Solution Manual
Kerson Huang
ii
Chapter 1
1.1
Mass of water =10
6
g, temperature raised by 20
C.
Heat needed Q = 2 10
7
cal = 8.3710
7
J.=23.2 kwh.
Work needed = mgh = 1415029000 = 6.0910
7
ftlb =22.9 kwh.
1.2
Work done along various paths are as follows
ab:
Z
b
a
PdV = Nk
B
T
1
Z
b
a
dV
V
= Nk
B
T
1
ln
V
b
V
a
cd:
P
d
(V
d
V
b
) = Nk
B
T
3
1
V
b
V
d
de:
Nk
B
T
3
Z
e
d
dV
V
= Nk
B
T
3
ln
V
a
V
d
No work is done along bc and ea. The total work done is the sum of the
above. Heat absorbed equals total work done, since internal energy is unchanged
in a closed cycle.
1.3
(a)
=
1
V
V
T
=
bV
0
T
b1
T
b
0
V
(b)
V =
bV
0
T
b1
T
b
0
T
P =
Nk
B
T
V
=
Nk
B
T
b
0
V
0
T
1b
Work done = PV = bNk
B
T
1
2 CHAPTER 1.
1.4
Consider an element of the column of gas, of unit cross section, and height
between z and z+dz. The weight of the element is gdM, where dM is the mass
of the element: dM = mndz, where m is the molecular mass, and n = P/k
B
T
is the local density, with P the pressure. For equilibrium, the weight must
equal the pressure dierential: dP = gdM .Thus, dP/P = (mg/k
B
T)dz. At
constant T , we have dp/P = dn/n.Therefore
n(z) = n(0)e
mgz/k
B
T
1.5
No change in internal energy, and no work is done. Therefore total heat
absorbed Q = Q
1
+Q
2
= 0. That is, heat just pass from one body to the
other. Suppose the nal temperature is T. Then
Q
1
= C
1
(T T
1
), Q
2
= C
2
(T T
2
). Therefore
T =
C
1
T
1
+C
2
T
2
C
1
+C
2
1.6
Work done by the system is
R
HdM. Thus the work on the system is
Z
HdM =
T
Z
HdH =
H
2
2T
1.7
Consider the hysteresis cycle in the sense indicated in Fig.1.6. Solve for the
magnetic eld:
H = H
0
+ tanh
1
(M/M
0
)
( + for lower branch, for upper branch.). Using W =
R
HdM, we obtain
W =
Z
M0
M0
dM[H
0
+ tanh
1
(M/M
0
)]
Z
M0
M0
dM[H
0
+ tanh
1
(M/M
0
)]
= 4M
0
H
0
1.8
3
A log log plot of mass vs. A is shown in the following graph. The dashed
line is a straightline for reference.
10 100 1000 10000
A
l
o
g
M
1
.
4 CHAPTER 1.
Chapter 2
2.1
Use the dQ equation with P, T as independent variables:
dQ = C
P
dT + [(U/P)
T
+P(V/P)
T
]dP
For an ideal gas (U/P)
T
= 0, P(V/P)
T
= V. Thus
dQ = C
P
dT V dP.
The heat capacity is given by
C = C
P
V (P/T)
path
.
The path is P = aV
b
, or equivalently P
b+1
= a(Nk
B
T)
b
by the equation of
state. Hence
V (P/T)
path
= [ab/(b + 1)]V (Nk
B
T)
b
T
1
= bNk
B
/(b + 1). Therefore
C = C
P
b
b + 1
Nk
B
This correctly reduces to C
P
for b = 0.
2.2
Use a Carnot engine to extracted energy from 1 gram of water between 300
K and 290 K.
Max eciency = 1 (290/300) = 1/30.
W = CT =
1
30
(4.164 J g
1
K
1
1 g 10 K) = 1.39 J
Gravitational potential energy = 1 g 9.8 kg s
2
110 m = 1.08 J
2.3
The highest and lowest available temperatures are, 600 F = 588.7 K and 70
F = 294.3 K.
The eciency of the power plant is W/Q
1
= 0.6[1 (294.3/588.7)] = 0.3.
In one second: W = 10
6
J.
So Q
2
= 2.33 10
6
J = C
V
T. Use C
V
= 4.184 J g
1
K
1
,
5
6 CHAPTER 2.
Flow rate = 6000 (0.305m)
3
T =
2.33 10
6
J
(4.184 J g
1
K
2
)6000(0.305 m)
3
10
6
cm
2
/m
3
= 3.27 10
3
K
2.4
(a)
Since water is incompressible, a unit mass input gives a unit mass output.
The net heat supplied per unit mass is Q = C(T
1
T) C(T T
2
),
where C is the specic heat of water (per unit mass.) In steady state v
2
/2 =
Q. This gives
v =
p
2Q =
p
2C(T
1
+T
2
2T)
(b)
The entropy depends on the temperature like lnT. A unit volume of water
from each of the input streams has total entropy lnT
1
+ lnT
2
This makes two
unit volumes in the output stream, with entropy 2 lnT. Therefore the change
in entropy is ln
T
2
/T
1
T
2
0. Thus T
T
1
T
2
, and
v
max
=
2C
p
T
1
p
T
2
2.5
(a)
PV
1
= 2P
0
V
0
, PV
2
= 2\P
0
V
0
(V
1
/V
2
)
= 2.
(
L +a)/(L a)
= 2.
a
L
=
2
1/
1
2
1/
+ 1
(b)
U = QW, Q = 0.
C
V
T = W, T = W/C
V
.
T
1
= 2T
0
+T = 2T
0
(W/C
V
), T
2
= T
0
T = T
0
+ (W/C
V
).
P =
RT
1
V
1
=
R[2T
0
(W/C
V
)]
A(L +a)
(c)
W = A
R
a
0
dx(P
1
P
2
)
P
1
= 2P
0
V
0
/ [A(L +x)]
, P
2
= P
0
V
0
/ [A(L x)]
.
W =
P
0
V
0
1
1
a
L
1
2a
L
7
2.6
(a)
PV = U/3, U = V T
4
.
P = T
4
/3.
dS = dQ/T = (dU +PdV )/T.
Integrate along paths with T=const, V =const.
S =
4
3
V T
3.
(b)
S =Constant. T
3
V
1.
Thus
T R
1
2.7
The heat absorbed by an ideal gas in an isothermal process is
Q = NkT ln(V
f
/V
i
)
where V
f
and V
i
are respectively the nal and initial volume.The temperature
T in this formula is the idealgas temperature.
Draw a Carnot cycle on the PV diagram, and label the corners 1234 clock
wise from the upper left.
The heat absorbed at the upper temperature T
2
, and the heat rejected at
the lower temperature T
1
, are
Q
2
= NkT
2
ln(V
2
/V
1
)
Q
1
= NkT
1
ln(V
3
/V
4
)
Because 23 and 12 lie on adiabatic lines, we have
V
2
T
1
2
= V
3
T
1
1
V
1
T
1
2
= V
4
T
1
1
Dividing one equation by the other yields V
2
/V
1
= V
3
/V
4
.
The eciency of the cycle is therefore
= 1
Q
1
Q
2
= 1
T
1
T
2
2.8
Diesel cycle:
Q
2
= C
P
(T
3
T
2
)
Q
1
= C
V
(T
4
T
1
)
= 1 (Q
1
/Q
2
) = 1
1
[(T
4
T
1
)/(T
3
T
2
)]
We have P
3
= P
2
, hence
T
3
/T
2
= V
3
/V
2
= r
c
The processes 12 and 34 are adiabatic, with TV
1
= constant. V
4
= V
1
.
Thus
8 CHAPTER 2.
T
3
V
1
3
= T
4
V
1
1
T
2
V
1
2
= T
1
V
1
1
Using the three relations derived, we obtain
= 1
1
c
1
r
1
(r
c
1)
2.9
Otto cycle:
Q
2
= C
V
(T
3
T
2
)
Q
1
= C
V
(T
4
T
1
)
= 1 (Q
1
/Q
2
) = 1 [(T
4
T
1
)/(T
3
T
2
)]
The processes 12 and 34 are adiabatic, with TV
1
= constant. We have
V
4
= V
1
, V
3
= V
2
Thus
T
1
V
1
1
= T
2
V
1
2
.
T
3
V
1
2
= T
4
V
1
1
.
Taking the ratio of these equations, we have
T
2
/T
1
= T
3
/T
4
= r
1
.
Thus
= 1 r
1
2.10
First note T
b
/T
a
= V
b
/V
a
= 2.
Work done Heat absorbed
ab P
a
(V
b
V
a
) = P
a
V
a
= NkT
a
C
P
T = C
P
T
a
bc 0 C
V
T
a
ca
R
PdV = NkT
a
ln2 NkT
a
ln2
W (Net work done) = NkT
a
(1 ln2)
Q
2
(Heat absorbed) = C
P
T
a
=
5
2
NkT
a
=
W
Q
2
=
2
5
(1 ln2) = 0.12
In comparison,
Carnot
= 1 (T
b
/T
a
) = 0.5.
2.11
First note T
2
= 4T
1
. The P, V, T for the points A, B, C, D are as follows:
P V T
A P
1
V
1
= NkT
1
/P
1
T
1
B 2P
1
2V
1
4T
1
C 2P
1
V
1
2T
1
D P
1
2V
1
2T
1
9
(a)
Heat supplied along
ACB : C
V
T
1
+C
P
(2T
1
) =
3
2
+ 5
Nk
B
T
1
=
13
2
Nk
B
T
1
.
ADB : C
P
T
1
+C
V
(2T
1
) =
5
2
+ 3
Nk
B
T
1
=
11
2
Nk
B
T
1
.
AB : U +W =
3
2
Nk
B
(2T
1
) +
3
2
P
1
V
1
= 6Nk
B
T
1
.
(b)
Heat capacity = Q/T = 6Nk
B
T
1
/3T
1
= 2Nk
B
.
(c)
Work done = P
1
V
1
= Nk
B
T
1
. Heat absorbed = Heat absorbed along ACB
= (13/2)Nk
B
T
1
.
=
2
13
2.12
(a)
Since no work is being done, and the temperatures diverge, heat must be
transferred from the colder body to the hotter body, with no other eect, and
this violates the Clausius statement of the second law.
(b)
The assertion is not true for physical black bodies, because they cannot be
pointlike but have nite size. Even if the two bodies have identical shapes,
their optical images are not reciprocal. That is, the radiation from one body
may form an image that is larger than the other body, and thus not completely
absorbed by the other body.
10 CHAPTER 2.
Chapter 3
3.1
(a)
For a adiabatic process dS = 0, and the TdS equations give
C
V
dT = (T/
T
)dV
C
P
dT = TV dP
Dividing one by the other, we obtain
C
P
/C
V
=
T
[V (P/V )
S
] =
T
/
S
(b)
C
V
dT + (T/
T
)dV = C
P
dT TV dPT. Put
dT = (T/P)
V
dP + (T/V )
P
dV .
Equate the coecients of dP and dV on both sides. One of them gives
C
P
C
V
= (TV/
T
)(V/T)
P
=
2
TV/
T
.
(c)
Using U = A+TS, H = G+TS (enthalpy), we have
C
V
= (U/T)
V
= (A/T)
V
+S +T(S/T)
V
= T(S/T)
V
= T(
2
A/T
2
)
V
C
P
= (H/T)
P
= (G/T)
P
+S +T(S/T)
P
= T(S/T)
P
= T(
2
G/T
2
)
P
3.2
The SackerTetrode equation is
S = Nk
B
[(5/2) ln(n
3
)], where n = N/V , and =
p
2~
2
/mk
B
T.
(a)
A = U TS = (3/2 / )k
B
T TS = Nk
B
T ln(n
3
) Nk
B
T.
G = A+PV = Nk
B
T ln(n
3
).
(b)
Write ln(n
3
) = lnn + ln
3
. The second term is a function of T only.
= (A/N)
V,T
= k
B
T ln(n
3
)+Nk
B
T( lnn/N)
V,T
k
B
T = k
B
T ln(n
3
).
