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# MANUEL L.

QUEZON UNIVERSITY
School of Engineering
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

CE 414 : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS & TESTING

LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 1
TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT
SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATION
(Reference: ASTM C-188 ; Density of Hydraulic Cement)

Introduction

The specific gravity of the cement is not of particular importance because for most purposes a specific
gravity of 3.15 may be assumed. However, this test is very easily carried out may detect adulteration or
under burning of the cement. Specific gravity is also used in design of concrete mixtures. A 64 gram
sample of the cement is placed in a graduated glass flask containing a previously read volume of water
free kerosene. The increase in volume is noted and the specific gravity is calculated by dividing the
weight of sample by the increase in volume.

I. OBJECTIVES
1. To determine the specific gravity of a given cement sample.
2. To detect adulterations in the given cement sample.
II. MATERIALS/TOOLS/APPARATUS
1. Le Chatelier Flask
2. Water-free kerosene
3. Balance and weights

III. PROCEDURE
1. Fill the Chatelier flask with water-free kerosene to a point on the stem between the zero and 1
ml. mark.
2. Immerse the flask in a constant temperature water bath maintained at room temperature for a
sufficient time interval before making any reading.
3. Take initial reading
4. Introduce into the flask cement sample, about 64 g.
5. Stopper the flask and roll in an inclined position until no air bubbles rose to the surface.
6. Immerse in water bath, and then take final reading.
TESTING OF MATERIALS CONNIE A. BALISI

IV. DATA RECOVERY SHEET
1. Weight of cement (W
c
), g.
2. Initial reading( R
c
), ml.
3. Final Reading (R
f
), ml.
4. Specific Gravity (S.G.)

V. CALCULATION

VI. CONCLUSION
S.G =
W
c
R
f
- R
i
TESTING OF MATERIALS CONNIE A. BALISI
MANUEL L. QUEZON UNIVERSITY
School of Engineering
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

CE 414 : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS & TESTING

LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 2
TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT
FINENESS BY NO. 200 SIEVE
(Reference: ASTM C-184 ; Fineness by 75 micromm or No. 200 Sieve)
Introduction

The coarse particles in cement are inert. The finer the cement the faster it will undergo hydration, thus
resulting in higher early strength and more rapid generation of heat. The effect of higher fineness is
manifested principally during the early periods of hydration although at later ages finer cement will give
higher strength. Coarse cements tend to give poor concrete workability and cause excessive bleeding.
Bleeding is manifested by water rising to the top of the concrete due to settlement of solids before the
initial set. Greater fineness improves not only the strength but also water tightness, workability,
appearance and durability of concrete. The test for fineness by the #200 sieve consists of passing 50
grams of the cement through this sieve and weighing the residue.

I. OBJECTIVE
1. To determine the percentage fineness of a given cement sample.

II. MATERIALS/TOOLS/APPARATUS
1. No. 200 sieve, with pan and cover
2. Bristle brush
3. Balance and weights

III. PROCEDURE
1. Place about 50 grams of sample on the #200 sieve with pan attached.
2. Sieve for about 5 min. until residue looks clean.
3. Place cover on sieve and remove pan. Tap gently side of sieve to dislodge adhering dust and
brush the underside of the sieve.
4. Continue sieving until no more than 0.05 g. passes through in 1 min. of continues sieving.
5. Brush thoroughly both sides of sieve, and weigh the residue.

% Fineness = x 100
W
residue
W
cement
TESTING OF MATERIALS CONNIE A. BALISI

IV. DATA RECOVERY SHEET
1. Weight of sample, g.
2. Weight of residue, g.
3. Fineness, %

V. CALCULATION

VI. CONCLUSION

TESTING OF MATERIALS CONNIE A. BALISI
MANUEL L. QUEZON UNIVERSITY
School of Engineering
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

CE 414 : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS & TESTING

LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 3
TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT
NORMAL CONSISTENCY
(Reference: ASTM C-191 ; Time of Setting by Vicat Needle)

Introduction

A cement paste has to be of normal consistency before it is subjected to time of setting test. The
cement paste is said to be of normal consistency if the needle of the Vicat Apparatus penetrates 10mm
in 30 seconds.

I. OBJECTIVE
1. To determine the consistency of a given cement paste.
2. To achieve normal consistency in a cement paste to be tested for time of setting.

