l / 4' r' of 0. l M' I n ot her words' t he
rsactiorl is 3/4' h complele or 75o/o complele'
l:'or a first order reaction,
l7so1i
=2t112 = 40 mins [given]'
l' hcrefore, 1172
=
20 rnins
k
.,.!Lf!-=
ii:l
=
0.03465 nrin-l
t t i z 20 mi n' t
Iior a first ot' der reaction,
Rat e
=
' t
[ R]
=
0' 03465 mi n-r
x 0' 01 M
=
0. 0003465M mi n-r
=
3' 465
x 10-aM rni n-' '
14] Gi vc reasons:
i l
-l ' he
maj ori t y of t ransi t i on
cl cment s
exhibit catalYtic ProPcrtids'
Ans: i l
Most of t hc d' bl ock el ement s f orm
coordination comPounds.
The catalytic properties of transition
metals: ii ascribed to th9ir ability to adopt
multiole oxidation stdtb5' and' to form
:
con]plexes.
Tr ansi t i on met al s f or m comPl ex
comoowrds dueto tle comparatively smaller
sizes of the metal ions, their high ioniccharges
l9l Explain the terms calcination
and roasting
with suitable examPles.
Ans: Cal ci nat i on i s a process of heat i ng t he
concentrated ore in tlre absence of air' The
volatile matter escapes leaving behind the
metal oxide. For example, when ZnCO3 is
calcined CO2 escapcs leaving behind Zr0
'
ZnCO3 -+ ZnO+CO2 '
/::i
l.ly
i i l
and the availabilily ofd orbitals for bqnd
formation.
t5l What is Hinsbcrg' s rcagent? Horv is it uscful
f or di st i ugui shi ng
bct wccn pr i mar y'
sccondary and tcrtiary amincs?
Ans: I -l i nsbcrg' s rcaget rt i s benzene sul phonyl
I
chloride.
Wi t h a pr i mar y ami ne i t f onns a whi t e
precipitate which is soluble in an alkali'
Wi t h a secondary ami nc i t l brnrrs a whi t c
precipitate which is insolublc in art' al-kali'
With a tertiary aminc it does no1 form any
precipitate.
16] An al kyl hal i dc i s hcat cd wi t h sodi um i n
dr1' ct hcr. Narnc t hc rcact i on' Gi ve t hc
gcncral cquat i on'
Ans: Wurtz reactlon
2utr 1' 2Nu -+ R- lt t 2Nd'
l 7l What arc "l l i st ami nes"?
Gi vc somc of i t s
functions.
Ans: Histarnine is a potcnt vasodilator' It contracts
the smooth muscles in thc bronchi and gut and
relaxes other muscles such as those in the walls
of fine blood vessels.
@1
*nu, is copolymelization?
Illustrate {vith
an cxamPlc?
Ans: Copolyrnerisation involves polymerization of
di f f erent monomers. For exampl e, t he
polymerization of Buta-1, 3-diene with
-styrene
resulting in the formation of Buna-S
is copolYmerization'
Roast i ng i s a process of heat i ng t he
concenhated ore in a regular supply ofair at a
temperature below the melting point of the
metal. Generally, sulphide ores are subjected
to roasting.
For example: ifzinc blende (Zn$is roasted,
it gets oxidised to ZnO givingoff SO2 which
escapes as a gas 2ZnS +3O2 -+ZZnO +25O2'
iEESI
@E
201 Dry chlorinc (in a limitcd supply) is passcd
ovcr heated whitc phosphorous to form a
compound X. X i s madc t o r cact wi t h
ethanol to form an organic compound Y, Y
is heated with an alcoholic solution of KOI' I
to form an organic compound Z. Idcntify
X, Y and Z,
t #r i t e
cquat i ons f or t he
rcactions involvcd.
Ans: X is PCh,Y is chloroethanc and Z is ethene
Po + 6 C12 -+ 4PCl3
3C2H50H + PC' lj -+3C2FI5(' l+ H{O3
C2H5C| + KOH -+C2Ha+ KCI+ FI2O
2ll How is ozone laycr uscful? Explain hvo
factors that pose threat to thc ozonc layer,
Ans: The ozone layer protects thc earth's surlace
f r om excessi ve concent r at i on of l - l V
radiations.
Nitrogen oxidcs (particularly nitric oxidc)
emitted from exhaust systems of supersonic
l et s
mi ght be sl owl y de pl et i ng t he
concentration ofthe ozone layer.
Another tfueat to the ozone layer is probably
posed by the use offreons which are used in
aerosol sprays and as refrigerants.
221 Completc the following cquations:
il Fr+ZCl- -+
i i l 2Ca(OH)2+2C12 -+
iiil NHj + 3 C/2(excess) ->
Ans: i l F, +2Cl - - +Qr +2F-
iil 2Ca(OH)2+2C12 -+ Ca(OCl)2
+CaCl t +2t l 2O
iiil N//r +3C12-+ NCls+' .l.flCl
231 i l Cal cul at e t he magnet i c momcnt of
- 1. r ,
1, e
-
toD.
i i l The cl ect roni c conf i gurat i on of (i . i s
3r l 54s1 i nst cad of 3cl 4 4. t z . Ci vc
rcasons.
i i i l Name a t ransi t i on met al t hat docs not
.exhibit variablc oxidation states.
Ans: rl tt="[,fu*r=!qs.A
=Jts =s.gzau
irl 3ds4rl has extrastabilitydueto halffilled
subshclls
iiiJ Zinc or Scandium
[any
one]
241 Wri t e i oni c equat i on f or t he rcact i on of
permanganatc rvith
i | Oxal at e i ons i n aci di c mcdi uur
iil Fe2+ ions in acidic mcdium
--> 2Mn2+ + 8I{.,o + loco2
iil 5Fe2+ + Mnoa" +8H+
-+ MnZ* + 4H
ro
+ 51' c3+
251 Using VBI account for thc geomctry and
magnet i c propert y of
[ A' i Cl a] 2*
gi vcn
at omi c numbcr of Ni
=
28.
Ans: Nickel is in +2 oxidation state. The orbitals oll
Ni2+ ion are:
n[r
One s and t hrcc p orbi t al s ur. t yt ri a; r. a . , . r. 1
therefore the hybridisation is spr.
Consequentll,, the compiex has a tctrahctiral
geometry.
^
. . . ) r
The conf i gur at r r r n of - Ai ' ' JI i ! ' r acccpl i r g
electron pairs flom ligands bccorrcs:
1l t l 1I T t
Four c-
Pairs
fiom
4 C/ - i ons
1' he compl ex i s pat amagnet i c
due t o t he
Presencc
of2 unPaircd electrons
i ' ZOf Ci n. t hc I UPAC namc of I Pt C' 12@n)2l Cl t '
Dr aw ci s and t r ans i somer s of
7Pt cl "( cn) 12+
i on and t hc dext r o and
lacvo forms of the cis form'
Ans: Di chl or i dobi s
( et hane
*i ,
2- di ami ne)
piatinum (lV) chloride
T ( . t
- 1z*
[
ct
12*
I
t , . r,
I l ' ' xj f -i ' l
l al i ' --. I I a' i " I
l'"J\_,/ | I
b,,J
__l
,
Dextro
Laevo
' ci s
- 1.
I
c/
l ' -
l r t
i"r--i,:),, I
|
'.--U lt-,
I
LCI I
trans
271 What is a crystal lattice? Draw the unit cell
ofa body centred cubic lattice and calculate
the packing efficiency in the BCC crystal
l at t i ce.
l 5l
A ns : A rcgular tlucc di mcnsional arrangement of points
in spacc is called a crystal latlice'
BCC unit cell
ln A DIiD
b2
=c, 2 +a2
=2a2
a is the edge length
b is thc lace diagonal
I n AAFD
E
) L1 ) ^1^2
t ' = t l ' ' l t ' - t t " I l Lt "
= ) ( l
c i s the body di agonal
r : ,
. . c=Vj xa=4f
r is the radius of thc sPhere
1r
ut "F
J3
An unit cell o1u
gClC
crystal lattice contains
2 spheres.
-lbtal
volume of the unit cell
nil DrflI
' , ( qr ) '
l J: i
Packing efliciencY
Vol unt e occt rPi ed bY 2 sPheres
. . ,
^^
_ - x t wv
Total volume of the unit cell
z*( l n
t \
=
\ 3, / *1oo=68%
[
+' ) '
tEl
al Thc vapour pressure of pure A is 70
mm of Hg at 25
oC.
It forms an ideal
sol ut i on wi t h B i n rvhi ch t hc mol e
fraction ofA is 0.8. If the total vapour
prcssure of the mixturc is 84 mm of Hg
at 25
oC,
what wi l l be t he vaPour
pr essur c of
Pur e
B at t he samc
temPeraturc?
b! What happens to the solubility of a gas
in a liquid with increasc in pressure?
Writc the narnc and statement of the
law on which Your
answer is based'
[ 3+21
281
bl
P A and P s are the partial vapour
pressues ofA and B respectively.
l)
,
and I' ,, arc vapour pressures ofpure
A and pure B respectively.
.r'1 and xg are the mole fractions of A
and B respectively in the liquid mixturc.
If the mole liaction of A is 0.8, then the
mole fraction of B
:
0.2.
Vapourplessureof the mixture
:
P.,t
+ pB
64=xAp, +xBpB
84
= (0. 8) 70+ (0. 2) p",
84=56+0. 2 p' s
o"
=
28
= 140 nrm of i l e
0. 2
The solubility ofa gas in a liquid increpses
wi l h i ncrcasc i n prcssure. I t i s based on
thc Ilenry:5 Law which states that the
solubility o1 a gas in a liquid is directly
proportional to the pressure ofthe gas.
Calculatc the standard cmf of the cell
at298K in which thc ccll rcaction isl
^ ^, +
. - 2+
Cu6r +2Ag- pn, - + Cu' - gq) +2Agr 1
Given the equilibrium constant of the
r eact i on i s 3. 92x1015.
What is limiting molar conductivity?
State Kohlrausch' s law of indcpendcnt
migration of ions. Illustratc the larv
rvith a suitable cxample.
[3
+ 2]
^
n nsql
E. u. , , rt = Y l og K. . . at 298K
0. 0591
1
l og
-1. 92
x l 0' '
- - 046V
Li mi t i ng r nol ar conduct i vi t y i s mol ar
conduct i vi t y of t he sol ut i on when i t s
c:oncentration is zero. Kohlraush law of
indcpcndcnt migralion of ions states that
t hc l i ni i t i ng mol ar conduct i vi t y of an
291 al
Ans: a]
bl
Ans: a] Ps=x, qP, and
Pn=xaP, ,
Fffiffi
t l r ' t l t ul l l r r
' t t r
l " r '
1' r ' "!
l
' i ' l
l l t r ' i t r , l t r t , l t t . t l , , ' r r l r r l 1, r , ' , , , I r i , , ,
l
c: t l i ot l t , l l l r t i l r , l r , ' l ' l '
l ; gr cxi r t l pl t ' , r l /
t '
,
. r r , , l
t hc l i nr i t i ni l l l l t l l l t t , , ' t t ' l t t ' l r r r l
' "i
and C/ - r cspccl i vr - 11' , l l t l t t l l t r l t t r r r l I r r '
mol ar conduct i vi t ) ' ol Nr r ( ' / t
' l ' r v'
r r l ' "
. 0 r 0 r 0
Lm=LNa. ' , r "r l
301 al The vcl oci t y const ant of a l l rsl rrrrl l r
react i on was f ound t o bc I . . 2 x l 0
' . r '
and 2. 4 x I 0-a s--l at 300K arrd at 3 I 0 K
resp, ect i vel y. Cal cul at c t he acl i vl t i on
ener g/ gi ven R
=8. 314 JK- ' nol - '
bl Provc t hat t he hal f l i f c pcri od of a f i rst
ordcr rcact i on i s i ndepcndcnt of t hc
i ni t i al conccnt rat i on of t he react ant s.
t 3+21
. k. [ . ^
( t "- T, \
Ans: al l os- l = " l - I
K1 z) u)
^\
/ l r 2
/
. 2. 4x10{ E, , r 3l 0- 100)
l ^o - - : Yi - l
' "o' . t "' o'
: l o3{Bl 14
t ' 3oo*I l o/
E^ l 0
l ^c1=- - - - - L-
' - c-
2. 303x8. 314 l oo. l l o
0. 3010 x 2. 303 x 8. 314 r 300 x 3 l 0
10
= 53,598 J . nrol -t
= 5J..6 kJ
'
mol -'
I
When t =t 172 I
[ Rl =; [ R] 6
I
For a first order reaction,
. 2. 103 , l f i o
l . i ( ] i
, [ Rl , )
k =
- l r), 1 -- i u! : _-
|
' l Rl
1. 7
- l t at .
2. 303,
^
2103, , , . , ,
= ::'
l og I
( 0.J(, I 0)
I t / 2 t l i 2
_
0. 693
t t t z
Ea
bl
f--oiet
U'A
'fhis
expression
does not contain the term
inI
wf i"ft impfies thatthe half life period-
of a first order reaction
is independent
of
the initial concentration
of the rcactants'
3l l al What i s pept i sat i on?