= (G/N)
P,T
= k
B
T ln(n
3
) +Nk
B
T( lnn/N)
P,T
= k
B
T ln(n
3
).
11
12 CHAPTER 3.
3.3
The force on the bead is (P P
a
)Amg, where
P = pressure in gas,
P
a
= 1 atm.
The equation of motion for the displacement x is m x =(P P
a
)Amg.
In equilibrium the pressure in the gas is P
0
= P
a
+ (mg/A).
The volume is V
0
= RT/P
0
.
Assume adiabatic oscillations: PV
= const.
This implies dP = (P/V )dV (P
0
/V
0
)Ax.
P = P
0
+dP P
0
(P
0
/V
0
)Ax.
Thus m x +
A
2
P
2
0
/RT
x = 0.
The frequency of oscillations is
= AP
0
p
/RT
3.4
Let the equilibrium pressure and temperature be P
0
, T
0
. Under an in
nitesimal displacement x, suppose the pressure of compartment 1 changes by
dP. Since the process is adiabatic, we have PV
= constant, or (dP/P) +
(dV/V ) = 0. In terms of the temperature, we have TV
1
= constant, or
(dT/T) + ( 1)(dV/V ) = 0.
(a)
For compartment 1, we have to rst order
dP =
P
0
x
L
dT =
( 1)T
0
x
L
For compartment 2, replace x by x.
(b)
The force acting on the piston is dF = AdP. The equation of motion for x
is dF = M x, where M is the mass of the piston. Thus x + (AP
0
/ML)x = 0,
and the frequency of small oscillations is
=
p
AP
0
/ML
(c)
Due to the nite thermal conductivity of the piston, heat ows back and
forth between the two compartment, because of the oscillation in the temper
ature dierence.Assume that the temperatures change so slowly that at any
moment we regard heat conduction as taking place between two heat reservoirs
of xed temperatures. When an amount of heat dQ ows from 1 to 2, the
entropy increase is dS = (dQ/T
2
) (dQ/T
1
). Thus
dS
dt
=
1
T
2
1
T
1
dQ
dt
=
k
B
(T)
2
T
1
T
2
k
B
T
T
0
2
13
The temperature dierence is
(T)
2
= (T
1
T
2
)
2
= (2dT)
2
=
4( 1)
2
T
2
0
x
2
L
2
Hence
dS
dt
= ax
2
where a = 4k
B
( 1)
2
/L
2
.
(d)
Energy dissipation, which has so far been ignored, occurs at the rate T
0
dS/dt =
aT
0
x
2
. The time average of this rate is
1
2
aT
0
x
2
0
, where x
0
is the amplitude of
oscillation. The energy of oscillation is E =
1
2
M
2
x
2
0
. In one period of oscil
lation, the energy dissipated is E = (2/)
1
2
aT
0
x
2
0
. This gives a fractional
dissipation per cycle
E
E
=
2T
0
aM
3
3.5
(a)
P =
A
V
T
= a
0
(v
0
v)
(b)
T
= v
1
(v/P)
T
= (a
0
v)
1
= v
1
(v/T)
P
= v
1
(P/T)
V
(v/P)
T
, by chain rule.
=
1
a
0
v
da
0
dT
(c)
=
A
N
V,T
= a
0
(v
2
0
v
2
) f
3.6
For this problem it is important to use the entropy expression with arbitrary
C
V
, instead of setting it to (3/2)k
B
. Write the adiabatic condition as
S = S
1
+S
2
= 0, or
(N
1
+N
2
)k
B
ln(V
f
/V
i
) + (N
1
C
V 1
+N
2
C
V 2
) ln(T
f
/T
i
) = 0.
Thus, T
f
/T
i
= (V
i
/V
f
)
,where = k
B
(N
1
+N
2
)/(N
1
C
V 1
+N
2
C
V 2
).
This means TV
= constant
where
= + 1 =
N
1
(C
V 1
+k
B
) +N
2
(C
V 2
+k
B
)
N
1
C
V 1
+N
2
C
V 2
=
n
1
C
P1
+n
2
C
P2
n
1
C
V 1
+n
2
C
V 2
14 CHAPTER 3.
3.7
(a)
Since the disks are thin, we can assume that their temperatures always
remain uniform.
Let the nal temperature be T.
The changes in temperatures are respectively T
1
= T T
1
, T
2
= T T
2
.
For simplicity write C
P1
= C
1
, C
P2
= C
2
.
The amounts of heat absorbed are respectively Q
1
= C
1
T
1
, Q
2
=
C
2
T
2
.
Since the system is isolated Q
1
+Q
2
= 0. This gives
T =
C
1
T
1
+C
2
T
2
C
1
+C
2
(b)
Consider the instant when the two temperatures are T
0
2
, T
0
1
, (T
0
2
> T
0
1
).
When an amount of heat dQ ows from 2 to 1, the entropy increase is
dS = (dQ/T
0
1
) (dQ/T
0
2
).
We can express dQ in terms of the dT through dQ = C
1
dT
0
1
= C
2
dT
0
2
.
Thus we can rewrite dS = C
1
(dT
0
1
/T
0
1
) +C
2
(dT
0
2
/T
0
2
).
S = C
1
Z
T
T
1
dT
0
1
T
0
1
+C
2
Z
T
T
2
dT
0
2
T
0
2
= C
1
ln
T
T
1
+C
2
ln
T
T
2
3.8
The relations are straightforward mappings from a PV system to a magnetic
system.
3.9
(a)
The desired expression are straightforward mappings of those for a PV sys
tem.
(b)
The rst relation is the condition that dA be an exact dierential. The
second is obtained by using the equation of state M = H/T.
(c)
The chain rule states (T/H)
S
(H/S)
T
(S/T)
H
= 1.
From (b) we have (H/S)
T
= T
2
/(H).
By denition, the heat absorbed at constant H is given by TdS = C
H
dT.
Thus (S/T)
H
= C
H
/T.
3.10
(a)
The important property to verify is that at constant T the entropy decreases
as the magnetic eld H increases.
(b)
15
Isothermal magnetization: dT = 0.
The heat absorbed is
dQ = C
M
dT HdM = HdM. Therefore
Q =
Z
H
0
HdM =
H
2
2T
0
(c)
Adiabatic cooling: dQ = 0.
From dQ = C
M
dT HdM we obtain
dT = (H/C
M
) dM =
/aT
2
C to 0
C.
Q = C
P
T = 10 4180 20 J = 8.36 10
5
J.
S =
R
dQ/T = C
P
R
dT/T = C
P
ln(T
f
/T
i
) = 41800 ln(273/293) = 2.96
10
3
J/deg.
(B) Solidication at 0
C.
Q = 10 3.34 10
5
J =.3.34 10
6
J.
S = Q/T = 3.34 10
6
/273 = 1.22 10
4
J/deg.
(C) Ice cools from 0
C to 10
C.
Q = C
0
P
T = 10 2090 10 J = 2.09 10
5
J.
S = C
0
P
ln(T
f
/T
i
) = 20900 ln(263/273) = 7.80 10
2
J/deg.
Total heat absorbed by system: Q
sys
= 4.39 10
6
J
Total entropy change of system: S
sys
= 1.39 10
4
J/deg.
The reservoir has a xed temperature T
0
= 10
C..
The total heat absorbed by reservoir equals that rejected by the system:
Q
res
= 4.39 10
6
J.
Entropy change of reservoir:
S
res
= Q
res
/T
0
= 4.39 10
6
/263 = 1.67 10
4
J/deg.
S
universe
= S
res
+S
res
= 2.8 10
3
J/deg
4.2
Let P
0
, T
0
be the pressure and absolute temperature at the triple point. Let
L be the extensive latent heat (not specic latent heat.) Since the solidgas
17
18 CHAPTER 4.
transition can be made either via a direct path or a solidliquidgas path, we
must have
L
sublimation
= L
melt
+L
vap
Vaporization: dP/dT L
vap
/TV = PL
vap
/Nk
B
T
2
.
P = P
0
exp
L
vap
Nk
B
T
0
1
T
0
T
Melting: dP/dT = L
vap
/TV.
P = P
0
+
L
melt
V
ln
T
T
0
Sublimation: dP/dT P(L
vap
+L
melt
)/Nk
B
T
2
.
P = P
0
exp
L
vap
+L
melt
Nk
B
T
0
1
T
0
T
4.3
dP/dT = /Tv = [1.44 J/(18 20)cm
3
]T
1
.
dT/dP = c
0
T, where c
0
= 1.39 cm
3
/J.
4.4
(a)
At a given v > v
0
, the dashed line lies at a lower free energy than the
solid line. The latter represents a stretched that lls the whole volume. The
former represent a liquid drop at specic volume v
0
that does not ll up the
entire volume. This is therefore the preferred state of the liquid. At v = v
0
the
pressure is zero.
(b)
Now assume that the liquid coexists with its vapor, treated as an ideal gas.
We are in the transition region of a rstorder phase transition. At the given
temperature, the liquid and gas have xed densities, which must be consistent
with the requirement of equal pressure P and chemical potential . Denote
quantities for the liquid with subscript 1, and those for the vapor with subscript
2:
P
1
= a
0
(v
0
v),
1
= a
0
(v
2
0
v
2
) f,
P
2
= nk
B
T,
2
= k
B
T ln(n
3
).
where P
1
,
1
were obtained in Prob.3.5, and
2
was given in Prob.3.2, with
=
p
2~
2
/mk
B
T. Thus, the conditions determining v and n are
a
0
(v
0
v) = nk
B
T
a
0
(v
2
0
v
2
) f = k
B
T ln(n
3
)
19
From the rst equation, we see that v
0
v > 0. It approaches zero as nT 0.
(c)
Small n corresponds to (v
0
v) 0. The second equation becomes f
k
B
T ln(n
3
). Thus
n
3
exp(f/k
B
T)
4.5
(a)
dP/dT = /[T(v
2
v
1
)] /Tv
2
= /[T(k
B
T/P)]. Hence
T
P
dP
dT
=
k
B
T
(b)
T (K) (ergs/g)
0.2 8.2110
7
0.4 9.37
0.6 10.5
0.8 11.8
1.0 13.1
1.2 14.4
4.6
The accompanying sketch shows G =
R
V dP. The system skips the closed
loop in the graph of G, because it is higher than need be
A
A
V
P
P
G
20 CHAPTER 4.
4.7
(a)
A(V, T) = RT ln(V b) (a/V ) +f(T)
As V , A(V, T) RT lnV +f(T)
This should approach the ideal gas result (Prob.3.2) RT[ln(n
3
) 1].
Therefore, up to an additive constant,
f(T) = RT
1 +
3
2
lnT
(b)
C
V
= T(d
2
f/dt
2
) = (3/2)R, which is a constant.
4.8
TdS = C
V
dT +T (P/T)
V
dV = 0.
dT/dV = (T/C
V
) (P/T)
V
= (RT/C
V
)(V b)
1
.
Integrating this yields
lnT = (R/C
V
) ln(V b)+ constant.
Thus the adiabatic condition is
T(V b)
R/C
V
= constant
When a = b = 0, the system reduces to an ideal gas, for which
R
C
V
=
C
P
C
V
C
V
= 1
Thus we recover TV
1
= constant.
4.9
The second virial coecient for the van der Waal gas is given by c
2
=
b (a/RT). A rough t is
b 17 cm
3
/mole
a 2100R deg cm
3
/ mole
4.10
Let V = V
1
V
2
be the dierence in volume across the transition line.
Consider variations along the transition line, such as going from a to b, as
illustrated in the sketch. The chain rule says
V
T
T
P
P
V
T
= 1
This gives
P
T
V
=
(V/T)
P
(V/P)
T
=
1
T1
T2
21
If the transition line refers to a secondorder phase transition, then across this
line V = 0, while the dierences in and are nonzero. Thus
dP
dT
=
T
22 CHAPTER 4.
Chapter 5
5.1
n = 2.70 10
19
atoms /cm
3
v = 2 10
5
cm/s.
N = nv/6 10
24
s
1
cm
2
.
5.2
Let tV
0
be the volume of the room, and V be the volume under consideration
The probability of nding an atom in V is V/V
0
.