II. MATERIALS/TOOLS/APPARATUS

1. Vicat Apparatus with complete accessories
3. Balance and weights
4. Glass plate

III. PROCEDURE
1. Place a 500-gram sample on a smooth non-absorbent surface and form a crater on a sample.
2. Add a measured quantity of water to the sample and mix thoroughly. Allow sufficient time for
absorption before mixing.
3. Form the cement paste into a ball and toss six times from on hands to the other, hands about six
inches apart.
4. Press ball into larger end of a conical ring filling completely the ring with paste. Remove excess
at larger with palm on hands.
5. Place ring on glass plate resting on larger end. Slice off excess at smaller end with one stroke
with trowel. Do not compress the paste while cutting or smoothing excess paste.
6. Center mold under rod of Vicat apparatus with end on plunger in contact with surface of paste.
7. Determine the penetration 30 seconds after release of plunger. The paste is of normal
consistency if penetration is 10mm.
8. Repeat produce with different amounts of water until normal consistency is obtained, using
fresh cement for each trial.
TESTING OF MATERIALS CONNIE A. BALISI
N.C. = x x 100
cc. of water used

wt. of cement sample

IV. DATA RECOVERY SHEET
1.Weight of sample, g.
2. Water used, ml.
3. Normal Consistency, % {(2/1) x 100}

V. CALCULATION

VI. CONCLUSION

TESTING OF MATERIALS CONNIE A. BALISI
MANUEL L. QUEZON UNIVERSITY
School of Engineering
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

CE 414 : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS & TESTING

LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 4
TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT
TIME OF SETTING
(Reference: ASTM C-266 ; Time of Setting by Gillmore Needles)

Introduction
The time of setting test determines the time which elapses before the paste ceases to be fluid and
plastic (initial set) and also the time required for it to harden to certain degree (final set). The
Gilmore needle is applied at certain time intervals on the surface of a 3 diameter pat, 1/2 thick and
tapering to a thin cutter edge, made from a neat cement paste of normal consistency. The initial set is
said to have occurred when the pat will bear without appreciable mark the small Gillmore needle 1/24
in diameter and loaded to weigh lb. and the final set when the large Gillmore needle 1/12 in
diameter and loaded to weigh 1 lb. fails to make any appreciable mark. Knowledge of time of setting is
of value since crystallization begins with the initial set, and molding and placing of the mortar should be
complete before the cement begins to set. A rapid set may indicate insufficient gypsum or the presence
of soluble carbonates.

I. OBJECTIVE
1. To determine the initial and final setting times of a given cement sample.

II. MATERIALS/TOOLS/APPARATUS

1. Gilmore needles 1/24 diameter. lb., 1/12 diameter. 1 lb.
3. Balance and weights
4. Glass plate

III. PROCEDURE
1. Prepare cement paste of normal consistency.
2. Form on a glass plates a pat about 3 inches in diameter, thick at the center with a flat top and
tapering to a thin edge.
3. Place pat in moist closet with a temperature of 23C and relative humidity of 90%.
4. Determine setting time by applying needles lightly on the surface of pat. The cement shall be
considered to have acquired its initial set when the pat will bear without appreciable
indentation the 1/4 lb. Gillmore needle and the final set when the pat will bear without
appreciable indentation the 1 lb. Gillmore needle.

TESTING OF MATERIALS CONNIE A. BALISI
IV. DATA RECOVERY SHEET

Time Started
Initial Set (min.)
Final Set (min.)

V. CONCLUSION
TESTING OF MATERIALS CONNIE A. BALISI
MANUEL L. QUEZON UNIVERSITY
School of Engineering
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

CE 414 : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS & TESTING

LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 5
TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT
LOSS ON IGNITION
(Reference: ASTM C-114/C150 ; Loss on Ignition)

Introduction
Loss on ignition test is very simple test which indicates moisture in the cement. The loss is an indication
of the pre-hydration which results from introduction or absorption of moisture and carbon dioxide on
exposure to the air. If cement stands in a humid atmosphere, it may harden even if still in bags. Cement
that has deteriorated this way if reground and placed in the market can be detected by excessive loss on
ignition. Therefore, the loss on ignition is a measure of how fresh the cement is.

I. OBJECTIVE
1. To determine the percentage loss on ignition of a given cement sample.

II. MATERIALS/TOOLS/APPARATUS

1. Analytical balance and weights
2. Platinum crucible, 25ml. capacity
3. Bunsen burner
4. Tong

III. PROCEDURE
1. Weigh 1 gram of the sample in a tarred platinum crucible of 20 to 25 ml. capacity.
2. Heat for 15 minutes at 900C -1000C either in a muffle furnace or gas Furner flame.
3. Cool the crucible and weigh.
4. Calculate the percentage loss or ignition.

x 100
(a) (b)
1

TESTING OF MATERIALS CONNIE A. BALISI
IV. DATA RECOVERY SHEET
1. Weight of sample, g.
2. Weight of sample + crucible, g.
a. Before ignition
b. After ignition
3. Loss on Ignition

V. CALCULATION

VI. CONCLUSION