Dcscr i be
t hc
preparation
ofa positivcly charged AgI
sol and a negatively
chargetl
AgI sol
from lgN03 solution
and KI solution'
bl Expl ai n t hc t erms cl cct ri cat
doubl c
laYcr and zeta Potcntial'
[3
+ 2l
Ans: a.l Peptisarion
is a process of converting
a
f reshl y prepared
preci pi t at t
1L". , i
colloidal solution
by shaking
it wm tne
dispenion medium in lhe presence ofa small
*i*t oi* .f otolyte' The electoll'te
used
fol this process is called the peptizng aSell
*t * ,lg,Vn.r solution is added to KI
,olution, ih" p.ecipitatedAgl
adsorbs I- ions
lrom the dispenion medium resulting
in the
fo.rnution oiu negatively charged colloidal
Agl solution
When KI solution is added to AgNo3
solution,
positivcly charged Agl sol is
fonned due to adsorption
ofAg' ions from
disPcrsion
medium'
bl Thc combination
of two laycrs of opposite
-'
.ttg., around the colloidal
particle is
calli Helmhottz
electrical double layer'
The potential difference between the fixed
tuy.i tta the difffrrsed layer of opposite
c-harges is called as elechokinetic
potential
or zeta
Potential'
Mention
the major product formed in
the following reactions:
Propene
is trcated
with diborane
f ol l owcd
bY oxi dat i on
usi ng
hydrogen Peroxidc
in an alkaline
mcdium.
Ni t ri l es
are hYdrol Ysed
i n t he
presence of an acid'
i i i l Sodi um Phenat e
i s heat ed
iodomethane.
Writc the structural
ieprcsentation
of
S1' 12 mcchanism
using the hydrolysis
of methYl bromide
as an examPle'
[ 3+21
following:
il Rcimcr Tiemann reaction
iil Fifiig reaction
Oxidstion
of a comPound
P gives a
prgduct Q
which reacts with PhenYl
hydrrtine
but does not answer thc
silvcr mirror tcst. Name thc compounds
P and Q'
[ 3+21
331 al
321 al
I cti o
>>l
l l
\,2
Sr t i c\ l al deh{de
iil
bl
- +
ONr
I cHrl
"' ,,"
zY
r:::+ I ll
\-2
otl
Ans: al il
tu l- ?r"
A srg"l /-\"^
L__
,r
arr.xrHl
\rl J
l ' henol
l r t er me( l s. c
Ans: al i ] Pr oPan- 1- o1
iil atniat or carboxYiic
acid
iii.l Anisole
-a
,t-i\
onr hs
( /
\ {
\ ) r : N. x
Di Phcrl ' l
. , H
HTI
t t
bl EoH.u>Be{Ho.:1-n
: 7
LFI ' H
n
Wri te equrti ons
E@
,l*no{
-r,.u,
I \i'
ru@
341
bl Pisasecorldaryalcohql
Q is a ketone
al Wr i t c cquat i ons f or each of t he
followingr
i | [ t osenmund r educt i on f or t he
preparation of benzaldehyde,
iil, Aldol conQcnsation taking ethanal
as an .*u-lrl.,
iiil Decarboxylation.
Q!
Gire rcasons:
i l Aryl hal i dcs are cxt r"emcl y l ess
r cact i vc t owar ds nucl cophi l i c
substitution.
i i l An el ect ron rvi t hdrawi ng gr0up
i ncr cascs t hc aci d st r engt h of
phcriol.
[3
+ 2]
Ans: a]
i l f i l i
Y"1, ..
pdirrrsor
Atdi'.>,
l . l l
' ' + H' -----i I l l
rr
+ rl L/
\,2 \/
'
,Bmznylchloridc
Benayldchtde
iil
: i . ,
ail-
NaOH.
2CH3 -CIIO
\
-\ CH1-C.H -L:H2-CHO
Ethanril
'
d,
.r_"r[:xli,,*d
-4=-Cn,-CH =CH -CHI
- H. O
' - - ' ) ' "
-
Bul2-enal
(Aldol condensation product)
iiilR - COOH + NaOH + R - COONa + I-I2O
Ccf r
R- COONa+NaOH- *" R- H
- *
A llydrcruhn
Sodalime
+ Na2CO1
bl
I
TheC-Xbondacquiresadoublebond
character due to resonance involving
a lone pair of electrons on X.
i! EWG renden phenoxide ion more stable
due to effective delocalisation ofnegativc
charge.
35] al A kctone is treated with hydrazine to
form a compound X. X is boiled with
KOH in ethylcne glycol to form Y. What
are X and Y? Name t he reduct i on.
bl Arrange the following in the increasing
ordcr oftheir acidic strength in aqueous
rncdi um: Acet i c aci d, monochl oroacct i c
aci d and pr opanoi c aci d. Gi ve onc
rcason for the trend observetl.
[ 3+21
Ans: a] X is a hydrazone.
Y is a hydrocarbon.
It is Wolff-Kishner reduction.
: l
'
KoH/ :
-"
= n
tutt*'rl
)c
=
ru-lru,
ethvlene glycol
,,.-
" _H.Ci ,/-
heat
\ ^, , , , ,
. / ' un1-
t r2
i
b] Pr opanoi c aci d < Acet i c aci d <
Monochloro acetic acid.
EWG increases the acidity of carboxylic
acids by stabilising the conjugate base
through delocalisation of negative charge
by inductive or rcsonance effect.
EDG decrease the acidity by destabilising
the conjugate base.
361 al Ment i on t rvo di f f erences i n l he
structures of amylose and amylopcctin.
Write the llaworth' s structure of the
monomer of starch.
( 9) Ci ".
an examPl e f or each of t he
following:
i l a sul phur cont ai ni ng cr - ami no
acid.
iil a globular protcin.
13
+ 2l
ril Amylose Amylopectin
I
iil
Iiis a linear polymer
It does not contain
ct, l*6 glyoosidic
linkages
lt is a branched
polymer
It contains cr,
1-6 glycosidic
linkages
The monomer of starch i s u* D -
glucopyranose, the Haworth's structure of
which is given below:
CHPH
ll' \l
YY
N/
ou\qH 4/on
t-{
H OI-{
Explain with an example, thc formation
of
il an addition polymer.
iil a condcnsation polYmer.
Namc the monomers of Buna - S.
Give an example of a thermoplastic.
[ 3+21
Addition po$grers are formed bY
repeat ed addi t , i on of monomer
molecules possessing double bond or
triple bonds.
eg: Polythene is an addition polymer
formed by polymerisation of ethene.
n CH7=Q11r -+ -(CHz-CH)n
Condensation polymers are formed
by repeated condensation between
t wo di f f erent bi -f unct i onal or
trifunctional monomeric units.
eg: Nylon - 6, 6 is a condensation
polymer formed from hexamethylene
diamine and adipic acid
n H2N(CH)6NH2+
n HOOC(CH)aCOOH' +
[w
a
g a
11 u
N HCo(c H
) 4
cof
,,
+nH2O
Thc f ormat i on of a condensat i on
polymer will be accompanied by the
elimination of small molecules such
as water, alcohol, HCI etc.
Buta - 1, 3 - diene and stYrene
Polythene.
Ans:' a]
!
bl
al
bl
bl
1l What is the unit of the rate constant for a
first order rcaction?
Ans: S-r (or) min-r (ot) Hr'
_)l
Give an cxample of a nchvork polymcr.
Ans: Bakelite (or) Melamine - formaldehyde resins (og
any suitablc example.
-31_,'
Dcfine a fucl ccll.
Ans : A fuel cell is a galvanic cell in which the chemical
energy is converted directly into electricalenerry.
iJl__,/
What is the dispcrsion phasc in a gel?
Ans: Li qui d
''il
Write the IUpAC name of:
i,.
lcr(N\\
(t{2o\lCb,
Ans: Triammine triaquachromium (III) chloride
lll Calculate the number of particles per unit
cell of fcc?
Ans: Number of atoms per unit cell of a fcc
=
fa
{ut
.orn.rr) x 1
{contLibution)]
+ 6 (at face centr.e; x
I
lcontribution )
2
- a
What is thc osmotic prcssurc of a S' /o (wl
v) solution of canc sugar rt 288 k (mol, mass
of canc sugar
=
342 gmol -' , R= 0. 082 l i t at m
k- r mol
r ) .
n/. R1
n
I l . l
\ . {) 01, 1. ' . . ) l l l J
1, 1
r
t ) |
6l Why i s Hcl i um uscd i n f i l l i nyg ; r t r . r ht pr r r r r r l
balloons [or weathcr study ?
Ans: Hel i um used i nai r. shi ps and r. vci rt l t t . r l rrl h, l r, ,
becausc l{elium is non-inflanururblc lrrrl lig,lrt
1' ,r,.
7l What is the gcncral clcctronic con ligrr r:r (
io rr
of thc 3/ scrics?
Ans:
[ Ar] 3dt -l o
4rl -2
8l Name t he most sui t abt c oxi di si ng rcagont
for the convcrsion of a primary alcohol to
an aldchydc.
Ans: PCC (or) pyridinechlorochronrate
9l Givc an example of a non-narcotic drug.
Ans: Aspirin (or) paracetamol
l0l Which vitamin deficiency causes pernicious
anaemia?
Ans: Vitamin
- B1r
r2l
n=3. 452 at m
[f
unit not mentioned, deduct I Mark]
l 3l Wri t c t hc symbol i c represent at i on and ccl l
rcact i on f or t hc Dani el cel l .
Ansi Zn / Zrri,,r1 // (' ui,,,,1 / ( )tr
znl -, zn2+ + 2e- (oxi dat i on)
C' t )2' +2e + Cr (l {educri on)
(oR)
Zn + Crt 2+ r) Zn2t + (
)r (Ccl l rcacl . i on)
l 4l ' l Cxpl : r i n t hc cxt r act i on of Ni hy Monr l ' s
p r0ccss.
Ans: Ni t : kcl i s l r r : r r t cr l i r r ; r sl t r ' ; r r r r ol r . o l of t r r i r r r , , r
v{) l l l l t l c ( r ) i l t l ) l ( . r , r r i r ' l r . l ! t . t r t r t t r r l r ol t Vl
A/ r r , l r ' ,
r l l l I "r ) ^
, l vr , , , t , l
Ans:
EI
Thc carbonyl is subjccted to highcr tempemture
so that it is decomposed
giving thc purc metal'
[w,rco),]
4so-4' 1ok
' Ni
+4co
l5l Writc thc modificd A' rrhenius ratc cquation
and cxplain thc tcrtns involvcd in it'
Ans: , (
= PZ1-E' | RT
K -+ rate corlstallt
P + steric factor (or) probability factor
Z -+ collision frequt:ncy ofreactants
E"
-,
Ilnergy of Activation
' l'
-+ Absolutc tcmperaturo
(any 1wo tcrms)
(-t61) n' lcntion any hvo uscs of phcnol'
Ans: Uses of phenol
il As an antiseptic and disinfectani'
iil In the ntanufacturc oftsakelitc
i i i ] I n t he manuf act ur e
of dyes l i ke
phenolplithalein, picric acid etc'
iv] In the manufacture of dettol'
v] As a preservative for ink. ,..
vri] In the manufacture of
products such as a salicYlic acid, a
rnethf salicYlate etc.
I 7l I l on' do you preparc benzal dchyde by I
Gattcrman-Koch reaction?
Ans: When ben,&ne is trcated with carbon
and hydrogen chl ori de i n t he presenoe
anhvdrous aluminium chloride (or) cuproug
chloride, it gives benzaldclryde.
r. \ t o. l l C/ a' ^-r"'
' n
I r-r t ---=+t ( ) |
!-]
ui' y AIC/r \:2
OR
Scl I exPl anat orY cquat i on.
( f ey f " r , r ' hat r vay i s sucr ol asc a super i or
sweetening agent than asPartamc?
Ans: It is stable at cooking temperatue and 650
times as sweet as cane sugar. It does not
provide additional calories in food'
191 Describe the extraction of Alurninium from
purifibd Alumina.
Ans: Purified AJ2O3 mixed with Na1 41F6 (or)
CaF2t o l owcr t hc mel t i ng poi nt of t he
electiolye and to increase the conductivity of
the elecirolye. The fused rralrix is elecholysed
aird A/is formed at the cathodc'
At cathode
',
Al3+ 3e- -+ Alpl
At anode : C1"1+O2" -+Co19+2e-
C1.r1 + 2O2- -+ Ca' t,g + 4e'
201 Expt ai n t hc l aborat ory rnct hod f or t hc
preParation of dinitrogcn'
Ans: in the laboratory, dinitrogen is prepared by
treating an aqueolls solution of
'V//aCl
with
sodium nitrite.
NHaCI@q1+ NaNo4onl-+
N2(s) +2HQg1
+ NaCl@q1
$Em @
Smallamounsof NO & t/NO1 arealsoformed'
These impuities can be remoyed by passingrhe
gas t hrough aqueous I / 2SOa cont ai ni ng
K2Cr2O1 .
211 Explain rvhy transition mctals and thcir
compounds shorv paranlagnetic bchaviour
and also calcutate the rnagnctic moment of
a di val cnt i on i n aqueous sol ut i on i f i t s
at orni c numbcr i s 26'
Ans: Pat' amagnetism ariscs duc to thc presence of
unpaired elcctrons'
v=1,,04
t . . , ^i
4. 90
i t ={a( a+/ }=! l c=
221 I Iow docs acidificd potassium pcrmanganate
rcact with
il iron (11) ion
iil Oxalate ion
i r: ,.";;q
1125
. , ! : l
Wri t e i oni c cqual i ons f or t hc rcact i on.
tAh,v
ft.
*
5Fe21 + MnOo- +8lla -+ N4n2'
+4Ht o+ 5Fel +
Fe2+ ion(grecn) is.onu.rt.d to Fc3'
(yellow)
iil Oxalic acid (or) oxalate ion is oxidised to
coz
5C, . O42- +2MnOa- +l 6H+ -+2i t 4n2+
+8f l rO +10CO1
iiil HrS is oxidised to sulphur.
5, 52- +\ MnOa- +16I I ' F ->2i , t n2+
+8I1"O + 55
.1,
( 231
)
Mcnti<tnthcconditions rcquircd to maximisc
thcyicld of NH3 and rvritc thc florv chart for
its manufacture,
Ans: N' 1gy r-3F1' 1r; F: 2N1l j (s)
Thc optimum conditions for thc production of
Nl13 arc:
i I A nressrrrn nf 100 aLm
iil A temperature of 700k
iii] Catalysts such as iron oxidc with a small
anount of K2O xtd Al2Q.