The probability of nding it elsewhere is 1 (V/V
0
).
Since there are N independent atoms, the probability of nding none in V
is
p =
1
V
V
0
N
= exp
N ln
1
V
V
0
2.7 10
19
10
10
19
for V = 1 A
3
: p exp
2.7 10
5
1 2.7 10
5
= 0.99997
5.3
Let n = N/V
Probability of nding one atom in dV = ndV.
Probability of nding no atom in dV = 1 ndV.
Probability of nding no atom in V = exp(nV ).
23
24 CHAPTER 5.
p(r)dr = Prob.(one atom between r, r + dr)Prob.(no atom in sphere of
radius r)
p(r) = 4nr
2
exp
4
3
nr
3
5.4
For the beam to remain wellcollimated, the atoms should suer no scattering
by the air in the chamber along the ight path of length L. The condition is
therefore > L, where (n)
1
is the meanfreepath, where n is the density
of the air, and is the cross section for a collision between atoms in the beam
with an air molecule. Thus
n <
1
L
For a rough estimate, take 10
16
cm
2
. This gives n < 10
15
cm
3
. The
estimate can be rened by using a more precise value for .
5.5
(a)
The mass density of water is 1 g cm
3
. This corresponds to a number density
n = 2 10
23
cm
3
. Thus = 5 10
16
cm.
(b)
The rate of reaction is R = NI, where N is the number of nucleons, I is
the neutrino ux, and is the reaction cross section. A person of mass 150,kg
contains N = 10
29
nucleons. Thus R = 5 10
10
s
1
.
The collision time is = R
1
= 2 10
9
s 70 yrs.
Thus, one gets hit by a neutrino about once in a lifetime.
5.6
Following the hint, the answer is obtained straightforwardly:
C
n
=
2
n/2
n
2
+ 1
n
n
2
ln
n
2
ln
n
2
+
n
2
5.7
(a)
From (5.37), (E, V ) = (/E), where
= V
N
Z
p
2
1
+...+p
2
n
<E
dp
1
dp
n
with n = 3N. Thus
(E, V ) = K
0
V
n
= K
0
V
n
nC
n
E
(n1)/2
25
(b) Using S = k
B
ln, we have, up to an additive constant,
S(E)
Nk
B
= lnV +
lnC
3N
N
+ lnE
3/2
+O
lnN
N
= ln
V E
3/2
+O
lnN
N
5.8
(a)
By the same reasoning as in the last problem, we obtain (E, V ) = K
0
,
where n = 6N. There is no volume dependence in the limit V , because
the particles are conned by the harmonic oscillator potential.
(b) Transcribing the result of the last problem, we have
S(E)
Nk
B
= lnE
3
+O
lnN
N
5.9
Let the meanfreepath be 10
5
cm. To be away from the origin by a
distance L, a total of (L/)
2
random steps would have to be taken. Since each
step lasts a collision time 10
10
s, the total time required is (L/)
2
. For
L = 1 cm the time is:1 sec. For L = 1 m the time is 10
4
sec.
5.10
For one coordinate, the probability of return after n collisions is (2n)
1/2
,
according to (5.16). For the Nparticle state to recur, all 6N coordinates have
to return at the same time. When this happens, dierent particles woud have
made dierent numbers of collisons n. For our orderofmagnitude estimate, we
can imagine that all particles have made an average numbers of collisions n,
each with probability p = (2 n)
1/2
which is a small but nite number. The
probability for gas as a whole to return to the initial state is then p
6N
. That is,
Recurrence time exp
6N ln
1
p
10
20
,
which is so large that neither the value of p nor the units used makes any
signicant dierence.
26 CHAPTER 5.
Chapter 6
6.1
Let = (2mk
B
T)
1
.
hi =
R
d
3
p f(p)
R
d
3
p f(p)
=
1
2m
R
0
dpp
4
exp(p
2
)
R
0
dpp
2
exp(p
2
)
=
3
2
k
B
T
=
R
d
3
p
2
f(p)
R
d
3
p f(p)
=
1
4m
2
R
0
dpp
6
exp(p
2
)
R
0
dpp
2
exp(p
2
)
=
15
4
(k
B
T)
2
hi
2
=
3
2
(k
B
T)
2
6.2
The energy distribution is dened through P(E)dE = f(p)4p
2
dp, where
f(p) is the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution of momentum. Using E = p
2
/2m,
we obtain
P(E) = c
0
Ee
E/kBT
where c
0
= n
1/2
(k
B
T)
3/2
.
6.3
The density is obtained by integrating the distribution function over the
momentum. The result is
n(z) = n(0)e
mgz/kBT
6.4
Using the equation of state of the ideal gas, we obtain P
(1)/
T = C
0
.After
some manipulation this leads to
dP
P
=
1
dT
T
mg
k
B
T
dz =
1
dT
T
27
28 CHAPTER 6.
Thus T changes with height z according to
k
B
dT
dz
=
1
mg
This can be integrated to yield
k
B
T(z) = k
B
T
0
mgz
For T
0
= 300 K and = 7/5, the temperatures becomes zero at z = 3.1710
4
m.
(b)
From the above, we nd
dP
P
=
mg
k
B
T
dz
Using the expression for from the last part, we can integrate this to obtain
P
P
0
=
1
1
mgz
k
B
T
0
/(1)
6.5
There is an eective temperaturedependent potential U(x), given through
exp(U/k
B
T) = c
0
(1 +x).
6.6
The answer is
n
1
(r)
n
2
(r)
= exp
2
r
2
(m
1
m
2
)/2k
B
T
6.7
(a)
The most probable velocity is that at the maximum of the speed distribution.
This will be obtained in (c).
(b)
The pressure is given by
P =
Z
p
x
>0
d
3
p2p
x
v
x
f(p) =
1
3
Z
d
3
p
p
2
p
p
2
+m
2
f(p)
where we have used v
x
= p
x
/
p
p
2
+m
2
. Write
p
2
p
p
2
+m
2
=
p
p
2
+m
2
m
2
p
p
2
+m
2
29
The second can be neglected in the ultrarelativistic limit p
2
m
2
. Comparing
P with the energy density U/V =
R
d
3
p
p
p
2
+m
2
f(p), we obtain
PV
1
3
U
(c)
The velocity distribution f(v) is dened by
f(v)d
3
v = C exp
mv/
p
1 v
2
d
3
p
Using p = mv/
1 v
2
, we obtain
f(v) =
Cm
3
(1 v
2
)
5/2
exp
m
k
B
T
1 v
2
1
2
mv
2
+m+O(v
2
)
Now return to part (a). The most probable velocity v
0
corresponds to the
maximum of the speed distribution 4v
2
f(v). It is given by the root of the
equation
(1 v
2
)
3/2
+
5
2
v
2
(1 v
2
)
1/2
m
2k
B
T
v
2
= 0
The nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits are (with c restored)
v
0
c
r
2k
B
T
mc
2
(k
B
T mc
2
)
v
0
c
1
mc
2
5k
B
T
2
(k
B
T mc
2
)
(d)
Relativistic eects become noticeable when k
B
T/mc
2
is appreciable, say, at
10%. For H
2
this corresponds to k
B
T = 0.1 2 GeV, or T = 2 10
12
K.
6.8
(a)
The distribution is proportional to the velocity distribution exp
mv
2
x
/2k
B
T
.
Substitute v
x
= c (f f
0
) /f
0
and then normalize the distribution. The result
is
P(f) =
2k
B
Tf
0
mc
2
1/2
exp
mc
2
2k
B
Tf
2
0
(f f
0
)
2
(b)
The variance is
(f f
0
)
2
=
R
0
df (f f
0
)
2
exp
(f f
0
)
2
0
df exp
(f f
0
)
2
30 CHAPTER 6.
where = mc
2
/(2k
B
Tf
2
0
). Change the variable of integration to =
(ff
0
).
The lower limit of integration becomes
f
0
=
p
mc
2
/2k
B
T. This can be
replaced by when k
B
T mc
2
, which is true in usual laboratory conditions.
We then obtain
(f f
0
)
2
=
k
B
T
mc
2
f
2
0
(c)
The line width is given by the square root of the variance, and thus inversely
proportional to
m. The H
2
line width is therefore broader than that of O
2
by a factor
p
32/2 = 4.
6.9
(a)
f(p) e
cp
,
U/N = c p = 3k
B
T,
C
V
= 3Nk
B
.
(b)
PV =
1
3
U = Nk
B
T.
6.10
Follow the hints and directions given in the problem.
6.11
W =
Z
vx>v0
d
3
pv
x
f(p) = C
Z
mv0
dp
x
v
x
e
p
2
x
Z
dp
y
exp
p
2
y
2
= n
r
k
B
T
2m
exp
v
2
0
2mk
B
T
6.12
(a) The escape velocity is v
c
=
p
2GM/R 10
4
m/s. This is to be compared
with the most probable speed at STP v
0
=
p
2k
B
T/m 2.2 10
3
m/s. The
fraction of gas that can escape is
f =
C
n
Z
mvc
dp4p
2
e
p
2
/2mk
B
T
=
4
Z
y
dxx
2
e
x
2
where C = n(2mk
B
T)
3/2
and y = v
c
/v
0
. Using the results of Prob.6.10(b),
we obtain
f
2y
e
y
2
With y 4.5, we nd f 5 10
8
.
(b)
31
The time it takes for an atom to go from sea level to the top of the atmosphere
through random collisions is
t
L
2
v
c
= 3 10
11
s 10
4
yr
where L = height of atmosphere 100 km, = meanfreepath 310
7
m.
6.13
(a)
The number of atoms with momentum magnitude between p and p + dp
is V 4p
2
f(p)dp, where V is the volume, and f(p) is the MaxwellBoltzmann
distribution. Thus
N = 4V
Z
p0
dpp
2
f(p)
E = 4V
Z
p
0
dpp
2
p
2
2m
f(p)
Using the results of Prob 6.10(b), and .N = nV , and E =
3
2
Nk
B
T, we obtain
the fractional changes
N
N
= 2y
1/2
e
y
E
E
=
4
3
y
3/2
e
y
for y =
0
/k
B
T 1..
(b)
From k
B
T =
2
3
E/N, we obtain k
B
T =
2
3
[(E/N) E(N/N
2
)], hence
T
T
=
E
E
N
N
2y
1/2
2
3
y 1
e
y
Taking the logarithm of the equation for N/N,we have ln(N/N) = y
ln(2y
1/2
), which gives
y ln(N/N) + ln
2 ln(N/N)
1/2
= ln(N/N) + lnln(N/N)
We then nd, to leading order,
T
T
4
3
N
N
r
ln
N
N
32 CHAPTER 6.
6.14
(a)
Let the axis along the needle be labeled 1, and a perpendicular axis 2.
The moments of inertia about these axes are I
1
, I
2
, with I
2
I
1
. By the
equipartition of energy we have
J
2
1
2I
1
=
J
2
2
2I
2
=
k
B
T
2
where J
i
is the components of angular momentum along the axis i. Thus
J
2
J
1
=
r
I
2
I
1
1
That is, the angular momentum is nearly parallel to the axis of the needle.
(b)
The equipartition of energy states
1
2
CV
2
=
1
2
k
B
T
This gives
p
V
2
= 6.5 V .
6.15
(a)
Take 1 mole of N
2
. The mass is 28 g.
For v = 7 km/s, the kinetic energy is
K.E. =
1
2
Mv
2
= 0.5(0.028)(7000)
2
= 686 kJ.
When this energy is converted into heat, the temperature rise is of the order
of
T =K.E./k
B
= 5500 K.
Thus, the astronauts would be fried.
(b)
A constant deceleration a is equivalent to the application of a potential mxa,
where x is the distance, and m is the mass of an air molecule. The Boltzmann
factor gives a relative density distribution
n
n
= exp
mxa
k
B
T
0
dvv
5
exp
mv
2
/2k
B
T
0
dvv
3
exp(mv
2
/2k
B
T)
= 2k
B
T
Thus, the escaped atoms come to thermal equilibrium at a temperature T
1
, with
3
2
k
B
T
1
= 2k
B
T. Hence T
1
=
4
3
T. This assumes that the total amount of gas
escaped is so small that the temperature of the original system is unchanged.