(Nr+H' :fl l l J Li qui i l NH,
241 Writc any three postulates of Werner' s
thcory of co-ordination compounds.
Ans: i] In co-ordination compounds, the central
metal atom (or) ion possesses two types of
va.lencies. One is primary and the othcr one
is secondary.
i! Ile primary valency is variable and ionisablc
whereas thc secondary valcncy is fixcd ln.l
. non-ionisablc: .,
iiij The primaw valency refers to the oxidation
statb ofthe ccntral metal atom and is satisfied
' by negative ions whereas the secondary
.
valency is equal to the coordination number
and are satisfied by neutral molecules (or)
ncgative ions.
ivl The primary valency is non-directional
. whcreas secondary valency is direclional anC
has characterisljc sp{ial arrangements. It also
gives specific geometry to the complex
compounds.
251 On t hc basi s of t hc val cncc boud t heory,
explain why
JCot
,l' ,v;
)c
JJ*
fbrms an inner
orbital complcx,
.
- L.
Ans;
[ CO( Nl l 3) 6] ' '
olbital of COl+ ioi
4P
./l spr hybri cl orbi tal s
.
- l +
ICO
(n"t{3)61
MW
'r-r
L_l
4,r
n-il
,/2qr3 hybriclised olbitals of.Oi+
Si x pai rs ol el ect rons f rorn si x , , \ ' / J3
mol ecul es.
,
Si ncc. t he i nner d oLbi t al ( 3f l i s used i n
hybridiz-aiion, the complex forms a-n inner or.bilal
complok.
261 Expl hi n why
&
has a smal l er cnt hal pl , of
dissociation compared ta that of Cl2?
Ans: The smaller bond dissociation enthalpy of ,!.
can bc attributed to the smaller atomic size of
fluorine.
WEtr
In a molecule the inter-nuclear
distance between
two fluorine atoms is small and the distance
between a pair ofelechons is smaller'
27) al Calculate the packing efficiency
in a
body centered cubic crystal (bcc)'
bl What type of stoichiornctric
defect is
shown by ZnS? 14+r l
al Packing eflioiency in a bcc crystal
G
ln bcc
Volumc occuPied bY 2 sPhercs tn
Dij= =-.---
' ' ' f ot al
vol ume of uni t cel l
Ib calculatc the volume of the
I n AEFD, b2
=o2 +, r 2
=2cr 2
C2
=oz +b2
o2 +2o2 ( ' . ' b2 =2a2)
c
=
J3a ! u1 c
= 4r' = VJa
r--Tl
l . ' . a
= -=l
I vl l
1
-' -
volurne of the cube
= a-
unit ccll
l PIr
=
68%l
( a' ) '
\ Jr l
A^
z\ - Tr
. pp=
3
, x100
( q
\ '
l - n' I
\ vr , /
'
Volume of i sphere
=
4r
3
Thisresults in relatively large elerton to electon
repulsion among the lone pairs of electons in the
Fr molecule.
(
onr' l
...Volumeof2spho.t
l2*; )
Frenkel defect.
State HenrYts law and mention two
important aPPlications.
Givc hvo diffcrcnces bctwcen an idcal
and non-idcal solution. [3
+ 2]
Hcnry' s Law: St at ement : At a gi vcn
temperature the solubility of a gas in a
liquid is directly proportional to the partial
prcssure ofthe gas above the solution'
(or)
Suggcst any thrce methods ofprcventing
l . . dt
' , -
. , , , , , q^; DI ,
the rusting ofiron.
Calculatc the equilibrium constant of
thc rcactlon
Cu19+2Ag- . . : Crrf o, +2A961
Gi ven E[ ",
=0. 46t r
[ 3+21
Mcthods of prcventing corrosion:
il By painting
i i l l l y mct al l i c coat i ngs (Gal vani zi ng,
finning)
By making alloys
Cathodic protection
wkt,
- o
0. 059 ,
f , r "11 =- l Of l k, .
o.ou=
o Jln,"n
o
2
*'
l og ft"=15.6
r-----.----:;1
l i . . =3. 92x
l o' '
I
A first ordcr rcaction takcs 40 minutcs
Ior 30Todccomposition. Calculatc
/i.
Definc threshold energr.
14
+ 1l
lRlo
= 100'
t = 40min
l Rl =100- 30=70
bl
bl
281 al
Aps: a]
bl
i i i l
ivl bl
Ans: a]
The partial presswe of the gas in vapour-
phase is proportional to the mole fraction of
the gas in the solution.
Application
d
To incrcase thc solubility of CO2 in soda
water and other soil drinks, the containers
are sealed under high
Pressure'
Io avoid bends, scuba divers are provided
with tanks filled with air diluted with
Helium.
bl ldcal solution Non-idcal solution K= ? tn2 =? Forafi rstorderreacti on.
. . 2. 303. f n. l
^
- _t osl i
I
/
- LRI
2.303 , 100
=- t og-
40
' -"
70
301 al
6
Ans: a]
Obey Raoult's
law at all
tcmperature and
concentrations.
The A. . . B
interactions are
of thc same order
asA. . , AandB
... B interactions.
AV. .
=0
mlxtog
A H,o.,
=
o
Do not obeY law at
all temperature and
concentrations.
The A. . . B
interactions are not
of the same order as
A. . . A and B . . . B
interactions.
AV. *0
fttxln8
AH . . + 0
nrilfig
321 al How do you convert chloro benzene to
biphenyl? Name the reaction.
bl Explain Finkelstein's reaction with an
example.
[ 3+21
Ans: a] When chl orobenzene i s heated wi th
sodium in dry ethcr two aryl group join
together forming biphenyl.
Er6 Et!ilt
ffiIm
bl
0.()() l
t l l 2 * -
, .
0.691
8. 906? x l 0
r
E=-uiqll
The mi ni mum encrgy t hat t l rc rcl cl i rrl l
mol ecul es musl posscs i n ordcr t o l i rrrrr
products is called threshold cncrgy.
Dcscri bc somc f cal urcs of cnt al vsi s hv
zcol i t cs.
Givc rcasons: Finety divided substances
are morc ef f cct i vcl y absorhent t han
thcir crystalline form.
[3
+ 2J
Zeolites are good sbape-selective catalysts
because of t hei r honeycomb - l i kc
structures.
They are microporous aluminosilicates
with 3-D network of silicates in which
some Si atoms are replaced by A/ atoms
giving an A/ - O - Si framcwork. The
reaction taking place in zcolites depend
upon the size and shape of the reactatt
and product molecules, as well as upon
the pores and cavities ofthe zeolites.
The extenl of adsorption increases with
t he i ncrease of surf ace area of t he
adsorbent. Thus finely divided substances
having large surface areas make good
adsorbents.
3l l al
bl
Ans: a]
bl
Fittig
reactron
Fittigreaction
O*@"*',@@*'"u''
b] Finkelsteinreaction:
When alkyl chlorides (or) bromides are
bi phenyl
trcated with Nal in dry acetone'
halo.gen
cxchange t akes
pl acc f or nr i ng
al Kyt
i odi de.
R- x + Nu[ -o"t nnu
> R- I + Nax
C\-Ct+Nal-!YYL+CH'
- I +NaCI
331 al Writc the mcchanism
of acid catalysed
dchYdrat i on
of al cohol '
bl llorv is anisolc
prcparcd
from pheno!?
[ 3+21
Ans: a] Mechani sm
of removal
of wat sr f rom
al cohol
(aci d cat al Ysed)
I st eP:
H+ t, C II
3C
I{
20
H JL
c I-t
3cH z
- oH
2
t sl
+
CHi - CH1- OHz+
CI I 3- CHz
+ IlrO
II steP:
+
cu. +Zu,
-+cHz=CLI z+H+
ONa
*oot-, ----'@
* H,o
OLI
bt
l ol +
l-l,l.f/
al
bl
Ans: al Monochloro
acetic acitl is a stronger
the
u.iJ tnun u..ti. acid' due to the - I effect'
where Chl ori ne
acts as the el cctron
^Olu
,,.-,-/O
-CH]
f ol t l - cH. - - ) l
CJ+Nr t
\--,
- \.,-
Anisole
Exptain why monochloroacotic
acid is a
strongcr acid than acctic acid'
What i s cr oss al dol condcnsat i on?
I )uri ng cross al dol condcnsat i on'
si nce
both the reactants contain
cl I{-atoms;'
hol many product s wi l l bc f ormed i n a
nrixfurc?
cl Name t hc reagent uscd
i n Cl cmmenson i
reduction.
[ 2+2+11
rvithdrawing
goup. An electon withdnwing
er oun
i n. r . a. es t he st abi l i t Y ol t he
Jarboxvlate anion and hence increases the
acidic strenglh of carboxylic acid'
1{l
9. ,
bl When aldol condensation
is carried out
between trvo different aldehydes and / or
ket ones
i t i s cal l ed cr oss al dol
condensation.
If both the compbunds
contain cr - H - atoms, it gives amixture
of four
Products'
c] The reagent used in Clemmcnson's
reaction is
Zn - Hgi Conc. l - l C/ '
'i a| Give a reason: Although the aminc
group
is an O and P dirccting
group, anilinc on
nitnation
givcs a substantial
arnount of
M-nitruanilinc.
bl Dcscribc thc carbylaminc
rcaction'
c] r{.rrangc the follorving in thc incrcasing
Ans: a]
orqler of iheir basic strength
C6l i s NI I 1, CH3NHt '
NHt '
12+2+11
Wl:en ariline is treated withconc' /INO1
and conc. ll ;O4,
aniline is protonatedto
form au anilinium
ion which is ileta
directing. Tlierefore
in addition to th
ort hc i nd Para
deri vat i ves'
mdt a
derivativcs are also formcd'
bl Vhen primary amlne ls
mi xt ure of chl orof brm
KOll, isocYanide
having
heated with a
and al cohol i c
an intolerable
cl
'11,.,''
bl
smell is formed.
R - N I'l
)
+ C Li('
4
+ 3 KO H -+
R- NC +3KCl +3H2O
( 611
5NI 1) .
NH1.
( : H3NH)
Wr i t c t hc I l awor t h st r uct ur c f or
sucrose.
Mcnt i on
t he bi ol ogi cal i mport ancc
of
RNA.
[ 2
+ 3l
trmsq
@$w
ffrq
a] I Iaworth structue for sucrose
F fl'oq Y
rif:::
!
-
! r '
bl Def i ne t hcrmopl ast i cs and t hcrnro-
sefting polymers.
[3
+ 2l
bl The Biological impoflance of RNA:
There arc tlree typcs of i{NA in a ccll which
play an important role in protcin syrthesis.
They are:
n-RNA + Carries message liom DNA lor
a specifi c protein synthesis.
r.RNA -+ Provides the site for protein
synthesis
/-RNA -+transferAmiiro acids to thc site of
protein synthesis.
Write a note on the vulcanisaticn of
rubber.
Dl
Ans: al VulcalisationofRubber
Nat ural rubber i s sof t and st i cky. I t s
properties can be improved and modified
by the process of Vulcanisation.
Vul cani sat i on i s a process of heat i ng
nat ural rubber wi t h S-porvder: at a
t emperat ure bet ween 373k and 415k.
Sul phur r eacl s wi t h t he pol ymer
mol ecul es f or mi ng a cr oss - l i nked
network which gives meshanical stre nglh
to rubber.
bJ
' l ' hermopi ast i cs
are l i near (or) si i ght l y
br anchcd pol ymer s whi ch can bc
r epeat edl y sof t ened on heat i ng anci
hardcned on cooling.
Thermosctting plastics are closs linkecl
and heavi l y branched pol Ymcrs. On
heating, they mould" become harcl, in-l,rsible
and therefore they cannot be recycled.
i t
i
Vapoiir Pressure.
Ans: Raouliis Larv states that the relative lowering of
- --
uupouipr.ssure is equal to the mole ftaction of
Zl Narnclhe organicproductformcdrvhen
phcnol
is trcaied with excessof bromine
water'
Ans: 2. 4. 6 - TribromoPhenol
Silicon and Germanium
are rcfincd try
State Law of Relative Lowering of
Zonerefining
Write the IUPAC name of Acetophcnone'
Phenylethanone
the hydrides ofgrouP 15 elements?
BiH3.
The SRP valucs of Al and Ag arc - 1' 66V
and +0.80V rcspcctivcly. Which of thcsc is
a more
Powerful
reducing agent?
Aluminium
What will happen to the half life pcriod of
a first ordcr rcaction if the ternpcrature
is
increased?
l'he half life period of a first order reaction
decreases, if the tempcrature
is increascd'
What type of magnetic behavior is shown
bv thc ScJ+ ion?
A BCC unit cell has 8 comers.
/ l \
. . | 8
":
I
-
I atom is prcsent in the unit cell. An
\ U/
atom at the centre ofthe body ofthe unit ccll is
not sharcd with any othcr unitcell. This particle
as a whole belongs to lhe unit cell.
. . lbtal numberof particlcs per unit cell
=
2,
Give rcasons for cach of thc firllorving:
il Bcnzaldchydc undcrgoes Cannizzaro' s
rcaction.
Benzal dehyde undergoes Canni zzaro' s
reaction because it has no a hydrogcn
--
atoms.
wl trtt::
ti
. , ( , \ 1",
l t \ l l
..0
"' 1t ' t ' '
t I t 1 i s t l l c sl i l l l ( l i l l
( l r ' l r ' t I t r
"
l '
1 "' l '
r ' r '
R i s the utl i vcrsal grts cot tsl i rt tl
T i s thc absol ute tcnl Pcrattl rc
n i s the chargc <l rt thc nl ctal i ttrr.
[M]
i s the concentrati orr ol ' thc rnt{l l
[M' *]
i s the conccntrati on o1' thc tl tcl al i otr
l 7l What ar e anal gcsi cs? Gi vc r r n cxampl t r .
Ans: Anal gesi cs arc pai n ki l l eru' cg:Aspi ri n.
lSl [Iow is phenol converted into salicylic acitl?
Writc thc structural sequcnce.
Ans: Phenol i s convert ed t o sal i cyl i c by Kol c' s
reactiotr as shown bclow:
o,u
oNa
oi'
cooll
/)
N"oH, .
1' +!aa\
\ _2
V
' , ' r1
\ , , '
l , hcnol
Sal i cyl i c r ci d
soo! ul n
Phenate
:g@djaccnt
uriit cclls.' lhr:rt' fore. o"1,
l"'
n1' t o' un'
, t i ' , ' i . t *t t y
u. l ongs t o a part i cul ar uni t ccl l '
tsl
8l
Ans:
Ans:
el
Ans:
4l
Ans:
( i i l , i t cct ophenonc docs not r cact r vi t h
-
-
sodi umbi sul phi t esol ut i on.
Ans: Acctophenone does not rcact with sodium
bi sul phi t e sol ut i on bccause of st eari c
hindra.nce .
16l Writc the Ncrnst cquation and indicatc the
terms involved.
_0 RT . t Ml
6ns: L, y*t u) = L: ( u*nt ) - - t n
l M, +l
(li\ wn^, are homolYPtic
comPlexes?
.+.' -os: Complexes in which a metal is bound to only
one kind ofdonor group are called homolyptic
comPlexes.
(
ot\ lvt ion it the strongest reducing agent among
''.-:'/
i',
Writi the IUPAC names of each of the
folloriinB
il
tcp(NII3)ol [Cr(cW)6]
Ansl Hekaamminecobalt(lII)
He-lacYanidochro
mate (lll)
"
and
iil Nd3[Co(ox)3l
Sodium trioxalatocobattate
(lII)
Ans: The ,scj"ion shows diamagnetism'
101 Namt a vitamin, the deficicncy of which
gives rise to scunY.
Ans: The deficieney of \4tamin' C gives rise to
scurly.
For example [Co(NH3)5(NO2fCI2
and
[Co(AIH3)5(ONO)]C/2
show this type of
isomerism. ln
[Co(NH3 )5
(NO2
]C/2
the nitite
ligand is bound through nitrogen whereas in
[-o(NH3)5(ONO]C/2
the nitritc ligand is
bound through oxYgen.
I
Hcuo
cH.cH:oH a
t'o.
an,adotra,
Et l l anol
l9l Write the postulates of Werner' s theory of
coordination compounds'
Ans: i] ln coordination compounds, metals show
hvo tlpes oflinkages (valences) - plimary
and secondary.
i i l Thc pr i mar y val ences ar e nor mal l y
i:il:*' .
and are satisfied bY negative
iii]
-l
hc secondary valcnces are tron-ionisablc
1' hey arc satisfied b)' neutral molecules
or negative ions.
i v] The i ohs/ groups bound by sccondal y
linkages to the metai havc charactet'istic
spatial arrangements corlesponding to
different coordination numbers.
201 Descr i be t hc shapc and st r uct ur e of
t t rc [ Co(NH: )e l ' *i on usi ng t he Vat cnce
bond thcory' Predict its magnctic property.
In the given ion
[Co
(,N,rfj)6]
"
Cobalt is in +3 oxidation state'
The presence of ArH3 molecules as a ligand,
causes tlie pairing up ofthe unpaired electrorls
i n t he 3d subshel l . Thi s r esul t s i n t he
availability of two orbitals of the 3d subshell
to get hybridised along with 4s and 4p orb:.tals
leading to the I' ormation 6 ecluivalent c/-.s7-'
hybrid orbitals.
Ihe orbitals of Col* ion are represcnted as
FilTTI]-rl t-] t-r
-f-l
l r l l l l r l r l r l Ll i l l l
3db
4so
'
4P"
6if') exprai., tinkage isomerism
with an example'
anit ft it ti?. of isomerisrn arises in a coordination
compound containing ambidentate
ligands'
Thelsomers
will differ in the donor atom ot
the ligand that is bound to the central metal
atom or ion.
@
Uow is methanol converted into ethanol?
Ans: cH. oH. ' c' ' ra, r, a,
Mg/ d' f et l t e! cg' vgc/
Methanol
141 Calculate the number of particles present in
each unit ccll of a BCC crystal lattice'
Ans: Each atom at a corner is shared between 8
d2.r7rl hybri d orbi tal s
mw
M
3d6
The configuration
of Co3+
after accepting
clcctron
pairs from ligands becomes:
i I TI il Ti r i l t l
(r pirirs of electrtrns
l'rorn
(i
Nl l, nrolccules
'fhc
gcometry ofthe complex
is octahedral
due
to tlz sp3 hybridisation'
The conplex is tlianagnctic
due to the absence
of unpaired electrons'
the reactions taking Place
are:
C + CO2 -> 2CO
FeO + CO -+ Fe + CO2
Li mest one - decomposes
t o CaO whi ch
femoves silicate impurity as slag'
Gl Draw a neat l abcl l cd di agram
of t hc Bl ast
\J
furnacc and cxplain thc reactions
involvco
i n t hc cxt r act i on
of cast i r on f r om
hacmat i t c'
Ans: In the blast furnace, thc reduction
of iron
oxides takes place in differcnt
temperature-
,ung.s' t'tnr air is blown from the bottom of
t he f ur nacc' Coke i s bur nt t o gt ve a
i"tp..**. upto 2200K in the lorver portion
itseif, Thc CO and heat formed moves to the
uPf . , Purt
of t he f urnace
where t he
t.tp"ruturc
is lower' The iron oxides are
reduced in stePs to FeO'
At 500 - 800K
(lower temperature
range).the
following reactions.take Place:
3Fe203 + CO -+ 2FqOa
+ CO2
FqOa + 4CO -+3Fe + 4CO' t
Fe2(\ + CO -+ 2FeO + CO2
At 900 - 1500K (highcr temperature
range)
.. i,/t
e"l$.'1--
With thc hclp of a flow charl' outline thc
,u.iou, stcps which are involved
in the
rnaouf uct or.
of sul phuri c
aci d by t he
Contact Proccss.
- F1
[ - - - l - - i - _i
Ans: Air$ ll H H H ll-lt-J1 l-]
?' i l ?T
6 7
tT-ol ey.
Ftow cha(
$l2szq)
ll SulPhur bumer
2l Dust
PreciPitator
3] Washi ng and cool i ng tower
(water i s
sPraYed)
4l
sl
ol
7)
8l
Drying tower (Conc' ti
2SOa
is sprayed)
Arseni c
pui i f i es (Cont ai ns
gcl at i nous
hydrated Fe201)
Preheater
Cataly' tic convert
(contains V2O5)
Absorption
tower (packed with quartzand
conc. I!150a is sPraYcd)
The conversion of SO2 to SQ by reaction
with oxygen in the presence ofa catalyst
(Vzo).
Thc absorption of SOi in H2SOa to give
oleum
(I/2S2O7).
The manufachtre ofsulphuric
acid by the contact
process involves the following thtee steps:
il The bumingof sulphur or sulphide orcs in air
to generate SO2.
iiil
The SO2 produced is purifred by removing
dust and other impurities
such as arsenlc-
compounds.
The key step is the catalytic oxidation
of SO2
with 02 to give SO3 in the presence of Z2O5
(oatalYst).
I ' O
2,S(/2(.{) + O:rs
r
----]g 2SOl{s)
- _t
LH
= -196. 6 W nt ol
'
The reaction is exothermic'
reversible
and
the forward
reaction leads to a decrease
in uoturn.' Therefore,
low temperature
and
hioh or.rrur.
ute the favourable conditions for
u fiuiitrt vl.ld'
But the tcmperatwe should
not b. u.ry low otherwise the rate of reaction
will become slow'
m Enil
ln practice, the plant is operated at a pressue or @r
,iri, ;Z bar and a:temperature of 720 k.'Ihe SO2 gas
"i:;.
lfrom
the catalytic converter is absorbed in
concentrated
H2SOa to produce oleum.
'
,so, -+ I{2soa -+ H2s2o7
'fhe
dilution of oleum with water gives H2SOa
of the desired concentration.
Z3l How is potassium dichromatc preparcd from
purified chromite ore?
Ans: Purified chromite ore is fused with sodium
carbonate in free air. The reaction occurs as
follows:
4FeCrOa +8Na2CO3 +702 -+
SNa2CrOa -2Fe2O3 +8C02
The yellow solution of sodium chromate is
filtered and acidified with sulphuric to givc a
sol ut i on f r om whi ch or ange sodi um
di chromat c Na2Cr2O7 . 2H2O can be
crystallised.
Na2CrOa +2H+ -+ Na2A2O7 +2Na+ + H2O
Potassium dichromate is prepared by treating
a solution of sodium dichromate with KCl.
Na2CryOy +2KCl -+ K2Cr2O7 +2NaCl
Orange cryst al s of pot assi um di chromat c
crystallise out.
241 Name the mctal of thc X"l r' ow transition
.
scries that
il does npt displace hydrogen from dilute
acids
Copper
iil forms colourless ions in its +2 oxidation
state
271 al Catculate the packing efficiency in a
simple cubic crystal lattice.
In a simple cubic crystal lattice, the atoms
are located only at the comers. Let the
edge length of the unit cell be i a' and the
radius ofthe sphere be r.
Ans: hrw
iiil Can exhibit +7 oxidation state
Ans: Manganese
251 Complete thc following equations:
il 3clz + 6NaOH (hot and conc.) -+
iil XeF6 +3H2O -+
iiil .lO2 +Cl2-+
Ans: il 3Cl2 + 6Na0H -+
5NaCl +NaCl O3+3H2O
iil XeF6 +3H20 -+ XeO3 + 6HF
iiil .SO2 + CI2 -+ SO1C|2
261 Dcscribe cach ofthe following:
il Passivity,of alurninium ,
ii] Brown ring test
Ans: i ] When a pi ece of al umi ni um i s put i rrt o
conc. HNO3, an insoluble and inactive
film of the oxide of the metal is fornrcd
over t he surf ace of t he nret al whi ch
prevsnts further action by conc. HN()3
on t he rnet al . Thi s i s t ermed as t hc
passivity of aluminrum.
iil The familiar brouh ring test for nitratcs
depends on the ability of Fe2* to reducc
nitrates to NO, u'hich reacts with Fe2n ta
form a brown coloured complex. The test is
usually carried out by adding dilute ferrous
sulphate solution to an aqueous solution
containing nihate ion and then carefully
adding concentrated H
2SO a
along the si.les
ofthe test tube. A brown ring is formed at
the junction of the two liquids.
. . a =2r
A urit cell of a simple
cubi c crystal l atti ce
contains I sphere.
." Packing efficiency
\ r l s:
- !\ul"g99u.all'-'!Eryi]!q
Tot al vol unt e o1' t hc unt l ccl l
cYl
= -3--*, 100
= 52. 4%
(2,
)r
l ut
' )
ci u. an cxanrpl c of mctal dcfi ci cncy
"t - ' t . ' d. f . . t .
ZtJ
I
el
l' tO is nrostll' forrnd ivith a coniposition
o1' I c6 q5 0'
'
an' l is an cxatnl-' le
of a metal
ri ri l r rrr, ' t r. i d: t ci cncr' def cct '
l hc nrol al cl cvat i r' rn
const ant
of rvrt t r
* 0. S2"/ kg. l f a sol ut i on
of 3' ?5 g of a
non-r' ol at i l c
sol ut c i n 50 g of rvat cr
has
a hoi l i ng poi nt of 100' 95
' C' rvhat wi l l
t hc nrol ar mrss of t hc sol ut e bc?
Af ' ,
= / - I o= 100 95 - 100
= 0 95
. , _
100. 0x r\ ' , > f f z
AI,, r l4t
1000x0. 52y3. 75_ar n<
- - +l . vJ
0. 95 x 50
Ans:
( n- l l Dcscr i be any t \ Yo appl i cat i ons
of
' ' --' I l cnryt s Law.
The two applications
of l{enry's law are
as follorvs:
il
'fo
increase the solubility
of C02 in
''
,on a.int, and soda water' the bottle
is sealed under high Presswe'
Scuba di vers must cope rvi t h hi gh
.on..noution
of dissolved
gases while
br eat hi ng
ai r al hi gh Pr essur e
undcr wat cr .
I ncr cased Pr essur e
ln.r"ur.,
tt. tolubility
of atmospheric
p,ur., in the blood'
When the divers
Iomc towards the zurlace'
the pressurc
errduatty
decreases
This rcleascs
the
l i . r uf u. A
gases and l cads t o t he
iorrn*.n
oit ubbles of nitrogen in the
f rl ooa. l f t i * bl ocks capi l l ari cs
and
l r"o, ". u medi cal
condi t i on
cal l ed
' benar".
' l b
avoi d bends'
t he ai r i s
diluted with helium'
al zel
With thc hclp of a:schgnatic
diagram''
dOscribc thc working of a hydrogcn;
oxygcn fuct cell.
Hydrogen
and oxYgen are bubbl ed
t hrough carbon
el ect rodes
i nt o
concentrated
NaOl{ solution'
Catalysts
l i ke f i ncl Y di vi ded Pt or Pd are
lntcgrating this equation. wc get
l n
l Rl
=
- kt + L..