7.2
Let n
1
, n
2
denote the densities of U238 and U235 respectively. Flux
= n
p
k
B
T/2m.
After one stage of eusion,
n
1
n
2
=
n
1
n
2
0
r
m
2
m
1
After k stages,
n
1
n
2
k
=
n
1
n
2
m
2
m
1
k/2
Find k such that n
1
= n
2
.
k =
2 ln(n
1
/n
2
)
0
ln(m
1
/m
2
)
=
2 ln(99.27/0.75)
ln(238/235)
= 775
7.3
In an adiabatic process PV
= constant, or P
1
T
T
P
S
=
1
T
P
35
36 CHAPTER 7.
The particle density is n = P/k
B
T. Thus
n
P
S
=
1
k
B
T
Hence
S
=
1
nk
B
T
c =
r
k
B
T
m
7.4
Test the condition K/c C
P
. Using the data given, we nd K/c = 1.44
10
5
, C
P
= 0.24T, in the mixed unit given. Thus the condition is wellfullled,
and shows that sound propagated adiabatically.
7.5
From (7.19)
2
/t
2
+ u/t = 0. Instead of the Euler equation
u/t = P, use the NavierStokes equation.(7.48). Then in rstorder
approximation (7.21) is replaced by
.
2
t
2
2
P +
4
3
2
( u) =0
where is the viscosity. Use the continuity equation u = /t, and
convert
2
P to
2
as in (7.22). The result is
.
2
t
2
1
c
2
2
4
3
t
=0
For a sinusoidal wave =
0
+
1
exp(ikxit), the last term is i(4k/3
0
)
1
.
Thus the damping coecient is 4k/3
0
.
7.6
The onedimensional diusion equation has solution
n(x, t) =
N
4Dt
exp
x
2
4Dt
The gas is characterized by the diusion constant D. Suppose the detector has
spatial resolution x. We want to nd the time t at which n(L, t)x = 1. That
leads to the implicit equation
t =
L
2
4D
1
ln
Nx/
4Dt
37
In the rst approximation, we put t = L
2
/4D on the right side. This gives
t =
L
2
4D
1
ln(Nx/L)
The logarithm is not very sensitive to x.
7.7
The insulating power is the inverse of the coecient of thermal conduc
tivity. Thus
1/4
In the interior, the rate of heat generation per unit volume is W, and this
equals q, where q is the heat ux vector. Using q = T, we have the
equation for the temperature distribution
2
T = W/. Assuming that T is
spherically symmetric, and using spherical coordinates, we obtain
d
dr
r
2
dT(r)
dr
=
W
r
2
Integration of this equation, observing that T cannot be singular at r = 0, gives
T(r) = T
0
W
6
r
2
where T
0
is the temperature at r = 0. The surface temperature is
T
1
= T
0
W
6
R
2
Thus
T
0
=
1
6
WR
2
+
RW
3
1/4
38 CHAPTER 7.
7.9
(a)
The heat absorbed by per unit volume is dQ = qdt, which denes the
heat ux vector q. Putting dQ = Tds, we have
s
t
+
1
T
q = 0
(b)
Consider the heat ux due to heat conduction q = T. Write ( q)/T =
(q/T) q (1/T). The last equation can be rewritten
s
t
=
q
T
+
T
T
2
The second term, which is always positive, is the rate of irreversible entropy
production.
7.10
Suppose the thickness of the ice sheet is x. Consider a unit square of the ice
sheet. The mass of the sheet increases at the rate dx/dt, and generates heat
at the rate dx/dt. This must equal the heat ux, which we can represent as
q
x
=
T
x
for a small thickness x. Thus
dx
dt
=
T
x
Chapter 8
8.1
(a)
The number of ways to choose the n atoms to remove from N sites is
N!/ [n! (N n)!]
(b)
The number of ways to choose the n interstitials out of M is
M!/ [n! (M n)!]
(c)
The total energy is E = n.The phase space volume is
(n) =
N!M!
n! (N n)!n! (M n)!
Using the Stirling approximation, we obtain the entropy
S
k
B
= ln(n) = nln
N
n
(N n) ln
1
n
N
+nln
M
n
(M n) ln
1
n
M
ln(n)
n
This gives
k
B
T
=
n
ln(n) = ln
N
n
1
+ ln
M
n
1
(d)
The previous equation can be rewritten as
n
2
(N n) (M n)
= exp
k
B
T
39
40 CHAPTER 8.
The low and hightemperature limits are
n
NM exp(/2k
B
T) (k
B
T )
1
n
1
N
+
1
M
(k
B
T )
(e)
n
N
exp(/2k
B
T)
For T = 300 K: n/N e
20
= 2 10
9
.
For T = 1000 K: n/N e
6
= 2.5 10
3
.
8.2
(a)
Since each link can be pointed left or right independently, the number of
ways to choose N
+
links to point right is = N!/[N
+
!(N N
+
)!]. We must
have N
= N N
+
. The entropy is S = k
B
ln, which leads to
S
Nk
B
= r lnr (1 r) ln(1 r)
where r = N
+
/N is the fraction of rightpointing links.
(b)
The internal energy is independent of N
+
, and we can set it to zero. Thus
the free energy is A = TS, where T is just a constant scale factor.
(c)
The tension can be obtained from dU = 0 = TdS + dL, where L is the
length of the chain:
L = a(N
+
N
) = a (2N
+
N) = aN(2r 1)
We obtain
k
B
T
=
1
2aNk
B
S
r
=
1
2a
ln
1
r(1 r)
where k
B
T is just a scale factor. The tension is never zero. It is minimum when
r = 1/2, and goes to innity when the chain is fully stretched to the right
(r = 1) or to the left (r = 0).
In this model, temperature is not a relevant concept, since energy is irrel
evant. The factor T in TdS is an arbitrary scale factor.
If we give each leftpointing link an energy , then the total energy would be
E = N
=
Nmga
exp(mga) + 1
The length of the chain is L = (N N
0
)a, where N
0
= U/(mga) is the number
of up links. Thus
L =
Na
1 + exp(mga)
(c)
Since U = mga[N (L/a)], the force constant is mg.
8.4
(a)
The possible states are labeled by the number of open links n = 0, 1, 2, , N.
The energy with n open links is E
n
= n. The partition function is
Q
N
=
N
X
n=0
e
n
=
1 e
(
N+1)
1 e
(b)
The average number of open links is
n =
1
lnQ
N
=
e
1 e
(N + 1) e
(
N+1)
1 e
(
N+1)
The second term is negligible for large N. At low temperatures 1 we
have
n e
8.5
(a)
There are 6 sites in each hexagon, but each site is shared by 3 hexagons.
Thus we can assign 2 sites to a hexagon. On the other hand, each hexagon is
associated with one interstitial site. Thus, in an innite lattice, there are half
as many interstitial sites as lattice sites.
(b)
The entropy is given by
S
k
B
= ln(E) = ln
vacancy
+ ln
interstitial
vacancy
=
N!
M!(N M)!
interstitial
=
(N/2)!
M!(N/2 M)!
42 CHAPTER 8.
The energy is E = M, and the volume xed, and proportional to N. Thus,
this gives S(E, V ).Using the Stirling approximation, we obtain
S
k
B
= {N lnN M lnM (N M) ln(N M)} + {N N/2}
= 2M ln
N
2M
(N M) ln
1
M
N
N
2
M
ln
1
2M
N
(c)
From T
1
= S//E we obtain the relation
E
N
2
=
1
2
1
E
N
1
2E
N
e
/k
B
T
This can be easily solved, but we only give the high and lowtemperature limits:
E
N
2
1/2
exp(/2k
B
T) (k
B
T )
1/3 (k
B
T )
The above is equal to the average interstitial fraction M/N at a given temper
ature.
8.6
(a)
The partition function for N noninteracting particles is Q
N
= Q
N
1
, where
Q
1
is that for a single particle:
Q
1
=
3
X
n=1
exp(
n
) = 2e
(bx
2
cx/2)
+e
(bx
2
+cx)
The free energy per particle is a(x, T) = k
B
T lnQ
1
.
(b)
We nd the equilibrium value of x by minimizing a(x, T) with respect to x,
or maximizing Q
1
.Assume that x is small, and expand the exponential to order
x
2
. The condition Q
0
1
= 0 gives two roots:
x =
0
(4k
B
T/c)
1 (4bk
B
T/c
2
)
Since x cannot be negative, the nontrivial root is acceptable only when T < T
c
,
where
k
B
T
c
=
c
2
4b
Examining the sign of Q
00
1
shows that when T < T
c
the nontrivial roots corre
sponds to a maximum, while x = 0 corresponds to a minimum. For T > T
c
, the
only solution is x = 0, which corresponds to a maximum. Thus there is a phase
transition at T = T
c
.
43
8.7
For a classical relativistic gas,
Q
N
(V, T) =
Z
d
3N
p d
3N
q
N!h
3N
exp
"
N
X
i=1
p
(cp
i
)
2
+ (mc
2
)
2
#
=
V
N
N!
1
h
3N
I
N
()
where
I() =
Z
d
3
p exp
h
p
(cp)
2
+ (mc
2
)
2
i
Using the Sterling approximation to write N! N
N
, we obtain
A
N
(V, T) = Nk
B
T
ln
V
Nh
3
+ 1 + lnI()
mc
2
+
p
2
2m
= e
mc
2
/k
B
T
(2mk
B
T)
3/2
A
N
(V, T) N
mc
2
+k
B
T ln
3
N
V
k
B
T
mc
2
+k
B
T ln
n
3
In ultrarelativistic situations k
B
T mc
2
we can neglect the rest energy, and
take
I()
Z
d
3
p e
cp
= 4
Z
0
dp p
2
e
cp
= 8
k
B
T
c
3
A
N
(V, T) Nk
B
T
"
ln
2
N
V
~c
k
B
T
3
!
1
#
k
B
T ln
nL
3
where
L =
2/3
~c
k
B
T
8.8
The partition function is Q
N
=
N
, where is the partition function for one
particle:
=
X
k
e
~
2
k
2
/2m
=
V
(2)
3
Z
d
3
ke
~
2
k
2
/2m
=
V
3
where =
p
2~
2
/mk
B
T. The free energy is A = k
B
T lnQ
N
= Nk
B
T ln
V/
3
,
The equation of state is P = A/V = Nk
B
T/V.
44 CHAPTER 8.
8.9
(a)
The partition is Q
N
=
N
, where
=
1
dpe
p
2
/2m
Z
dqe
m
2
q
2
/2
=
2k
B
T
(b)
The free energy is
A = k
B
T lnQ
N
= Nk
B
T ln
2k
B
T
Thus
S =
A
T
= Nk
B
1 + ln
2k
B
T
U = A+TS = Nk
B
T
C
V
=
U
T
+Nk
B
8.10
(a)
Q
N
=
e
0
B
+e
0
B
N
(b)
hMi =
1
B
lnQ
N
=
0
N
e
0
B
e
0
B
e
0
B
+e
0
B
(c)
M
2
hMi
2
=
1
2
B
2
lnQ
N
=
4
2
0
N
(e
0
B
+e
0
B
)
2
Chapter 9
9.1
(a)
Q(z, T) =
N0
X
N=0
N
0
N
z
N
e
N
=
N0
X
N=0
N
0
N
ze
N
=
1 +ze
N0
(b)
hNi
N
0
=
z
N
0
z
lnQ =
1
z
1
e
+ 1
(c)
U =
lnQ =
N
0
z
1
e
+ 1
C =
U
T
=
N
0
k
B
()
2
e
z (z
1
e
+ 1)
2
9.2
(a)
The grand partition function for the O
2
lattice gas is
Q
1
(z, T) =
N
X
N
1
=0
N
N
1
z
1
e
N1
=
1 +z
1
e
N
The fraction of occupied sites is
hN
1
i
N
0
=
z
1
N
0
z
1
lnQ
1
=
1
z
1
1
e
1
+ 1
45
46 CHAPTER 9.
Setting the above to f = 0.9, with z
1
= 10
5
and T = 310 K, we nd,
1
= k
B
T ln
z
1
(1 f)
f
0.37 eV
(b)
The grand partition function is now given by
Q(z, T) =
N
X
N
1
=0
NN
1
X
N
2
=0
N
N
1
N N
1
N
2
z
1
e
N1
z
2
e
N2
=
N
X
N1=0
N
N
1
z
1
e
1
N
1
1 +z
2
e
2
NN
1
=
1 +z
1
e
1
+z
2
e
2
N
The fraction of sites occupied by O
2
is
hN
1
i
N
=
z
1
N
z
1
lnQ =
z
1
e
1
! +z
1
e
1
+z
1
e
2
Set this to 0.1 and solve for
2
. With
1
from (a), we obtain
2
= 0.55 eV
9.3
(a)
E(M) = M
(M) =
N
M
(b)
The grand partition function of the adsorbed gas is
Q(z, T) =
N
X
M=0
N
M
ze
M
=
1 +ze
N
where z = e
N
M
ze
M ln
ze
M
N
=
z
N
z
lnQ =
1
z
1
e
+ 1
47
(c)
The chemical potential for an ideal gas is given in Prob.3.2: = k
B
T ln
n
3
,
where =
p
2~
2
/m, and n = P. In equilibrium, the chemical potntail of
the adsorbed gas must equal that of the surrounding gas. Thus
M
N
=
3
P
e
+
3
P
(d)
M
2
M
2
= z
z
z
z
lnQ =
ze
(e
+z)
2
9.4
(a)
The equation of state is
V
1
3
P +
3
V
2
=
8
3
T
Dierentiating both sides with respect to P at constant T, we nd
V
P
=
V
1
3
P +
3
V
2
6
V
3
V
1
3
=
V
1
3
2
8
3
T
6
V
3
V
1
3
2
Near the critical point we put V = 1 and let T 1
+
. Thus
T
=
1
V
V
P
1
6 (T 1)
(b) The fractional density uctuation near the critical point diverges:
n
2
n
2
n
2
=
T
V
T
1
6 (T 1)
9.5
The condition for equilibrium is ln
n
+
L
3
+ln
L
3
= 0, or n
+
n
= L
6
.
Given n n
+
= n
0
, we nd
n
+
n
0
=
1
2
"s
4
(n
0
L
3
)
2
+ 1 1
#
n
n
0
=
1
2
"s
4
(n
0
L
3
)
2
+ 1 + 1
#
48 CHAPTER 9.
9.6
(a)
Let N
i
be the number of molecules of type X
i
present. The reaction con
sumes
i
molecules of type X
i
. Thus the change in N
i
is proportional to
i
, with
the same proportionality constant for all i. Hence N = N
i
/
i
is independent
of i.
(b)
Minimizing the free energy, we have
0 = A =
X
i
A
N
i
N
i
=
X
i
i
N = 0
Since N is arbitrary, we have
P
i
i
= 0.
9.7
(a)
In a xed volume, the densities obey the relations
n
1
2
= n
2
=
n
3
2
Hence A = n
1
2n
2
and B = n
1
+n
3
remain constant.
(b)
The chemical potential for a classical ideal gas is, according to Prob.3.2,
= k
B
T ln
n
3
, where =
p
2~
2
/mk
B
T. The condition for chemical equi
librium is 2 ln
n
1
3
1
+ln
n
2
3
2
2 ln
n
3
3
3
= 0 where the
i
are independent
of thus densities. Thus
n
2
1
n
2
n
2
3
= K
0
where K
0
= (4/9)
3
mk
B
T/~
2
3/2
. Two other conditions are
n
1
+n
3
= n
0
n
1
= 2n
2
These imply
n
3
1
= 2K
0
(n
0
n
1
)
2
Hightemperature limit K
0
:
n
1
n
0
1
r
n
0
2K
0
Lowtemperature limit K
0
0
n
1
(2K
0
n
0
)
1/3
9.8
49
The density depends on the power series
y =
X
=1
b
=1
b
=1
b
= 1 +a
2
y
2
+a
3
y
3
+
To
the lowest two orders, we have
P
=1
b
=1
b
= 1 +a
2
X
=1
b
!
2
+a
3
X
=1
b
!
3
+
We expand both sides to order z
3
, obtaining
z +b
2
z
2
+b
3
z
3
+
=
z + 2b
2
z
2
+ 3b
3
z
3
+
h
1 +a
2
z + 2b
2
z
2
+
2
+a
3
(z + )
3
+
i
= z + (2b
2
+a
2
) z
2
+ (4b
2
a
2
+a
3
+ 3b
3
) z
3
+
Equating the coecients of z
2
and z
3
on both sides, we obtain
a
2
= b
2
a
3
= 4b
2
2
2b
3
50 CHAPTER 9.
Chapter 10
10.1
The energy residing in a mode of frequency of the transmission line is
E =
~
e
~
1
=
~
~ +
1
2
(~)
2
+
k
B
T
1
~
2k
B
T
The second term above gives the rst quantum correction. As a estimate use
the fundamental mode = c/L, where c is the velocity of light, and L the
length of the transmission line. The Nyquist theorem becomes
V
2
= 4k
B
TR
1
~c
2Lk
B
T
4Dt
exp
x
2
/4Dt
0 (x 6= 0)
(x 0)
and, for all t 6= 0,
Z
dxn(x, t) = 1
Therefore
n(x, t)
t0
(x)
10.5
(a)
For the Brownian particles: D = 4 10
9
cm
2
/s.
For O
2
: D 0.1cm
2
/s
Thus an O
2
molecule will travel
q
1
4
10
10
10 cm.
(b)
From Einsteins relation = D/k
B
T.
F = u/ = k
B
Tu/D 10
5
dyne.
10.6
Perrin obtained A
0
= 7.05 10
23
, which would have led to
k
B
=
8.32 10
6
7.05 10
23
= 1.18 10
16
cgs (Modern value:1.381 10
16
)
e =
2.9 10
14
7.05 10
23
= 4.14 10
10
cgs (Modern value: 4.803 10
10
)
10.7
(a)
Substitute j = Dn, into the continuity equation j + n/t = 0 to
obtain
D
2
n +
n
t
= 0
53
(b)
With a drift current produced by a uniform constant external force F
ext
,
The total particle current is
j = Dn +
n
F
ext
where is the mobility. Thus the diusion equation generalized to
D
2
n +
1
F
ext
n +
n
t
= 0
(c)
The absorption,contributes a term V (r)n to the rate of change of the par
ticle density. From this point of view, the Schrodinger equation describes a
diusion in imaginary time, with absorption, of the wave function . What
makes quantum mechanics distinctive is that is a complex probability ampli
tude, and not a probability.
54 CHAPTER 10.
Chapter 11
11.1
If the showers are distributed at random, the probability that one occurred
on Tuesday would be 1/7, and the probability that it did not occur would be
6/7. The probability that none of the 12 showers occur on Tuesday would be
(6/7)
12
= 0.157. Better bring the umbrella.
11.2
If parking tickets were issued at random, the probability of getting 12 tickets
on two days of the week would be (2/7)
12
= 3 10
7
. This is so small that we
must reject the assumption that tickets were given out at random, and advise
the student to use a parking lot on those days. Of course, this assumes that the
police maintains the same tactic.
11.3
What determines whether the man goes north or south is the correlation
between northbound and southbound trains, as illustrated in the sketch. If he
enters the station during the interval x, he goes north. Otherwise he goes south.
Since he went north 70% of the time, we conclude x = 0.7.
11.4
Generate a sequence of random number between 0 an 1. Divide the interval
(0,1) into say 10 equal bins, and keep a running score of the number of random
numbers in each bin, as they are being generated. At the end of the run, plot
55
56 CHAPTER 11.
a histogram of the numbers in each bin. If the sequence is truly random, the
histogram should t a Poisson distribution..
11.5
The currentvoltage characteristic of the device is shown in the accompa
nying sketch.
Let the probability of nding the voltage to have a value between V and
V +dV be P(V )dV.
Let the probability of nding the current to have a value between I and
I +dI be Q(I)dI.
The current is never negative. So Q(I) = 0 for I < 0. For I > 0, we have
Q(I) = P(V )
dV
dI
= P(V )
V
0
I +I
0
(I > 0)
where
V = V
0
ln
1 +
I
I
0
dIQ(I) =
Z
0
dV P(V )
Thus Q(I) should contain a term (I). The complete result is
Q(I) =
P(V )
V0
I+I
0
+(I) (I 0)
0 (I < 0)
.
11.6
Let the probability density for y be Q(y). We have
Z
y
dy
0
Q(y
0
) =
Z
x
dx
0
P(x
0
)
where x =
y/b. The integrands on both sides are zero for negative arguments.
Thus
Z
y
0
dy
0
Q(y
0
) =
Z
x
0
dx
0
x
0
a
exp
x
02
2a
= exp
y
2ab
1
Dierentiating this gives
57
Q(y) =
1
2ab
exp
y
2ab
(y 0)
11.7
Solution provided in text.
58 CHAPTER 11.
Chapter 12
12.1
(a)
S() =
Z
de
i
G()
=
Z
de
i
Z
dtf(t)f(t +) + 2()I
2
=
f
2
+ 2()I
2
where I =
R
dtf(t)I =
R
=
R
0
dte
it
= (i )
1
.
I =
R
0
dte
t
= /.
S() =
2
+
2
+
2
2
2
()
The whitenoise component is /
2
, the rst term in the limit .
12.2
We can use the result of Prob.12.1(a), with
f
=
R
dte
it
(t)
0
R
dt(t) q.
I =
R
dt(t) = q.
S()
0
q + 2
2
q
2
()
12.3
(a)
I(t) and I(t + ) are the same if there are an even number of sign changes
during and equal but opposite if there are an odd number of sign changes.
Thus
hI(t)I(t +)i = a
2
(P
even
P
odd
)
59
60 CHAPTER 12.
(b)
The probability that there are k crossing in the time interval > 0 is given
by the Poisson distribution
P(k; ) =
()
k
k!
e
The probability there are an even and odd number of crossings are given re
spectively by
P
even
= e
1 +
()
2
2!
+
()
4
4!
+
!
P
odd
= e
+
()
3
3!
+
()
5
5!
+
!
Thus for > 0
hI(t)I(t +)i = a
2
e
1 +
()
2
2!
()
3
3!
+
!
= a
2
e
2
If < 0, then hI(t)I(t +)i = hI(t )I(t)i = hI(t)I(t + )i by invariance
in time translation. Thus the general answer is obtained by replacing by .
(c)
S() =
Z
d hI(t)I(t +)i = a
2
Z
0
de
i
+a
2
Z
0
de
i+
= 2a
2
Re
Z
0
de
i
=
2a
2
2
+
2
12.4
From (12.2)
W
3
(3, 1, 2) =
Z
dx
4
W
4
(3, 1, 4, 2)
From (12.24) and (12.29)
W
3
(3, 1, 2) = W
2
(3, 1)P(3, 12) = W
2
(3, 1)P(12)
W
4
(3, 1, 4, 2) = W
3
(3, 1, 4)P(3, 1, 42) = W
3
(3, 1, 4)P(42)
= W
2
(3, 1)P(14)P(42)
Substituting these into the last equaton we obtain
W
2
(3, 1)P(12) =
Z
dx
4
W
2
(3, 1)P(14)P(42)
P(12) =
Z
dx
4
P(14)P(42)
61
12.5
The problem one faces in a computer simulation of a phase transition is
critical slowing down. It is easy to obtain a rough value for T
c
, but very
dicult to attain precision. This is because on a nite lattice the transition
will not be sharp, but increasing the lattice size also increases the time to reach
thermal equilibrium. It becomes increasingly dicult for large blocks of spins
to ip, since all spins have to ip at the same time, by chance. Indeed, this
is why the largest block, namely the whole lattice, does not ip at all, leading
to spontaneous magnetication. To speed up the simulation, one has to improve
the algorithm by making trial ips of not just single spins, but blocks of spins
of random sizes.