[1i s
constant of
i nl coral i onl
when i
=0. [ Rl =[ R] 0
IrR]s
is the initiai concentration of the
reactant substituting in equation (l), we
get
/ r
[ X] o
= ( - t x 0) + 1= /
substituting in equaticn (1), we get
/ n[ Rl =- kr 1n[ t ?] s
Reananging this equation:
kt
=l n[ R] o - l nt Rl
k1 = 1n
lRlo
t Rl
tt =! 1' ,l R)o
/
[ R]
r = !7,
lft]o
/
[ R]
. 2.303 , [/?l n
k=- l n-
-
/
[ R]
bl Afirst ordcrreaction takes 100 seconds
to be 50% completc. Calculate thc ratc
constant and the time rcquired for thc
rcaction to be7 SYo comPletc.
Ans:
incorporated
into the electrodes
foi'
incrcasing
thc rate ol electrode
reactions
which are given below
Cathode:
O. t rr, + 2l I
2O{l )
+ 4e- -+ 4OH-
(ag)
Anode:
2H21r1 + 4OH-
Ud
i 4H7O(l) + 4e-
The overall reaction being:
2II
r1g
+ O21r1' +
2 H
2O(l)
bl St at e Far adaY' s
Fi r st Law of
ElcctrolYsis'
Ans: Faraday's First Law ofElectroiysis
states
that the amount of chemical
reactlon
which occurs at any clectrode
during
eleclrolysis
is proportional
to the quantrty
of el ect ri ci t Y Passed
t hrough
t he
elcctrolYte'
301 al Derivc an intcgratcd
ratc equation
for
thc velocity constant
of a first ordcr
neaction'
Ans: Considcr
a first order reaction:
R- - t P
dl Rl
Rat c
=- - :
= Kl ^l
Ans: t =9! 2-
0' 693
-o. oo693s-l
ttrz 100 seconds
321 a] Mentionthemajorproductformedinthe
following reactions:
i l A hal oal kane i s heat cd wi t h an
alcoholic solution of silver acetate.
Ans: I l st cr
iil Acid chloridc is lrcatcd rvith dialkyl
cadmi um.
Ans: Kct onc
i i i i i At : ct onc i s oxi rl i zcd usi ng sodi um
hypoi odi l r: .
Ans: Iocloforrrt
l-trprriri.
"iliiii,r'
i]
'n,r.t-"rlt;.
iii] They cannot be
easily coagulated
11, , ", , l l ' r l r l l
r r l I h' i r t l i ot r l : l t t l l l t t r r t l t l l r r r t r r I i I ' r I ' *r "
l 1' opl r i l i r t t t l l , r t , l ' t r r r l l r
"1' 1"' l ' t '
col l oi t l s.
If the <lispersion
medi urn i s
separaicd frorn
the dispersed
phase, the sol can
be reconstituted
by si mpl y
rernixing with the
di spersi on
n-redium.
'fhey
are
called reversible
sol s.
' lhey
can be easily
coagulated.
Ans:
bl Mention any four cha:"acteristics of
enzyme catalYsis'
i l Most hi ghl Y ef l i ci en:
iil Highly sPecific nature,
iiil HighlY active under oPtimum
ternperattlle.
iv] Highly active under optimum
PH.
bJ Ilorv clo aldehydes react with monohy-
dric alcohols in the presence of rIryHC/?
Ans: When aldehydes react with monohydric
aicohols in the presence of dry HCl, Acetai
is firrmed
R' oH/Hct,, f ,n4 o' on
-
, t . , \ ' \ l D t l J l . _
1( - ( r f i l s. - f ' ( , , r yl . U
Hern i aceta I
, OR'
R CH
+ I.t,o
\Ofi ,
Acctal
ffiBffi
1. 1' opl r ol r i r r t t l l t t t t l i
l l t c: , t ' , , r 1 , . t t ,
r t r l : t l i vcl v l r ", : , . l , r l r l '
i ) nr c pr c. , ; , i t , , t , ' , 1
t hel ' do t l r t
l t i vc
back t l rt : col k' i t l rrl
sol by si mpl c
addi t i on ol ' t ht
di spcrsi on mcdi t rrn.
' fhey
are irre' versiblc
sol s.
331 at
.Wri te,
gguati ons
following:
l l
il Swarts rcduction
Ans: H. , C- Br +
AgF 4 H3C- F
+AgBr
i i l StcPhen
rcducti on
Ans: ltcl;jrll/4,
R-('H=NH
rt'o,
R-CH)
i i i l Etard' s rcacti on
f or each of t hc
,'1t'('1J
Ans:
V
Tol uenc
^
r' H(t )t ' rOH(' /
)'
c.t
).(/, (
\Y
-:;--
>
Il
'i /r ( .\r
\t/.
Chrottttum
comPl ex
,/\>/(
Ho
H, t ) -
l l
- l
- -+\y'2
BenzaldehYde
bl Complcte
the following
cquations:
\
ROII + SOCI2 -+
lil RCHO + NH2OH
-)
Ans: \ \ ROH + SOC| --'
R-Cl
+ SO2+ HCI
: : r R NH. OH
r r l ' ' \ a
=o - - - )
l l /-
ROH
u)c(tur-totl
, , j
N: 6=ygl - l +H, O
Oxi nte
riot)
'r
Ans:
De scr i be
Gabi i el i s
Pht hal i mi de
svnthcsis.
Gabr i el ' s
synt hesi s
i s used f or t he
or.o.tu,i""
of I " amints'
Phthalimide
on
i r. -"t ""t
wi t h et hanol i c
KOH f orms
;;;;i"'"
salt of
Phthalimide
which on
[."1"*
*frft attcyt traiae
followed
by
;i l ;ffi .
hYdroi Ysi s Produces
the
corresPonding Primary
amtne'
Phthalimide
!il;Illl
q?
:;'"'*Gl,)''
uo
xb
0
tl
[i Y' -n-o
V\;,
0
N - Al kYl Pht hal i rni de
U
I
al
A.niline cannot be prepared by Gabriel
ptttnaiimiOe synthesis
because
aryl
' n"iiJ"r,r"
noi,.,ndetgo
nucleophilic
substitution
with the anion formed by
phthalimide.
Describc
the synthesis
of each of thc
f ol l owi ng
st ar t i ng
f r om benzenc
diazonium
chloridc'
il Benzcne
-'
Bnnr.n" can be sYnthesised
bY the
reduction of benzerc diazonium
chloride
using aqueous hlpophos-phorous
acid'
ArNr+ cl- + H1Po2 + H2o -+
Benzrne
diazonium
chloride
Ar H +H3PO7+HCl
Benzene
iil lodobenzene
Iodobenzene
can be sYnthesised
bY
it*ting U.*tne
diazonium
chloride
solutionwithKl'
Ans:
bl Gi ve r casons
f or each of t hc
following:
i l Ani l i nc rl ocs not undcrgo
Fri cdcl -
Craft' s rcaction'
Ani l i ne cl oes not undergo
Fri edel -
Crafl' s rcaclion due to salt formation
with l/Cir, a Lewis acid'
( i i )
h- r ont ut i c
ami nes
cannot bc
-
J, . . Por. , l
bY t hc Gabri cl Pht ha'
limide sYnthesis
method'
Ans:
EEffi
,
ArNlCt-+ KI =+
-
.Arl
+ KCI + N2
l oooDenzne
iii] pHydroxyazobcnzenc
Para - Hydroxyazobenzene is synthe-
sised by coupling benzene diazonium
chloride with phenol in an alkaline
medium.
a+^oH
(r
zI"=NCt
I It< \>oi l -1
vwJ
/:\ ,/-\
(
/ FN- N. . (
\ >( ) r / - ct
. Ho
\__, L?
p-Hydroxyazobenzene
(Orange dye)
bl How i s Bcnzami dc conver t ed i nt o
Aniline?
Benzami de i s convert cd t o Ani l i nc by
Floftnann's bromamide rcaction givor below:
0
tl
CeHs -C- NHy+ Br2+4NI OH -+
Benzamide
CeHs- NH2+Na2+NI 2CO3
Ani l i ne
+2NaBr +2H2O
cl Name an amino acid hormone,
Epinephrine or Thyroxine is an arnino acitl
hormone.
l
What are thermosctting plastics? Namc
t he monomers of Buna-N; and wri t c
its partial structure.
Thermoset t i ng pl ast i cs are l i ncar or
slightly branched polyrners capablc o1'
repeat edl y sof t eni ng on heat i ng and
hardeni ng on cool i ng. These pol yrners
possess intermolecular forces of attraction
intermediate to elastomers and fibres.
The monomers of Buna - N are l, 3 -
Butadiene ano Acrylonitrite.
The partial structure of Buna - N can be
represented as follows:
[
' i l
I cu,
*cu =cH -(' Ht -cH. -(:lH
I
r - l
Lt ,
What i s saponi f i cat i ou? Wr i t e t he
equation,
Soaps containing sodium salts are formed
by heating a fat (i.e. a glyceryl ester of
fatty acid) with aqueous NaOFI solution.
This process of producing soarp is called
saponification and is represented bi' the
following equations:
o
cH2- o- ( ' - cnHJs
o
i i l
c H - o- c- cnH35+3NaoH
hl l
o
l l l
c H2- o- c- cnH3s
Fat
3C11l135COONa
Sodium stearate
cH2oil
I
+ CHOU
I
cH2oI{
glycerol
Ans:
Ans:
bl
(
Xl)
"l
Dcscribc thc formation of a nuclcosidc
and nuclcotide.
Ans: A nucleoside is formed when a nitrogen
base is attached to the I' posilion of a
pentose sugar. A nucleotide is formed
whbn a nucl eosi de i s l i nked t o a
phosphorie acid molecule at 5' position
of a sugar moiety.
b] What is a Zwitterion? Write its general
strucfure.
Ans: A zwitterion is a doubly charged ion that
carries both positive and negative charges
at di f f erent poi nt s on i t . i t s general
strucfure can be represented as:
R- CH- COO'
n*, ,o0,.
gases have weak dispersion
forces''due
^"'
io *nt.i *", also have low melting
and boiling
U'
Define
Vant Hoff s factor'
Ahs: Vantl{ofs
factor
Total no. of moles of particles
after
, association/dissoclatlon
N"-f;"1.*f Particles
before
association/d
issociation
2HI:+ Hz
+ I,
Mention
the method
by which Nickel
can be
punfled.
tli.tit.*t"
p*lfied ttrough
the Vapour
phase
refinfirg / Mond Process'
Nobi l
grr., bave very l ow mcl ti ng
boililg PoinS,
whY?
Ans: The presence of rmpaired
electrols
in an el,lent
is responsible
for is paramagnetic
properhes'
6l
points.
What is the condition
for an element
to show
paramagnetic ProPcrties?
What are Enantiomcrs?
Enantiomcrs
are non-superitnposable
minor
images.
Whi ch
t YPe of at dchYde
undcr goes
Cannizaro's
rcaction?
2l What is a Primary
cell?
Ans: A cell in which a chemical
reaction
occurs only
' ^""'
on". ana trterefore
cannot be reused'
1l Wri t e t he chemi cal
f ormul ar
f or t hc rat c
equation
or Ratc larv'
7l
Ans:
4l
f"
/"1\
/ {l l
, - ")
9l Whl' can't vitamin
C hc stored in our body?
Ans: Wamir, C is waier soluble and therefore
cannot
be stored in cur bodY'
101' What are' franquilbcrs?
fr-* f*nquitir*
are C."trg5 which give a soothing
e{h
Ans: Aldch;'des
rvhich do uot contain
o-hydrogen'
undergo
Canni int ro's rcadton'
formind.
form a regular
tetrahedron'
State and explain
Kohlrauschts
law of
IndePendent
Migration
of Ions
Ans: Kohlrausch's
larv oflndependt}
*"T:::*i#
#; ffiil ;;lar coniuctivitY
.l*
:ITTY: sul l csur4l urLruv^*-----
ssedasthezumof
ati nfi ni tedi l uti oncanbeexpre- . . ..-,^^^)
and
,8,
Atrs:
' '
sandtetrahedral
)What are interstitial
defect
voids?
i l Intersti ti al
defects
are a type of
^'
.ryr,uifogtupt'ic
defects
wherein
atoms
are
ilila"J
from their normal Positions
to
;.";;"*
'itt
i" tht ttltt"l
1v1tT::5::
thereis no atomor
two ormofe
atoms shaflng
Oil*tt""t
*tn that number
ofaioms
is larger
than the number of lasice sites'
iil A void which is swounded
by form spheres
"'
i;;;;;J;''etranedral
void' because
wlren
,f',...ti*
"f
tftese spheres
are
joirred' thus
r2l
*llffiffi
t io ioauiouur
ions (cations and
anions)
1, 0
=1, 0, +l "o_
frdfar .ona*tioity
at a dilution
=
limiting
molar
conductivity
of cation+ ailon
131
Write thc Ncrnst equation with an oxidation,-
rcduction rcaction for thc ccll
vu,.,
lr"tufi,, llcui;,
lcu
-
. . n 0. 059 ,
Ans:
L,..,,
=tt..rr
-
^
tog
/
i Mo' -l
L"J
t*"1
141 ldentiff thc reactionorderfromthefollowing
rat c const ant s. :
i l K=2. 3x10r Lmol - r s- r
i i l K
=3 x l 0{ S-l
Ans: !
Second order
iiJ l:irstorder
-
---)
l 5l Why i s Crr' rcduci ng and Mnr' oxi di si ng
whcn both hrvc a di configuration?
Ans: Cr2' is rcducing in nature as its configuration
chiurgcs fi'orn d4 to dr. The changc liom Mn2t to
Mnr' results in the hall hlled - d5 configuration
which has extra stabilify.
161 Explain Williamson' s ether synthesis with an
exampl e.
Ans: When a hal oal kane i s heat ed wi t h sodi um
Explain the method of bleaching Alumina
from Bauxite.
Powdered ore is concentrated by digesting it
with NaOFI at 473-323 K and 35-46 bar
pressure.
Al2Or + 2NaOH,".,, 1-31-1,O,,, -+ 2Na[,{l(OFI),.]