12.6
(a)
Since the diusion equation is invariant under translations in space and time,
the solution (10.28) can be generalized to a starting position x
0
and starting
time t
0
by by replacing x, t by x x
0
, t t
0
, respectively.
(b)
Denote the transition probability from step i to step j by
P(ij) =
1
p
4D(t
i
t
j
)
exp
(x
i
x
j
)
2
4D(t
i
t
j
)
!
To begin, show that for n = 2,
P(20) =
Z
dx
1
P(21)P(10)
The right side is
X =
1
4D
p
(t
2
t
1
) (t
1
t
0
)
Z
dx
1
exp
1
4D
(x
2
x
1
)
2
t
2
t
1
(x
1
x
0
)
2
t
1
t
0
!!
The exponent can be wrtiten as
1
4D
x
2
2
t
2
t
1
+
x
2
0
t
1
t
0
A
4D
x
2
1
+
2B
A
x
1
where
A =
1
t
2
t
1
+
1
t
1
t
0
B =
x
2
t
2
t
1
+
x
0
t
1
t
0
Performing the integral, we obtain
X =
p
4D/A
4D
p
(t
2
t
1
) (t
1
t
0
)
exp
1
4D
(x
2
x
1
)
2
t
2
t
1
(x
1
x
0
)
2
t
1
t
0
B
2
A
!!
=
1
p
4D(t
2
t
0
)
exp
(x
2
x
0
)
2
4D(t
2
t
0
)
!
62 CHAPTER 12.
Next show that the result for n 1 implies that for n, where n > 2. The
integrals one has do is similar to the one above. This will complete the proof
by induction.
12.7
The instructions are fairly explicit.
Chapter 13
Solutions are given in the text.
63
64 CHAPTER 13.
Chapter 14
14.l
The relativistic energy is E =
p
(pc)
2
+ (mc
2
)
2
. In the ultrarelativistic do
main we can neglect the mass term and thus E = pc. The deBroglie wavelength
is h/p = hc/E. The thermal wavelength is therefore proportional to hc/k
B
T.
14.2
14.3
U =
3
2
PV
3
2
Nk
B
T
1 2
5/2
n
3
C
V
=
U
T
3
2
Nk
B
1 2
7/2
n
3
= z
X
exp(
) = zQ
65
66 CHAPTER 14.
(b)
The internal energy per particle is dened by
U
N
=
P
exp(
)
P
exp(
)
Thus,
lnQ
=
1
Q
X
exp(
) = U
(c)
Q =
X
exp
trans
+
rot
+
vib
= Q
trans
Q
rot
Q
vib
U
N
=
(lnQ
trans
+ lnQ
rot
+ lnQ
vib
)
c
V
=
1
N
U
T
= c
trans
+c
rot
+c
vib
14.5
Q
trans
= V (2)
3
4
Z
0
dkk
2
exp
~
2
k
2
/2m
= V/
3
U
N
= ln
3/2
/ =
3
2
k
B
T
c
trans
k
B
=
3
2
.
14.6
(a)
lnQ
rot
ln
1 + exp
~
2
/I
exp
~
2
/I
U
N
=
lnQ
rot
=
~
2
I
exp
~
2
I
c
rot
k
B
3
~
2
I
2
exp
~
2
I
(b)
Q
rot
Z
0
d 2 exp
~
2
2
/2I
.
1
U/N k
B
T
67
c
rot
k
B
1
(c)
The internal energy rises exponentially from T = 0 to approach a linear
behavior. The qualitative behaviors are as shown in the accompanying sketch.
U
kT kT
C
rot
rot
h /I
2
k
14.7
(a)
Q
vib
=
X
n=0
exp(~(n + 1/2)) = e
/2
1
U
N
=
lnQ
vib
=
~
2
e
+ 1
e
1
(=~)
c
vib
k
B
= e
~
~
1 e
~
2
kT
C
vib
h
k
(b)
n +
1
2
lnQ
vib
=
1
2
e
+ 1
e
1
*
n +
1
2
2
+
n +
1
2
2
=
2
2
lnQ
vib
=
e
(e
1)
2
where =~.
68 CHAPTER 14.
14.8
k
B
T
vib
~
k
B
T
rot
~
2
I
For H
2
, T
vib
= 6100 K, T
rot
= 85.4 K.
From T = 0, the specic heat rises to 3k
B
/2 before it reaches T
rot
, then
increases by k
B
around T = T
rot
, and increases by k
B
again around T = T
vib
.
14.9
n
=
n
+b
n
n
= ~
n +
1
2
n
= ~
n +
1
2
2
hi =
P
n
(
n
+b
n
) e
(
n
+b
n
)
P
n
e
(
n
+bn)
Expanding this to rst order in b, we have
hi
~
~
+b
2
b~
where = n + 1/2, and a bar denotes average with respect to the unperturbed
system with b = 0.
2
=
3
2
From Prob.14.7(b) we have
2
=
e
2
+ 6e
+ 1
4 (e
1)
2
from which we obtain
2
=
2
=
e
3e
+ 4
2 (e
1)
3
where =~. Thus
hi
b~
e
2
+ 6e
+ 1
4 (e
1)
2
e
3e
+ 4
2 (e
1)
3
The specic heat is obtained by dierentiating the above with respect to T.
Chapter 15
15.1
The cross section for a partially polarized beam is
pol
= 
2
1
+ 
2
2
= Tr ()
where 
2
+ 
2
= 1. With respect to the present basis (i.e., the spin states 1
and 2) we have
=

2
0
0 
2
=
1
0
0
2
e
H
=
1
dp exp
p
2
/2m
dq exp
m
2
q
2
/2
=
2
(b)
Q
quantum
=
X
n=0
e
E
n
=
X
n=0
exp
n +
1
2
=
e
~/2
1 e
~
(c)
Q
quantum
0
1
~
=
2
h
Comparison with Q
classical
gives
= h
which is Plancks constant.
69
70 CHAPTER 15.
15.3
Postulate the form
e
(K+V )
= e
K
e
V
e
1
2
2
X
to second order in . Expand both sides to second order:
e
(K+V )
1 (K +V ) +
1
2
2
(K +V )
2
e
K
e
V
e
2
X
1 K +
1
2
2
K
2
1 V +
1
2
2
V
2
1
1
2
2
X
1 (K +V ) +
1
2
K
2
+V
2
+ 2KV X
1 (K +V ) +
1
2
2
h
(K +V )
2
+KV V K X
i
Therefore
X = KV V K = [K, V ]
15.4
(a)
Q
N
=
e
0
B
+e
0
B
N
(b)
hMi =
1
B
lnQ
N
=
0
N
e
0
B
e
0
B
e
0
B
+e
0
B
(c)
M
2
hMi
2
=
1
2
B
2
lnQ
N
=
4
2
0
N
(e
0
B
+e
0
B
)
2
15.5
(a)
N
b
=
N
z
1
e
+ 1
N
f
=
X
k
i
z
1
e
k
+ 1
where
k
= ~
2
k
2
/2m.
(b)
The condition is N
b
+N
f
= N, or
1
z
1
e
+ 1
+
1
n
3
f
3/2
(z) = 1
71
where =
p
2~
2
/mkT.
(c)
For small z, the condition becomes
ze
+z/(n
3
) = 1
Thus
z = n
3
1 n
3
e
3
= f
3/2
(z), we obtain
n
f
3
z = n
3
1 n
3
e
n
f
n
1 n
3
e
For low temperatures we expect most particles to be in one of the bound states,
and thus n
f
/n 0.For , the condition for z becomes
zf
3/2
(z) = n
3
e
.Thus
n
f
n
1
n
3
e
/2
15.6
hn
k
i =
1
Q
X
{n
1
,n
2
, }
n
k
exp[ (
1
n
1
+
2
n
2
+ ) +] =
1
k
lnQ
Dierentiating both sides with respect to
p
with p 6= k, we obtain
p
hn
k
i =
1
Q
X
{n1,n2, }
n
k
n
p
exp[ (
1
n
1
+
2
n
2
+ ) +]
p
1
Q
X
{n1,n2, }
n
k
exp[ (
1
n
1
+
2
n
2
+ ) +]
= hn
p
n
k
i hn
p
i hn
k
i
We know that hn
k
i =
z
1
e
k
1
1
does not depend on
p
. Thus the above
is zero, or
hn
p
n
k
i = hn
p
i hn
k
i (p 6= k)
72 CHAPTER 15.
15.7
h
2
i hi
2
=
X
kG
X
pG
[hn
k
n
p
i hn
k
i hn
p
i] =
X
kG
h
hn
2
k
i hn
k
i
2
i
The last relation follows from the fact that terms with k 6= p do not contribute,
as shown in the last problem. By (15.35), hn
2
k
i hn
k
i
2
= hn
k
i hn
k
i
2
. This
directly leads to the answer desired.
Chapter 16
16.1
The fraction of electrons that can excited is of the order of k
B
T/
F
. Hence
the eective density is nk
B
T/
F
, where n is the electron density. The mean
freepath iswhere is the collision cross section.
F
nk
B
T
16.2
n = 4.35 10
27
cm
3
F
= 24.6 MeV
Av. energy per nucleon =
3
5
F
= 14.8 MeV
16.3
(a)
The Fermi wave number k
F
is given through (2s + 1)V (4/3)k
3
F
= N.
Thus, k
F
= [3n/4(2s + 1)]
1/3.
p
F
= ~k
F
F
=
q
p
2
F
c
2
+m
2
c
4
(b)
U = 2V
Z
p
h
p
(cp)
2
+ (mc
2
)
2
mc
2
i
P = 2
Z
p
p
x
v
x
=
2
3
Z
p
(p v)
where
R
p
=
R
p<p
F
d
3
p/h
3
.
(c)
73
74 CHAPTER 16.
For n
1/3
<< mc/~, particles near the Fermi surface are nonrelativistic:
p
(cp)
2
+ (mc
2
)
2
mc
2
+
p
2
2m
We have v = p/m. Hence
U V
Z
p
p
2
2m
PV
2
3
V
Z
p
p
2
m
=
2
3
U
For n
1/3
>> mc/~, particles near Fermi surface are ultrarelativistic:
p
(cp)
2
+ (mc
2
)
2
cp
We have v =cp/p. Hence
U 2V
Z
p
cp
PV
2
3
V
Z
p
cp =
1
3
U
(d)
F
= 6 10
5
eV.
16.4
(a)
Let p
2m
H
Thus
N
=
V
h
3
4
3
p
3
=
4V
3h
3
(2m)
3/2
[(H) H]
3/2
(b)
For complete polarization, we have N
2/3
~
2
n
2/3
m
75
16.5
(a)
Consider a shell of thickness dr in the gas. Let the pressure dierential be
dP. The inward force acting on a patch of the shell of area dA is dAdP. In
hydrostatic equilibrium this must equal the gravitational attraction due to the
mass at the center. Thus
PdA = M(r)r
2
dAdr
dP
dr
=
M(r)
r
2
(b)
P =
2
5
n
F
n
5/3
5/3
Thus
d
1/3
= K
dr
r
2
Assuming () = 0, we have
(r) =
C
0
r
3/2
16.6
(a)
N
b
=
N
z
1
e
+ 1
N
f
=
X
k
i
z
1
e
k
+ 1
where
k
= ~
2
k
2
/2m.
(b)
The condition is N
b
+N
f
= N, or
1
z
1
e
+ 1
+
1
n
3
f
3/2
(z) = 1
where =
p
2~
2
/mk
B
T.
(c)
For small z, the condition becomes
ze
+z/(n
3
) = 1
Thus
z = n
3
1 n
3
e
3
= f
3/2
(z), we obtain
n
f
3
z = n
3
1 n
3
e
n
f
n
1 n
3
e
For low temperatures we expect most particles to be in one of the bound states,
and thus n
f
/n 0.For , the condition for z becomes
zf
3/2
(z) = n
3
e
.Thus
n
f
n
1
n
3
e
/2
16.7
The probability of nding an electron with energy above the Fermi level
is P() =
e
+ 1
1
.The probability for nding an electron with energy
below the Fermi level is P(). Therefore
Q() = 1 P() =
1
e
+ 1
16.8
(a)
The number of states in a volume element in momentum space is 2L
2
dp
x
dp
y
/h
2
.
The density of states is
D(p) =
2A
(2~)
2
(b)
Obtain D() through D()d = D(p)pdp:
D() =
mA
2~
2
(c)
N = 2
A/(2)
2
k
2
F
k
F
=
r
2N
A
F
=
~
2
N
mA
77
(d)
E =
Z
F
0
dD() =
~
2
2m
N
2
A
(e)
=
E
A
=
~
2
2m
N
A
2
(f)
In 3D D()
, we have
a = (2~m)
1/2
p i (m/2~)
1/2
q
a
= (2~m)
1/2
p +i (m/2~)
1/2
q
which give
a, a
= 1
We can write
p
2
2m
=
1
4
~
a +aa
a
2
+a
2
1
2
m
2
q
2
=
1
4
~
a +aa
a
2
+a
2
Hence
H =
p
2
2m
+
1
2
m
2
q
2
=
1
2
~
a +aa
= ~
a +
1
2
(b)
Dene the eigenstate ni by
a
ani = nni
hnni = 1
The number hna
a cannot be negative.
79
80 CHAPTER 17.
Multiplying both sides of the rst relation by a, we have
aa
ani = nani
Using aa
= a
a + 1, we have
(a
a + 1)ani = nani
(a
a)ani = (n 1)ani
This means that ani has eigenvalue n 1.
If n were not an integer, then successive application of a would eventually
make n negative.
Since this cannot happen, n must be an integer.
(c)
We have shown that ani has eigenvalue n 1.
By the same method we can show a
C, which should be n.
We can choose the real solution
C =
n
Similarly we can show
a
ni =
n + 1n + 1i
17.2
(a)
The star is completed enclosed by the shell of dust cloud, which absorbs all
the radiation from the star. The dust cloud has two surfaces, an outer one and
an inner one, and we assume that they have approximately the same area.
Let the temperature of the star by T, and that of the dust cloud T
0
.
Let the power radiated by the star be R, and that of the dust cloud be R
0
from each surface.
The net power outow from the star is R R
0
. The net inux is R
0
. In
equilibrium RR
0
= R
0
. Hence the power radiated to the outside world is
R
0
=
1
2
R
(b)
Since R T
4
, R
0
T,
4
we have T
0
/T = (R
0
/R)
1/4
= 2
1/4
.
17.3
We are ignoring heat generated due to radioactivity in the Earths interior.
(See Prob. 7.8.)
81
Let the subscripts S and E identify quantities relating respectively to the
Sun and Earth, which are separated by a distance L. The radiation per unit
surface area is T
4
. From the viewpoint of the Sun, the fractional solid angle
subtended by the Earth is R
2
E
/(4L
2
). Thus the power received by the Earth
is
T
4
S
(4R
2
S
)
R
2
E
4L
2
This must equal the power radiated by the Earth T
4
E
(4R
2
E
). Thus the radius
of the Earth drops out and we obtain
T
E
T
S
=
r
R
S
2L
17.4
Energy ows into the house due to transmission of radiation originating
outside, and reection of radiation originating inside. Thus the rate of inow
is (1 r)T
4
0
+ rT
4
. The loss rate is (1 r)T
4
. In equilibrium we must have
(1 r)T
4
0
+rT
4
= (1 r)T
4
.Thus
T
T0
=
1 r
1 2r
1/4
17.5
From (8.61) S = T
1
(U +PV N).
For photons = 0, PV = U/3. Thus
S =
4
3
U
T
=
4
3
V T
3
.
17.6
(a)
From (10.5) the photon density is n = (kT/~c)
3
4000 cm
3
for T = 2.73
K.
(b)
From Prob.10.5, the entropy density at T = 2.73 K is S/V = k(4/45)(kT/~c)
3
.
The entropy per photon is independent of the temperature:
S
N
=
4
45
k = 1.21k
where k is Boltzmanns constant.
(c)
When S = constant, T V
1/3
. .When the radius of the universe doubles,
the temperature drops by a factor 2
1/3
= 0.793.
82 CHAPTER 17.
17.7
(a)
There are 3N modes, each with energy ~
0
.
U =
3N~
0
exp(~
0
1)
(b)
C
V
= U/T 3N (~
0
)
2
kT
2
exp(~
0
)
(c)
A = 3NkT ln
1 e
~
0
17.8
(a)
A = N
solid
+ 3kT ln
1 e
~
+N
gas
kT
1 ln
n
3
(b)
The chemical potentials must be equal:
ln
n
3
= + 3kT ln
1 e
~
(c)
P(T) = nkT
17.9
(a)
The free energy is
A = + 3NkT ln
1 e
~0
V
=
3n~
0
exp(~
0
) 1
where n = N/V
(b)
V = V
0
+
3n~
0
K [exp(~
0
) 1]
=
3kn~
0
KT
2
[exp(~
0
) 1]
2
where n
0
= N/V
0
.
83
17.10
(a)
The heat capacity of an electron gas is
C
V
Nk
2
2
T
T
F
kT
F
=
~
2
2m
3
2
n
2/3
Thus
a =
2
2T
F
(b)
The Debye heat capacity for T T
D
is given by
C
V
Nk
12
4
5
T
T
D
3
Thus
b =
12
4
5T
3
D
.
(c)
The plot is C
V
/nR vs. T
2
. Thus, the intercept at T
2
= 0 gives Ra, and the
slope of the line gives Rb. From the plot, a rough reading gives
Intercept = Ra = 1.2 10
3
cal mole
1
K
2
Slope = Rb = 4 10
6
cal mole
1
K
4
Thus
a = 6 10
3
K
1
b = 2 10
6
K
3
which lead to
T
F
= 820 K
T
D
= 490 K
The electron density is n 10
20
cm
3
.
.
17.11
The energy is = ak
2/3
, where a = ~
p
/.
U
A
=
Z
d
2
k
(2)
2
exp() 1
84 CHAPTER 17.
Changing the variable of integration to x = = ak
2/3
, we nd
U
A
=
C
0
3~
4/3
2/3
(kT)
7/3
where
C
0
=
Z
0
dx
x
4/3
e
x
1
= 1.68
Chapter 18
18.1
In the transition P = k
B
T
3
g
5/2
(1).Since this is proportional to T
5/2
, we
have dP/dT =
5
2
k
B
3
g
5/2
(1) The specic volume of the gas phase at transition
is given by its inverse density v
0
(T) =
3
g
3/2
(1)
1
This represents the change
in specic volume in the rstorder transition, since the other phase has v
0
= 0.
Thus
dP
dT
=
5k
B
2
g
5/2
(1)
g
3/2
(1)
1
v
0
(T)
We can read o the change in specic entropy:
s
0
=
5k
B
2
g
5/2
(1)
g
3/2
(1)
The latent heat of transition is = Ts
0
.
18.2
Just above the transition z is slightly less than 1. Using the expansion
given in the problem we have
n
3
= g
3/2
(z) = g
3/2
(1) b
+a
where = lnz. Thus the equation for the fugavity is
a b
+c = 0
where
c = g
3/2
(1) n
3
= g
3/2
(1)
"
1
T
c
T
3/2
#
3
2
g
3/2
(1)
T T
c
T
c
85
86 CHAPTER 18.
Choose the solution that goes to zero when c 0. To order c
2
we have
= c +
a
b
c
2
This leads to the expansion
z = 1 c
2
2a
b
c
3
+
18.3
The parametric equation of state is
3
P
k
B
T
= z +
z
2
2
5/2
+
z
3
3
5/2
+
3
n = z +
z
2
2
3/2
+
z
3
3
3/2
+
We want to obtain P as a power series in
3
n. To do this, invert the second
equation by writing z =
3
n +k
2
3
n
2
+k
3
3
n
2
+ . The coecients k
are determined by the second equation. Substitute this into the rst equation
to obtain an expansion of P.
The details are as follows: Let x =
3
n. We have
x = (x +k
2
x
2
+k
3
x
3
) + 2
3/2
(x + 2k
2
x
2
) + 3
3/2
x
3
+O(x
4
)
which gives
2
= 2
3/2
, k
3
=
1
4
3
3/2
. Thus
3
P
k
B
T
= (x +k
2
x
2
+k
3
x
3
) + 2
5/2
(x + 2k
2
x
2
) + 3
5/2
x
3
+O(x
4
)
= x 2
5/2
x
2
+
1
8
2
9
x
3
+O(x
4
)
which gives
a
2
= 2
5/2
a
3
=
1
8
2
9
3
18.4
Putting
3
= cT
3/2
,we have
U =
3
2
PV =
3
2c
V k
B
T
5/2
g
5/2
(z) (T > T
c
)
T
5/2
g
5/2
(1) (T < T
c
)
C
V
=
U
T
=
3
2c
V k
B
5
2
T
3/2
g
5/2
(z) +T
5/2
g
3/2
(z)
1
z
dz
dT
(T > T
c
)
5
2
T
3/2
g
5/2
(1) (T < T
c
)
87
We dierentiate the relation n
3
= g
3/2
(z) to obtain
1
z
dz
dT
=
3
2
n
3
Tg
1/2
(z)
which approaches zero when z 1, because g
1/2
(z) . Thus C
V
is continu
ous at z = 1.
We use g
1/2
(z) = z(d/dz)g
3/2
(z) = dg
3/2
(z)/d, where = lnz . From
Prob.11.2, we have the expansion near z = 1 :
g
1/2
(z) = b
0
1/2
+b
1
+
where b
0
= 1.7275, b
1
= 1.460. Thus near z = 1, or = 0,we have
1
z
dz
dT
=
d
dT
3
2
nc
b
0
T
5/2
Dierentiate C
V
, and setting = 0, we obtain
C
0
+
C
0
=
3
2
Nk
B
T
c
d
dT
1
z
dz
dT
=0
=
Nk
B
T
c
where + and indicate approaching the limit from above and below, respec
tively, and
=
27
16
g
3/2
(1)
b
0
2
=
27
16
2.612
1.7275
2
= 3.86
18.5
(a)
Let = ~
2
k
2
/2m. The total number of particles is
N =
1
z
1
e
1
+
X
k6=0
1
z
1
e
1
N
V
=
1
V
1
z
1
e
1
+
1
3
g
3/2
(z)
The rst term is the condensate density. When V , it is negligible except
when z = e
.
(b)
The unperturbed transition temperature T
0
is determined by the condition
n
3
0
= g
3/2
(1). The perturbed transition temperature T
c
is determined by the
condition n
3
c
= g
3/2
(e
) g
3/2
(1) a
p
/k
B
T
0
88 CHAPTER 18.
where a = 3.455. Let T
c
= T
0
+T To lowest order in /k
B
T
0
we obtain
T
T
0
= c
0
r
k
B
T
0
c
0
=
2
3
a
g
3/2
(1)
= 0.881
18.6
(a)
The internal energy due to phonons is
U =
4V
(2)
3
Z
0
dkk
2
~ck
exp(~ck) 1
=
2
30
V (k
B
T)
4
(~c)
3
The heat capacity per unit mass is given by
C
phonon
=
1
mN
U
T
=
2
2
15
k
4
(~c)
3
T
3
where is the mass density. Using data for liquid helium
c = 2.39 10
4
cm s
1
= 0.144 g cm
3
we have
C
phonon
= 0.021 T
3
J g
1
K
1
where T is the absolute temperate in K.
(b)
The internal energy per unit volume due to rotons is
U
V
=
4
(2)
3
Z
0
dkk
2
+ ~
2
(k k
0
)
2
/2
exp() exp(~
2
(k k
0
)
2
/2) 1
We are interested in temperatures below 1 K. Since 9 K, we can ignore
the term 1 in the denominator. The main contributions will come from the
neighborhood of the roton minimum, i.e., at k = k
0
. Thus we only need to keep
the term in the numerator. Now change variable of integration to q = k k
0
.