Sodiurr aluminate
Sodium a.luminate is neutralised by passing CO,
gas and hydrated AlrO, is precipitated.
2Na[ Al (0t l )o] , "0, n CO, , r, t
Al ro, . xf [ , o
. r
2Nal l coi
r*rr
Sodiunr silicate remains in the solution and
hydrated alumina is filtcred and heatcd to give
back purc Al , Or.
Ans:
, al koxi de,
an ct hcr i s l i r t t t t r ' t l I l t i r ; t t t r ' l l r ' r ' l r '
tenned as Mlliamson' s ctltcr syrtlltc:iir;
CHr - CH2 - Br 1' CI I ,
(i l
I ,
(
)Nrr ,
Bromoet hane Sodi um ct hox i t l e
CI J. - CI {r - O' ^CI I ?
( ' l l , l N; r l }r
et hoxy et hanc
cFl r - c=N+cFI r - Mg- Br
dr t {r r cr
+
1
rr' / r, o
, 1,
I dent i f yAand B.
. [ 9S{
-
- . }' t t ""
AI CH. - C- _
: _Crt
zo
Bl c' l {, c-
\ A,
,.4,
l Vhat i s chcmot hcrapy? Wri t e t hc namc of
t hc mcdi ci nc uscd f or t hc t r eat mcnt of
pncumonia.
The use of chemicals for theraper,rtic effcrct is cailed
chemotherapy.
'Chloroamphinecol' is used for the treatrnent of
pneumonia
l Vr i t e t he r eact i ons i nvol ved i n t he
manufacture of Sulphuric acid by Contact
process.
Ans: 2SO, , u, t O, , *, -*Y&-+ 2SOr, r,
Al -l
=
-196. 6 K. l mol
SOr +FI , S04+H, S, O,
Oleum
Oleum on dilution gives sulphuric acid
H, S, O, +l . i , O+2[ l ^SO,
Dcscribe thc prcparafion ofozonised oxy[cn.
Namc t he oxi di zcd product obt ai ncd when
ozone rcacts with lead sulPhide.
I
Whenasl ou' dr yst r eamol oxl gcni spassct l
through a silent electricai discharge, the
conversion ofoxygen to ozone (1 07o) occrns.
r7l
l 8l '
0,,,
2l l
@E
30,
-+ 20, A! l ' 1rs
r),
: +142 KJ i nol -'
iil PbS(.)
r 40,
irr
-+ PbSOo,*,
+ 4O"'
711 Exphi n t hc l argc scal c prcparat i on
of Ni t ri c
aci d bY Osnval d' s Proccss'
Ans: St cP-l :
l-hc catalytic
oxiclation
of NI' l' by atrlospheric
oxygoll.
4Nl I r("r
| 50, , , , -#i $#-4No, r' +6l l : orrr
StcP-2:
Nitric oxidc thus fontred
combines
with oxygen
gi vi ng NO' '
I NO( ")
r o, , , , *f NOr ( "'
St cp-3:
Nitrogen
dioxidc so fornrcd' dissoh/cs
in \' \/ater
t o gi vc I I NO-l
l NO,
l l , O, , ,
+ 2l l NO, ' u' '
No' Ar
l' hc Nt' lthus fomrcd is rccyclcd
artd thc aqucous
i ^; , . ; ; h". nn. . nt ' nt t d
bv di st i l l at i on
upt o
;;;d;;' r' rrt. Frtrtltcr
conccntt
ation to 980/o can
i.,.i;""ii
ot ochvdration
with conc l I' Son'
LJI
Ans:
Exnl ai n t hc pr cpar at i on
of Pot asst um
pcrm: rnganat n
f rom MnOr'
I'o*riurn
p..runganate
is prepared
i,
tTrl"i::
;ffi ;; ;il;^,\11
t'Yl lti:ll*"T:
:ffi ;L ;;;iit"
rulo,' tt'i' p'"9'::,'
:':
1A1
L. l
ffi iln
t
rtnO^
*ttitn'aitptoportionatesin
u n ulra ot u.iai. soiutionto
give perrnmBdale
,tnn,
t 4KOI-I
r' o, + 2K,Mno 4+
2I:l'1o^
i*"o;
-r 4FI' + 2Mno,,-
+ Mno,
r'2l,'o
Wr i t e any t hr ee si nr i l ar i t i es
bet ween
Lanthanoids
and Actinoids-
2'll What is packing efficiency
in a crystal?
Draw
' ' |
,r,.
""i1
.til tr t bcc structure
and calculate
ii. pu.ftitg tfncicncy
in a bcc lattice'
Ans: Packing
efficiency
is the percentage
oftotal
qpace
hlled bY the
Particles'
In a bcc unit cell, there are two spheres
per untt
Gi,
, ' )
Ans: il Both Lanthanoids
and Actinoids
show a
Promincnt
oxidation
state of+3'
iil Both arc elcctropositive
and act as strong
reducing agents'
iiil Bo$ of them show a steady
decrcase in their
ionic radii along the senes'
i | Expl ai n
hydrat c
i somcri sm
wi t h an
cxamPl c.
iil Writc thc IUPAC name of Kr[CO(NO' )ol
Ans: il
-lwo
or more conrpounds
having the same
^""'
"
,nof ..ular formula but diffcring
in thenumber
of*at""'''olttulcs
present as ligands is called
hYdratc isoncrism'
t r. g. : I Cr
(l l . O)n] Cl , and
I Cr
(l l , O), C] l l
Cl '
'
l l 20
iil Potassium
hcxallitrito-N
-Cobaltale
(lll)
261 Di scusst henat urcof bondi ngand
magnct i c
react i on
of
' l -ct racyaoni ckcl at e
(I I ) i on'
l i l i pmi f ' ""
thc basi s of thc val ance bond
theory.
t ' ct racvanoni . kcl al c
(l l ) i on f Ni l CN)ol 2
i s
;;il;;;;;
in natuie Nicker
is in the
+2
n*iaotiin ,rut und ha^s an clecfonic
configuratron
as follows:
3d
43
4P-
Nr.3ds runTttrTlTl
n f-n
In the process of forming the complex'
elecuons
arepail**;.
uutonira ott'ituts are involved
dsp'
4P
iNi(cN)4],
Mtlltlhll
ffil;Iil n
The molecule
is squarc
planar due to dsp2
iyiriOirution
-d
is diamagnetic
as there are no
rurpaired
electrons'
indsf hYbridisatton'
3d
cel l . Let ' G' be t he
dge lcngth ofthe iurit
cel l and ' r' be t he
radius ofa sPhere'
Volume
of a sPhere
- ! nr '
3
IVI Five Marks arswers
E?rE El:lll
ffi m
Vol umeoftwospheres = z"!i l =!rci
t 3
Packing elficiency
Volurne of spheres
x 100
Volume of cube
8.
- l tr"
=j . xt 00
o+l
^
t : '
J! J
8x22x r' 3,13
- XI UU 3x64xr ' x7
=
68%
281 al 45 g of cthylene glycol (CrHoO,) is mixcd
with 600 g of water. Calculatc:
il the frcczing point dcprcssion and
iil thc freezing point ofthc solution
bl St at c l l cnry' s l aws and gi vc any hvo
applications of thc larv.
Ans: al Molality ofthe solution w,r.t cilrylene glycol
_
moles of ethylene glycol
nass of water in kg
Moles ofethylene glycol =
01
=0. 73
mol
bl
600 r
Mass of water in kg = -:^
^---
=
0.6 kg
-
1000s
-
.'. Molalityofethyleneglycol = 911
=
1. 2 moVkg
|
freezingpointdepression
=
1. 86 K Kgmol -r x 1. 2 mol / kg
: 2. 2
K
ii] &eezing pointofthe solution
-
273. 1s - 2. 2
=
270. 95 K
Llenry's law states that the solubility of a gas
iu a liquid is directly proportional to the partial
pressure ofthe gas prcsent above the surface
ofthe liquid or solution.
Calculate thc emf of the cell in which thc
f ol l owi ng rcact i on t akcs pl acc, Al so
represent the cell.
Mg,,,+ 2Ag*(0.000I N{) -+
Mg' ?*(0.I30 M) + 2Ag(.,
Ans: a]
hl I
==
5 A t
=20
nr i nul es=20x60= 1200 secs
TheEquivalentmassofNi
=
At
lnass
rs 7
=
29-35
E
m=ZI t = xl xr
96487
?c) ' 15
= : : : - _- : x5x1200
1. 925 g
96487
301
@xpl ai n
t hc i nf l ucnce of a cat al yst i n t l re
rat c of a rcact i on.
bl The ratc constant of a first order rcaction
i s 1. 5 x 10. 3 S- r . What i s i t s hal f l i f c
pr:riod?
I
Ans: al A catalystalters the rate ofa rcaction.
A catalyst participates in a chemical reaction
by forming temporary bonds rn'ith the reaclanls
resulting in an intennediatc complex r.r' hich
deoomposes to yield products.
A catalyst also provides an altcrnate pathr'i'ry
bl reducing the activation enclgy bcnvcctt tlt.
reactants and products and hence lorvcling
thP n^l enl i rl enerw ha:Ti ef. ur w
Pvr er r r r 4!
v"! ' bJ I
-
0.693 0.693
hi t
: K l . 5xl 0'
Half life period t
,z
= 0 462 x 10r S
311 al Di st i ngui sh bet wcen Lyophobi c and
Lyophilic colloids'
bl What is foarn?
A sbl ut i on of Ni (NO. ), i s el cct rol yscd
bchvcci f pl at i num cl cct rodcs usi ng a
currcnt of 5Af or20 mi nut cs. Whi rt nrass
of Ni i s dcposi t ed at t he cat hodc?
[ G
i vcn
at omi c mass of Ni
=
58. 71
0. 0591
,
Mg' -
L. "r
= bc"r l og
f uo, T
L' ' b I
0. 0591
, - - [ 0. 130]
= j . l o- -
l oP. -
z
' -"
Io.ooor]'
-
0. 05e 1 ,
bccr r
=J l 0- - l og
cl
Ans: al
I)cscribc thc Brcdig' s
arc mcthod
for thc
prcparation
of go9' "lott-t"'
flphiliccolloids
Io-p]robic
colloids
lr
t
llxhibitdcfinite
a{IinitY betuaen
the
dispcrsed Phase
&
dispersedmedium
No or litde affimty
j lrreversible
iUnstable
Rcvcrsibie
i l S1ablr
l ce
Bath
\/l Fivc Marhs answers
Water containing
a small amount of alkali is
;i;;i"
;."";iner
keiit
:":r:1fl:::
Electric arc
Deionised
rvater
+ tfaces of alkali
b I
lroarn is a subslancc that is formed
by trappng
"'
;t;;k""
t' f gas in the tbmr of bubble s in a
iiquid or soli-d, usualiy by agitation
Lurn. Rn.t."ol.
ut" is struck bctween
the two
.t..t oO.t ,nuO. up of gold' Asmall amount
"iit...t.r
uupotittt
due to the high
i.*o.roo".t
oftire arc' Thc vapours ofthe
;;;i.;;"t.
into water to give a metal
r"i*i*. irt" alkali stabilises
in a metal
solution.
321 al tixpiain S"rmcchanism
with an cxamplc'
t i f xpt ai n
t hc act i on
of al c' AgCN
on
hal oal l <ancs
wi t h an cquat i on'
.
'
Ans: al l{ydrolysis
of teniary
buryl bromtdc,wttn
"" "
*'
oq, t . ou'
sodi um hydroxi dc
gi vcs t -but yt
alcohol.
clH.
Cl-l'
l l
H. c - l - s'
r ' OH- +
H' ( - C- oH '
Pt
l au
at l
331 a] Explain
thc conversion
of propenc
to
' -
2-ProPanolwithancquation'
hl Namc the major [roctuct
formed
whcn
acctone is hcatcd with l'iAlHo'
Explain Rcimcr-Ticmann
reaction'
Bv acid catalYscd
hYdraion'
il;;;;;.1'
*th water.in the
Presenbe
of
an acidto
give 2-ProPanot'
cl],- cH
=
cHr
+ H:O -i;
cH' - cH -cH'
z-p,?1"""r
lsopropyl alcohol
^tnJ""iit
i"t"a with chloroform
and NaoH
."r"ti"". i"ai"* ialt ofsalicylaldehyde
is
"U,"i".J*ftrcft
"n
oxidation
withHCl
give
salicYlaldebYde.
oH PNU
-
j-
a,'a,. + r'r"ott ..ATcHcl'
2Nr()H
,
l - l l - - + l . l l _2Na( ' l
s)
\-,
_H.o
ONa
Pt'
"rr^
ry'*ntctto
o't'
'
/Y"
U
Tut:t
V
Scditun Salt
salicYlaldehl'cle
of sal i c' ; l al dchl
de
1dl al Howdoyouprcparccarbory-licacidfrom
Jr I "'
i.ignt.o"
reagent?
Writc thc reaction'
n1 f Vnat i s t hc Hel l -Vol hard-Zel i nsky
reaction?
Givc an examPle'
Ans: al Grignard's
reagent
whentreated
with cmbon
^""'
- ;;;;;
(drv ice) forms salts of carboxylic
cl
al
Mcchanism
i,J,,i"ttru.midc
undergoes
heterolJtic
lission to give the carbocation'
H,C
CH'
\ /
_sk) w> C-
+Bf
bl
cl
cl-lr
I
H, C- C- Br
I
CH,
FlrC' clH,
6" r Ol'l
ci i ,
Since this is slow step hence it is the rate
dctcmrining
steP.
( t n ? I ht nut l eophi l e
0H
at t acks. t he
..i"l"t"t
t" glut'itlrtiary
uuryl alcohot
CH,
I
t r sl
> H, C*C- OH
I
C]H.
I{aloalkcncs
react with alcoholic
AgCN to
form alkYl isocl'anide
q-{+AgCN,.r.,
$ R-N
= C+AgX'
acids, which on acidification with dil l lCl gives
respective carboxylic acids.
O
tl
R - M_{ - X + O
-
C
=
O ------} R-C-Olr4gX
o
l t / H. ( )
l l
+ t{--C
*Ot-t
; tvtg(Ot.{)X
bl Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction
WhenAliphatic carboxylic acids arc treated
. ' r i t l ' / - l
^.
I ) . : -
' L-
l r eSCnCC Of r Cd
phosphorous, the u-hydrogen atom ofthc
acids is replaccd by a chlorine or bromine
atom to form u-halocarlroxyclic acids.
cr1, -cooH+ci , -
i : l i
i
cl ct' I" - cooi t + I' l ct
monochJoroacctrc acid
351 al I i xpl ai n Sandmcycr' s rcact i on *, i t h a
sui t abl c cxanrpl c.
l i | Wri t c t hc I UPAC name of Ani l i nt r.
. -' : . -
,
cl
rExpl ai n
t hcconversi on oi ni t robcnzcnc t o
--
ani l i nc rvi t h an cquat i on.
Ans: a.l Sandmeycr's reaction:
Whcn beniene dizuoniLun chloride is rcacted
with cuprous chloride ald conc. IICI it gives
conesponding halobenz-ene.
chl orobenzene
b] Berzamnine
c.l Nihobenzcnc on reduction gives aniline.
NI J. NO.
S.,-ur*r-!t-l1ct d.'o,o
a rr i l i ne
i.3{]-]
"l
What is a Zwittcr ion? Gi.rc its structure.
bl What i s t he di f f er cnce bet ween a
nucleoside and a nuclcotide?
cl lVritc thc Horvarth structure of sucrosc
Ans: a] AZwi t t eri oni sadi pol ari oncarryi ngbot h
positive and negative charges. The net charge
is therefore zero.
R- CI - l - COOH =- : l {- Cl J - COo
l l
NH,
"NH,
Nt r t l cosi t l C: 4, l t ' , 1 111111r r r 1 l ' \ t l r r . r n. r l r i r , . t l l
ol ' al t i t sr t l r t ( ' - l r l t r "t l t r r r r , , l ' , r t 1' t t r l , ' , . . i i
as a r t t r cl cosi r l c.
Nucl cot i dc: Wl t ct t i t t t t r r l r ' o' , r r I r , , r r I , r r l ,
a phosphor i c aci t l i t t t t t cc[ r l i r h' l ' , l ' r r r r ' , 1 \ ' . t r l ,
a basc at t ached t o
( ) - I
l r ut t l
i t pl r , , ' , 1 r l r r r t t r , r , r , I
r esi duc at l achcd t o
( l - 5r ; t t ont
ol r r : ' t r 1, ; r r
Sucrc.rc
a] l )r: scri bc t hc f rec radi cal mcchani rt n f or
pol ymcri sat i on of Et hcnc.
hl How is Nylon 6, 6 rnanuf' actured ?
Ans: a] Free radical mccharrism irivolves thc lollorving
steps.
!
Chain initiating step:
'ihis
step involves titc
addition ofa free radical formed bl, the
peroxi de t o t he doubl e bond ol t he
monomer generating ane'uv and ionger fiee
raCical.
oo
i l l l
c,,H. - c -
(:)
-
() - c - c,,H. --|
o
rc,l l . t - o.
IS!!
:c u
C, , t . {. + CH,
=
CH, + C"H,
*
Ct J.
_
c. i l ,
iil Chain propagating step: This step involves
the reaction ofthe free radical obtained
from step I ivith another molecule of the
monomer forming ar)other longer fre(3
radical.
- c' H, - arH.+ cH-
=
Ct-r.+ c"H, - cLr, - cHl- cH. att,
I
( H
{( l l .
( l l i . ' l r r l l l
iil Chain tcnninating step: This step involves
the combination offree radicals in different
ways from step 2 to form the pollT nerizcd
products.
bl
iii':i
\ - /
ffiffi
- CH,
i C }T. -FCH, -
CH} CH' ;'EH'
-
"'
"ii..-t-"intlene
diamineand
adipic acid
*O.tftigh
pi."ure and at high temperatur
c,H' +cu' -
cHl"
'cH:
-
c'll'
nH;N-(cHr)6
-NH,+
nHooc -
icH')'
-cooH-fffu
[-nr.r-(cH,)"
- NH - co - (cH:)o -co-]"
+ nHro
f?,! fit:lll
wffi
li
!.: )
tl What are isotonic solutions?
Ans: Two solutions having the same osmotic pressure
at a given temperature are called isotonic
solutions.
2l State Hcnry' s larv.
Ans: I{enry' s law "At constant temperature, the
solubility ofagas in a liqLrid isdirectly proportional
to the partial pressure ofthe gas present above
the surface ofliquid or solulion."
OR
"The partial pressure ofthe gas in vapour phase
(p) is proportional to the mole fraction of the gas
(x) i n t hc sol ut i on I )
=
K, , x.
wherc K*, - I{enry's law collstant.
( 3,V Dcfine zero ordcr reaction.
--
Ans: Zcro order reaction means "the rate ofa reaction
is proportional to zrro power ofthe concentration
ofreactants".
OR
"Rate of a reaction is independent of nrolar
concentration of the reactants".
(j11, ' stut. F.raday's 2nd law of clcctroll'sis.
Ans: Faraday' s 2nd law ofelecholysis can be stated
as, "'fhe amount ofdifferent substances liberated
by the samc quantity of electicity passing tlrough
electrolytic solution being proportional to their
chemical equivalent weigh8 '.
lll Explain Frenkel defect.
Ans: The Frenkel defect is a type ofdefect shown by
crystalline solids. It involves the displacement of
an atom or ion (normally the cation) from its lattice
position to an interstitial site, creating a vacancy
at the origiaal site and an interstitial defect at [re
new location. This defect is only possible ifthe
cations are smaller in size when compared to the
What is sorption?
W}ren bothadsorption & absorption proccsses
take place simultaneously, the phenomenon is
called somtion.
' {)
wnot i s t he rol e of l i me st one i n t hc
extraction ofiron?
Ans: Lime stone acts as flur. If reacts with qang.uc to
give slag.
7l Hel i um i s used t o f i l l ai rshi ps and bal l ons
why?
Ans: Liglrt & non-inflammable.
8l NarncthcHeterocyclicnitrogentraseprcsen{
only in DNA but not in RNA.
Ans: Thymine
9l Mention the niajor product in the follorving
react i on C2H5B, -AgCN, u1. ,
no'
,
Ans: CrHr-NC or ethyl isocyanide
101
'
Atdehydes havc lower boiling points than
alcohols of comparable molecular mass rvhl'?
Ans: Absence of H-bonding in aldehydes.
OR
Aldehydes contain weak Van der-Waals force of
atbaction whereas alcohols possess H-bonding.
@
Ans:
121 N"ame the factors;influcncing
clcctroll'tic
'
crindrtctancc'cxcess
Ans: - NatureofelectrbtYte
Naturc of solveit & its viscositY
Size ofParticle & its nature
Concentration
of electrolYte
'lemPerature
13] What is a
Pseudo
Give an examPle'
unimolQcular
reaction?
(AnYhvo)
141
Ans: Pseudo urimolecularreaction
is one inwhich
the
motecutarity
of a reaction is Nvo 01 more but the
order is equal to one'
OR
A highcr order reaction can be converted
to a
f,rrt-ora.,
,.uttlon by taking a1l othel reactants
excePt one in excess'
Dg : HYdrolYsis
ofester
CHTCOOCl ll j
+H' 6
*-{-r Ctl-{sCOO}l+CHrOll'
[cH3cooc,H5]'
u{,o]"
What is Lanth#oid
contraction?
What is the
common
oxi dat i on
st at c
shor vn
bY
Lanthanoides.
lanthanoici
contraction
is the decrease
in thc size
of the lanthanoids
as we go affoss
the period due
to intcrierence
ofthe 4f electrons'
oxidation
state of Lathanoides
= + 3
Explain Kolbets reaction
rvith an example'
f ot U. ' ,
React i on:
When
sodi um
sal t
"fli.""t
(sodium
phenoxjde)
is heated
at
. t -' ^, , r 140 desree C wrt hi carbon
di o. xi de
ffi il;; ;;;tsure
or aboul
6-7 atrnospheres
exptain
the extraction
of aluminium
from
purified bauxite by Hail-Ileroult
process'
and the p-roduct acidif,red'
ortho hydroxy
"il;il ;;iJlsaticvtic
acial is formed as the
mainproduct.
ONa
ONi
r)H
A -,"':i;ili-, d'*'
e5O'Til"'-
\Y/
rro'i \-/
Salicyclicacid
Explain nitration of Anisolcwith
an cquation'
Whcn Anisole is treated witlr a nitrating mixrure
.""i'* fi*.
fr,Soo) and heatcd' nitration takes
"i^..
*'tft,ft. fokation
of Orrtro-nitro
Anisolc
and Para-nitro Anisole'
( 1t t ,
( x l l
Ul l '
.,{' ,nn" ' ""' "' n, 1fr' " 6
' .r' r
'L:2 \:/
Y,
t?] Cive equations for the rcactions
of aldehydc
rvittr hydroxylaminc
and Sodium
bisulfitc'
Ans: With hydrorYlamine:
O - nitro aniscle
t *' ' 3,
, t u, ' r" u, ,
+
acetalduhYdc
With scdinnr trisulPiritc:
Nal{SO,-+Na' +FIS0-"
P - nitro anisole
ct t ,
' ( . = N, {) H * l - 1. 0
H
ethoxime
t"' ).
=
orrriu.,
rtTiaS,l*,
H
rri' Wl,rt rr. t anquilizers?
Give an example'
: : / r
^^ -l :
ais:fmnsquilizers
are chernicals
that are used to relieve
'^-"
t*tt^a a*gs thatactQncenral
nervous system
io help in reducinc qxr".ry.'
il 0ffiffi;";i
valium, barbitLuic
acid etc)
(AnyOne)
ffi"p.
is mixed with Na,AlFo
or caF' which
i*:*tr ,rr.'ii'.,ting
point of the'mixtrue
T*ll!:
;;;i"ir1;rtt
'nt"
nit"l ti*ttot lt
"lectolvsed'
Steel or
i:,*il
"t
."rtt.o. and graptute as anode are used in the
#ffi;;;ti
tlt giapirit" tre'e l'
's"tui
for reducing
the metal.
1^l o +. t C
+ 4At +3C0,
' nr1vl
J"
nl i berat edat t heanodc'
Dur-ing Elcctrolvsis,
the ox1'ge
*^"ir"*i,f, rft. .arbon anode to form CO and CO2'
rftE
EH$ ffi
At Cathode: Al3+ + 3e -r Al(l)
AtAnodc:
CG) +02 +
CO (g) +2e
C(s)+
202-+ C02 (g)+4e
201
.Mcnti on
thrcc .anamol ous bchavi ours of
' r:i '
nuo*"
Ans: il It forms only one oxacid as compared to
other halogens lhat form a numberofoxacids.
lonisation enthalpy, clectronegativity and
electrode potential offlourine are much higher
thal expected.
I oni c and coval ent radi c, m. p and b. p,
enthalpy ofbond dissociation and electron
gain cnthalpy arc lowcr than expecled.
211 Dcscri bc t hc manuf act urc of ni t ri c aci d by
Ostwald proccss.
Ans: ltrec equations with explanation:
4N H3 +5o
2
-=j^!3li+ +N o+o H, o
2 NO + 02 Fi 2NO2
3NO2 + H2O -+ 2HNO, + NO
St ep l :
4NH, (gas) + 50, (eas)1j{fi;+ 4No (eas)
+ 6l{2O (gas)
I' his reaction takes place in the prcsence ofPt
Rh as catalyst at a temperahre of500l( and at a
pressure o[9 Bar.
Step 2:
2 NO + Oz ir 2NO2
3NO, + Il2O
-r 2l{NO, + NO
In this step the nitric oxide
Qrlo)
that was crcated
in the first stcp combines withNilrogen dioxidc
u,hich is dilLrted u,ith watcr to formNitric acid.
al Expl ai n t hc act i on of conc. I l , SO, on
oxal i c aci d cryst al s wi f h an cquat i on.
bl Wr i t c t hc st r uct ur c ol ' or t hr ; phosphor i c
aci d
Ans: Oxal i c aci d crl "stal s unde r:go ci ei rydrati ol wi th
Conc I I . S0, t o l r t r t n Co, Co, and wat cr
a) rr, c, o,
l l l sQ-
ct o r co, 1' 2t : , o
( )
tl
r r , , z I t - , ) r J
I i , ,
I
ol t
iil
t r r '
"- |
i l l
j nl
Exphi n l i nknge i sot t t cr l r l r r 1r l l l r *t t I r at r t l r l *
- - ' U1 Wt r at i s t hc hci t r ok' pl i t ' t ' ot t t l t l r r ' '
Ans: a] Compourxl s havi rrl i tl rc r;:rr)l t r l l ( rl r' t I l l ' rr l { rr r t rr Ii I
but di l f cr i ng i n t l t c r t t t t t l c ol ; l l l i l t l t t t r r t t l
"l
t l "
l i sandt ot he"ccnt r al nr ct ; t l l t l t r t t t i l t i r r t t ; t t r ' '
' r l l ' ' l
l i i kage i somcr s and t l r c pl t ct t r : r r t , ' , ' , ' , , 1" 1' r l l r ' I
linkagc isomerism.
eg:
[Co Q.ll.I,),
NO,l' ?'
any example.
b] Complexes wherc more than onc kind ol' ligirrr,i:i
are bonded to central metal atom.