The lower limit of can be replaced by for low temperatures. Thus
U
V
1
2
2
e
dq(q +k
0
)
2
exp
~
2
q
2
/2
We can replace (q +k
0
)
2
by k
2
0
. Thus we obtain
U
V
k
2
0
r
k
B
T
2~
2
e
/kBT
C
roton
k
2
0
r
kT
2~
2
e
/k
B
T
k
B
T
2
89
Using data for liquid helium
/k
B
= 8.65 K
k
0
= 1.92 10
8
cm
1
= 1.07 10
24
g
we obtain
C
roton
387
T
3/2
exp
8.65
T
J g
1
K
1
where T is the absolute temperature in K.
18.7
The specic heat is
C = 0.021 T
3
+
387
T
3/2
exp
8.65
T
J g
1
K
1
where T is the absolute temperate in K. The numbers in this formula are based
on neutron scattering data independent of the specic heat. The following
plot compares this formula to data on specic heat shown as dots. It is
an absolute comparison with no adjustible parameters. At T =1 K, there is
already noticeable discrepancy, the main source of which probably comes the
approximations we used in the roton specic heat.
T (K)
S
p
e
d
i
c
H
e
a
t
(
J
/
g

d
e
g
)
18.8
(a)
P
1
= E
0
/V = (3/5) N
F
/V = c
1
~
2
/m
n
5/2
1
,
c
1
=
6
2
2/3
/5.
(b)
P
2
= k
B
T
3
g
5/2
(1) = c
2
(m
2
/~)
3/2
(k
B
T)
5/2
,
c
2
= (2)
=3/2
g
5/2
(1).
(c)
90 CHAPTER 18.
k
B
T <<
F
,
k
B
T <<
~
2
/2m
(3n
1
/4)
2/3
.
(d)
m
1
m
2
=
c
2
c
1
2/3
3
4
10/9
k
B
T
5/3
(e)
For Fermi degeneracy m
1
/m
2
<< 1. For Bose degeneracy T < T
c
. To fulll
both conditions we must have
K
n
1
n
2
5/3
<
m
1
m
2
<< 1
where K is a numerical constant.
18.9
In 2D the fugacity z is determined by
N = A
Z
d
2
k
(2)
2
1
z
1
exp(~k
2
/2m) 1
where A is the area of the system. By expending the right side in a power
series in z we obtain
N
A
=
mk
B
T
2~
2
ln
1
1 z
For 0 z 1, there is no upper bound to N, except when T = 0. This means
that, the states of nonzero momentum can accommodate any N, and there is
no BoseEinstein condensation. The except occurs at T = 0, when all particles
go into the zeromomentum state.
18.10
For a gas of N photons with number conservation, the fugacity z is deter
mined by
N = 2V
Z
d
3
k
(2)
3
1
z
1
exp(~ck) 1
The zeromomentum state is ignored in the continuum approximation used. By
expanding the right side in a power series in z we obtain
n =
2
k
B
T
~c
3
g
3
(z)
where n = N/V , and g
n
(z) =
P
=1
n
. The function g
3
(z) is nite at z = 1,
but has an innite second derivative. We can see by noting that z
d
dz
z
d
dz
g
3
(z) =
g
1
(z) diverges at z = 1. Thus n is nite at z = 1, but cannot be continued
91
beyond z = 1. There is BoseEinstein condensation to the zeromomentum state
when n exceeds the critical density
n
c
=
2
k
B
T
~c
3
g
3
(1)
At constant density n the condensation occurs below the critical temperature
T
c
=
~c
k
B
2
n
2g
3
(1)
1/3
92 CHAPTER 18.
Chapter 19
19.1
m(x) =
1
(2)
3
Z
0
dkk
2
2
Z
1
1
d(cos )
e
ikr cos
k
2
+ 2r
0
=
1
4
2
ir
Z
0
dkk
e
ikr
e
ikr
k
2
+ 2r
0
=
1
4
2
r
r
Z
dk
e
ikr
k
2
+ 2r
0
=
1
4r
r
exp
2r
0
2r
0
=
exp
2r
0
4r
The dk integration was carried out over a contour in the complex plane.
19.2
(a)
Minimize E(, ) with respect to :
0 =
E
= 2c +g
2
=
g
2
2c
(b)
E
e
() = (at g)
2
+
b
4
b = b
g
2
4c
(c)
Minimize E
e
() with respect to :
0 =
E
e
=
h
2 (at g) + 4
b
2
i
=
(
0 (t > g/a)
q
(g at) /2
b (t < g/a)
93
94 CHAPTER 19.
The transition temperature corresponds to t = g/a, or T
c
+g/a. Thus, the eect
of the coupling g is to raise the transition temperature. The equilibrium order
parameter in the lowtemperature phase is, more explicitly,
=
r
a
2 (b g
2
/4c)
r
T
c
+
g
a
T
which increase as g increases from 0, and becomes at g =
= 0
The possible roots are
S = 0
S =
3b
8c
1
r
1
32cat
9b
2
!
For the nontrivial root to correspond to the minimum, it is necessary that
32cat/9b
2
< 1. We see from the graphs that when t = 0 the solution is not
S = 0. Thus we must choose the sign. Thus
S =
3b
8c
1 +
r
1
32cat
9b
2
!
95
if 32cat < 9b
2
and E(
S) < 0. Otherwise
S = 0.
(c)
We note that at T = T
c
we have E/S = 0 and E = 0. Excluding the
trivial root, we can write these two conditions as
2at + 3bS + 4cS
2
= 0
at +bS +cS
2
= 0
Multiplying the second equation by 4 and subtracting it from the rst, we nd
bS = 2at. Substittuting this into the second equation gives t = b
2
/4ac, or
T
c
= T
0
+
b
2
4ac
(d)
When the temperature is increase from below to T = T
c
, or t = b
2
/4ac, we
have
S =
b
2c
and E(
E
T
= aS
2
(It was unthoughtful of us to have used the symbol S for the order parameter!)
Thus, the latent heat is
L = aT
c
S
2
= a
T
0
+
b
2
4ac
b
2c
2
(e)
96 CHAPTER 19.
According to the model
S decreases steadily as the temperature decreases
below T
c
. But the model breaks down when the magnitude of
S becomes too
large, for it must saturate when molecular alignment becomes perfect.
19.4
(a)
E = E
0
+at
2
+
b
4
b = b +c
cos
4
+ sin
4
2at + 4
b
2
2
=
at
2
b
E(
, ) = E
0
a
2
t
2
2
b
Thus the minimum of E occurs at the minimum of
b.
(b)
c < 0 : = 0, or = /2.
b
min
= b c
=
s
at
2
b c
c = 0 : irrelevant.
b
min
= b
=
r
at
2
b
c > 0 : = /4.
b
min
= b +
c
2
=
s
at
2
b +c
In all cases, the critical exponent for the order parameter is = 1/2.
(c)
To nd the susceptibility, we turn on an innitesimally small external eld
h = (h
1
, h
2
), so that
E = E
0
+at
2
1
+
2
2
+b
2
1
+
2
2
2
c
4
1
+
4
2
h
1
1
h
2
2
97
First consider the case h = (h
1
, 0).We can take =(
1
, 0). The condition
E/
1
= 0 gives
2at
1
+ 4 (b c)
3
1
h
1
= 0
Dierentiating with respect to h
1
yields the longitudinal susceptibility:
1
=
1
h
1
=
1
2at + 12 (b c)
2
1
=
1
3at
The last step is obtained by using
2
1
= at [2 (b c)]
1
. The relevant critical
exponent is = 1.
Next consider the case h = (0, h
2
). We must consider =(
1
,
2
) with a
small
2
induced by the transverse eld. The eld causes the order parameter
to deviate from the x axis by an innitesimal angle , while the magnitude is
unchanged, as illustrated in the accompanying sketch.
x
y
h
2
b c
sin
4
+ cos
4
4
h
2
sin
The condition E/ = 0 gives
2at + 4
b c
sin
4
+ cos
4
3
h
2
sin = 0
Dierentiating with respect to h
2
and setting h
2
= 0, = 0, we obtain
h
2
=
1
16c
3
The transverse susceptibility is
2
=
2
h
2
=
h
2
=
1
16c
2
=
c b
16ac
1
t
Thus, the associated critical exponent is = 1.
19.5
For given a, let b be the lengths of a diagonal line, and the angle between
a diagonal line and the horizontal. Then b cos =
1
2
, and a + 2b sin = 1.
These give the relation b =
1
2
p
1 + (1 a)
2
. The total length of the highway is
L = 4b +a = 2
p
1 + (1 a)
2
+a. The minimum occurs at a = 1
1
3
= 0.306.
The minumum length of the highway is L = 1 +
3 = 2.732.
98 CHAPTER 19.
Chapter 20
20.1
The wavenumber dierence between the condensates is given by k
1
k
2
=
2
1
2
m
2
r
2
1
r
2
16an
0
r
4
0
The halfwidth is r
2
0
8an
0
. With the data given, we obtain
a = 5.7 10
7
cm
20.3
(a)
From Prob.(17.1), the coordinate of a 1D harmonic oscillator is expressed in
terms of creation and annihilation operators through q = i
p
~/2m
a a
.
Thus
x
2
=
~
m
x
a
x
+
1
2
1
2
a
2
x
+a
2
x
and similarly for y and z.The last two terms have no diagonal elements. There
fore
hnx
2
+y
2
+z
2
ni =
~
m
n
x
+n
y
+n
z
+
3
2
(b)
99
100 CHAPTER 20.
We know that
n
p
2
2m
+
m
2
r
2
2
= E
n
From part (a) we have
m
2
2
hnr
2
ni =
1
2
E
n
Subtracting the two equations yields the desired result.
(c)
In the Nboson system, the probability of nding a boson in state n is given
by the fraction of particles in that state:
P (n) =
1
N
1
z
1
exp(E
n
/kT) 1
Therefore
hri
2
=
X
n
hnr
2
niP (n) =
r
2
0
N
X
n
n
x
+n
y
+n
z
+
3
2
z
1
exp(E
n
/kT) 1
20.4
Estimate the transition temperature T
0
by putting the chemical potential
equal to the zeropoint energy: =
3
2
~. Thus
N
Z
0
dn
x
dn
y
dn
z
1
exp(~ (n
x
+n
y
+n
z
) /kT
0
) 1
=
kT
0
~
3
Z
0
dxdydz
1
exp(x +y +z) 1
and we obtain
kT
0
~
= bN
1/3
where b is given by
b
3
=
Z
0
dxdydz
1
exp(x +y +z) 1
20.5
(a)
In the semiclassical approximation
N z
Z
0
dn
x
dn
y
dn
z
exp
n
x
+n
y
+n
z
+
3
2
= z (~)
3
exp
3
2
~
101
Thus
z N (~)
3
exp
3
2
~
=
T
0
bT
3
exp
3
2
~
T
0
bT
n
x
+n
y
+n
z
+
3
2
exp
n
x
+n
y
+n
z
+
3
2
=
z
N
exp
3
2
~
3 (~)
4
+
3
2
(~)
3
T
T
0
N
1/3
(c)
According to (b), hri
2
is a linear function of T. However, the formula be
comes invalid below T T
0
, where a condensate begins to form. The conden
sate wave function is that for n
x
= n
y
= 0, and occupies a central region in
the harmonic potential of radius r
0
. Thus below T
0
the linear plot attens to a
constant value r
2
0
. (See sketch)
T
T
0
<r >
2
r
2
0
102 CHAPTER 20.
Chapter 21
21.1
The equation for the magnetic eld is the same as that for the vector poten
tial:
2
x
2
B(x) = 0
where = 0 outside the medium (x < 0), and = 16e
2
n/mc
2
inside (x > 0).
Since B = B
0
outside, and B(x) must be continuous, the solution inside is
B(x) = B
0
exp
(x > 0)
The penetration depth is
1/2
.
21.2
(a)
From Ohms law U
0
V = IR. Thus
U
0
~
2e
d
dt
= I
0
Rsin
(b)
~
2e
d
dt
= U
0
(1 sin)
The left side is the voltage. When it approaches zero, we must have sin =
1
.
This is possible if > 1. Thus there is a nonzero current I =
1
I
0
.
103