241 Usi ng VBT, cxpl ai n t he gcomct r l ' r nd
magnct i c pr opcr t y of
I Co
( NI I r ) ol "
complcx.
Ans:
[ CO(NI I , )Jt '
i s a di amagnet i c oct ahedral
cotnplex, where the Co ion is in a+3 oxidation
state and its electronic configuralion in the
outermost orbital is 3d6. The hybridiz-ation is as
lollows:
cor+ ion lTllTfrlTfrl
JO
d2sor hvbridised
or bi t al sof Cor ' l t Jl t Jl l Jl l l I I I I
d'?spr hybrid
|cnfNrl ) 1,. lTurlTI RIT-flr}rlTh-ll
t vu\ r ! r 1116t l i l
Six pairs of electrons lrom 6NI' 13 molccules'
Thc. The geomet ry i s oot ahedral and i s
diamagnetic dueto the absence.
251 al
' t ransi t i on
met al s and t hei r compounds arc
good cat al Yst s, cxpl ai n.
bl Gi ve t he out cr cl cct noni c conf i gurat i on ol '
Manganesc. (, \ t . No, 25)
An. s: a] i )\ / ari abl e ori dat i ot l st i t t c
ii) incomplctcly tilleti d-strbshcll
bl 3di 4sl
261 al I l or v t l ocs Ki \ ' I r r ( ) , r eact u' i t h I l . S i n an
aci di c mcdi unr ? Gi vc equat i on'
b] l Vhat t r c i nt cr st i t i aI eompounds?
i \ns: al Kntno, rtl acts
rvi th l {,S i rr l ul aci di i mcti rurn as
lo[lous:
I n- n
45 4p
I l s - r 2 l l '
+ 52
!t]
. tt"11,' -
16 H-
_'
2Mn?'
+ 8H,o+
5s
Uiaotoo,to,
of transition
metal elements
where
271 al Cnl cul at e
t he percent age
of maki ng
effrciencY
in a hcc unit ceil'
b] A uretal crystallizes
as fcc lattice
with edge
length 450 pm' trf the moltr
mass of the
nr.tal is 50g mol-r' find the densitv
of thc
rnct*1.
Ans: el
Pcrcentage
packing
fraction
ofa BCC unit cell is
1;iven
by:
Total volume of
^!
t!]to'"t
(utott
+@
VJtrrne of a unit cell
Volume of all spheres:2
x
f
n f (No of atoms
in BCC Per
unit cell
=
2)
Volume of a unit cell
=
Considcr
the A ABC'
Ac2=AB2+Bc2
- . 3r +a2
rc.E
=uJi
(Face diagonal)
Consider A ACD
DCr =AD2+AC2,
DC2
-
ar
,
l Jr . '
)
or a' r ' ' a'
ec=.67
=u'
r;
Btrt DC
=
4r o,
orut
t
a=$
Vrlume of arurit cell
=
ar
small atoms iike Hydrogen'
C' N'B occupy
'i,r"tt,ft*f
tp*es in metal crystal of D-block
elements.
/ +, \' 6413
=l - l =- - - - -
\. J3 i
3J3
Substitutirg
these values in equation
(1) we have
- s/ i r r 3- 1116=0. 6798
6413
8
r5
% packing efficiency
:0
6798x 100
=
68%'
u,
,r
=
i9 As it is an fcc cryst'al
v,
a, Nl
L- a
M
=
50g rnol-'
a
=
a50 Pm
=
450
x 1O-rocm'
4x50
=; - - - -
, ^r r
* 6. 0221 10: j
( +so*t o- ' ";
4x50 _
2oo
=3.649gcm-3
54. 8
t Oa *t 0r x9, l 125000x6. 003
281 alDerivc
an cxpression
for first order ratc
constant ofa reaction'
blThe ratc of a rcaction
increases
4 timcs
when the temperarure
changes
from 300k
to 320k Calculatc
the activation
energy
(R=8. 314 J/ I Omol )'
Ans:Expression
for first order reaction'
Consider
a lust order reactton
R+P
If after a small interval of time d! d$) decomposes
tirctl
rate
=
K (i{)r
_91!
=61x1
OI
/n (Ro)
=
I
substituting the value ofl in above expression
/n (R)
=
-
kt + /n (Ro)
P1
=
1n
(Ro)
(R)
. . 2. 103. ( r i , , )
K=- t oo- j -
t
- ( R)
u, rou
Kr
. ft
[f,l ,l
"
Kr 2.301,R
L
TrTr
.l
Ea [;zo-;oo I
l oqJ: - - - - - | - - |
' - -
2. i ol "8. l l 4l 320, l ool
Fr ) n
r 9. r 47 96000
-
0.6021x19.14' l
"o
=
o.ooozos
=
55. 41 KJ
291 al Calculatc std. frce energy change for lhc
neact i on ZnrU+2Agror, , ?: 2, , 2' '
+ ?, ' J1; 1r1
E" cell
=
1.56V aild F
=
96,500 C moi-r'
^.
( bl \ pi ve equat i ons f or t he cel l rcact i ons t aki ng
-place at anode and cathotle in a button ce!l'
cl What is the elbctrochemical series?
Ans: al 4 G
=
-n l rl l o n: 2
=
2 x 96500
x1. 56 F=96500cot i l ar nb
=
-301080 JK-r E: ' = 1 56V
celt
=
-301. 08 KJ
blAt anode 2n,",+ 2olf
,"u.
-+ ZnO(,)+[J,O(r)+ 2e
Cathode I{gO,,,+HrO,,, + 2e -+ I' 1g,,,' l-2o1{.,u,,,
Overall reaction 2r,,, + HgO,., -+ ZnO,.,'r lig,,,
cl
'IheEle.ctrochemical
series is a series of standard
electrode potcntial of vlricus eientents an'atg:ed
in an order
(increasing or tlecreasing).
Cal cul at e t hemol ar mass of t hesol ut e. (K-
li'l'r;itdf !
;;:= i;q:iiitd ;';r'l
al Thc b. p. of bcnzcnc i s 353. 3k' Whcn 2g of
, ,a' nrrn-volatile solute was dissolvcd in I 0(ig
of l i enzene t he b' p. i ncreases t o 35' 1. 2k'
[ l Wnot i r r non- i deal sol ut i on? Gi vc an
example.
k, . ' w"
v 1000
Ans:
rvr----*
.al-
aI b' r Yl
^, _2. si , 2' 1000
'''-
--lil[i
b] Solutions which do not obey Rault' s lau' 41 all
conditions of temperature and concenlration rlc
calied non-ideal solution.
Eg: CTH, OH + CI {, COCH,
etltaroi + water
3l
I
al Expl ai n t he mcchani sm of cn: n mc cat ah i i i .
bl What is (i) peptisation (ii) cle ctrophorcsis?
Ans: l-ock & Key mcchanisnr:
a mechanism of En4'rne CatalYsis
There are a uumber of cavities presc' nl. otl tltc
sur{acs ofthe colloidal particles ofenzy.nes
-l'hcsc
'
cavities are ofa characteristic silalrc and posr;,:i;s
act i ve groups I i ke -Nl l 2. -Cl ool l . Oh cl e I
' r' ' s'
are acluallythe active active cenhes tlu lhc sr trlltcc
of thc enzyme palticles' Thc molgcules Lrl l!":'
r eacl al l t s i . e t he subst l al es t l t i i l hr l i ' r "i
ccnnplementary shape that fit into these cavilic:;.jlrs1
like a key tits into a lock. Dur: to thc pt' esencc o1'
active ggor:ps, an activaled complex is firrrr red. .\;d
this decomposcs to yield the product.' .
Step I - EnzYrne + Subsirate -r ES
Enzlnne Substrate ctl tllPicx
Step 2 - Product folmation ES -> EP
llnzYle - Ploducl colllPltx
Step 3 - Release ofproducl frort ettz-r'ure ccltllJrlc:::'
- EP+F+P
Enzyme
Ptodttcl
cor, rPlex
[:r Jl
t = =l
l__l
-E_l
ymc product
- t
f - - l
l r ' \ l
I -
t # n
L-I T_-]
hr z\ l t c l ' Li ' ( l r . l
ru|ffi
l nr \ r r l j \ . l l 1 l I : ' l s I n \ l ' ( - ' ' l h' l l
l l c
'
ei r r l Pl c' r
bl i] 'Peptisation: The process ofconverting
a freshly
' '
pr.purrd precipitate into colloidal form by the
uaii,ion of a suitable electrolyte
in small
amounts.
321 a] Write the Snr mechanism
for the conversion
of bromomethane
to ethanol'
bl ExPl ai n Wurt z-Fi t t i g
react i on
crarnPle'
c] What i s DDT?
, Ans: al EqLral i on
( l l
l l l l
l
I l i
trl Wurtz-l' ' ittig Ilcaction:
Wben an alkyl halide
rcacls rvith S,,dir,n.' anil an ar1' l halide in the
presencc ofdry cther, aikyl benzene is formed'
' A
ctnc
cg
(' i l Rr. : r' t n, R, {9
! ' ' ' l ' ' i rt ) r\ ' rnr
cl Dichloro diphenyl trichloro ethane
33
|
| al)I{ot is phcnol manufacturcd
from Cumcne?
b| Complctc the following
roactions:
i l R cl l 2oH
cr o' - r
CH.
l Cu,
i j ] cl r
- ( ol 1 +k'
ct l ,
Ans: al Cumene is heated rvith air at about 400 K' It
ges oxidizrd to form cumene hydroperoxidc'
Cumene
Cumcnei-lYdroPeroxide
Cumene Hydroperoxide
on acidification
with dil
H,Soo g:ves Phenol and Acctone'
CH.
I
an
I
- [
ifl Electrophoresis:
The migration of colloidal
part i cl es t owards t he opposi t el y
charged
ilectrode under the influence of the applied
341
electric current.
bl D R-cH.oH
co'
>R-cHo
+ }I,o
Primary alcohol AldehYde
CI-I
,-, A-.u --l+* 69,-41'fl't
H.O
: l
\ n- ( - \ ' r
' t
i Tl K
l l
"t I cH
cl l ,
ltrtionary Butyl alcohol
But-2-ene
al Ii,xplain thc following rcactions with an
cxampl cl
il Aldol condensation
iil Gattcrmann - Koch rcaction
t
i
Gin. .qu"tiun for the conversion of acctic
acid toacctamidc
Ans:a) i ) Al dol Condensati on:
Al dehydes
and
Ketones containing at least one Llydrogen
atgm
in tt. pt"r.n.. Jf Oltutt NaoH as catalyst
unJ.ti o.t sel f condensati on
to form a
S*-hYal o*Yuf
athYat
(al dol ) or B
LIYdroxYketoneft
etol)'
i I , rri ' ?r' <rro-:' a-(l t' t' H
(' rl {HO+' cH-ctl {-H
LH!)
rt
lll I. oH
l ) d
ii) Gattcrman- Koch Reaction:
Benzene is treated with Carbon monoxide
and
Hydrogen Chloride in the presence ofAnhydtous
elcl, *hi"h giuts benzaldehYde'
HCI/Alcl.
^(' no
I Ol "co, o- . I OJ
\ r /
' """r """"
V
Llenzrne
BenzaldehYde
bl cil,cooH
+ NH,--)cH3-cooNHp
AmmoniurnAcetate
cH3-CONH2+H2O
Acetamide
- c-{)-
AceticAcid
ffifiH ffi
351
t
a1 t*Ot"' n aarbylaminc rcaction.
bJHow do you convcr t Ni t r obenzenc t o
Aniline? Givc cquation.
cl Met hyl ami nc i s a st r ong base t han
ammoni a. Gi vc rcason.
Ans:al Carbylaminc Rcaction: When primary amines
are trcated with Chloroform and alcoholic
Pottasium llydroxide solution, foul smelling
isocyanides (carbylamine) are formed.
RN H, +C HC I
3+3
KOH
+i ! l RNC+3
KC/ +
3H,o
b] Convenion ofNitroberzene to Anilinc
@-"_i*6;l:ill,,
c
I
Mcthylamirre is a slrong base than ammonia due
to r I effect of CI-I, group which increases
availability of electrons on the nitrogen
ley'a]
write the Haworth slructure of Maltose.
bl What is a peptide linkagc? How many peptide
bonds are prcsent in a heptapeptidc?
c] Name the vitamin responsible for coagulation
ofblood
Ans: a] lr4altose
b] The
t-
.(,-trH")
amide linkage present between
NH,
ErouP
of an .c - amino acid & -COOH
of another .c
- amino acid is termed as a
pcpl i t l e l r l r l , l r l ' t l l r ' t ' r r '
hcpt l r l x: pl i t l e
cl Vi t ar ni r t K
(:i l .ot1 CH. OH
6' ^r Whal
ar c I l t cr r t r osct t t t t l ' p. l \ t t t ' t ' r
' r
examplc.
b] Explainwlcanizittion tri rttlrl x r' '
cl What are biodegiadablc poll' rrrcrs' i
Ans: The pol ymers whi ch arc scl t l i sol i Ll : ; ; 11 l , rt t t t
temperature and upon heating bccolttc ltitl
'
l ; tr r' i
i nsol ubl e masses are cal l ed t hcrnt oscl l rrrl '
pollmers. These can't be remortlclcd
eg: bakelite or urea formaldehyde resin or lirv
suitable example
b] The process ofheating ofrubber with sulphur
t o about 100-140' c t o make i t more cl ast i c &
durable is called in rulcanisation
Cross linkingofpllT nerchains takes place rtpon
vulcanisation through zulphw atoms.
CH.
^. .
\
^, , ^, ,
,
_
CI ] _C=C}I _CI I . CH
( S
i r
-bH-c=cu-cH,-cFl-
I
CH,
c] These are t he pol ymers whi ch undergo
envircnmental degradation due to fte action of
microorganisms.